## Browse Tag: Quantitative Research Design

Quantitative research design related academic materials which include essays, research papers, articles summaries, movie and book reviews and much more.

## Using Articles To Compare And Contrast Qualitative And Quantitative Research Designs

Identify two articles in the University Library: one in which the business problem is researched using a qualitative design and the other using a quantitative design. Summarize each of the research designs.

Write a 350- to 700-word paper in which you compare and contrast the two approaches:

• What are the strengths and weaknesses of each approach?
• How can they be used most effectively in a combined approach?
• Which method is more appropriate for research in your own business and functional area?

## When Multivariate Analysis Is Appropriate For A Quantitative Study

Multivariate analysis deals with the observation and analysis of more than one variable at a time this technique is utilized in performing trade studies in design and analysis across a number of dimensions and at the same time taking into account the effect that the variable has on the responses of interest(Hair,2010).This type of analysis has several uses. These uses include; Capability-based design, inverse design, alternatives analysis, etc.

Multivariate analysis can be used in quantitative studies in various different ways. These include:

• #### Organizing and counting of the data that is surveyed.

All social researcher find the raw data as being invariable. This is because it is impossible for them to collect all the data from all the regions. Organization of the data is however very important for the detection of any unknown factors, verifications of the assumptions made and much more. For quantitative analysis, organization of data is very important especially for numerical processes that have to be done such as to simplify on the explanation of the phenomenon (Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, & Tatham, 2006).

The data thus has to be standardized before analysis is done. Open questions needs some criteria to be set for categorizing the answers. The data can be summarized by conducting some cross tabulation and some statistics.

• #### Summarizing of data by multivariate analysis

Using the basic analysis, it might be quite hard to understand the tendency of what is being surveyed when the raw data contains a lot of information and questions. Basic analysis becomes problematic once someone has to deal with more than two variables. In this case, multivariate analysis can be used to analyze complicated information which the human mind cannot adequately comprehend. Its calculation is very intricate though this type of analysis has popularized as computers developed. (Hairet al 2006).Some of the major methods of this type of analysis include;

• The principle component analysis- it summarizes multivariate information into simpler values.
• The multiple linear regression analysis- it estimates other variables basing on some of the fixed variables.
• Factor analysis- uses multivariate data to estimate the potential data
• Discriminant analysis-it determines which group a certain data belongs basing on some fixed variables(Johnson, & Wichern, 1992)

Multivariate regression works on deriving a formula that describes how some variables change in relation to change in other variables. General linearmodels can be used for the linear relations which makes used of different matrixes with the formula written as;

Y= XB+U

Y represents a matrix which contains a series of multivariate measurements, X represents a matrix which can be a design matrix, B is also a matrix with parameters which can be estimated and U represents a matrix which contains noise or errors(Morrison,1990). The general linear model can used a number of statistical models such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), ordinary linear regression, the T and F-test and many more. Multiple linear regression can also be used. According to (Morrison, 1990), is a generalized form of linear regression which considers more than one independent variable and restricts the dependent variable to one. These are used when the errors (matrix U), input in the equation do not follow a multivariate normal distribution. This type of multivariate statistical test may be useful in future research as it will aid in monitoring the changes of variables especially the numeric variable.

## Prepare a critical analysis of a quantitative study focusing on protection of human

Prepare a critical analysis of a quantitative study focusing on protection of human participants, data collection, data management and analysis, problem statement, and interpretation of findings. The quantitative research article can be from your previous literature review or a new peer-reviewed article.

Each study analysis will be 1,000-1,250 words and submitted in one document. As with the assignments in Topics 1-3, this should connect to your identified practice problem of interest

Refer to the resource entitled “Research Critique Part 2.” Questions under each heading should be addressed as a narrative, in the structure of a formal paper. You are also required to include an Introduction and Conclusion.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

## Sampling Strategy and Sample Size for a Quantitative Research Plan

#### Population

Notably, the population of a given research is constituted by all possible individuals who could be subjects of the research. The target population for the forthcoming study will comprise of all the salaried persons in a given locality defined by high crime incidence. Specifically, the population will comprise of all those have resided in the locality for at least six months and have been getting salaries for at least 12 months prior to being interviewed by the researcher.

#### Population Size

There is no census that has been conducted in the locality in the recent past. That means that the precise size of the population at present cannot be established. Even then, it is estimated that in the locality, there are 3,500 who will have resided in the locality for at least six months and been getting salaries for at least 12 months prior to being interviewed by the researcher.

#### Sampling

Samples are subsets of the proposed populations for particular researches. The subsets are deemed to be representing their larger populations according to Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001). Notably, the data gathered from the subsets is referred to as statistics, which are used in making specific inferences regarding the populations represented by the subsets. Sampling is the processes of selecting the subsets from given research populations. In the forthcoming research, the sampling will be probability based owing to various reasons.

First, the target population is already well-defined and known. Second, probability sampling will be done since the researcher has a detailed sample-frame, or list, of the population already. Third, the research will entail statistical analysis and only probability sampling methods are well-suited for the analysis. Lastly, the methods are less susceptible to bias than non-probability sampling approaches.

#### Sampling Type

The forthcoming research will entail the usage of a random sampling approach, simple random sampling (SRS). Notably, the specific sampling techniques adopted by researchers are largely dependent on the forms of interviews to be executed according to Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001).  In the forthcoming research, the researcher will carry out structured interviews. SRS is well-suited for such interviews.

As noted before, there are other reasons why SRS will be suitable for the research. First, the target population is already well-defined and known. Second, the researcher has a detailed sample-frame, or list, of the population already (Emmel, 2013). Third, the research will entail statistical analysis and SRS is well-suited for the analysis. Fourth, SRS is less susceptible to bias than non-probability sampling approaches. In the research, the SRS will be executed by computer-based programs. Fifth, the sample will be assembled easily and fairly. Sixth, SRS will be highly representative of the research’s target population. Owing to SRS’ representativeness, it allows for the making of generalizations from sample results to the target populations (Brewerton & Millward, 2001).

#### How the Sample Will Be Drawn

Given that SRS will be employed in the upcoming research, every member of the research’s target population will stand the same likelihood of being chosen to be one of the research’s subjects. The sampling will be executed in a lone step, will each of the possible subjects chosen independently of all the other possible subjects (Brewerton & Millward, 2001).

Specifically, data on the possible subjects, those who will have resided in the locality for at least six months and been getting salaries for at least 12 months prior to being interviewed by the researcher, will be obtained from the labor office in the locality. The names of the possible subjects and their telephone contacts will be extracted from the labor office’s data base. The names and the corresponding telephone contacts will be saved in a computer. The computer will be used in aiding the random choosing of the forthcoming research’s sample.

