Browse Tag: Qualitative Research Design

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Using Articles To Compare And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative Research Designs

Identify two articles in the University Library: one in which the business problem is researched using a qualitative design and the other using a quantitative design. Summarize each of the research designs.

Write a 350- to 700-word paper in which you compare and contrast the two approaches:

  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach?
  • How can they be used most effectively in a combined approach?
  • Which method is more appropriate for research in your own business and functional area?

Assessing Research Designs and Recommending Qualitative Research Designs

Section 5: Qualitative methods

In this section you will explore qualitative methods in research. Different from quantitative, but still very valuable, especially in education studies, qualitative methods are often used to collect data that cannot be quantified, such as how humans react to a situation. Qualitative studies rely on information subjects share with the researcher and are often longer and more involved to assure the collection of data is accurate.

This section discusses observational methods, which are often involved in qualitative research.
Please answer questions in detail and support your answers with scholarly research citations where appropriate.

Length: 5-7 pages

Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

Learning Outcomes: 1, 6 Assignment Outcomes

  • Argue the criteria for selection of a research method.
  • Justify qualitative research designs when appropriate

Which Research Method is Better? – Qualitative Or Quantitative

Generally, the two research techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. You can read about Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research And Their Strengths And Weaknesses here.  For instance, in quantitative research the use of larger samples and presence of less contact between the researcher and the interviewees makes its findings less biased, (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2014). Whereas the great deal of contact in qualitative research gives information that is subject to bias owing to the in-depth exploration. However, the findings in quantitative research are conclusive and can apply to the rest of the study population, while the presence of in-depth exploration in qualitative research, provide a better understanding of the phenomena. Therefore, a combination of both study techniques, other than choosing one based on its merits or demerits, provides a better method of conducting a study.

Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

Generally there are two types of research that one can use to conduct study and these are qualitative and quantitative. The choice of a particular study depends on the goals and objectives for which the study is conducted, (Polit & Beck, 2010). In qualitative research study, special interest is placed on use of the sensory methods like observation and listening in gathering of data. Qualitative research has found a great deal of application in nursing, especially in evidence-based research and is increasingly being accepted in medicine. On the other hand, quantitative research is an investigation that relies on numbers to explain phenomena.

There are major differences that exist between these two forms of research and this touch most on the flexibility of the two methods. The two major differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods occur in their methodologies. While qualitative research seeks to study perspectives in individuals or phenomena, quantitative research on the other hand seeks to prove a hypothesis.

            Tools in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

            Qualitative researcher uses a more structured approach in collecting its data. The major difference between qualitative research and quantitative is that in quantitative research, the researcher employs structured questionnaires, surveys and observation. The questionnaires are often detailed and these are then presented to the participants in the field. However, in qualitative research, the questionnaires are semi-structured in nature and include some questions that guide the respondents.

The structured questionnaires in quantitative research provide data, which is then expressed in numbers for analysis. Since numbers in quantitative research are often numeric in nature, it provides a way in which statistical tests can be applied to test such data, a feat that is absent in qualitative research. Statistical tests used in quantitative research include mean, median, variance and deviations. These descriptive statistics are very useful in determining differences between groups and preference trends among other statistical facts.

However, in qualitative research, participant observation, in-depth interviews and focus groups are often commonly used. Data obtained from qualitative research are often used to describe characteristics or qualities of phenomena. Although encoding provides a way in which the data can be reduced into numbers in qualitative research, this is often not employed. Questionnaires in qualitative research are semi-structured in nature and are mainly used to get qualitative measurements and as such no measurements are done like in quantitative research. Moreover, there are no statistics used in qualitative research, unlike in quantitative research, instead descriptive words are used to explore phenomena.

Sampling

Sampling techniques provides another major difference between quantitative and qualitative research methods. In quantitative research, large samples are used. Often, the study population in quantitative research is large and this is divided into smaller samples using random sampling. In order to get unbiased and reliable findings the samples are given equal chance of occurrence and various strategies of random sampling which include stratified, systematic, cluster and stratified are used. Sampling procedure involves dividing study population into groups and the samples are then selected randomly from the population. The use of larger samples in quantitative research provides a better way of making generalizations using the statistical tests.

However, the focus of qualitative research is on smaller samples of the population. This often takes a form of focus groups, and the main sampling strategies common are snowball, quota and purposive sampling. The main interest in qualitative research is to explore and to explain phenomena. This study design is often concerned more on the process than the outcomes, which is not the case in quantitative research.

Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

In research, bias can be defined as the process of introducing a systematic error into the sampling and thus encouraging one outcome over the other, (Arnold, 2010). This can be attributed to many reasons, for instance due to experimental error, where the researcher fails to take into account all the research variables. There are many types of biases and all these depend on the research design employed. The following are the possible research biases for both qualitative and quantitative research.

Bias in Qualitative Research

In qualitative research, bias is defined in terms of the validity and reliability of the research findings, (Polit & Beck, 2012). If the findings are not reliable and valid, then they shall be termed as biased. The main disadvantage of bias is that it leads to distortion of truth in addition to producing skewed data.

