Tag: Research Paper

Depression in Adults – Public Health Problem Research Paper

Health People 2020 got launched in December 2010 by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It got generated to categorize national significances for refining health, up surging attentiveness and comprehending the contributing factor of health, disease and disability, in addition to noting chances for advancement (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2016). It offers quantifiable aims and objectives to apply at local, state, and national levels by engaging various sectors to leap in. However, the functions of these sectors are to reinforce policies and advance practices determined by indication and information. Pinpoint research, assessment and data gathering requirements. It has 42 acknowledged topic areas each with its specific purposes that enable specialists from all disciplines to project and implement platforms meant at attaining defined aims and purposes (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2016). Among the 42 areas, there is Mental Health and Mental Disorders area where depression in adult gets categorized.

Depression is a mental disorder described by at least two weeks of low temperament that is contemporaneous across most circumstances (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It gets frequently complemented by low self-esteem, pain without clear cause, lack of attention in generally pleasurable events, and low energy. People may also irregularly have untrue beliefs or perceive things that others cannot see(American Psychiatric Association, 2013). In a certain year, closely 15 million Americans get affected by depression with nearly 7% of the adult populace(Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2015). The adult age between 49-54 years is the age group with topmost depression rate though the inception age averages at 32 years. However, depression can affect an individual at any spell in their lifetime (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2015). Apart from age, depression has other risks factors that comprise being poor, woman, or African-American. Due to this, it is endeavor for the Health People 2020 to improve mental health through making access to good and superior health services and prevention (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). However, this is because to family and individual, mental health is vital in addition to interpersonal relations, and the aptitude to contribute to public or society.

The causes of depression are not completely well-known. However, the existing model for comprehending depression stresses the interaction of environmental, social, biological and inherent factors during the life cycle as the combination causes (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). According to US Burden of Disease Collaborators (2013), genetic factors get involved in depression because it frequently runs in families. Moreover, studies have established that close family members of a person with depression are more probable to develop the depression compared to people depression history in their family.

Studies have shown that the basic biologic causes of depression get powerfully connected to anomalies in the transfer of certain crucial chemical messengers in the brain. These neurotransmitters comprise Serotonin which is the most significant neurotransmitter in depression (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2015). Apart from this function, serotonin is vital for moods of well- being and its level imbalances in the brain can trigger depression and other disorders related to mood. Acetylcholine and catecholamine are among the other neurotransmitters that get believed to be causing and they entail dopamine, norepinephrine, and adrenaline.On the other hand, the female hormones like estrogen and progesterone get believed to play a role high rate of depression in women.

Environmental causes of depression get connected with factors that are separate of us. They get not unswervingly linked to brain purpose, genetic traits from parent ages, medical diseases, or anything else that may happen within us (Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, 2015). Instead, environmental happenings are those things that occur in the course of our ordinary lives. These may comprise circumstances such as lengthy stress at work or home, managing with the death of a loved one, or shocking happenings. Sometimes researchers denote to these as sociological or psycho social features as they combine happenings that occur out in society with the interior workings of individual’s mind.

Studies have also shown that compared to men, women have high rate of depression rate regardless of where they come from, race, beliefs, or socioeconomic level (Lando et al., 2006). Depression can get caused by hormonal changes in life and women are mainly susceptible to depression throughout pregnancy and after childbearing, which gets known as postpartum depression, in addition to in menopause.

On social risk factor, research has shown that individuals with less supportive relations can amplify the danger of depression in both male and female. However, rates of depression have been established to be advanced in female who are at house with juvenile, and those who explain themselves as lonely, in comparison to female who are working or have an accommodating social set of connections. In many cases, limited social set of connections have been established to pave the way of the beginning of depression.

Preventive plans are usually focused against risk factors; hence require to get employed at definite phases before the beginning of the depression so as to be outstandingly effective (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). However, once the depression develops, it is still likely to lessen its sternness, course, length, and related disability by taking precautionary actions in the course of the depression.The public health perception of disease prevention regards prevention as primary, secondary or tertiary (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).Primary prevention has gotten identified as targeting a complete populace group,persons or sub classes of the populace whose danger of developing a depression is considerably advanced than that of the rest of the populace, and people at high-risk for depression.Secondary prevention is the interventions commenced to decrease the occurrence which comprises all definite treatment-related plans (U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010). While tertiary prevention would contain interventions that lessen disability and all forms of reintegration in addition to prevention of degeneration of the depression.

The most effective prevention method for depression in adult would be primary prevention. However, this is because it cost effective and practical.The Surgeon General’s Mental Health Report and the Statewide Strategic Plan for mental health prevention can demonstrated the prevalence of primary prevention to other in adult. The program got carried out by offering psycho-education linked to mood direction to low-income, marginal patients who showed no depressive signs. However, the group was to get compared to another group of the same setting and economic status for a period of who were not offered with psycho-education. One year later, when the study group came to study the groups they realized that there were less occurrence of depression to the group that got offered with psycho-education than the other one. Additionally, other research establishing the effect of avoiding postpartum depression in adult women has also established primary prevention can be operative in avoiding this disorder. Moreover, from the quotation made by the Surgeon General’s report concerning averting depression of older people who are grief through psychotherapy and support for widows, it is clear primary privation is the best prevention method in adults.As we come into a period of going into retirement and adult life for the “baby boomers”, this is a significant discovery since in U.S.  adult persons have the uppermost rate of depression.

It is clear that depression can affect anyone. However, certain factors may upsurge your probability of developing the depression. From the analyses above, the environmental risk factor should get addressed since it is the cause of depression in most adult. It is at the adult stage that that most people are left by their loved one and are affected by poverty. When an adult’s spouses die he or she is left lonely making her to develop depression. However, the best prevention strategy to depression in adult would be the primary prevention through psycho-education on how to control mood. The adult should get grouped depending on danger of developing a depression and level of risk for depression. With these grouping they should get trained on how to control mood as this is the main source of depression in adult.

Computer Crimes Acts Research Paper Instructions

Today, there are many laws that address different acts of computer crimes. Select one of the laws presented in Chapter three (3) or four (4) of the textbook.

Write a 3-4 page paper in which you:

  1. Identify the chosen law and evaluate its impact on society in the U.S. and / or global environment.
  2. Describe the penalties and fines that exist for offenders of the selected law.

Research the Internet for news articles and judicial cases that provide details on how this law was exercised and realized convictions.

  1. Analyze the effectiveness of the law at convicting offenders to determine any modifications that should be made to the law.
  2. Suggest a change or ratification of the law and explain how your changes will impact society as well as those convicted of the crime.
  3. Summarize the challenges the prosecution faced in a trial from your research and whether you believe they could have handled the challenges differently.
  4. Use at least four (4) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Evaluate the ethical concerns that computer crimes raise in society and the impact of information technologies on crime, terrorism, or war.
  • Describe the different types of computer attacks.
  • Describe federal computer-related laws and legislation.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in the investigation of computer crime.
  • Write clearly and concisely about computer crime investigation topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Research Paper on A Doll House and the Concept of The Problem Play

The problem play refers to a kind of drama which emerged in the 19th century as a section of the extensive realism movement in the arts. It handles contentious social problems via debates between the stage acting characters, who characteristically signify conflicting viewpoints with an truthful social context. The play normally focuses on handling a certain social issue in an accurate manner structured to alter the public opinion. It is mostly employed to demonstrate a situation where the main character in a play experiences religious, personal, environmental, political and social issues common to her or his entire society. This concept of the problem play has highly been illustrated in the play “A Doll’s House” written by Henrik Ibsen.

The play A Doll’s House was written in 1800s and it focused on demonstrating social problems that existed in the society during this time. This is the time when women were supposed to be submissive and to live based on the social restriction. Women were required to stay at home and look after their children and husbands. Men were on the other hand supposed to provide for their families and thus, they could work hard and go out of their way to satisfy the financial needs of the family. Women were considered weak and could only subordinate their men. The society norm was that the man should remain superior in their homes and make their women do what they want (Arnd 2). Although women were supposed to be weak based on the actual societal perspective, Henrik manages to create a very strong women character in Nora. Henrik employed problem play concept by demonstrating women liberalization in the era where conservation was highly practiced. Although Nora initially lived like a naïve housewife, we later in the play realized that Nora was an extra ordinary woman who had gone out of her way to save her husband’s life by borrowing money with forged father’s signature, and working secretly to repay her debt. Nora managed to work and earn money during a time when women were required by the society norm to stay at home and nurture their families. Nora even appeared to adhere to this norm even before her husband. However, she has stood strong for a while to protect her family. She even went against her husband morals with regard to forgery and debts.