#### Sample size

When executing studies, researchers are keen on the number of responses that they really require according to Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001). The following formula has been used in computing the required size of the upcoming research’s sample.

 Required Sample Size = StdDev * (Z-score)²  * (1-StdDev)  /  (error margin)²

The error margin, or confidence interval, that will be allowed in the research will be ±5%. The standard of deviation (StdDev) expected in the responses that will be given by the selected subjects will be 0.5. Notably, the 0.5 StdDev will make certain that the sample will be sufficiently large. The expected confidence level in the research will be 95%. The Z-score relating to that confidence level is 1.96. Thus, the required sample size in the research will be computed as:

 Required Sample Size = 0.5 * (1.96)²  * (1-0.5)  /  (0.05)² =  384.16 =  385 respondents

In the light of the research’s 3,500-person target population, the 385-respondent sample will be proper. The sample will ensure that the allowed error margin, or confidence interval, will be minimal. The sample will allow the researcher to be highly confident that the real mean will fall within the interval (Brewerton & Millward, 2001). As well, the sample size will ensure that only a highly limited variance will be expected in the responses. Overall, the sample size will yield markedly precise results as demonstrated by Bartlett, Kotrlik and Higgins (2001).

## Which Research Method is Better? – Qualitative Or Quantitative

Generally, the two research techniques have their own advantages and disadvantages. You can read about Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research And Their Strengths And Weaknesses here.  For instance, in quantitative research the use of larger samples and presence of less contact between the researcher and the interviewees makes its findings less biased, (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2014). Whereas the great deal of contact in qualitative research gives information that is subject to bias owing to the in-depth exploration. However, the findings in quantitative research are conclusive and can apply to the rest of the study population, while the presence of in-depth exploration in qualitative research, provide a better understanding of the phenomena. Therefore, a combination of both study techniques, other than choosing one based on its merits or demerits, provides a better method of conducting a study.

## Two Major Ways in Which Qualitative Research Differs From Quantitative Research

Generally there are two types of research that one can use to conduct study and these are qualitative and quantitative. The choice of a particular study depends on the goals and objectives for which the study is conducted, (Polit & Beck, 2010). In qualitative research study, special interest is placed on use of the sensory methods like observation and listening in gathering of data. Qualitative research has found a great deal of application in nursing, especially in evidence-based research and is increasingly being accepted in medicine. On the other hand, quantitative research is an investigation that relies on numbers to explain phenomena.

There are major differences that exist between these two forms of research and this touch most on the flexibility of the two methods. The two major differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods occur in their methodologies. While qualitative research seeks to study perspectives in individuals or phenomena, quantitative research on the other hand seeks to prove a hypothesis.

#### Tools in Qualitative and Quantitative Research

Qualitative researcher uses a more structured approach in collecting its data. The major difference between qualitative research and quantitative is that in quantitative research, the researcher employs structured questionnaires, surveys and observation. The questionnaires are often detailed and these are then presented to the participants in the field. However, in qualitative research, the questionnaires are semi-structured in nature and include some questions that guide the respondents.

The structured questionnaires in quantitative research provide data, which is then expressed in numbers for analysis. Since numbers in quantitative research are often numeric in nature, it provides a way in which statistical tests can be applied to test such data, a feat that is absent in qualitative research. Statistical tests used in quantitative research include mean, median, variance and deviations. These descriptive statistics are very useful in determining differences between groups and preference trends among other statistical facts.

However, in qualitative research, participant observation, in-depth interviews and focus groups are often commonly used. Data obtained from qualitative research are often used to describe characteristics or qualities of phenomena. Although encoding provides a way in which the data can be reduced into numbers in qualitative research, this is often not employed. Questionnaires in qualitative research are semi-structured in nature and are mainly used to get qualitative measurements and as such no measurements are done like in quantitative research. Moreover, there are no statistics used in qualitative research, unlike in quantitative research, instead descriptive words are used to explore phenomena.

#### Sampling

Sampling techniques provides another major difference between quantitative and qualitative research methods. In quantitative research, large samples are used. Often, the study population in quantitative research is large and this is divided into smaller samples using random sampling. In order to get unbiased and reliable findings the samples are given equal chance of occurrence and various strategies of random sampling which include stratified, systematic, cluster and stratified are used. Sampling procedure involves dividing study population into groups and the samples are then selected randomly from the population. The use of larger samples in quantitative research provides a better way of making generalizations using the statistical tests.

However, the focus of qualitative research is on smaller samples of the population. This often takes a form of focus groups, and the main sampling strategies common are snowball, quota and purposive sampling. The main interest in qualitative research is to explore and to explain phenomena. This study design is often concerned more on the process than the outcomes, which is not the case in quantitative research.

## Sources of Bias for Quantitative and Qualitative Research

In research, bias can be defined as the process of introducing a systematic error into the sampling and thus encouraging one outcome over the other, (Arnold, 2010). This can be attributed to many reasons, for instance due to experimental error, where the researcher fails to take into account all the research variables. There are many types of biases and all these depend on the research design employed. The following are the possible research biases for both qualitative and quantitative research.

### Bias in Qualitative Research

In qualitative research, bias is defined in terms of the validity and reliability of the research findings, (Polit & Beck, 2012). If the findings are not reliable and valid, then they shall be termed as biased. The main disadvantage of bias is that it leads to distortion of truth in addition to producing skewed data.

#### Bias from Moderator

The moderator is the individual who is responsible for collecting the research data. The moderator can be a source of bias based on his/her facial expressions, mode of dressing, tonal expressions and style of language among other factors. Although this type of bias is hard to eliminate, it can be minimized through maintenance of neutrality in tonal expression, mode of dressing and language.

#### Biased Questions

The way in which questions are asked can influence the answers given by respondents. There is need for the interviewer to determine biased questions and rephrase them. A question forms the main basis in which information is collected and this can lead invalid findings if they are biased. The following are the major ways in which questions can lead to biased research findings.

The most common form of bias in asking of questions is the tendency of the field interviewer to ask questions that suggests possible answer, (Green, 2013). Leading questions give slanted answers from respondents. An example of a leading question can take the form of, “Doctors have found that sugars are actually responsible for excess fat in our bodies. What do you think?”

Another form of bias with regard to asking of questions is asking the respondent a question, which he/her cannot understand. The respondent will be forced give his/her answer based on the perceived understanding and this can give biased information.

Biased answers arise from statements that are generally untrue or partially true. The common occasions where such answers are obtained are when conduction interviews on focus groups. The presence of dominant respondents in focus groups may influence other respondents and this may create skewed answers. Additionally, another source of bias can arise from inconsistent answers especially in questions where one leads to the other question.