Bias from Moderator

            The moderator is the individual who is responsible for collecting the research data. The moderator can be a source of bias based on his/her facial expressions, mode of dressing, tonal expressions and style of language among other factors. Although this type of bias is hard to eliminate, it can be minimized through maintenance of neutrality in tonal expression, mode of dressing and language.

Biased Questions

            The way in which questions are asked can influence the answers given by respondents. There is need for the interviewer to determine biased questions and rephrase them. A question forms the main basis in which information is collected and this can lead invalid findings if they are biased. The following are the major ways in which questions can lead to biased research findings.

            Leading Questions

The most common form of bias in asking of questions is the tendency of the field interviewer to ask questions that suggests possible answer, (Green, 2013). Leading questions give slanted answers from respondents. An example of a leading question can take the form of, “Doctors have found that sugars are actually responsible for excess fat in our bodies. What do you think?”

            Misunderstood/ Unanswerable Questions

            Another form of bias with regard to asking of questions is asking the respondent a question, which he/her cannot understand. The respondent will be forced give his/her answer based on the perceived understanding and this can give biased information.

Biased Answers

 Biased answers arise from statements that are generally untrue or partially true. The common occasions where such answers are obtained are when conduction interviews on focus groups. The presence of dominant respondents in focus groups may influence other respondents and this may create skewed answers. Additionally, another source of bias can arise from inconsistent answers especially in questions where one leads to the other question.

  Biased Sample

Sample refers to subgroup of the target population where research is conducted. If the sample is not screened well, one may interview wrong people. Interviewing respondents who do not form the subgroup constitutes bias. Another form of bias in sample selection is failure to use random sampling in the selection of the sample. Random sampling ensures that the study samples have equal chance of selection.

Biased Reporting

 Sometimes, bias can arise from reporting of the results. This source of bias may arise because of personal beliefs, customs, attitude, culture and errors among many other factors. If the person reporting analyses the research information based on his/her beliefs other than the view perceived by the respondents, the findings shall be compromised and hence biased.

Bias in Quantitative Research

            Whereas in qualitative research an effort is made to understand the source of bias, in quantitative research, the researcher tries to eliminate bias.

Design Bias

 Design bias encompasses bias that may arise when conducting the experiments, as well as during analysis of the results. Design biases are always common, mostly due to the failure of the researchers to take into account the likely impact of the bias in the research they conduct.

Sampling Bias

Sampling biases occurs in quantitative research when a researcher compromises with the selection of the study subgroup. For instance, a researcher may decide to omit a certain group in the study sample, or include only a specific group. For example, a study on breast cancer that includes only male participants is said to be biased and its results cannot be extrapolated to cover entire study population that include females. Similarly, when a study is done outside a recreation centre on students in a psychological study is biased since it is not inclusive. The major source of sampling bias occurs in systematic and random sampling.

Random and Systematic Bias

Random and systematic sampling can be a source of bias if the researcher fails to select a representative sample. For, example, if a research is done on a population of around 10,000 students and the researcher takes a sample size of 40 students, then the research would be deemed biased since it is not representative. Additionally, if on selection process, the researcher picks specific group of students then it would give biased results since the chosen study sample should always possess an equal chance of being studied and this should be randomized.

Qualitative Research Article Summary – Minority Identity and Self-Esteem

Porter & Washington (1993) studied the concept of self-esteem among the Hispanic and American Asian sub-groups and compared their findings on the existing literature on the self-image of the African American people. A summary of the model used in this research is found on page 139 of the research article. This research article primarily employed grounded theory in its qualitative research design, and this is the reason why it was chosen. Reviews were done on the available theoretical models done on Asian Americans and Hispanics. The research findings were then compared to the existing literature on African American self-image.

Problem Statement

            The research sought to investigate the personal self-esteem among the Asian Americans and Hispanics. The research identified the research problem after a review of the existing theoretical models on Asian Americans and Hispanics showed that they centered primarily on description that focused on ethnic groups rather than self-image, (Porter & Washington, 1993).

Statement of Purpose

The main purpose of the research article was to describe the paradigms of personal esteem racial/ethnic and self-image that has been studied among the Asian Americans and the Hispanics. In addition, this research article finally concludes by showing the parallels that exist between the theories that deals with ethnicity and race.

Research Questions

            The research employed chiefly empirical evidence analysis and from the analyses, the researchers made some conclusions.

Method

The research employed empirical analysis of past theoretical models as its grounded theory in the research method design. The research pursued this core method in its data collection, as well as creation of parallels and paradigms.

Key Findings

The research article made a number of findings based on its analysis of theoretical models and existing literature on African American self-image. The key findings from the research are:

            Research Findings on Personal Self-Esteem among Hispanics and Asian Americans

            The research found that the Mexican American children have lower self-esteem as do the African Americans and Anglo-Americans, (Porter & Washington, 1993). Furthermore, the research further found that some studies reveal no major difference in the personal self-esteem among these groups. Other studies pointed out that Japanese and Korean Americans have poor personal esteem compared to the white or the blacks.