Nora also display the concept of problem play by deciding to stand on her own when her husband reacted negatively after realizing that she forged her father’s signature and got a loan to a man he regarded as immoral. Based on the families of these times, a man was the head of the family and he was supposed to decide on what should be done during the critical time. Helmer, after seeing the Krogstad reports he decided that he can nolonger have a relation with Nora as a wife, but to protect his image to the society, Nora was to stay in the house and pretend to the world that all was well. She was also not to be entrusted to the children to prevent her from teaching themthe immoral act (Ibsen 38). Based on the societal norms during this time and in this region the family success was judged based on how well it can stick together. This is what Helmer tried to protect. However, Nora did not care about the outer image. Her concern was more on the internal relation and if it was not working out, she was willing to walk out despite what the society would say or think. Nora decision to walk out of her marriage and family was not stopped even by Helmer apology. To her, she had been played by the man she thought loved her. He had considered her as her “wife doll” and she would never live with it.

In normal circumstances, a wife could have been happy that the misunderstanding has been cleared and that she would live normally with her husband. However, Nora refused to compromise. She did not take it well that she was supposed to live with her husband without doing anything to save the situation. She treasured her rights as a human being who can think, do anything to save herself and her family, a woman who can work to get her own money, and woman whose mental ability is recognized. She seems to have been insulted by her husband thought of being there to protect him from all problems as she loves him in the return. This episode clearly demonstrated the concept of problem play where by Nora acted completely against what could have been accepted. She even went ahead and left her husband and children to demonstrate that her rights as a human being came before her role as a wife or a mother, and she would never make sacrifices to make others happy while she suffers (Ibsen 45). Nora slams the door and abandons her house to a world of novel chances.She is leaving to realize her personal duties towards herself, with hope of self-realization that normally guides to new beginning. It seems that Nora removed he blind fold and realized that her freedom and individuality have been snatched away by Helmer. After living for her husband, her sacrifice goes unrecognized and she cannot sacrifice herself anymore for a strange man who made her life in the illusion of love for quite a long time. In this section,Henrik painted Nora as a typical modern woman and not as 19th century woman (Ghafourinia and Jamili 424).

Nora is a character that was coined to change the public opinion on various issues which included the role of a woman in the society, and the woman submission role in the family. It can also be said to have been used to change the public opinion on women’s mental ability in solving life problem. Although Nora was regarded to be weak and the one who deserved her father and later her husband’s protection, she went out of her way to help her husband. The only reason he considered her weak was because he was not informed about it. She also did forgery, an act that she appeared to be too naïve even to know of its existence. Nora was strong and she was only considered weak for being submissive. The coming out of the marriage as a way of standing up for herself painted submission as the greatest woman’s weakness which should be concurred for a woman to be strong. The obedient that comes hand in hand with submission limits the women’s ability to think on how to handle their problems as well as their family’s problems. Nora is also seen to trying to fight to gain the freedom on deciding what she should purchase rather than telling Helmer to do it for her. Although this makes Helmer give Nora petty names that signifies her love for money, it also demonstrates Women independent mind when it comes to spending and making purchase decision, obligations that were not normally left for women during this time.

The change of opinion on women obligation can also be demonstrated by Mrs. Linden. Although she married for money, she later had to work to earn a living for herself and her ill mother and two younger brothers. She later had to work for herself and she is seen requesting Nora to talk to her husband to give him a job in the bank. This demonstrated that women had gone to school and they were climbing the corporate ladder, though they were still in the lower positions in the job market. Mrs. Linden was also seen approaching Krogstad to rekindle their previous romantic relationship and manages to convince him to return Nora’s signed promissory (Ibsen 34). This can be used to demonstrate the power of a woman in a relationship. Although women were supposed to be submissive, Mrs. Linden takes up the initiative of helping her friend using her power over a man. Moreover, Mrs. Linden was given a job while Krogstad was facing the possibilities of being sacked. Despite this, she did not shy off from having a relationship, and Krogstad did not refuse her on the basis of being unable to provide. Instead, Krogstad agreed to rekindle their romantic relationship, and stopped the blackmail to get his job back. This can be interpreted that Krogstad was comfortable to have Mrs. Linden as the family breadwinner, and that Krogstad felt much safer to have her, and to know that she can work to provide for the family. This made him to give up pushing Nora further to be rehired. The incident demonstrates the changing role of the woman in the society, and also the change on the opinion of women’s position in the world.

Mrs. Linden is also seen to play a great part in liberating Nora from her marriage where she was forced to be submissive and enhancing her ability to enjoy her freedom. She instructed Krogstad to leave the reports in the Helmer mailbox to allow him to know the truth and eliminate the fear and anxiety in Nora regarding what would happen in case the husband was to know all about it (Ibsen 34). Mrs. Linden acted as Nora confidant and advisor to some extent. The step taken by Mrs. Linden in this case was a way of communicating that women should be ready to test the strength of the marriage bond to be sure whether it is worth the sacrifice they give to it. The information was clear that Nora had borrowed the money using forged signature to save Helmer’s life. However, she was so scared to confess since she feared the outcome and would rather carry the burden. This approach demonstrated how the truth can liberate a woman and give a clear picture of personal worth in a relationship. It also demonstrates the importance of confrontation in a relationship. Submissive women were never given a chance to air their views in serious family problems. Instead men’s judgment was depended on to resolve all problems in the family, disregarding of whether women were satisfied with these decision. They were perceived as children with regard to mental and financial ability. This made it hard for them to confront the actual problems troubling their relationships and keep their pain and agony to themselves. The act of confrontation, especially when Nora tells her husband to sit and have their first conversation eight year after marriage was a liberating act, which demonstrates the changing role of a woman in a relationship, and the creating of equal parties in a marriage relationship.

The problem play concept was also displayed clearly in Helmer character. The society was highly concerned about morality, and Helmer did his best to gain respect by working with honesty. He also considered sacking Krogstad from his bank position since he was found with a forgery scandal in the past. His strong principles made him chose to separate with his wife when she realized that she also forged once to save his life. He did not see the wife’s good will in it, but the possibility of a tarnished image incase that information was to leak. He was more concerned about his image and what people would say, rather than what the family had achieved or would lose for his drastic measures. Ironically, when Krogstad canceled the promissory, he became overjoyed and decided to forgive his wife, and to take back all his previous words and decisions. This demonstrates that immorality was a social problem of that time and that even those that seemed to support morality were not truly moral. They only worked hard to ensure their immoral act did not leak to the public. Helmer was ready to separate with his wife to distance himself from her previous forgery acts, irrespective of the fact that she did it to save his life. Here, Helmer can be used to demonstrated problem play concept by being a victim of immorality which is a social problem affecting the society the characters were representing.  However, ironically, once Krogstad cancelled the promissory, Helmer was ready to take her wife back and to forgive her. This demonstrates that Helmer was not against the act but the public impact it could have created to his career and public image if the information on his wife involvement in immoral acts could have leaked out. This occurrence demonstrated problem play by demonstrating the deadliness of immorality as a social problem and how the act was probably enacted by everyone while pretending to be clean and moral, and while the society anticipated everyone to be moral and honest (Oxford Reference 1).

According to the above analysis, A Doll’s House by Henrik demonstrated the concept of problem play by influencing the change of public opinion regarding the women roles and abilities. This was done in the society that was highly conservative and where women were required to remain submissive in their marriage during the 19th century. The problem play concept is also illustrated by the main play actors facing social problems in this case being immorality; forgery. On one hand, Helmer wants to sack Krogstad for being related with past immoral behavior when he realized that his wife has been practicing immoral activities too. Hoping that he is among the most morally upright individuals in the play, he also withdrew his decision to separate with his wife when he realized that Krogstad would not be broadcasting the incident. This means, he does not hate the act but the destruction of the public image. This demonstrates the intensity of this problem in the society.

Malaria Research Paper

Malaria is one of the leading infectious disease in the world today. It causes 1-3 million deaths in children aged 1-5 years and infects ~500 million people per year in endemic countries. Our military reports that more soldiers posted in malaria endemic areas end up dying from malaria than active combat. Write a malaria report addressing the following:

  • Malaria cycle and transmission
  • Diagnosis
  • Pathogenesis
  • Immunity
  • Control
  • Malaria drugs and vaccine development

This is a written paper to upload. The report should be 8-10 pages in length with 1.5 line spacing, font size 12, and should be APA formatted. Students will be evaluated against a criteria outlined in the assignment and discussion forum rubric

Theorist Personality Development Research Paper Instructions

You will analyze the personality development of one of the theorists studied in this course from three different theoretical perspectives. Choose one of the theorists you have studied this term. Use your textbook, the Internet, and the Argosy University online library resources to research the life history of the theorist.