#### Biased Sample

Sample refers to subgroup of the target population where research is conducted. If the sample is not screened well, one may interview wrong people. Interviewing respondents who do not form the subgroup constitutes bias. Another form of bias in sample selection is failure to use random sampling in the selection of the sample. Random sampling ensures that the study samples have equal chance of selection.

#### Biased Reporting

Sometimes, bias can arise from reporting of the results. This source of bias may arise because of personal beliefs, customs, attitude, culture and errors among many other factors. If the person reporting analyses the research information based on his/her beliefs other than the view perceived by the respondents, the findings shall be compromised and hence biased.

### Bias in Quantitative Research

Whereas in qualitative research an effort is made to understand the source of bias, in quantitative research, the researcher tries to eliminate bias.

#### Design Bias

Design bias encompasses bias that may arise when conducting the experiments, as well as during analysis of the results. Design biases are always common, mostly due to the failure of the researchers to take into account the likely impact of the bias in the research they conduct.

#### Sampling Bias

Sampling biases occurs in quantitative research when a researcher compromises with the selection of the study subgroup. For instance, a researcher may decide to omit a certain group in the study sample, or include only a specific group. For example, a study on breast cancer that includes only male participants is said to be biased and its results cannot be extrapolated to cover entire study population that include females. Similarly, when a study is done outside a recreation centre on students in a psychological study is biased since it is not inclusive. The major source of sampling bias occurs in systematic and random sampling.

#### Random and Systematic Bias

Random and systematic sampling can be a source of bias if the researcher fails to select a representative sample. For, example, if a research is done on a population of around 10,000 students and the researcher takes a sample size of 40 students, then the research would be deemed biased since it is not representative. Additionally, if on selection process, the researcher picks specific group of students then it would give biased results since the chosen study sample should always possess an equal chance of being studied and this should be randomized.

## Quantitative Research Article Summary – The Long-term Consequences of Parental Divorce for Children’s Attainment of Education

Bernardi & Radl authored the article and was subsequently published in the journal article of Demographic Research in 2014. The selection of this article was based on its quantitative design of quasi-experimental. The summary of the research model that this journal article employed can be found on page 1659. This journal article is a good example of quasi-experimental design owing to the fact that although the study conducted a comparison of various countries, there was no effort made to collect primary data through random sampling of the study groups. Additionally, this article employed experiment in its study since the groups were investigated without randomization.

#### Problem Statement

The problem statement that this article was designed to investigate was the impact that divorce has on the attainment of the tertiary education by the children. Additionally, the other secondary problem was whether the society had any part to play in the parental break up.

#### Study Purpose

The main purpose of this research article was to investigate the impact of the divorce on the attainment of tertiary education by the affected children. The other purpose of the research article was to find the extent to which the society had a role to play in the parental divorce.

#### Research Question

This research article developed one main research question that was used to develop the research hypotheses for the study. The study employed the following research question:

• Does parental separation have any harmful consequences for the attainment of education by children with highly educated parents than those of children with less educated parents?

#### Research Hypotheses

From above main research question, the researchers developed four research hypotheses. The following are the four research hypotheses that were developed, (Bernardi & Radl, 2014).

H1: Divorce among the highly educated parents has more terse consequences on the achievement of post-secondary education by their children than in the children whose parents’ posses less educational levels.

H2: Children whose parents were less educated did not experience any significant impact of their parents’ divorce, on their education.

H3: Stratified educational systems offer the greatest consequences for attainment of post-secondary education for divorce.

H4: In the societies in which there is a lot of divorce, those children whose parents divorce, are less affected.

#### Study Methods

The study employed surveys of the Generations and Surveys that covered 14 countries, in collecting its data. Data was collected between 2003-2008, and owing to variation in divorce over countries; the study used hierarchical designs and a total sample population of 83,048, aged 25 years and above was used, (Bernardi & Radl, 2014).

#### Key Findings

The study found that divorce negatively affects the attainment of tertiary education by the affected children. The study further found out that in the 14 countries studied, those children whose parents separated achieved a university degree but their grades were seven percent lower compared to those of children whose parents were not separated. The other finding was that the penalty for tertiary education was high for the parents who had higher education, compared to the ones with less education.

Order a quantitative research article summary of an article of your choice at an affordable price.

## Qualitative Vs Quantitative Research And Their Strengths And Weaknesses

### Assignment Instructions

Write a 2- to 3-page narrative essay in which you address the following items:

• discuss what constitutes a research problem
• compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research and qualitative research

#### Introduction

A qualitative research is concerned with the investigative methods that are the participant observer, field, and anthropological, naturalistic and ethnographic research. Qualitative research focusses primarily on the data in the field. It is like the research method that explores the various topics given. It aims to give an understanding of various motivations, opinion and reasons regarding a particular topic. Qualitative research uses data collection methods that may be semi-structured or unstructured techniques. Some data collection methods include observations, interviews and focus groups.

An example of a qualitative research article is “Breaking down the barriers to cancer immunotherapy” (Puré, Allison & Schreiber, 2005).

Quantitative research involves variables that can be precisely and accurately measured. In quantitative research, the problem is viewed in terms of data, which is quantified numerical terms in solving the problem. Quantitative research quantifies variables, behaviors, opinions, and attitudes to name a few. It uses data that is measurable for fact formulation. The data collection methods have more structure. They include systematic observations, online polls, website interceptors, longitudinal studies and paper surveys to name a few.

An example of quantitative research in business is “By the Numbers: Total unaided awareness” (Hellebusch, 2006). Qualitative research focusses on the use of words while quantitative focusses on using numbers.

#### Qualitative research strengths

1. The case can be used to provide an in-depth explanation of a certain phenomenon to the targeted audience.
2. Can be used to determine the causes of a particular event.
3. The case information concerning an individual can be provided by the study.
4. Is effective in the in-depth study of phenomena especially when the number of cases is limited.
5. Provides description and understanding of various experiences that people have regarding certain phenomena

#### Weaknesses

1. The findings may only relate to a few people and not everyone in general
2. Quantitative prediction is difficult to make
3. When using many participants, it becomes difficult to test theories and hypothesis
4. Much time is used when collecting data than when one uses quantitative methods
5. It takes a lot of time to analyses data

#### Quantitative research strengths

1. Data collection is done quickly
2. Data analysis is fast
3. Generalization of data can be done if eh random samples are of a sufficient size.
4. Provides precise numerical quantitative data.
5. The analysis of data takes a shorter time
6. It is efficient when the sample sizes are large.

#### Weaknesses

1. The researcher can miss confirmation bias by focusing more on testing his theory or hypothesis.
2. The results may be too general and abstract or application, in particular, various individuals, situation or contexts.