On the other hand, the research found a relationship in biculturalism and psychological adjustments among the Hispanic and Asian subgroups. Finally, under this category of research, it was determined that in overall, the Asian American children had lower personal esteem than that of Blacks, Anglos and Mexican Americans.

            Relationship between Personal Self-Esteem and Group   

The research found out that most of the paradigms in the ethnic discussion had a reciprocal relationship between personal self-esteem and race, (Porter & Washington, 1993). Furthermore, the research found that the ability to manage ethnic and racial discrimination is dependent on high self-esteem. Additionally, the research found out that a group image, which is positive, was generally seen to be a protective of the self-esteem. The research found also that research showed that the good group image among the Asian and Hispanic subgroups was closely related to their high personal self-esteem.

Qualitative Research Article Critique – A Year in the Life of an Elementary School

1.0 Results

1.1Data Analysis

Even though the procedures used by Dorgan were less that desirably described, the researcher’s analysis of data seemed to be relatively explicit and clear. The themes emerge throughout the report of the study and are part of direct excerpted commentary of the participants in the study. Dorgan does not put the words in the mouths of the participants but rather analyzes and narrates the responses of the participants. Indeed, Dorgan includes all statements of the participants in the study even those that seem to be generally oppose the theme of her study; that CRTs and SOL have negative impacts on education. Even though this is true, it should be noted that such is the only example of the said commentary and the overall tomes of comments by the participants’ articulate a sense of defeat and frustration.

1.2Findings

The report by Dorgan indicated the researcher triangulated the data collection techniques in ethnographic analysis and employed the three principal methods in the collection of data for the study. These primary techniques include observation, interviewing of participants and data analysis. Various themes were emergent from the data collected in the study which was coded. These themes were outlined in the results section of Dorgan’s research study. Even though the goal of a qualitative research study cannot be generalized, it ought to be made clear that the findings reported by Dorgan in her report can actually be transmitted to other situations and contexts (Cohen, Manion, & Morrison, 2003). That is, even though there are no two schools with similar context, the general functioning of any school as a whole and the response of the school to political stimuli ought to be compared to every other school in a similar situation. The findings of the study are a result of the driving force in the research study; two questions highlighted by Dorgan in page 1205 of the article. In particular, the questions are 1. “What was the effect of a political decision on pedagogical decision making?” and 2. How might the demands of a new testing program affect how teacher(s) teach and how children are expected to learn?” It is also pertinent to note that the research by Dorgan was not driven by hypothesis as would be the norm in qualitative studies (Dorgan, 2004). Instead, Dorgan begins her study by asking questions and collects her findings around these set of questions. However, while this is the case, it should be noted that the questions actually form somewhat a hypothesis that is based on Dorgan’s perceived notion that political decision making will certainly have an effect on teaching and learning and secondly, a new testing program will certainly affect learning and teaching.

1.3Theoretical Integrations

The theories in the study are grounded within and also emergent from the collected data. In essence, the theory within the study may be stated in terms of answering the research questions aforementioned. The theory by Dorgan emerges in her conclusion of the article where she draws support from other related literature with supporting observations and analyses. A vehicle for ideation is provided by the general similarity of the said contexts on a broad level (Dorgan, 2004). The theory by itself suggests that the political policy will actually have a powerful effect on the pedagogical teaching, decision making and learning strategies in the state of Virginia. Dorgan is keen to state that, “Teachers will continue to spend their days doing what they are told to do, reaching for goals they did not themselves establish, and worrying about whether or not they are doing enough” (Dorgan, 2004, p. 1224).

2.0 Discussion

2.1 Interpretation of the Findings

Even though the procedures that Dorgan used in collecting data for her study were less than desirably described, the researcher’s analysis of the collected data seemed to be relatively explicit and clear. The summary of the emergent themes by Dorgan appears to be based on contexts of the participants and are complete. The themes emerge from the participants themselves and are not imposed on the situation by the researcher. The researcher makes a continuous effort in noting the regular patterns of attitude, tone and commentary in terms of the respondent’s commentary throughout the interviews as well as other social contexts that can be observed within the natural academic environment.

From the findings of the study, the notion of quality and quantity as well as the shift in methods of teaching was quite alarming (Dorgan, 2004). The various effects of CRTs and SOL on the system within Virginia and in the particular elementary school appear to be at odds with what an individual would perceive to be the trend in education across North America (Dorgan, 2004). In equal fashion, it was also disturbing to note that the teachers who participated in the case study lacked control in terms of approach and organization used in the delivery of curricula. The most pressing issue in the study as discovered by Dorgan was perhaps the lack of time. The teachers, who attempted to adhere to guide which accompanied the new curricula, reported that they felt they were being rushed and lacked the sufficient time to accomplish their objectives.

By the fact that my goal is to discuss how the themes/findings are interpreted and not enumerated, I will avoid any further attempt of drawing out the themes. Instead, I will comment on how the said findings are developed and used within the study. Dorgan notes the themes in her findings but not as explicitly as a reader would expect. In her results section, she divides her areas into two parts with the first part describing how teaching and learning is affected while the second part shows how students cope. These involve the major emergent themes but fail to articulate the themes in the study as a qualitative research ought to (Neuman, 1997).