Do the following:

  • Describe the major life events of the theorist that you feel influenced his or her personality development.
  • Describe the cultural influences that had an influence on the chosen theorist’s personality development.
  • Analyze this person from Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective.
  • Analyze this person from two other theoretical perspectives studied in this course, except for the trait perspective.
  • Summarize and present your critical opinion about how well (or not) these theories explain the person.

Write a 5–7-page paper in Word format. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Disorder Research Paper – Assignment Instructions

For your Final Paper, select one of the following disorders to investigate:

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  2. Pathological Gambling
  3. Factitious Disorder by Proxy
  4. Substance Dependence
  5. Borderline Personality Disorder

Present a thorough overview of the chosen disorder.  Your audience has no prior knowledge of this disorder; therefore, be sure your explanations are relevant to your audience.  When writing your paper, it is critical that you convey all the necessary information in a straightforward manner using non-technical language. Support your analysis with at least five scholarly, peer-reviewed sources (not including the course text) that were published within the last five years. Your Final Paper must include the following:

  1. Define the disorder and its main symptoms.
  2. Describe the relationship between this disorder and other disorders.
  3. Describe who is most likely to have this disorder with regard to age, gender, social class and ethnicity.
  4. Summarize the risk factors (biological, psychological, and/or social) for this disorder. If one of the categories is not relevant, address this within the summary.
  5. Evaluate recommended treatments for the disorder and the likelihood of success or possible outcomes for each treatment.
  6. List five references (include both print and web-based sources) that would provide more information for individuals with this  disorder. Give the reference for the source as well as a two to three sentence description for each resource. This list of support resources will not count toward the required resources for your paper.
  7. Apply what you have learned throughout the course to your career (present and future).  What information have you found to be the most useful or relevant?

The paper must be eight to ten pages (excluding title and reference pages) and include a minimum of five scholarly, peer reviewed sources that were published within the last five years.  All sources must be formatted according to APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Project:

  1. Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following:
    1. Title of paper
    2. Student’s name
    3. Course name and number
    4. Instructor’s name
    5. Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use a minimum of five scholarly, peer-reviewed sources published within the last five years (not including the course
  7. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  8. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Online Trading Sites and DRIPs Research Paper

For this part of the assignment, you will evaluate the choices in purchasing stock via online brokerage accounts (where you can buy and sell stock via the Internet) and the use of dividend reinvestment plans (known as DIPs and DRIPs) or mutual funds or index funds. For online brokers, you will be looking for the requirements to open the accounts: costs, minimum balances, and other features. Because most DIPs or DRIPs are available from publicly traded companies, you can search their Web sites or a search engine on these plans and their requirements.

Perhaps the most famous and useful Web site for these programs is http://www.directinvesting.com/. You are to compare and contrast online brokerage to DIPs and DRIPs.

Required:

Research online trading sites and DRIPS as outlined below, and summarize your findings. Make sure to include a summary table of the relevant information.

Search three online trading sites, and determine the requirements for trading, including the price per trade. Compare and contrast the online trading companies. (2–3 pages) Search the Web for three companies (look for investor information) that offer DIPs or DRIPs. (2–3 pages) Compare and contrast the requirements, including minimum investments, nature of the return, costs, and other features. (1–2 pages)

Major National Media Industry Research Paper – Assignment Instructions

Research a major national media industry of your choice (eg. Australian newspapers, French cinema, British television) and write a 2000 word report on your findings. This should offer a snapshot of the key aspects of relevance to the industry, under the headings given below. As there is a limited amount of space, your report should give a picture of how the industry works today in relation to economics, politics and technology (providing historical context where necessary).

It is essential that your report demonstrates thorough and high quality research.

The assignment should include the following sections. Depending on the chosen industry, some sections will be longer than others (e.g., some industries have more extensive regulatory structures than others).

  • Executive summary (this should be an approx. 100 word overview of what you have found out and discussed in the rest of the report – write it last)
  • Regulatory structures and government policies Funding model, main companies that form the industry (incl. global conglomerates or significant government/independent media outlets where relevant)
  • Shifts in industry caused by developing technologies; role of technology in the industry today
  • Projected future of the industry (this is where you should draw together what you have learned to make an argument about where you think the industry is heading and why)

Open-source Software Project Tools, Techniques, and Software Research Paper

Assignment Instructions

Research different open-source software project tools, techniques, and software.Write a paper of approximately 750 words that answers the following:

  • How are open-source software project tools, techniques, and software implemented?
  • Describe each tool, including the pros and cons.How can each tool be helpful?
  • Is open-source software enough to successfully run and implement programs?
  • Must a company purchase software to complete the job?
  • Explain your thoughts and the rationale you used to determine your answers.

Sample Research Paper – Open-source Software Project Tools, Techniques, and Software Research Paper

Introduction

Open-source Software (OSS) refers to computer software circulated with its modifiable source code. The software normally includes a programmers’ license to modify the software in any manner they prefer. They can adapt, improve functions, or fix bugs of the software to modify their own requirements. There are various forms of OSS that are created to enhance different operation’s needs. This paper focuses on identifying a number of OSS software, project management tools and techniques. Some of the selected items include Agileproject management tool, Apache HTTP web server software and Pellet techniques.

Implementation of Open-Source Software Project Tools, Techniques, and Software

OSS project tools, techniques and software are implemented differently based on their intended purposes. In this case Apache Web server software is used in the development of server in different website projects. Apache contains high share and it act as reference web server standard. It is considerably easy to manage and contains low overheads, it therefore works for systems and small sites. Apache can also be utilized for biggest websites in the globe and it can be tuned to do extremely well and for unique needs (Kavanagh, 2004). Pellet OSS technique is implemented in Java and is used as open sourced in a liberal license. It provides an array of features that include axiom pinpointing, conjunctive query answering, ɛ-connection reasoning, and rule support among others. Pellet offers different interfaces that include Manchester OWL-APL, command-line interface, API bindings for RDF/OWL toolkits Jena, a zero-install use of an interactive Web form, and DIG sever implementation (Sirin et al., 2007.).  Agile is used in project development. It normally involves the development of prototypes that aids in project development and completion. Agile refers to a collection of methodology for computer development that works in an incremental and iterative method developing software from very project development initiation rather than developing the entire software at once. Agile is used to discover what the consumer wants and the methods to employ to change things or build code in program development (Versionone.com, 2017).

Description of Tools Pros, Cons and Helpfulness

Agile reduces project risk by promoting the best project development practices. It also promotes flexibility in project development. It also promotes frequent communication and collaboration among developers making it easy to agree on the deliverable use. It also promotes the use of visuals making it to understand what is happening. Although agile can in principle be simply understood, it can be hard to apply in practice. It is also not easily to predict the end product. The constant need for communication and collaborate is in most cases unfeasible. Agile is also in most cases unable to respect deadlines. Despite of the stated disadvantages, Agile assist in the general development of a project in a manner that it is considerably hard to redo the project due to its inability to satisfy the customer. It assists in improving customer satisfaction. Apache server is flexible. It also has rich set of features which can be enabled via one of about 60 unofficial or official modules. Apache can also be used in wide range of application and still produce a reliable system and ensure high level of serve security (Mockus, Fielding &Herbsleb, n.d.). Pellet on the other hand offers different interfaces making, and offers a wide range of features. Pellet is considerably complex. A pellet is used in the development of libraries in Java and thus it helps in extending java application in various situations.

Open-Source Software Ability to Successfully Run and Implement Programs

Open source software has the ability to successfully run and implement programs. A good example is Linux which is an open source operating system that is developed to work as a platform to run software intended by the company. However, this cannot happen with the open shell without further development. OSS requires high level of customizationto produce a product that is only applicable in a certain organization based on its unique circumstances. Agile among other project management tools also facilitate the development of complete functional programs. Only in a pellet where only a module is created rather than a successfully running program, however, it always produced a functional part of program (Benbya, 2016).

Need for their Purchase

Normally, open source software do not involves direct cost of purchase. This means a company does not have to purchase the software to complete it. These OSS are mostly available in public domain. However, more labor cost may be needed where programmers are employed to customize the program to fit a certain purpose. It therefore involves a number of indirect costs. However, OSS is considered to be considerably cheaper compared to closed end software. This is because one can get the framework to develop the actual need that is needed. With this, it is considerably easier to use the software system without needing a lot of aiding application software.

You can order a unique solution to this assignment at an affordable price. 

Agoraphobia, Symptoms And Treatment – Sample Research Paper

Agoraphobia

This is an anxiety disorder that raises perceptions of fear towards the environment. Individuals suffering from this disorder perceive the environment as dangerous be it open places, shopping areas, public transit etc. Such individuals only consider their homes as the only safe place they can be. In serious cases individuals suffering from agoraphobia may not leave their homes at all and this may last for more than six months. Agoraphobia is categorized as a phobia under social phobia. Affected individuals are susceptible to depression and substance use. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors (Robert, 2008).