Combining both in concurrent mixed design methods, help one type of data validate the other and hence increase effectiveness and precision of the study. Mixed research, in this case, involves the collection of data by using all procedures concerned with both qualitative and quantitative data. Since some disadvantages can be dealt with by the other method of research, using the two methods enhance the accuracy and precision the data collected.  Therefore, one form of data is validated using the other. The concurrent mixed method provides an avenue where data can be transformed and compared with the relevant questions.

Quantitative research will give more information that is needed in dealing with a business problem like finding new markets. Qualitative research enables one to access data that involves a lot of businesses especially in marketing that will help in determining the problem at hand. Going into the field may not provide enough information on the competition facing the business and the segments in the market. I would, therefore, focus on using the available data and coming up with various conclusions that will help find a concrete solution.

## Measurement And Instruments For A Quantitative Research Plan

#### Levels of measurement used in the research

When carrying out research in social sciences, one needs to be reliable and accurate. Data collection in social sciences takes so many forms. These includes measurement of cognition, perception, opinions and others that cannot be measured directly. In the quantification of perceptions, events and people, there are four types of measurements that are majorly used. (Miller & Salkind, 2002)

The following are the four main levels of measurements that I found to be relevant for my study. I found these methods important because they match the type of data I collected and how I will use them in the analysis and finding the results. These thus goes hand in hand.

### The four levels of measurements.

#### The nominal scale

This is also referred to as dummy codding. This method works by placing people, perceptions, events and many others into categories basing on some common traits. Some of the data naturally suits in the nominal scale. Examples of such include Americans vs. Asians, male vs. females, redheads vs. blondes and many more. The nominal scale is the basis in which analyses such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) are formed as they require comparison between two categories. The nominal scale in this case falls into the lowest form measurement as it does not capture any information related to a focal object but basically groups the objects into categories. Coding in this case is done by use of numbers, labels or any symbol that can best represent the category that an object or a person belongs.(Miller & Salkind, 2002)

#### Ordinal Scale

This type of scale has got one major advantage over the nominal scale. It has all the details that are captured in the nominal scale but then goes ahead to rank the data collected from the lowest to the highest. They give an idea of where the data lies in relation to one another. The ordinal scale is evidently richer than the nominal scale but suffers information loss as it only ranks without giving more info on how far apart the ones ranked are. (Trochim & Donnelley, 2001)

#### Interval Scale

Unlike the two discussed scales of measurement, interval scale provides richer information about an object being studied. It denotes the distance one object is from the other thus providing more information about it. (Isaac & Michael, 1971)

#### Ratio Scale

This is the scale that provides the richest information about the object. This type of scales has all the information that all the previous three scales have but also contains an additional absolute zero point.(Trochim & Donnelley, 2001)

These four levels of data collection discussed above have an effect on how data is collected and analyzed later. Data collected wrongly will cause an adjustment to the analyses, design and basically the whole research. As I mentioned before, this is the main reason why I chose the above mentioned levels of measurements as they matched my levels of data collection.

#### Content, empirical and construct validity

Validity is the determinant to whether or not a design is well designed or not well designed and gives the outcomes that seen to be suitable to generalize the population of interest. (Cozby, 2001)

Construct validity refers to the degree to which a particular test measures what it is required to measure. It is very essential to the recommended validity of a test. (Bagozzi, Yi & Philips, 1991)

Empirical validity also known as predictive or statistical validity illustrates how close the scores in a particular test correlate with the behavior as studied and measured in other contexts.(Cozby, 2001)

Content validity also referred to as logical validity describes the extent to which a particular measure stands in place of all the other facets in a particular social construct. (Cronbach, 1971)

#### How to ensure the three types of validity in a study

It is normally assumed that the study is valid just because the study carried out is scientific. This is normally not true. The researchers who carry out the scientific study are normally pushed by external forces such as the desire to get some certain results. Due to unreliability of the scientist, it is important to ensure that the results are reliable and conclusive. A reliable study avoids biases, utilizes the recommended sample size and majorly use random sampling procedure to collect data.(Cronbach, 1971)

To ensure validity, the following has to be undertaken;

• #### Randomization

This is critical in ensuring validity of any research. It may be by the use of a random number generator or by use of a computer to collect data. This ensures that there is no bias. It does so by producing the comparable groups such as in the terms of age, gender, the participant characteristics and many more key factors.(Cronbach, 1971)

• #### Sample size

The desired population should be able to carry out the study to the conclusion of it.A sample population is thus taken to represent the population. It is thus very important to get a reliable sample size so as to achieve reliable and statically significant results. (Moskal & Leydens, 2000)

• #### Bias in results

This involves the production of findings that should not be produces due to alteration of methods. The most common forms or types of biases include; intervention biases which occurs when there is a difference in how the subjects were prevailed to the matter of interest, measurement biases which may be caused by social desirability where people favors themselves and thus may fail to provide honest responses and finally selection biases which occurs when a certain sample is omitted purposively.(Cronbach, 1971)

To improve the validity the following has to be ensured:

• There should be clear definition of the goals and the objectives
• The assessment measure should be matched to the goals and the objectives
• Comparison of data should be made to ensure accuracy (Cozby, 2001)

#### How to ensure the reliability of the measurements in the study

Reliability is basically the level to which a particular assessment too is capable of providing consistent and stable results.(Cronbach, 1971)

The following will be used to ensure reliability in this text;

• The test-retest reliability. This is basically a type of reliability achieved when one administers the same type of test twice to the same group of individuals over a certain period of time.
• Parallel forms reliability. This is achieved by issuing the different versions of a particular assessment to the very same group of people. The different scores can thus be correlated so as to determine how consistent the results are. (Morse, Barrett, Mayan, Olson & Spiers, 2008)
• Inter-rater reliability. This is used to assess the level in which the different raters or judges agree in their assessment. This is beneficial in that different people or judges in this case will have different views thus making it very reliable as different interpretations are made. (Moskal & Leydens, 2000)

All the above mentioned types of reliability are capable of determining the reliability of a measurement in a study.

#### Strengths

• Very effective way of measuring people’s behavior, preferences, attitudes and opinions thus reliable
• They enable replication thus making it easy to check for reliability
• Questionnaires are distributed to several people in an area thus making it easy to gather opinions from different groups of people. (Munn & Drever, 1990)
• They can be given to the same people twice so checking for reliability is easier.
• The different versions of the questionnaires can be made and the correlations made to assess the consistency of the answers given. (Kimberlin & Winterstein, 2008)

#### Weaknesses

• Respondents may end up lying due to social desirability as they want to portray a positive image
• People may answer wrongly due to language barrier or misunderstanding the language.
• The closed ended questionnaires are not detailed thus creating a lesser scope for the assessment which makes it unreliable.(Munn & Drever, 1990)
• The open ended questionnaires are not suitable for data collection and analysis as they need the researcher to read them in detail.
• They are not suitable for the less educated as they may end up giving wrong answers. This is because it requires superior writing skills and understanding of the questions so as to express the answers well.(Kimberlin & Winterstein, 2008)

## Define quantitative research and provide two examples of quantitative designs with a brief explanation of each design.