 

2.2 Implications/Recommendations

With the study by Dorgan, it may be possible for the government to tackle some of the pressing issues within education such as the lack of time that teachers stated was a bottleneck in completing the curriculum. The quality and quantity of education being passes to students needs to be addressed as Dorgan found out that these were quite alarming (Dorgan, 2004). There is need to address these as they greatly impact the education system in regard to the knowledge that students gain from schools. The effects of SOL and CRTs also needs to be addressed as they were discovered to be at odds with what an individual would believe to be the case and trend in the education system within North America (Dorgan, 2004).

3.0 Global Issues

3.1 Presentation

The report of the study is presented relatively well for a qualitative study. Coding is used by Dorgan as well as grouping the findings of the study thematically to ease the analysis of data and comprehension by a reader. The research also answers the research questions with these findings presented well in the research report.  However, the conclusion by Dorgan on the study seemed to be a bit vague. Even though it is evident that the purpose of the study was fulfilled and the research questions answered, it is unclear in the report whether any approaches by the participants was actually effective in terms of adaptation to the new instructional methods, curriculum or efforts by the school’s administration.

 

3.2 Research Credibility

The research by Dorgan being qualitative is credible due to a number of reasons. Through the triangulation of the methods of data collection between interviews, observation and data analysis, Dorgan is able to enhance the validity and credibility of the research. Dorgan also authorizes two of the participants to view an initial draft of the research report and give feedback on how the report can be polished. This is part of the stages in undertaking a case study and helps in improving the general credibility of a research since a study is as good as its final report (Neuman, 1997).

In addition, the methods used in collecting the data for the study are coupled with excerpts from the actual data collected. The author further states the credibility of her study by noting within the introduction of the report that he focus solely was on the goal of the study.

Moreover, the move to provide excerpts from the interviews conducted and accounting for subjectivity allows the respondents in the study to speak for themselves. Dorgan thus reduces the possibility that a reader can perceive that she is very subjective in the efforts of understanding the situations of the participants. Lastly, by referencing other literature on similar topics and contexts, a level of transferability of the research is suggested by Dorgan thereby adding to the credibility of the study.

Download full sample essay which is a critique of a qualitative research article which was written by Karen Dorgan –  A Year in the Life of an Elementary School:  One School’s Experiences in Meeting New Mathematics Standards or order a unique critique of  any qualitative research article at an affordable price. 

Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research And Their Strengths And Weaknesses

Assignment Instructions

Write a 2- to 3-page narrative essay in which you address the following items:

  • discuss what constitutes a research problem
  • compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research and qualitative research

Sample Answer

Introduction

A qualitative research is concerned with the investigative methods that are the participant observer, field, and anthropological, naturalistic and ethnographic research. Qualitative research focusses primarily on the data in the field. It is like the research method that explores the various topics given. It aims to give an understanding of various motivations, opinion and reasons regarding a particular topic. Qualitative research uses data collection methods that may be semi-structured or unstructured techniques. Some data collection methods include observations, interviews and focus groups.

An example of a qualitative research article is “Breaking down the barriers to cancer immunotherapy” (Puré, Allison & Schreiber, 2005).

Quantitative research involves variables that can be precisely and accurately measured. In quantitative research, the problem is viewed in terms of data, which is quantified numerical terms in solving the problem. Quantitative research quantifies variables, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes to name a few. It uses data that is measurable for fact formulation. The data collection methods have more structure. They include systematic observations, online polls, website interceptors, longitudinal studies and paper surveys to name a few.

An example of quantitative research in business is “By the Numbers: Total unaided awareness” (Hellebusch, 2006). Qualitative research focusses on the use of words while quantitative focusses on using numbers.

 

Qualitative research strengths

  1. The case can be used to provide an in-depth explanation of a certain phenomenon to the targeted audience.
  2. Can be used to determine the causes of a particular event.
  3. The case information concerning an individual can be provided by the study.
  4. Is effective in the in-depth study of phenomena especially when the number of cases is limited.
  5. Provides description and understanding of various experiences that people have regarding certain phenomena

Weaknesses

  1. The findings may only relate to a few people and not everyone in general
  2. Quantitative prediction is difficult to make
  3. When using many participants, it becomes difficult to test theories and hypothesis
  4. Much time is used when collecting data than when one uses quantitative methods
  5. It takes a lot of time to analyses data

Quantitative research strengths

  1. Data collection is done quickly
  2. Data analysis is fast
  3. Generalization of data can be done if eh random samples are of a sufficient size.
  4. Provides precise numerical quantitative data.
  5. The analysis of data takes a shorter time
  6. It is efficient when the sample sizes are large.

Weaknesses

  1. The researcher can miss confirmation bias by focusing more on testing his theory or hypothesis.
  2. The results may be too general and abstract or application, in particular, various individuals, situation or contexts.