Agoraphobia Symptoms

This conditions subjects victims to fear in unfamiliar environments. It arouses feelings of anxiety and sufferers have little control over themselves when exposed to their external environment. The following are the signs and symptoms of agoraphobia

  • Fear of social embarrassment
  • Fear of death
  • Distraught in public places
  • Victims may suffer from temporary separation anxiety disorder
  • Susceptibility to panic attacks

Individuals with this disorder always want to dissociate themselves from people just to satisfy their emotional comfort. Short panic attacks are common for victims of agoraphobia and they can hardly control themselves during such attacks. Their fear of public embarrassment may trigger temporary separation disorder where they resort to solitude.

Prevalence

Agoraphobia affects adults and it begins ate early adulthood and ends at old age. It is more common in women than in men. Women are affected twice as much as men. Children are hardly affected by agoraphobia. About 3.2 million adults in the United States aged between 18 and 55 suffer from agoraphobia. This translates to 2.2 percent of the population of this age group. This statistic is derived from the annual diagnosis rate of agoraphobia (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Potential impact at workplace

It is a general tendency for victims of agoraphobia to abscond their work and sometimes for long periods of time. It is difficult to manage such employees because one cannot predict their future within an organization. Additionally, after agoraphobia attack, it is very unlikely for such individuals to re-establish contact at the places of work. It is therefore important for employers to keep in touch with such employees and make adjustments in their working environments to suit their conditions.

Treatment

More often than not, individuals suffer from agoraphobia after a panic attack. It is the subsequent anxiety and fear after a panic attack that triggers agoraphobia. This means that treating panic disorder can prevent agoraphobia. The most common treatment method of this disorder is therapy. Exposure treatment and systematic desensitization may also be used to treat agoraphobia. However, most patients are likely to recover faster under exposure treatment as compared to other forms of treatment. This treatment method works best when the victim is in the company of their trusted friend. The treatment method that that has proved successful is cognitive restructuring. This involves psychological therapy whereby victims are taken through dianoetic discussion with the aim of replacing irrational beliefs with rational and factual beliefs. This cognitive restructuring has proved to be a successful method of treatment because it changes the mindset of agoraphobia victims and brings them back to normalcy.

Final Research Paper – Project Management And How It Relates To Project Management Maturity Model

Research Paper Instructions

This final research paper must demonstrate the understanding of new learning in the field of project management and how it relates to the Project Management Maturity Model.  This is an assignment with a length of 10- to 15- pages (not including title and reference pages) that should integrate the reading, multi-media and class discussion boards.  It is mandatory to have research from the classroom text, as well as at least 4 sources from the internet or online library to support your views.  A minimum of 2 of these sources must be from the Online Library.

Consider the validity of your resources carefully before using them in academic papers.  It is recommended to use examples from your professional experience where possible, or build from your learning in the discussion boards.  Use at least one project you have been a team member or a project manager as an example to discuss each of the following topics:

  • The definition of the Project Management Maturity Model and how organizations can increase their overall productivity using the model.
  • The importance of organizational strategy and how project management needs to link to objectives to achieve results.
  • Project communication methods including who the stakeholders are and why they are important to the project manager.
  • The use of project quality, including earned value analysis, and examples of successful and troubled projects.
  • A conclusion to describe how the probability of success can be found with an organization that is able to reach maturity in terms of project management.

Project Management Final Research Paper Instructions

Final Paper

The final six to eight page paper must demonstrate understanding of new learning in the field of project management. It is mandatory to have research from the classroom text, as well as five sources from the internet or online library to support your views. It is recommended to use examples from your professional experience where possible, or build from your learning in the discussion boards. (Suggestion: use at least one project of which you have been either a team member or a project manager as an example to describe the topics below):
The following topics must be reviewed in order for the paper to be complete:

  • Define project management and explain its importance to the business world.
  • Explain project life-cycle management and the benefits of project management to an organization.
  • Explain the concepts of planning in the project life-cycle and how research and critical thinking is mandatory in planning.
  • Explain project organizations and the importance of leadership and sponsorship.
  • Explain project team building, including techniques of successful team building.
  • Explain how to create a work breakdown structure and how a project manager breaks down the overall project into packages.
  • Explain the need for project management software in large integrated programs and the benefits to the overall project management organization.

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

  • Must be six to eight double-spaced pages in length and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.
  • Must include a cover page that includes:
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Title of paper
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must include an introductory paragraph with a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must conclude with a restatement of the thesis and a conclusion paragraph.
  • Must use APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide to document all sources.
  • Must include, on the final page, a Reference Page that is completed according to APA style as outlined in the approved APA style guide.

America and Africa Culture Comparison Research Paper

Introduction

The book, Definition of Culture and society across the World defines Culture as accumulated knowledge, behaviour, experience, language, art, laws, morals, beliefs, attitude, customs and traditions that are shared by a particular society and can be passed down from one generation to the other (Terry, 2016). Culture therefore defines members of a given society. Terry also explains Society as a large group of people bound together geographically and live in an organized way by sharing work and following laws put in place. People living in a country are therefore considered a society. The American culture according to David refers to the way of life of the American people who comprise of different races, and speak different languages (David, 2011). This research paper seeks to compare the American and the African culture in terms of the family structures, education systems, traditions that include rite of passage and initiation, religious beliefs and practices, diseases and medical accessibility, sexual norms as well as death rituals. The paper will research broadly on the components of culture as highlighted above with an aim of comparing the American and the African culture. Norms, traditions and values are important aspects that not only characterize a society but also differentiate one society from another.

Literature Review

Culture is a broad subject in the world today. As defined by Terry in her book, Definition of society and culture across the world, it is evident that every person is defined by a culture that was passed down to them (Terry, 2016). According to what she explains, one’s geographical boundaries determine their culture. The American and the African culture vary in various ways. Religion as explained by both American and African scholars is a key factor that defines and differentiates the various cultures (David, 2011; Lateju, 2012 & Van, 2013). Books on marriage, family structures and child rearing will also be used to outline the difference between the American and the African culture (Karla, 2011 & Rekha, 2014). In the book, Religion, rituals and African traditions, Kofi explains how religion, as well as customs and traditions not only define but also distinguish one cultures from the other (Kofi, 2011). Books on contemporary issues in the society such as homosexuality, divorce and matriarchal family structures will also be used in this research paper to differentiate the two cultures. These contemporary issues exist in the American culture and not the African culture. The book, Marriage as a culture for divorce for instance will be used to highlight divorce incidences in the US (Karla, 2011), an aspect that is not found in an African traditional setting. With the help of the books stated above, this research paper will clearly distinguish the American culture from the African culture.

Discussion

The family structures of the people living in American and that of the African communities can be used to differentiate the two cultures. Troy defines family as a bounded set of a mother, a father and children who recognize each other through a set of emotions and love and are distinguished from other groups (Troy, 2014). Rekha also highlights that families are structured in two major ways: they are either patriarchal or matriarchal. Whereas patriarchy gives males primary power over the family, matriarchy allows the woman to be head and govern the family (Rekha, 2014) the woman in this case controls the property of the family. The African culture as described by Florence gives the power to govern a family to the father or any adult man while the women is given a subordinate role. Power and responsibility can only be transferred to the woman in the absence of the father (Florence, 2014). Most families in the American culture are matriarchal in nature. Education, women empowerment, laws that protect women and children rights, power and civilization in the US have boosted matriarchal family structures. Despite the rise of matriarchy in the world, patriarchy still exists in both the American and the African culture. Both societies are still male-dominated despite the American culture showing slight improvement on Matriarchy unlike the African culture (Rekha, 2014).

The difference in education trends and systems also distinguishes the American culture from the African culture. Education for children with special needs for instance, differentiates the two cultures. The American government has put a lot of resources into special education. The African culture on the other hand is still lagging behind in terms of provision of special education. Most African countries fall under developing countries that do not have much resources to pump into special education, needs and care. The education system in African is also that children are taught using foreign languages mostly of their colonialists and not their native language while the American children are taught with their native language, English. The education reforms that have been undertaken in most African cultures since after independence have not strictly addressed such issues making the quality of education extremely poor when compared to the American systems of education. The education system of a particular country therefore is not only a reflection of their culture but is also its distinguishing characteristic from other cultures (Kofi, 2011).

The rites of passage are another key distinguishing feature. The four rites of passage, birth, initiation, marriage and death are experienced in both cultures. In an African set up, these ceremonies are very important and every member of the society is invited. The community gathers in a specific place depending on the occasion. A burial ceremony must be carried out in every African culture (Fola, 2011). In the American culture, the dead are either buried or cremated. In cases of burial, there is normally a burial ceremony similar to that of the African arrangement.