1.Define quantitative research and provide two examples of quantitative designs with a brief explanation of each design.
2.Identify a potential quantitative research study that is important to nursing and describe which design you would use for this study, why you would use that design, and how the information generated from the study could be applied in nursing practice.
3.End your discussion with a reflection as to the value of quantitative research adding to the science, knowledge, and practice of nursing.
4.Provide at least three citations with full references to credible nursing scholarly articles supporting your definitions and discussion.

## Comparison Of Qualitative And Quantitative Research Approaches

A research refers to  an investigation  undertaken  with an aim of generating knowledge, the tasks of research is to generate the exact  information  that will guide in the decision making  process, the systematic  investigation  involves the gathering of information using the  appropriate instruments of data collection, for example use questionnaire or the  sampling process, quality output of the research requires the accurate analysis and the recording of the  data  that will aid researchers’ decisions .

#### Qualitative research

According to Merriam,(2009).Qualitative research is a type that concentrates its study by trying to understand  the perspective of the study from the  population, normally, the type of research  obtains their accurate information on opinions, values and the behaviors  in their natural social context, most of the  researchers utilizes the mode of the research because of its flexibility, they allow the   adaptation  and mostly it’s an open ended form of  questionnaire  that enables wider maximizing of data collection. It gives a respondent  freedom to respond  depending on their understanding of the subject under he study

Also the existing relationship between the  participants and the  researcher is a casual thus gives an opportunity of giving the response more elaborately and in the detailed form, the  vigorous flexibility  clearly reflects the  much and deeper understanding of  the problem that is being investigated. Moreover, the other  advantage of qualitative research  is that it clearly highlights the  purpose of the research, on other words they try to understand   how people make the  sense in the views of the world, mostly sociologist use the qualitative research since its interpretation  gives a clear  view of the world  practices which  later  transforms to  human behaviors.

#### Quantitative   research

It is type of research that  bases it study on the numerical  data in   determining  the generalization of   findings, quantitative research  explain the phenomenon in a  statistical manner.(Parkinson &  Drislane,2011). It essentially  collect  data in numerical way  and the question also   suits the  respondent relatively  quantitative research  naturally studies a certain subject matter in nits natural state, most of its data  is in the form  numbers and so the  end findings can be used in giving  assumptions based on  concepts, at the end it helps give  further prediction of the results ,

The advantage of the quantitative research is that the data   is collected constructively ,it  aids in the hypothesis  construction  since  the research findings  has been replicated in  sub-population  hence the  type of research is useful in obtaining more credible results (Leech,1954).

#### Similarities of the quantitative and qualitative   research

The existing similarities is that both research tries to  give logic triangulations  in their findings, the change  the findings  by using the variables ,they also help to provide  background information  on the context  of the subject that  is being studied. in addition, they effectively facilitate  the interpretation   between the variables by clearly explaining  the  factors underlying their relationships.

#### Difference between qualitative and quantitative research

Difference refers to  the state of having disparities  or  being unlike  between two objects, however, despite the two  research being utilized   by sociologist, it has some  character disparities, in qualitative research,  its content is based on  humanistic interpretation whereas the   quantitative  research it  is scientific and objective, moreover  in the analysis. qualitative research   experiences  had  description  has human existence in values of data contribution  and while drawing conclusion it does not need the use of numbers, on the other hand the quantitative research  in its analysis, it uses the numbers  and even percentages  in drawing conclusion,  it accounts the  data  in numerical  form. In conclusion the researcher might opt to use any of the two types of research, it depends on the nature and objectives of the study taken .

## Assessing and Recommending Quantitative Research Designs

Assessing and Recommending Quantitative Research Designs

For this assignment, you will select the design most appropriate for your research plan and justify your choice. Furthermore, you will be asked to explain why other designs were not appropriate.

To prepare for this Application:

• Consider the quantitative research plan you are developing and your research questions, hypotheses, and variables. What kind of design would you recommend for your plan? What is your rationale for this choice? What is your rationale for NOT selecting another design?
• What threats to validity must you consider and avoid with your design? How might you increase internal and external validity?

#### The assignment:

• Craft a 5- to 7-page paper in which you do the following:
• Assess the strengths and limitations of each of the research designs presented in Weeks 2 and 3.
• Recommend a quantitative design for your research plan. Include a rationale for why that design would be most appropriate.
• For the designs that you did not choose, state why each one is not appropriate for your research questions, hypotheses, and variables.
• Support your work with references to the literature.

View a Sample Answer to this assignment or order a plagiarism free answer at an affordable price.

## Assessing Research Designs and Recommending Quantitative Research Designs

#### Introduction

There are different methodologies or designs that can be used in research. The type of methodology that the researcher uses in the research is determined by the research question. Another factor that might influence the type of methodology to use is the difference in the paradigms that are reflected by the different designs. This paper will discuss the different research designs used in educational researches, their strengths and weaknesses as well as offer and also make recommendations on the best design to use in a specific research. The paper will also propose a quantitative research plan and offer recommendations on the best research design for the research plan.

#### Research Designs

There are different classifications of research designs. Some researchers prefer to classify them as either qualitative or quantitative designs, while others classify them as being either non-experimental or experimental. Other researchers will classify research depending whether it was carried out in the laboratory or in the field.  It is obvious that there are varied ways of classifying research designs. However, in these classifications there is much overlap.  For instance, we can have a non-experimental design that is qualitative and can also be quantitative (Cobb et al., 2003). According to Cobb et al. (2003), you can also have an experimental study that has some qualitative aspects.

In correlational research, the relations between the variables are studied quantitatively. Apparently, a major disadvantage in correlational research is that the effect and cause relations are undetermined (Cobb et al., 2003).  Another disadvantage is that the variables are not manipulated unlike in other studies. Here, the researcher can only collect data based on these variables and then analyze the data to determine the relations between the variables. This is a major disadvantage. However, the design is best applied in studies with no need to manipulate the variables.

In experimental research, participants in the study are assigned to different treatments or tests. This research design requires at least some measurable differences between the groups prior to the conducting of the research. Before the samples are assigned a group, be it the control or experimental group, there needs to be some recordable differences between the two. These records will help the researcher to determine whether the difference or change between the groups after the research is due to the factors attributed to the experiment. This can be disadvantageous where there are no clear differences or recordable differences between the groups prior to the study. Matter of fact, if the study is not observed properly, the researcher might end up recording changes that were indeed affected by the prior state of the group rather than the experiment itself. Although major research institutions regard true experiments as being the ideal research designs, it is quite hard to conduct these in educational institutions.