Combining both in concurrent mixed design methods, help one type of data validate the other and hence increase effectiveness and precision of the study. Mixed research, in this case, involves the collection of data by using all procedures concerned with both qualitative and quantitative data. Since some disadvantages can be dealt with by the other method of research, using the two methods enhance the accuracy and precision the data collected.  Therefore, one form of data is validated using the other. The concurrent mixed method provides an avenue where data can be transformed and compared with the relevant questions.

Quantitative research will give more information that is needed in dealing with a business problem like finding new markets. Qualitative research enables one to access data that involves a lot of businesses especially in marketing that will help in determining the problem at hand. Going into the field may not provide enough information on the competition facing the business and the segments in the market. I would, therefore, focus on using the available data and coming up with various conclusions that will help find a concrete solution.

Qualitative Research

Qualitative research

Qualitative research is a method of societal inquest that emphases on the approach people make sense of their understanding and the world in which they live. A number of diverse methods exist within the broader context of this type of inquiry, and numerous of these share the similar objective such as understanding, describing and inferring social occurrences as observed by individuals, groups and cultures(Holloway & Wheeler, 2010). Investigators use qualitative methodologies to discover the behavior, feeling and experiences of society and what lies at the essential of their lives. For example, ethnographers’concentration on customs and culture; grounded theorists explore social progressions and relations, while phenomenologist contemplate and brightenan occurrence and define the life world(Van der Heide, et al., 2010).

The main features of qualitative research

Qualitative research from various fields share common features and follow similar procedures but different data collection and analysis methods could be applicable. Some of the similar elements include:

  • Qualitative research prioritize on the primacy of data. In simple terms, the theoretical framework is directly determined from the data.
  • Qualitative research requires the investigators to be context sensitive since the research is context-bound.
  • Qualitative research allows the researchers to engross themselves in the natural situation of the people whose performance and considerations they wish to explore.
  • Qualitative researchers put more emphasis on the emic viewpoint, the opinions of the people tangled in the research and their insights, importance and interpretations.
  • Qualitative research requires the application of thick description that involves description, analysis and interpretation, researchers are expected to go beyond the construction of the participants.

Define qualitative research and provide two examples of qualitative designs with a brief explanation of each design.

  1. Define qualitative research and provide two examples of qualitative designs with a brief explanation of each design.
  2. Identify a potential qualitative research study that is important to nursing and describe which design you would use for this study, why you would use that design, and how the information generated from the study could be applied in nursing practice.
  3. End your discussion with a reflection as to the value of qualitative research adding to the science, knowledge, and practice of nursing.
  4. Provide at least three citations with full references to credible nursing scholarly articles supporting your definitions and discussion.

Which design (qualitative or quantitative) will become the primary research design?

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper that addresses the following questions:

  • Which design (qualitative or quantitative) will become the primary research design?
  • How can you most effectively use the power of both designs?
  • What are the drawbacks of just using one design to research the problem?

Discuss the insights each type of design will generate and the importance of having those insights to solve the business problem.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

Comparison Of Qualitative And Quantitative Research Approaches

A research refers to  an investigation  undertaken  with an aim of generating knowledge, the tasks of research is to generate the exact  information  that will guide in the decision making  process, the systematic  investigation  involves the gathering of information using the  appropriate instruments of data collection, for example use questionnaire or the  sampling process, quality output of the research requires the accurate analysis and the recording of the  data  that will aid researchers’ decisions .

Qualitative research

According to Merriam,(2009).Qualitative research is a type that concentrates its study by trying to understand  the perspective of the study from the  population, normally, the type of research  obtains their accurate information on opinions, values and the behaviors  in their natural social context, most of the  researchers utilizes the mode of the research because of its flexibility, they allow the   adaptation  and mostly it’s an open ended form of  questionnaire  that enables wider maximizing of data collection. It gives a respondent  freedom to respond  depending on their understanding of the subject under he study

Also the existing relationship between the  participants and the  researcher is a casual thus gives an opportunity of giving the response more elaborately and in the detailed form, the  vigorous flexibility  clearly reflects the  much and deeper understanding of  the problem that is being investigated. Moreover, the other  advantage of qualitative research  is that it clearly highlights the  purpose of the research, on other words they try to understand   how people make the  sense in the views of the world, mostly sociologist use the qualitative research since its interpretation  gives a clear  view of the world  practices which  later  transforms to  human behaviors.

Quantitative   research

It is type of research that  bases it study on the numerical  data in   determining  the generalization of   findings, quantitative research  explain the phenomenon in a  statistical manner.(Parkinson &  Drislane,2011). It essentially  collect  data in numerical way  and the question also   suits the  respondent relatively  quantitative research  naturally studies a certain subject matter in nits natural state, most of its data  is in the form  numbers and so the  end findings can be used in giving  assumptions based on  concepts, at the end it helps give  further prediction of the results ,

The advantage of the quantitative research is that the data   is collected constructively ,it  aids in the hypothesis  construction  since  the research findings  has been replicated in  sub-population  hence the  type of research is useful in obtaining more credible results (Leech,1954).

Similarities of the quantitative and qualitative   research

The existing similarities is that both research tries to  give logic triangulations  in their findings, the change  the findings  by using the variables ,they also help to provide  background information  on the context  of the subject that  is being studied. in addition, they effectively facilitate  the interpretation   between the variables by clearly explaining  the  factors underlying their relationships.