The age groups and age sets in the African culture are formed during the initiation into adulthood. Oloo explains that a group of boys who are circumcised on the same day form an age set (Oloo, 2014). The American culture varies completely because circumcision is not considered a big deal. Initiation ceremonies are not carried out while can be done in various ways including in hospitals. This is considered a taboo in some African societies (Zuesse, 2013) Boys who do not undergo circumcision ceremonies in the African culture are considered outcasts in the society. African communities conduct customary marriages whereas the American culture allows any form of marriage. Wedding ceremonies are conducted in most American cultures while Marriage ceremonies that include marriage rituals conducted in an African set up. The birth rite of passage is also practised differently among the two cultures as explained by Bonnelle. The African community hold a celebration ceremony under a shrine while the American culture, involves baptism of the new born through a baby shower ceremony (Bonelle, 2013). Death and ritual customs are also performed in different ways in both the American and African culture. Death rituals carried out in American depends on the religious background of the deceased. The Catholic Americans for example, perform burial services in church, then the body is disposed of according to family decision. The African culture on the other hand buries their dead after a series of burial ceremonies that take up to a week (Mbiti, 2012).

Marriage practices, dating and divorce are practiced and viewed differently in both the American and the African culture. Marriage in the American culture for instance, can be done in church, by law or through the come we stay arrangement (Victoria, 2013). Multiple marriages are permitted in the American culture. Dating and courtship is also practiced in the American unlike the African culture whereby the African woman has no say in who she will get married to. Whereas dating and courtship is highly regarded in the American culture, the African culture does not recognize it. In the book, Marriage in a culture of divorce, it is evident that the American culture accepts divorce and recognizes it as part of the marriage process (Karla, 2013). The case is totally different in the African culture since divorce is considered a taboo. Marriage ties can only be broken by death. Polygamy on the other hand is recognized and considered a sign of wealth. Wife inheritance also take place in the African set up after the death of a husband (Mbiti, 2012).

Sexual norms and practices also vary in the American and African set up. Human sexuality in the African culture is considered sacred and only performed by the married. Ann explains that there are normally cases of divorce that are punishable by death. The American culture is a bit liberated. People are allowed to exercise their sexuality in whatever way. Violation of the minor, rape and any case of forceful sexual behaviour is punishable by law. According to David, different forms of sexuality is allowed in the US (David, 2013). Homosexual marriages are forbidden in the traditional African set up. It is seen as a curse and those that practice it are rejected by the community (Letaju, 2013). Morals and norms are highly upheld in the African culture compared to the American culture. The disciplinary bodies in the African set up include the chiefs, parents and community elders while in the American set up it includes the police, teachers, parents and the court.

There is also a huge difference in terms of child rearing. Sexual behaviours and attitudes of a particular culture determines the child rearing practices. In an African set up according to Florence, children are owned by the community and not by the parents as in an American culture. The children in the African culture therefore can be disciplined by any member of the community (Florence, 2013). The different ways of controlling child birth and population are considered a taboo in the African culture. Children are a sign of wealth (Evans & Matthew, 2013). These practices of population control are encouraged and accepted in the American culture. According to Mbiti, children that are born out of wedlock in the African culture are considered as outcast and are therefore rejected by the society. In the American culture as explained by Bonnelle, children are owned and brought up by individuals, mostly parents. Children born out of wedlock are accepted and treated like any other children (Bonnelle, 2013).

Diseases, disorders and access to medical care is another factor that distinguishes the American culture from the African. The traditional African set up uses traditional medicine extracted from trees and other natural substances. They do not belief in hospitals and modern medical care as explained by Matthew (Matthew, 2013). The American culture on the other hand embraces modern medical facilities with improved technology. According to Dr. Kate, the improved technology assists in detecting and curing most diseases that cannot be treated traditionally. Access to medical facility is also faster and more efficient in the USA compared to the developing countries. People with disorders and chronic diseases in the African set up are considered bad omen and are most times killed through rituals (Evans & Matthew, 2013). Due to availability of efficient medical care in the American culture, their elderly are better taken care of. Most of the aged in the USA according to Taylor are taken to the elderly facilities where their needs are met (Laurie, 2011). The African culture on the other hand is totally different because the elderly is considered and treated as a burden in the society. African communities such as the Nandi in Kenya throw their elderly of the cliff because they consider them inoperable (Awolalu, 2012).

In addition to that, the difference in religious practices differentiates the African and the American culture. The book, Religion and American culture, outlines so many religious beliefs in American ranging from atheism, to protestants, Catholics, Islam religion, Hinduism, Buddhism and many others (David, 2011). The African culture on the other hand comprises of a common religion that beliefs in a supreme being called God. According to Mbiti, the African societies worship God in different ways based on their belief in his capabilities and existence. There are so many ways in which Africans worship God including in shrines, others under specific trees, others while facing the sun and many more (Mbiti, 2011). As explained in the book, Religion and culture, the religious beliefs of a particular culture is very key in shaping the society’s behaviour and morality (David, 2011). Religion according to Mc Kate is the pillar of a society’s culture (Mc Kate, 2012).

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Issues Affecting the Workplace and Working Environment – Research Paper Instructions

Final Paper Instructions

Select one of the following issues affecting the workplace and working environment. You may narrow the range of the topic by choosing a subtopic. Develop a paper that discusses the issue you have chosen, your subtopic if applicable, and how your topic has or is affecting the work environment that you have been in or are currently a part of. Also analyze how the problem(s) could be solved using various social controls (i.e., laws, organizational policies/practices, training/education, government or corporate involvement) and determine what potential social or economic benefits may result if your recommended changes were implemented.

  • Retirement issues
  • Balancing family and work life
  • Workplace violence
  • Ethical behavior in the workplace
  • Substance abuse in the workplace
  • Sexual harassment in the workplace

The paper must be eight to ten pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style. You must use at least five scholarly resources (three of which must be found in the Ashford Online Library) other than the textbook to support your claims and subclaims. Cite your resources in text and on the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center, within the Learning Resources tab on you’re the left navigation toolbar.

Writing the Final Paper 

The Final Paper:

  • Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a title page with the following:
    • Title of paper
    • Student’s name
    • Course name and number
    • Instructor’s name
    • Date submitted
  • Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  • Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  • Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  • Must use at least five scholarly resources, including a minimum of three from the Ashford Online Library.
  • Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  • Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

Sentencing Juveniles in Adult Courts – Sample Research Paper

Research Paper Instructions

Although the original goal of the juvenile court was to care for the wayward child through therapeutic interventions, there are many individuals calling for juveniles to be treated as adult offenders. The current debate between those pushing for harsher juvenile punishment and those asking for treatment may lead to a shift in the way juveniles are processed in juvenile courts and the type of disposition or sentences they will receive.

Using the course materials, textbook, library, and Web resources, research juvenile justice, and comment on the following statement:

  • Juvenile delinquents should be treated and sentenced like adult offenders.

Identify and discuss 4 different reasons that support your argument.

Assignment Guidelines:

  • Research the different perspectives on juvenile justice and sentencing.
  • In 4–6 paragraphs, address the following:
    • Identify and discuss 4 different reasons that support your argument of whether or not juveniles should be treated and sentenced like adults.
      • Use research to support your argument.
  • Post a new topic to the Discussion Board that contains your responses pertaining to the above information.
  • Comment on at least 2 other students’ posts, and explain to them why they could be wrong in their analysis of juvenile justice and sentencing.

Sentencing Juveniles in Adult Courts – Sample Research Paper

Thousands of children have been sentenced as adults throughout the U.S. In addition, approximately 3000 children have been sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Thousands of children, some who are as young as 13 years old, have been condemned to a life where they would die in prison. The courts disregard the age of the children in issuing the sentences due to the gravity of the crimes the children have committed. Various parties claim that sentencing children to life in prison without the possibility of parole is unconstitutional. Indeed, the Supreme Court banned death-in-prison sentences to children who are convicted for non-homicide crimes. Courts have to consider various life circumstances of the child before deciding on the most appropriate sentence. Parties that oppose death-in-prison sentences to children cite children’s diminished culpability and high capacity to change. They claim that other measures may be more effective than the harsh punishments. However, in some instances, failure to waiver the children to adult courts where they would face harsh punishments would result in a miscarriage of justice (Kurlychek & Johnson, 2004). Some of the crimes the children commit are so horrific that they should not given the chance to interact with normal, law abiding citizens.  A child who intentionally torches his house with the full knowledge that his family members are in the house should not be tried in a juvenile court. In addition, a child who takes a concealed weapon to school and randomly shoots his school mates should not be tried in a juvenile court.