Another commonly used research design is the Quasi-Experimental design. According to Cook and Campbell (1979), the researcher doesn’t assign participants randomly to different research groups. This method is often used in educational researches. In these research, it is usually deemed unethical to group samples randomly. For this reason, there has to be a determined method on how to assign the samples. One major advantage of this methodology is that researches try to control the differences between the research groups as much as possible. The researchers use statistical controls and matching to control the differences between the sample groups. Another advantage in using the Quasi-experimental design is that the researcher is able to control the variables that are related to the study’s outcome.

One strength of qualitative research designs is their ability to allow the study sample to offer their holistic descriptions. These studies are particularly carried out in naturalistic settings. These studies are not as complicated as other research designs. The data here is collected using pictures and words rather than quantifiable and numerical indicators (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1996).  Another advantage of this design is that it allows for the consideration of processes deeming them to be as important as the products (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1996). The design can be used where the researcher is not decided on specific hypotheses for the study. You will also find that this design is specifically focused on the samples beliefs, thought processes and attitudes. In some researches, these are important yet can be misleading in other contexts that require factual findings.

In Cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs, developmental issues are the major focus (Fraenkel and Wallen, 1996). The longitudinal design allows for the monitoring and collection of data by the researcher over a period of time about the samples. This is done over varied waves or periods of time. The researcher then studies the difference between the study groups over the study period. The major advantage of the study is the focus on an individual over a period of time. However, the study design is considered to be difficult to conduct.

The longitudinal design is quite expensive for many researchers. Another disadvantage to the design is the task of tracking the individuals over the study period. Some might relocate or even decide that they want out of the study. In the cross-sectional study, the researcher collects data on different individuals and doesn’t assess the same individual. The research is conducted at the same time and not over a period of time. The study allows for the expedient carrying out of a research.

In design experiments, the effects of educational interventions are examined. This is done in actual classrooms. The major advantage of using this design is that the intervention progressively changed and re-evaluated over time as the obtained results are obtained (Brown, 1992). This design is most appropriate in the development of different learning theories. The experiments also allow for the introduction of new instructional techniques. According to Cobb et al. (2003), researchers use this design in the development of new theoretical perspectives. However, this design is quite engaging. The researcher has to keep changing the research design as the theories change with the progression of the study. Future instructions have to be considered in the design of the design experiments.

Another popular research design is the micro-genetic approach. This design is used where one sample is under research. The method allow for the detailed study of a single sample over a period of time. This is advantageous as the results of the study are very specific and detailed. However, it can be time consuming and quite expensive to carry out this type of study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods can be used to analyze the data collected.

### Quantitative Research Plan

#### Research Question

I propose to carry out a research to determine whether the financial status of formerly imprisoned persons is better after two years on parole or off parole from the date of their release. This will be the research question. The study will be quantitative and will seek to determine the economic status of the different persons prior to being released and after being released. Other factors like their educational background and geographic location will be held constant.

#### Research Design

The most appropriate research design to use in this study will be quantitative. There will be questionnaires that will be administered to the individuals alongside standardized tests. The study sample will be made up of 100 formerly imprisoned persons that have just been released from jail. Half of these persons will be on parole while the rest won’t. I propose this sample size as it is appropriate for the study and will yield adequate results. Because the study sample is not very large, I propose to employ a single-subject design. A longitudinal study will be employed in this study. This study will enable the researcher to collect data on the samples at different set times. The researcher will then examine the changes in the results between the different study samples.

#### Research Instruments

I propose the use of questionnaires and interviews for data collection. These instruments are appropriate enough for a study sample of 100 persons. The questionnaires will be closed. This will help produce quantitative data as it is the researchers plan. The standardized tests will help elicit more information from the parsons alongside the questionnaires. The close-ended questionnaires are also relatively easier to analyze as compared to the open-ended ones. The proposed sample size of this study meets the bare minimum set by the American psychological Association (1999) for a standardized test. This tests are the best in this study as they will put in considerations the different socioeconomic and ethno-cultural levels of the samples (Brown 1992). As the sample will have to be people released with a period of one month, it will definitely be hard to come across 100 persons released from one correctional facility. Chances are, the released persons will be from varied geographical locations. The standardized tests are most applicable in such conditions.

#### Inappropriate Designs

In this study, it would be impossible to carry out an experimental research. This is because it is not possible to randomly assign persons to either be on parole or off parole. A micro-genetic design might not be appropriate as one person cannot be both on and off parole. As I am not interested in the different developmental changes that might occur over time, it would also be inappropriate to use a qualitative design in this research.

Observational data will not be used in this study. This would be inappropriate as it will only produce qualitative data (Brown, 1992). The researcher doesn’t intent to research on the different perspectives that surround the community of the sample. If the researcher wanted to learn what was happening in the lives of the participants, then observational data would come in handy. If they did not intend to use questionnaires, the method would be appropriate. However, seeing the research intends to use questionnaires observation will not be necessary. The differences in the geographical locations of the sample make it impossible to observe all the samples. The method cannot be used to yield quantitative data rather qualitative data.

#### Conclusion

In the determination of the research design to use in a study, different factors have to be considered. The study sample is one of them. As stated in this paper, it is impractical to use certain designs when the study sample is too large or too small. Another factor to consider is whether the study is qualitative or quantitative. The research questions is definitely the most important determining factor in the selection and determination of the research design. For a final design, it is most advisable to consider the strengths and weaknesses of the different designs among others.

## Evaluating Research Questions, Hypotheses, and Quantitative Research Designs

#### Introduction

The general quantitative research design structure is founded in the scientific techniques where deductive reasoning is applied. In this case the researcher creates hypothesis which are related to the research questions that are normally founded on the purpose of study. These hypotheses are highly based on the available theories addressing the research subject. This is what determines the kind of research design to be adopted in quantitative research that contains various research design methods. The hypotheses guide on collection of data that is employed to investigate the problem. The data is then used to test whether the hypothesis is true or force and hence, assisting in making the final conclusion in the study (Burkholder et al., 2016). This paper focuses on evaluating a quantitative research article to find the association between the research question, hypothesis, theory, the research problem, research purpose, and research design.