Difference between qualitative and quantitative research

Difference refers to  the state of having disparities  or  being unlike  between two objects, however, despite the two  research being utilized   by sociologist, it has some  character disparities, in qualitative research,  its content is based on  humanistic interpretation whereas the   quantitative  research it  is scientific and objective, moreover  in the analysis. qualitative research   experiences  had  description  has human existence in values of data contribution  and while drawing conclusion it does not need the use of numbers, on the other hand the quantitative research  in its analysis, it uses the numbers  and even percentages  in drawing conclusion,  it accounts the  data  in numerical  form. In conclusion the researcher might opt to use any of the two types of research, it depends on the nature and objectives of the study taken .

Qualitative Research Proposal – Assignment Instructions

Write up a qualitative research proposal on “The value of a second language requirement in school curricula” It should be 10 pages. First, you have all of the 7 sections. Second, you also have to prepare the literature review. This will make up the majority of the DRP Proposal.
  1. Introduction to the problem
  2. Statement of the problem
  3. Specific research question and sub questions to address the problem
  4. Significance of the study (Why this study is important; who will benefit?)
  5. Research design and methodology
  6. Organization of the Study
  7. Tentative Reference List and
  8. Literature Review

The value of a second language requirement in school curricula. The proposed research project surrounds the relatively recent implementation of required language courses in the New Jersey school system. For the past twelve years, students from grades kindergarten through twelfth have been required to study a language in addition to English with the aim of achieving a practical proficiency in the language. This proficiency is meant to include personal and professional communication skills, comprehension, and cultural awareness. The aim of this research project is to evaluate the proficiency level of students graduating from the New Jersey state secondary school system and determine whether those graduates who are competent in the language utilize their skills after graduation. By cross referencing assessment reports, personal interviews, and relevant employment data, the study will assess the usefulness of the curriculum in the post-graduate lives of students with six years of education in the language. The six year mark is necessary to ensure students have had sufficient exposure to the curriculum combined with six years post graduation experience which will be used to establish a cost benefit analysis for the language curriculum. The control group will be comprised of native English speakers who did not participate in the world languages curriculum. This research is critical to provide a baseline for this relatively new addition to the core curriculum as the standard has been in place twelve years, and a substantive review has yet to be completed. In addition the results shall hopefully provide indicators as to the broader question of whether acquiring a second language is of significant value in communications, and in particular, if there are benefits to certain languages or whether the advantages or disadvantages of the program are equally applicable regardless of language choice.

Can you please help me with this assignment? I will also add a bonus. Please let me know if you have any questions

Benefits of using a Qualitative Research Approach in Organizations

Answer the question in section 1 and 1 of the 3 questions from section 2.

Section 1 (Word limit 1,000 words):

Review two research based journal articles on a topic of your choice, comparing and contrasting them in relation to how the research has been carried out and reported. What learning do you draw from them?
NB The two papers reviewed should be fully referenced under the heading. Further references which you may have drawn on to help the review process should be placed at the end as usual.

Both articles should address the same issue and be drawn from business and management journals. The topic and articles may be relevant for the business, public, voluntary or not for profit sectors but they should focus on a management issue. Draw on evidence from the articles to support your argument, such as quotes demonstrating
style, wording and data offered in the articles.

Section 2 (Word limit 1,000 words):

  • Discuss the key benefits of using a qualitative research approach in organizations. Draw on one or more examples to illustrate your arguments.
  • Describe the key features of non-probability sampling and provide examples of where different approaches might be useful.
  • The wording of questions can be a challenge when developing a survey instrument. What strategies and principles can be used to support the development of effective questions?

Designing Qualitative Research

Introduction

Validity and reliability are means of communicating and demonstrating the research processes rigor and the research finding trustworthiness. Reliability in quantitative research refers to measurement consistency. Validity measures the level to which a measure accurately stands for the concept it claims to measure. There are internal and external validity in quantitative research. Internal validity handles the study outcome validity, and assists to lower other frequently reasons, unanticipated for these results. External validity defines the level in which a measure represents the measured concept accurately (Burkholder et al., 2016).  This paper evaluated validity and it use in quantitative research.

Explanation of Threat to Internal and External Validity in Quantitative Research

There are various internal and external threats to validity. Threats to internal validity include history which is events occurrence that could modify the study results, maturation which refers to any modifications which happen in the subject during the study that were not part of it and that would influence the results. Others include testing which associates with probable impacts of a pretest on participants’ performance in the posttest of a study, instrumentation which regards the impacts of the study outcome of the inconsistent employment of measurement instruments. Statistical regression describes the extreme scores tendency to move toward the subsequent retesting mean score (Punch, 2013). Others include mortality which describes the subjects’ loss from a study as a result of their original non-availability or future withdrawal from the research, and selection that regards the probability that study group might possess varying attributes and that those variations might impact the outcomes. Threats to external validity include interaction testing effect, interaction impacts of selection bias as well as the experimental treatment, testing interaction effect, interaction impacts of biases selection and the experimental treatment, experimental arrangements reactive impacts, and interference of multiple-treatment (Creswell, 2013).