Since the inception of the juvenile justice system, various parties have argued on when it is applicable to transfer juveniles to adult courts. Currently, various states have various laws that stipulate when juveniles should be tried in adult courts. Generally, state statutes define set of crimes that warrant juveniles to be tried in adult courts. In addition, states have a mechanism for returning cases to juvenile courts whenever appropriate. Since the formation of the juvenile justice system in 1899, several heinous crimes have warranted the sentencing of juveniles in adult courts. The sharp rise in violent crimes committed by juveniles during the late 1980s and early 1990s has increased focus on the issue. During this period, the number of juveniles in adult correctional facilities increased significantly. Transfer of juveniles to adult courts automatically without the normal judicial review is one of the issues affecting juvenile justice. In addition, various parties claim that transferring juveniles to adult courts interferes with their personal development. Various parties also claim that transferring juveniles to adult courts makes them be influenced by antisocial peers in correctional facilities (Griffin, 2003).

The increased in the rates of crimes committed by juveniles in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to the increase in the practice of automatically sentencing juveniles who commit serious crimes in adult courts. This practice helped in reducing the time it took to sentencing the juveniles. It is a fact that the judicial review that was necessary to transfer juveniles in adult courts generally took a long period to come up with a decision. In some instances, the juveniles were already adults when they were transferred to adult courts. However, various parties claimed that sentencing juveniles to adult courts automatically without the judicial review exposed them to a process where they are disadvantaged from the start. This increases their risk of receiving harsh punishments (Redding, 2003). However, there is no need of a judicial review if there is evidence that the juvenile committed a serious crime. Doing so would only be delaying justice. And as the old adage goes, ‘justice delayed is justice denied.’

It is a fact that sentencing any individual to prison disrupts the development of the individual. As such, sentencing juveniles in adult courts increases the risk of disruptions in their personal development. It affects their identity formation and relationships. Parties that oppose sentencing of juveniles in adult courts cite this to support their views. They claim that it hinders their positive movement into adulthood. However, it is a fact that it is hard for juveniles who commit serious crimes to positively move into adulthood. Therefore, sentencing them in adult courts would have minimal impact. In fact, the reverse may be true (Redding, 2003).

Juveniles who are sentenced in adult crimes exhibit varying levels of adjustment when they rejoin to the community. Antisocial peers in correctional facilities may influence their behavior. Their socialization may make them be prone to commit crimes in the future. Therefore, parties that oppose sentencing juveniles in adult courts has a negative impact on the well-being of the community. However, nothing can be further from the truth. It is a fact that people are more influenced by friends of the same age. Therefore, sentencing juveniles who have committed serious crimes together with other juveniles who have committed minor crimes may make them the juveniles who have committed serious crimes influence other juveniles. This increases the recidivism of juveniles. However, when they are sentenced to adult courts, they may finally realize the real repercussions of their crimes. This may make them deter from engaging in crimes in the future (Redding, 2003).

Juveniles who commit serious crimes should be tried in adult courts. However, the justice system should ensure that juveniles who commit minor offenses are sentenced in the juvenile justice system. This is due to the fact that juveniles who commit minor offenses can be more easily integrated back to the community than juveniles who commit serious crimes.

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Real Irish Republican Army -Terrorist Organization Research Paper

Real Irish Republican Army History

The RIRA is a paramilitary, terrorist, and republican organization based in Ireland. It is deemed a terrorist formation by various nation-states, including the US. It was formed in late 1997 when its predecessor, PIRA (Provisional Irish Republican Army) split up following class by sections of its leadership to agree to a ceasefire with the Irish authorities. Michael McKevitt, the then PIRA’s Quartermaster General and another PIRA official, Bernadette Sands-McKevitt, were especially opposed to the ceasefire. Sands-McKevitt, McKevitt, and other PIRA dissidents met in County Meath towards the end of 1997 and formed the RIRA. Initially, the RIRA drew most of its members from pro-republican Irish areas, including South Armagh, Dublin, and Derry. Over the years, it has expanded its membership to other regions within Ireland (Sanders, 2011).

RIRA versus Al-Shabaab: Allies, Primary Beliefs plus Motives

            The RIRA has political motives and beliefs while the Al-Shabaab’s motives and beliefs are motivated by its religious persuasions. The RIRA is keen on forcibly establishing a united Ireland through ending the sovereignty that Britain enjoys has over the whole of Northern Ireland. The RIRA believes that a rigid brand of republicanism should superintend over all other socio-political ideologies across Ireland (Sanders, 2011). It remains opposed to all socio-political forms of settlements that do not guarantee Irish unity along with independence.

The Al-Shabaab is keen on fighting the individuals, states, and other parties that they deem anti-Islam. The group is motivated by its persuasion that it is possible to create a Somalia that is exclusively governed by Islamic law. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that the Al-Shabaab may be aiming at establishing an Islamic caliphate across the region generally defined as the Horn of Africa (Hansen, 2013).

The RIRA is allied to other Irish militant groups that are exclusively republican. Its allies, including the RAAD (Republican Action Against Drugs), a Tyrone grouping are smaller compared to it. The Al-Shabaab has international allies according to Sanders (2011). They include Al-Qaeda, the declining ICU (Islamic Courts Union) according to Ali (2008). It is as well allied to the Nigeria-based Boko Haram. It has many non-Somali fighters within its ranks.

RIRA’s Past Actions Along With Terroristic Endeavor s

From 1997, the RIRA has engaged in numerous fights with British troops as well as the Irish police (PSNI). It has fought the police and the troops using bombs, gunfire, rockets, and grenades along with mortars. The RIRA has bombed England, as well as Northern Ireland, severally to disrupt their economies. Among the most notable past attacks linked to the RIRA include the Omagh attack of 1998, and the Massereene Barracks attack of 2009. The organization has previously engaged in vigilante activities against suspected criminal gangs and drug dealers. Its terroristic endeavors remain to forcibly establish a united Ireland through ending the sovereignty that Britain enjoys over it and to make certain that a rigid brand of republicanism should superintend over all other socio-political ideologies across Ireland according to Sanders (2011).

Present Operation Areas, Believed Actions, and Status

            Presently, the RIRA is believed to be concentrating its bombing operations in diverse areas within Ireland. The areas include Portadown, Moira, Belleek, and Tyrone. Other areas include Newtownhamilton, Newry, and Banbridge. At times, it hits targets using rockets. Presently, the RIRA is led by an army council having seven members. It has a structured political wing. The latest statistics published by the Irish government show that the RIRA had close to 150 members by mid-2005. Its yearly turnover is estimated to about $50 million, got from smuggling and unlawful fuel businesses according to Sanders (2011). The organization remains extremely active to date.

Anti-RIRA Actions by Intelligence Agencies

The Irish police (PSNI) keep tabs on the membership of the RIRA to continually determine its overall capacity and the level of threat it poses. MI5 identifies and arrests its members often in sting operations to hurt its capacity to acquire, or procure, weaponry. As well, the PSNI identifies and arrests its members regularly. It appears the actions by the PSNI and MI5 have been ineffective in grounding the RIRA’s activities. The group continues to have a rather healthy supply of weapons, including detonators, handguns, grenades, explosives, rifles, and missiles according to Sanders (2011). As noted earlier, the RIRA’s yearly turnover is estimated to about $50 million, which means its potential for growth remains is rather high despite the actions of the PSNI and MI5 against it.

Gene Therapy – Research Paper

What is Gene Therapy

Gene therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid polymers into a patient’s cells as a drug to treat disease.

Technology of Gene Therapy

The objective of gene therapy is to rescue mutant phenotypes by providing deficient cells with a normally functioning copy of the gene associated with the disease.  In such rescues the mutant cells are complemented by the rescuing gene and reverted to wildtype function.  This paradigm for gene therapy is only be useful in treating diseases caused by recessive mutations such as cystic fibrosis in which in a single functional copy of the gene is sufficient for the viability of the individual(Hawley, Lieu, Fong& Hawley, 1994).  Diseases caused by dominant alleles such as Huntington’s disease would most likely not be cured under this scheme because the presence of the mutant gene product from a single allele is lethal.

The current paradigm for treating recessive genetic disorders has two primary dimensions: The first is a genetic construct, which is simply a normal copy of the gene or the information required to synthesize it in the cellular environment(Hawley, Lieu, Fong& Hawley, 1994).  The second dimension is a delivery system capable of injecting the construct into the mutant cells.  This delivery system is called a vector(Niidome& Huang, 2002).   As such, somatic cell therapy is restricted by the ability to target specific cells, the delivery efficiency of vectors, the expression and durability of the inserted constructs, and safety.