#### Evaluation of the Research Question and Hypothesis

The research questions are logical extension of the purpose statement in this research. The researcher intends to address the identified theory gap by answering the two provided research questions. The two research questions try to find out whether cultural variation between a supplier and buyer lower the joint supply chain negotiations profit outcome and whether cultural variations moderate the effect of bargaining strategy and trust on shared profit results. These questions are clearly the best to address the identified theoretical gap regarding how cultural variations affect interaction between buyer and seller. The research is based on the experimental quantitative research design which focuses on testing the research hypothesis that is derived from the research question. We can therefore say that the two research questions align well with the research design. The research data are gathered using negotiations simulation which captured the activities that takes place during negotiation noting on how they influence cultural variation influence the negotiation techniques and how it influence common profit. Thus the research question aligns with the employed data collection techniques (Babbie, 2017).

The research is based on quantitative research which involves experimental research design. The research is based on inferential questions which follow from a theory. Thus there are no descriptive questions seeking to describe responses to major variables and there are no inferential questions seeking to contrast groups or associate variables. The research variables include seller and buyer negotiations which is dependent on culture, which is independent variable. The variable in the inferential questions are consistently positioned from independent to dependent variables in inferential questions. The paper contains four null hypotheses that are provided in a predictive manner. The four research hypotheses are highly consistent with the two set research questions. The research questions and hypothesis illustrate that the research will be conducted in a business negotiation set up where buyers and sellers from different cultures will be involved, but they fail to mention the actual research participants (Babbie, 2017).

#### Identifying the Type of Quantitative Research Design

There are various research designs that can be used in quantitative research. This research has adopted experimental form of qualitative study were simulation strategy is employed to collect the required data. The researcher used 78 MBA student from one of business schools in US from different cultural background; different countries. The participants were divided into two groups; buyers and sellers. Data was gathered by use of buyer-supplier dyads negotiation simulation, where different buyers negotiated with different sellers with intention of reaching an agreement, and asymmetrical distribution of profit evaluated. The paring of buyer and seller was based on their cultural background information. The negotiation was guided by the provided instruction. The simulation focused on joint profit, where the aspect of trust and bargaining strategies were evaluated using a follow-up questionnaire (Ribbink & Grimm, 2014).

#### Analyzing Alignment among the Theory, Problem, Purpose, Research Questions, Hypothesis, and Design

The research paper is focused on the growth of the study regarding supply chain globalization which requires great interaction of buyer and sellers with different cultural background. Although the matter has been intensively researched on the researcher realizes literature gap with respect to theory on how cultural variations influences relationships between buyer and seller. This defines the research problem and from it the paper develops the research purpose of evaluating how the cultural variation theory in the global supply chain influences interaction between buyer and seller (Ribbink & Grimm, 2014). This directs the researcher into developing the two research questions which are used to develop the four research hypothesis after effective evaluation of the current available theories addressing the identified matters. The hypotheses are then employed in defining the research design to ensure that they are effectively tested and a conclusion drawn based on the adopted research design. In this regard, there is a high level of alignment among the theory, the research problem, purpose, question, hypotheses, and the research design (Babbie, 2017).

#### Conclusion

Quantitative research normally aims at establishing the association between dependent and independent variables in a population. It can either be experimental or descriptive in design. These designs are highly influence by the identified research problem, the proposed research purpose and the defined research questions and hypothesis. The analyzed paper focuses on experiential quantitative research, a design that is adapted after effective consideration of the theory, research problem, research purpose, questions, and hypothesis.

## Research Critique of a Quantitative Research on Nursing Practice

#### Introduction

Provision of the best standards of care to clients and patients is what nurses are expected to meet through the provision of the evidence-based practice whenever necessary. A critical part of this process of providing health care on the basis of the best available evidence entails appraisal of primary research. The need for nurses to improve their practice makes it critical for them to apply evidence in order to improve their theoretical and clinical skills and knowledge and be able to assess the quality of the available research relevant to their practice (Wood & Kerr, 2011; Boswell, Boswell & Cannon, 2014).Evidence based practice entails incorporation of professional expertise, patient preference and need, and the best evidence available. Additionally, identification of this “best evidence” calls for the nurses to undertake a critical review and evaluation of the research studies in order to ascertain if the research is useful and of sufficient quality for effective application to their practice.

The title of this research article is very concise and clearly describes the focus of the research itself –“Causal model of health: health-related quality of life in people living with HIV / aids in the northern part of Thailand”. Even though, the approach of the research is not precisely argued, its nature sets out to “examine the causal relationships existing between antiretroviral treatment, age, self-care strategies, symptom experience, social support andhealth related quality of life” in the identified sample and population(Cormack, 2000). These variables are so apparent in the title, though not indicated in the title. The use of the word “causal” is a suggestion that this is a quantitative research article.

The nursing research article has an outline featuring the various aspects its covers in its content has highlighted: an introduction part as described above, a section on protection of human participants, the process and methods of data collection, data management and analysis, interpretation of the findings and the provision of future research, and lastly there is a section of conclusion with a precise summary of the content of the research article (Tangkawanich, Yunibhand, Thanasilp & Magilvy, 2008).

#### Protection of Human Participants

The participants, which were RN’s, CAN’s and LPN’s in the hospital vowed to commit to confidentiality on the matter in relation to the research undertakings, information gathered and ensuring a professionally reputable ethical standards.However, they were requested to speak frankly about neglecting to undertake routine aspects of their day-to-day responsibilities in front of their peers. Additional validity and privacy was obtained through a multiple questionnaires administered by the researcher with the different participants in the study.

According to Cormack, (2000), the merits accruing from the context of this research article is that a greater ethical considerations were ascertained through seeking approvals of the relevant bodies, incorporated with informed consent on both the part of the authorities and the participants. Even though the study was voluntary, the author didn’t put it clear what information was given to the participants.

#### Data Collection

The study do not adequately describe the data collection procedures. This would a problem of replication and rigor. The research doesn’t indicate precisely who administered the questionnaires, or even if they were self-report of the participants own convenience and time, or whether there was a researcher at the time of completion (Boswell, Boswell & Cannon, 2014). The research data collection period for this study took one and half years with the variables of consideration categorized as social support, self-care strategies, symptom experience, antiretroviral treatment, age and the HRQL.

However, the study is considered to have applied multiple data collection instruments, described in detailed, and their provenance was accounted for. Theyused the Symptom Experience Questionnaire, the Social Support Questionnaire, the Health Related Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Self-Care Strategies Questionnaire (Cormack, 2000).

## Course Text: Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches

Resources

Course Text: Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches

• Chapter 9, “Qualitative Procedures” (pp. 173–202)Creswell guides the reader through qualitative methods and plans. Use this chapter for the Discussions and the Application. Media:
• “Qualitative Methods: Two Examples” (11:09)Dr. Sreeroopa Sarkar discusses two qualitative research studies. To view this video program, use the media player located at the top of this page.

RSCH 8100 Video Transcript: “Qualitative Methods: Two Examples”

Narrator: Dr. Sreeroopa Sarkar’s research study is an example of qualitative research. Its design was made particularly interesting because of cultural questions and decisions that guided the design process. Listen as she explains.