Strategy to Mitigate Each Threat

To mitigate internal threats and to maximize the level of internal validity the researcher will need to standardize the states in which the research is conducted. This will minimize instrumentation and history threats. The research will also need to get more information regarding research study participants’ aids in reducing threats from selection and mortality. Acquiring more information on research study procedural details for instance when and where the research takes place will minimize instrumentation and history threats (Creswell, 2013). Another way includes selecting suitable research design which will control all other internal threats. To mitigate and maximize threats to internal validity the researcher will require to employ research design which does not involve pretests and to select a design where by only a single treatment is allocated to every subject. Other measures include employing random assignment and selection participants and use a placebo group and control group. The researcher should also carefully define variables in a manner which is meaningful environments past that where the study is being carried out, and employment of blind procedures of data collection (Babbie, 2017).

Possible Ethical Issues in Quantitative Research and How it Might Influence the Design Decisions

The possible ethical issues that can be encountered in the quantitative research include adhering to the ethical requirements demanded while using human population such as ensuring consent, and data privacy. This may affect the validity of the data collected since in some researches the data accuracy can be affected by participants’ cautiousness and thus, blind data collection may be needed. This creates ethical issue and thus, impacting the research design.

Amenable Research Topic to Scientific Study in Quantitative Approach

An amenable research topic in quantitative scientific study refers to the agreeability of the research topic with the research approach or the research design. It measures how much the research topic represents the actual research activity (Punch, 2013).

Conclusion

Validity is highly valued in quantitative research. There are two forms of validity which include external and internal validity. The two forms of validity contain threats which need to be handled to enhance a high level of validity in the research. The researcher should consider employing all right measures to ensure that all ethical research requirements have been met.

Course Text: Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches

Resources

Course Text: Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches

  • Chapter 9, “Qualitative Procedures” (pp. 173–202)Creswell guides the reader through qualitative methods and plans. Use this chapter for the Discussions and the Application. Media:
  • “Qualitative Methods: Two Examples” (11:09)Dr. Sreeroopa Sarkar discusses two qualitative research studies. To view this video program, use the media player located at the top of this page.

RSCH 8100 Video Transcript: “Qualitative Methods: Two Examples”

 

Narrator: Dr. Sreeroopa Sarkar’s research study is an example of qualitative research. Its design was made particularly interesting because of cultural questions and decisions that guided the design process. Listen as she explains.

 

Dr. Sreeroopa Sarkar: Today I’m going to describe two research studies that myself and Dr. Bonnie Nastasi of Walden University have carried out for promoting mental health among the schoolchildren in the South Asian countries of Sri Lanka and India. These two studies were formative in nature, and it aimed at assisting the mental health needs of the adolescent school students in these two countries and resources available to them to deal with any kind of mental health issues.

 

The first study was initiated in Sri Lanka. We wanted to test the model in a similar culture, so, as a native of India, I wanted to extend this study on the model that we developed in Sri Lanka and wanted to test it in a similar culture in the neighboring country of India. We expected that India and Sri Lanka has many similarities in cultures.

 

I’d like to share with you why we decided to carry out these two studies in two different cultures. We have been involved in a sexual risk prevention project with the youth in Sri Lanka, and during our interviews with the young adults, many of the mental health issues that came up such as suicide, alcohol and drug abuse, and so on. For example, suicide rate among the adolescents in Sri Lanka was very high. That was also the case for adolescents in India. Sri Lanka has the highest rate of suicide in the world. And the rate of suicide among the adolescent population, particularly between the age of 15 to 18, is highest in India. We also found out that drug and alcohol abuse is on the rise in both cultures, and there are also incidents of gang activities or criminal activities, community violence, that are affecting the adolescents and the young adults in both countries.

 

We started looking into the literature, and we also found that there is very limited emphasis on mental health issues in both cultures. There are also very limited resources available. For example, in Sri Lanka, there are only 19 psychiatrists available for a population of 20 million. There are also misconceptions as well as widespread ignorance about mental illnesses and mental disorders, and there are also cultural stigma about mental illnesses in both of these cultures.

 

In this background, we decided to initiate our first study in Sri Lanka, and for conceptualizing mental health for the purpose of our study, we used three theoretical frameworks. One was Bronfenbrenner’s ecological developmental framework, which emphasizes on the rule of ecology in influencing a person’s development. We also used personal and environmental factors model, which emphasizes the importance of personal factors as well as environmental factors in influencing a person’s mental health. And the third framework that we have used was the primary prevention of mental illnesses through promotion of personal social competencies.

 

So based on these theoretical frameworks, we generated six major mental health constructs, or variables, that are related to mental health. First was the culturally valued personal and social competencies. And the second construct was social stressors as viewed by the adolescents in that culture. Third was what kind of coping strategies that the youth utilized to deal with major mental health problems and stressors. Fourth was what kind of social resources that are available to the youth to deal with mental illnesses. Fifth was personal and family history that makes an individual vulnerable to mental illnesses, and the last was socialization practices and agents that influences a person’s development.