The biological basis of gene therapy

Gene therapy has out grown the field of molecular biology. Life originatesfrom a single cell, making a cell the basic building block of all organisms. Human beings, for instance, comprise of trillions of cells with each cell having the ability to perform a unique function. The cells’ nucleus have a pairs of chromosomes each, these chromosomes carry the organism’s blueprint of life in codes, or genes(Niidome& Huang, 2002).

Researchers have always argued that presence of weaknesses in anorganism’s genes can cause hereditary diseases including hemophilia, sickle-cell anemia,and cystic fibrosis among others(Hawley, Lieu, Fong& Hawley, 1994). Correspondingly, having an extra or less chromosomes can result in conditions such as Down or Turnerssyndromes. As the study of heredities advanced, however, scientists have learnt that anpresence of altered genetic sequences can result in making individuals more susceptible to developing diseases such as schizophrenia, canceror atherosclerosis among others. Although these diseases have a genetic component, they are also predisposed to environmental factors including diet and way of life. The main aim of gene therapy is introduce corrected genes into an organism’s cells in order to replace the missing or dysfunctional cell protein thus treating hereditary diseases(Niidome& Huang, 2002).

The genes used for gene therapy can either be naturally-occurring genes which when used would produce the desired effect or they may be genetically manufactured or altered genes.Scientists have manipulated the structure of genes in the laboratory since the early 1970s through a process called gene splicing (Hawley, Lieu, Fong& Hawley, 1994). The process involves cutting a sequence of the genome with restriction enzymes, or proteins that act like molecular scissors. The ends where the DNA has been cut are sticky in the sense that they will easily bind to another sequence of DNA that was cut with the same enzyme. A DNA sequence and a gene sequence to be integrated in the DNA sequence can both be cut with the same type of enzyme and their ends will stick together(Niidome& Huang, 2002). The new DNA sequence will now have the gene inserted into it. The resulting product is called genetic engineered recombinant DNA.

There are basically two types of gene therapy. Germ-line gene therapy introduces genes into reproductive cells (sperm and eggs) or into embryos in order to correct genetic defects that could be passed on to future generations. Most of the current research, however, has been in the applications of somatic cell gene therapy (Niidome& Huang, 2002). In this type of gene therapy, therapeutic genes are inserted into tissue or cells to produce a naturally occurring protein or substance that is lacking or not functioning correctly in an individual patient. The main downside to this approach is that as each corrected cell dies, the therapeutic effects from gene therapy are lessened.

Scientific principles of Gene therapy

Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics and future percepts and the technical and ethical issues of using gene therapy.

Genes that are present on the chromosomes form the basic unit of heredity. Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins(Hawley, Lieu, Fong& Hawley, 1994). A genetic disorder results when an alteration in the genes present on the chromosomes occur. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to enable the making of a beneficial protein.
For correcting faulty genes, one of several approaches may be employed:

– A normal gene may be inserted into a nonspecific location within the genome to replace a nonfunctional gene; this is the most common approach.

  • An abnormal gene may be swapped for a normal gene through homologous recombination.
  • The abnormal gene could be repaired through selective reverse mutation, which returns the gene to its normal functional status.
  • The regulation (the degree to which a gene is turned on or off) of a particular gene could be altered.

Gene therapy can target somatic (body) or germ (egg and sperm) cells. In somatic gene therapy the recipient’s genome is changed, but the change is not passed on to the next generation; whereas with germ line gene therapy the newly introduced gene is passed on to the offspring.
Germ line gene therapy is not being actively investigated, at least in larger animals and humans, although a lot of discussion is being conducted about its value and desirability.

Ethical issues surrounding gene therapy:

Because gene therapy involves making changes to the body’s set of basic instructions, it raises many unique ethical concerns. The ethical questions surrounding gene therapy include:

  • How can “good” and “bad” uses of gene therapy be distinguished?
  • Who decides which traits are normal and which constitute a disability or disorder?
  • Will the high costs of gene therapy make it available only to the wealthy?
  • Could the widespread use of gene therapy make society less accepting of people who are different?
  • Should people be allowed to use gene therapy to enhance basic human traits such as height, intelligence, or athletic ability.

Sigmund Freud Research Paper Instructions

Sigmund Freud, although one of the best-known personality theorists, is probably also one of the most controversial in the field of psychology. When starting to consider theories of personality, one must begin with a look at Sigmund Freud, as he was one of the first theorists to develop a psychoanalytical theory that was based on real-life patients and not studies conducted in a lab. Even if you do not agree with his theories, he is the starting point from which many other theorists have begun. Specifically, he was concerned with the development of the personality and how it created the neuroses he saw in many of his patients.

Research Freud’s theories using your textbook, the Internet, and the Argosy University online library resources. Based on your research, respond to the following:

  • What do you consider to be Freud’s most significant contribution to the discipline of psychology?
  • Of his different theories, which one do you feel is the most controversial?
  • What life factors and sociocultural factors do you think led Freud to come to the conclusions that he did?
  • Why do many people disagree with the development of Freud’s theories?
  • In general psychology and even popular culture today, there are a number of concepts that are based in Freudian theory that many do not realize stem from him. Identify a few ideas and terms that can be traced back to Freud.

Write your initial response in 4 to 5 paragraphs. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Police Brutality In The USA – Sample Research Paper

Police Brutality Research Paper Instructions

Write a research paper and create a powerpoint presentation on Police Brutality in APA format, with APA references, and contain at least 6 references (must be from within the last 5 years) to include research, position paper, theoretical paper, or review of literature published in professional journals. A research article has method(s). A Review consists of summarizing the literature, research methods, research findings, research discussion and implications.

  • The research paper on Police Brutality should be double spaced, and should have a minimum of 10 pages 12 pt font. The paper should have five parts, an abstract 350 words summarizing the entire paper, an introduction, and main body of the essay, conclusions, and the references.
  • It should also include a cover page with the student’s name, course number, title of paper, instructor’s name, and the date. For this assignment use the course text and other sources such as books, REFEREED articles.
  • Please cite all the sources of your information, and avoid plagiarism. You must use APA citation style. Page count excludes the title page and the references. paper must pass plagiarism check. Kindly let you know if you can assist. Only serious inquiries please.

Police Brutality In The USA – Sample Paper

Police brutality has covered media headlines for the last two decades. The citizens have continued to riot in cases where this brutality exceeds the standard range of punishment. Fatal shootings are becoming common. Amazingly, the police officers responsible for the killings are not held for long before they are released to their normal duties. Studies have noted that police use excessive force to the minority groups. For instance, Latinos and African –Americans have confidence that the police use this force on suspects, rather than the ideal victims of the offense (Bucerius & Tonry, 2014). On the other hand, a number of people think that the excessive force is necessary to prevent additional crimes in the society. Therefore, it is important to analyze the disparate views on the two sides of this aspect. Since the issue of police brutality is based on racial grounds, the police should be held accountable for their misconduct. This will enable them to treat all groups of individuals with equality; hence use appropriate amount of force.

Read Also Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct

The use of brutal force by the police defeats logic since they are supposed to maintain law and order and use as little force as possible in carrying out arrests. Police are supposed to ensure people follow the law and where necessary seize those who prove stubborn and follow deviant ways. Unwarranted police brutality only draws the wrath of people especially when people are discriminated against. Racially, people of color are highly prone to such treatment by police and if there are no changes in police conduct as they carry out their duties, people will harbor negative attitudes towards the police and policing will be difficult. Police brutality thus does not help and getting to the root of such actions is quite important in ensuring the code of conduct for police is maintained and carried out with equity regarding all races. People may not be criminals but may hold dissenting views regarding the police and even lack respect for them because of the brutality meted on them. Police, in this case, can be targets of their own doing where people attack them in the course of their duty. Such brutal shootings have been directed towards young black boys who are mostly teenagers. The use of excessive force, in this case, takes on the use of shootings or pepper sprays in some cases. Carrying out duties discriminatively affects the rights of most minorities and some of the case of white officer’s shootings innocent teens have been evident especially in the Ferguson shooting where Michael Brown who was unarmed was shot by a police officer in Ferguson (Matthews, Szalai & Flaherty, 2016).

Brutal force does not help in the carrying out of justice especially when innocent people are targeted. Such force may lead to injuries which would have been avoided if the polices had followed due process. Police have to measure situations and consider their investigation together with evidence and further confirm the credence of the suspicions at hand. As such, they should do much groundwork before they can use force. Many people are mostly wrongfully jailed especially those who are minorities. Therefore, innocent people suffer at the hands of law enforcement officers. Police in different communities are aware of the activities that are usually happening in their precincts and should therefore provide ways in which people are treated as innocent before proven guilty (Banks, 2013). The guilty by association approach, which is racially inclined, has mostly brought out rebellions in the targeted minority groups especially African Americans. Police as such have created in such minorities a mindset that they are criminals even without being proved in a court of law. The many arrests involving such minorities make them rebellious to the police force and therefore they opt to defend themselves because ether police do not view them in equal light as the majority races. Brutal force meted racially on people who are innocent may criminalize a person, group or a section of society thus leading to an ineffective society that is does not care about policing or the law. Black life matter has come out to demand for African American rights following the recent shootings of young black boys (Mac, 2016). The use of brutal force causes resentment and dissent. Consequently, people opt not to respect the police and even consider all means to protect themselves from the police.