Dr. Sreeroopa Sarkar: Today I’m going to describe two research studies that myself and Dr. Bonnie Nastasi of Walden University have carried out for promoting mental health among the schoolchildren in the South Asian countries of Sri Lanka and India. These two studies were formative in nature, and it aimed at assisting the mental health needs of the adolescent school students in these two countries and resources available to them to deal with any kind of mental health issues.

The first study was initiated in Sri Lanka. We wanted to test the model in a similar culture, so, as a native of India, I wanted to extend this study on the model that we developed in Sri Lanka and wanted to test it in a similar culture in the neighboring country of India. We expected that India and Sri Lanka has many similarities in cultures.

I’d like to share with you why we decided to carry out these two studies in two different cultures. We have been involved in a sexual risk prevention project with the youth in Sri Lanka, and during our interviews with the young adults, many of the mental health issues that came up such as suicide, alcohol and drug abuse, and so on. For example, suicide rate among the adolescents in Sri Lanka was very high. That was also the case for adolescents in India. Sri Lanka has the highest rate of suicide in the world. And the rate of suicide among the adolescent population, particularly between the age of 15 to 18, is highest in India. We also found out that drug and alcohol abuse is on the rise in both cultures, and there are also incidents of gang activities or criminal activities, community violence, that are affecting the adolescents and the young adults in both countries.

We started looking into the literature, and we also found that there is very limited emphasis on mental health issues in both cultures. There are also very limited resources available. For example, in Sri Lanka, there are only 19 psychiatrists available for a population of 20 million. There are also misconceptions as well as widespread ignorance about mental illnesses and mental disorders, and there are also cultural stigma about mental illnesses in both of these cultures.

In this background, we decided to initiate our first study in Sri Lanka, and for conceptualizing mental health for the purpose of our study, we used three theoretical frameworks. One was Bronfenbrenner’s ecological developmental framework, which emphasizes on the rule of ecology in influencing a person’s development. We also used personal and environmental factors model, which emphasizes the importance of personal factors as well as environmental factors in influencing a person’s mental health. And the third framework that we have used was the primary prevention of mental illnesses through promotion of personal social competencies.

So based on these theoretical frameworks, we generated six major mental health constructs, or variables, that are related to mental health. First was the culturally valued personal and social competencies. And the second construct was social stressors as viewed by the adolescents in that culture. Third was what kind of coping strategies that the youth utilized to deal with major mental health problems and stressors. Fourth was what kind of social resources that are available to the youth to deal with mental illnesses. Fifth was personal and family history that makes an individual vulnerable to mental illnesses, and the last was socialization practices and agents that influences a person’s development.

We realized that using a qualitative research method would be very effective in this formative research stage. We have decided to use the ethnographic research tradition because we were trying to understand mental health from the perspective of the people from two different cultures which are very different from the cultures that we see in the United States. We wanted to learn about the culture from the perspective of the people of the culture. We wanted to get a definition of mental health as the people from that country defined it: how they viewed mental health, how they viewed different mental health problems, what kind of attitudes they have towards mental health. So we felt that ethnographic research method will enable us to get a very culture-specific definition of mental health.

We conducted focus group interviews with the schoolchildren. We started with open-ended questions, and based on what kind of responses we are getting– for example, if they wanted to discuss a particular topic, we also wanted to focus on the particular topic and discuss it with the children in details. I’ll give you an example. When we are conducting interviews with them and we ask them about social stressors, many of the children were very vocal about academic pressure. And we wanted to explore that issue in details, and we asked them more questions about academic pressure. And we found out that there are several factors, such as rigorous examination system in the country, high level of competition, parental pressure for academic achievement, as well as lack of opportunity for literary creation were identified as major stressors by the children.

Another example would be, when asking female students about social stressors in India and Sri Lanka, girls talked a lot about sexual harassment and molestation that they encountered in everyday life. So we are very interested and asked them more questions about that, and we wanted to discuss it in details. We found out that girls are regularly teased by boys on the streets and they’re also molested frequently in the public transportation by men. They identified that problem as a major social stressor for them. We expected that the findings from the studies will help us developing a culture-specific survey questionnaire and intervention tool that we can use with the larger population of adolescent students in both of these countries.

I’ll give you some of the examples of our findings. Some of the characteristics of personal social competencies as defined by the adolescents in that culture included: honesty, hard work, ability to balance between work or play, and respect for elders. Social stressors, as viewed by the adolescents, included: poverty, academic pressure, sexual harassment, family violence, fights between the parents, and divorce of their parents. Some of the coping strategies that they described included: crying; pouting; isolation; listening to musics; or seeking support from family members, from parents, and from friends. Social resources available to the adolescents included: seeking support from family, friends; or seeking support from private tutors who particularly help them in their academic needs. Interestingly, students never discussed getting any kind of support from professionals, such as psychiatrists or psychologists.

Based on our findings from both of these research studies, there are several implications. First, the findings from this study suggested a strong need for mental health services for the adolescent school students in both of these countries. Secondly, based on the qualitative data as well as our intervention data, we expect to recommend to the policymakers of the country several things. We expect to recommend them that they may explore the opportunity for integrating personal social competency promotion, or life skill training, to the children in the schools, such as how to deal with stressors. It will teach them resiliency, or it will teach them how to seek support when they are having some kind of mental health problems.

One of the challenges that I personally had to deal with while carrying out this research was keeping out my personal biases. I am a native of India, and I’m very familiar with the culture of India as well as Sri Lanka, so I had to make sure when I went out there and I was carrying out interviews, I had to make sure that my personal biases doesn’t interfere with data collection or data interpretation. And I think that’s important for any qualitative researchers to remember, that we have to be careful. We have to be aware of any kind of personal biases that we bring in with ourselves into the research. In closing, I would like to say, that as we expected, qualitative research was found very effective for this particular study. We found a very culture-specific definition of the major mental health constructs that we were looking into, and, based on the definition of this construct, we were successful in developing a culture-specific instrument for collecting data as well as– we developed an intervention program that we implemented in Sri Lanka. We hope to do the same in the future in India with the qualitative data that we have collected there.

The Assignment

Qualitative Research Design and Methods

As you did last week, you will begin this week with a general examination of qualitative strategies and methods in this Discussion, along with a comparison of those methods to the quantitative strategies studied last week.

To prepare for this Discussion:

Review Chapter 9 in the course text, Research Design and the “Qualitative Methods: Examples” media segment.

Explain how quantitative and qualitative strategies and methods/procedures are similar and different.

Determine which kinds of research questions would be served by a qualitative strategy of inquiry and explain why.