 

We realized that using a qualitative research method would be very effective in this formative research stage. We have decided to use the ethnographic research tradition because we were trying to understand mental health from the perspective of the people from two different cultures which are very different from the cultures that we see in the United States. We wanted to learn about the culture from the perspective of the people of the culture. We wanted to get a definition of mental health as the people from that country defined it: how they viewed mental health, how they viewed different mental health problems, what kind of attitudes they have towards mental health. So we felt that ethnographic research method will enable us to get a very culture-specific definition of mental health.

 

We conducted focus group interviews with the schoolchildren. We started with open-ended questions, and based on what kind of responses we are getting– for example, if they wanted to discuss a particular topic, we also wanted to focus on the particular topic and discuss it with the children in details. I’ll give you an example. When we are conducting interviews with them and we ask them about social stressors, many of the children were very vocal about academic pressure. And we wanted to explore that issue in details, and we asked them more questions about academic pressure. And we found out that there are several factors, such as rigorous examination system in the country, high level of competition, parental pressure for academic achievement, as well as lack of opportunity for literary creation were identified as major stressors by the children.

 

Another example would be, when asking female students about social stressors in India and Sri Lanka, girls talked a lot about sexual harassment and molestation that they encountered in everyday life. So we are very interested and asked them more questions about that, and we wanted to discuss it in details. We found out that girls are regularly teased by boys on the streets and they’re also molested frequently in the public transportation by men. They identified that problem as a major social stressor for them. We expected that the findings from the studies will help us developing a culture-specific survey questionnaire and intervention tool that we can use with the larger population of adolescent students in both of these countries.

 

I’ll give you some of the examples of our findings. Some of the characteristics of personal social competencies as defined by the adolescents in that culture included: honesty, hard work, ability to balance between work or play, and respect for elders. Social stressors, as viewed by the adolescents, included: poverty, academic pressure, sexual harassment, family violence, fights between the parents, and divorce of their parents. Some of the coping strategies that they described included: crying; pouting; isolation; listening to musics; or seeking support from family members, from parents, and from friends. Social resources available to the adolescents included: seeking support from family, friends; or seeking support from private tutors who particularly help them in their academic needs. Interestingly, students never discussed getting any kind of support from professionals, such as psychiatrists or psychologists.

 

Based on our findings from both of these research studies, there are several implications. First, the findings from this study suggested a strong need for mental health services for the adolescent school students in both of these countries. Secondly, based on the qualitative data as well as our intervention data, we expect to recommend to the policymakers of the country several things. We expect to recommend them that they may explore the opportunity for integrating personal social competency promotion, or life skill training, to the children in the schools, such as how to deal with stressors. It will teach them resiliency, or it will teach them how to seek support when they are having some kind of mental health problems.

 

One of the challenges that I personally had to deal with while carrying out this research was keeping out my personal biases. I am a native of India, and I’m very familiar with the culture of India as well as Sri Lanka, so I had to make sure when I went out there and I was carrying out interviews, I had to make sure that my personal biases doesn’t interfere with data collection or data interpretation. And I think that’s important for any qualitative researchers to remember, that we have to be careful. We have to be aware of any kind of personal biases that we bring in with ourselves into the research. In closing, I would like to say, that as we expected, qualitative research was found very effective for this particular study. We found a very culture-specific definition of the major mental health constructs that we were looking into, and, based on the definition of this construct, we were successful in developing a culture-specific instrument for collecting data as well as– we developed an intervention program that we implemented in Sri Lanka. We hope to do the same in the future in India with the qualitative data that we have collected there.

 

The Assignment

Qualitative Research Design and Methods

As you did last week, you will begin this week with a general examination of qualitative strategies and methods in this Discussion, along with a comparison of those methods to the quantitative strategies studied last week.

To prepare for this Discussion:

 

Review Chapter 9 in the course text, Research Design and the “Qualitative Methods: Examples” media segment.

Explain how quantitative and qualitative strategies and methods/procedures are similar and different.

Determine which kinds of research questions would be served by a qualitative strategy of inquiry and explain why.

Generalize about the popularity of qualitative methods in your discipline.

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 3 a 2-to 3-paragraph comparison of quantitative and qualitative strategies of inquiry.

Be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the reading(s) and/or media segment(s) and use APA format.

Analysis of the interview process in qualitative research with emerging themes to ensure quality

Analysis of the interview process in qualitative research with emerging themes to ensure quality

Paper instructions:
Analysis of Interview Data
Larger Themes Emerging from the Data
Presenting the Findings to the Reader
Ensuring Evidence of Quality
References
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five
Approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
Janesick, V. J. (2011). “Stretching” exercises for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks,
California: Sage Publications.

Reducing bias in qualitative research

Reducing bias in qualitative research

Project description
One myth is that the subjective nature of qualitative research makes research biased and findings less valuable. Discuss some ways a researcher can minimize the effects of bias in qualitative research, and why it is important. In what instances, if any, would a researcher’s perspective be valuable in qualitative research?