Police should carry themselves professionally as their duty calls to ensure that the people they serve are not hurt. Professionalism does not just mean the use of force in settling matters. Police can engage in fruitful conversations or negotiations whenever there is need to prevent any use of unnecessary force. Police have in most riot situations treated people with brutal force. Though the tasks of the police are, mostly quite dangerous, police need to deal with protesters tactfully. In reducing the brutal nature of operations by police, top officials in the police force should not militarize the force by stressing on the use of weapons constantly on people who may not pose a threat (Hess, Orthmann & Cho, 2014). The police in such a case get the mindset that each person is a suspect starting from the children to adults. The color of the uniform worn by the officers may influence their behavior from being calm to being aggressive. Authoritarianism results and police treat people as targets to brutal force. The police should provide services in accordance with the constitution. Therefore, the government in place should consider overhauling various practices that have contributed to the militarization of the police and eventual use of brutal force. Demilitarizing the police is quite an important aspect of ensuring that the public are served humanely. Police in Maui, Hawaii used great force on peaceful protesters and later denied having done so.

Brutal force further has a negative impact on the freedom of people in a country. Black people have mostly been targeted even when they have not committed crimes. As a result, the police according to them are their enemies. People do not see the police as protectors but oppressors. To certain sections of the society, there is no freedom because they are targeted or discriminated against. Excessive force can be used in situation that suspects are violent and may not want to give in. such a case is quite different from a person who is walking peacefully and is stopped by police and expected to comply even though he or she has not done any wrong. Justice meted out with equity promotes confidence in the justice system by people of all races. Gangs usually use lethal force and the police should ensure that they only use excessive force in such situations (Williams, 2015). The magnitude of the force used by the police should be equal to the situation they are facing. Police deny people freedom when they go against their rights of freedom and movement. Some of the innocent people may feel threatened whenever they are near police because of the excessive used on them in the past. The constant suspicion surrounding such people creates fear in them of the police. Therefore, though police fear for their lives at every instance while dealing with criminals they should not use counterproductive means in dealing with crime. Police in creating fear create situations where they suspect mostly colored people without first proving their innocence. Latino populations have shown increasing fear for police as a result among other minority races (Hughes & Robinson, 2016).

The use of force is thus justified only in various circumstances where the life of certain people together with the police is in danger. The use of brutal force can be levelled at gangs who do not want to yield or in cases where the police are a disadvantage of either succumbing to certain situations involving criminals. Police should thus use force when their lives are in danger or where criminals directly threaten lives of other people. Such force is applicable to situations where the criminals are violent and no negotiations can be done peacefully. Therefore only in cases where their safety and that of others is threatened should they use great force. On the other hand, it is important for police to consider all options before engaging brutal force (Roberg, 2014). Police can engage their faculties in dealing with matters before they take down a suspect using brutal force. Police have various means that they can employ to prevent excessive use of force by learning how to handle suspects and being proactive rather than being reactive when carrying out their duties. Therefore, the use of excessive force should be limited only to dangerous situation that is life threatening.

Officers should avoid the use of brutal force at all costs. Police in a civilized society should carry themselves with the utmost respect in serving the people in their respective areas. The police are mostly given the important mandate of ensuring that people are secure. Therefore, when somebody is suspected, decorum should be maintained in handling of such a person. Brutal force has been evidenced mostly in black communities and minorities. Most of the blacks are innocent and thus suffer racial discrimination. Brutal force in such cases does not help matters but builds up dissidents in the minorities and others who are discriminated against. Brutal force should be relevant to the situation at hand. Such force should depend on whether the lives of the police are in imminent jeopardy. Demilitarization of the police force should take place and the use of force defined in different circumstances according to the dangers the police face (Spence, 2015).

Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games Research Paper

Introduction

In Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing one reacts and acts on other player avatars in manner similar to that of face-to-face interaction. However, virtual-interaction is limited in the technology-embedded setting. This brings in the question of whether the virtual system can truly resemble the actual game in the real situation. This paper analysis MMORPG and compares it with the real situation based on the environment and its need for players cognitive ability.

The cognitive social phenomena that occur specifically to the context of the Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing

The major difference between face-to-face and virtually based game is that face to face involve full interaction where information is processed normally by hearing or watching. This makes it easy for the players to read the opponent thoughts, or to calculate their moves. However, the situation is different in the virtual role playing games. Players in virtual environment experience cognitive overload. This is the energy needed to for information processing. There are a number of cognitive overload created in Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing environment. They include multiple games interaction overloads, multiple social interactions overloads, and user interface overloads. The two main forms of overload in chess play are multiple social interaction overloads especially when the game involves more than two players and user interface overloads where the player in this case is presented with a lot of written information that act as the only guide to effective playing. This includes reading of the avatar status, hints, and graphical moves among others. This results to information cognitive computation overload. The player in this case has a lot of information to read and process before making a move. This does not happen in a face-to-face environment where the player can easily calculate the opponent moves naturally using eyes and ears to counter a move (Ang et al., 2007).

Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing versus Face-to-Face Interaction Environment

In the past decades a number of virtual environments and computer games that host avatars have been developed. These worlds which are currently populated with avatars playing/gaming, socializing and acting have different resemblance with actual world with respect to how people interact daily. The Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing developers have centered graphical realism regarding how avatars interact with each other in the virtual world. However, the avatar-based interactions miss a number of elements of or vary from ordinary human interaction. According to Bennerstedt (2007) the virtually based games lacks some aspects of interaction identified in human face-to-face interaction. In virtually based interaction, mediated technology of communication replaces human interaction and thus virtual interaction makes communication a bit complex. For instance, in face-to-face interaction, visual communication takes place and thus the opponent can easily calculate the moves before they take place and arrange for a counter.

However, this is very difficult in mediated environment; the system moves are more probable to find the player unaware. Moreover, a human player may be distracted by the real environment and take long before responding to the virtual player’s move. Being unaware of why another avatar is not replying to a question may exemplify the interaction between them. The use of chat tools is another design concern. This is because the implementation of word-by-word to obtain smoother changing activity has also been considered hard. Players in virtual environment may easily be beaten by players used in face-to-face environment due to their inability to calculate moves before they take place. Moreover, while one is used to the virtual play, one may easily predict the moves of the avatar due to mastering technique. This may be hard in a real environment since human mind can change judgment in similar situation at different times. Thus, the face to face environment may be different (Bennerstedt, 2007).

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A Comparison Of Business Research Papers That Utilize Hypothetico Deductive Method

Introduction

Pavel (2013) studied the efficiency in procurement between local monopolies, which are mostly sectoral authorities, and the public sector to determine which was more efficient regarding handling procurement matters. The public procurement process is thus compared about how the public and local monopolies manage them together with the efficiency of the procurement processes set by the companies. The study’s aim was to determine the setting of prices on procurement by private and public sectors. The study used information from an information system concerning public procurement activities. The paper formulates a hypothesis proposing that local monopolies are more efficient than public sector authorities in organization procurement are. The study uses two model where the first model uses the price achieved as a dependent variable while the second model uses the number of bids in comparing the two sectors.

The various contracts associated with the two sectors were analyzed by the use of regressions. The study found that the public sector gets many bids when compared to the private sector or local monopolies. Public sectors are less effective than the local monopolies about the procurement process. The study found the difference between the two sectors to be 5.8%. However, the percentage is a bit low most public procurement processes are carried out more efficiently that in local monopolies. The hypothesis, in this case, is proved right according to the research was done and the data generated in the study. Therefore, the study has proved that the hypothesis has true, and therefore, the researcher made the correct predictions about the study in question.

The next article by Roux and Thöni (2015) which studied the issue of collusion among firms and determined to prove various hypotheses regarding punishment of any malpractices by the firms in colluding with others. The study’s aim was to investigate targeted punishment, which further pushes firms to collude. The experiments used in the study were those oligopoly experiments of Cournot. The experiments are used to differentiate between targeted punishment and general punishment. Strong punishment in this regard according to the study helps companies to maintain and establish collusion. The article thus explores the targeted punishment about the increasing or decreasing quantities that result from the punishment especially when firms collude.

We explore targeted punishment as an elucidation for the collusion between many firms. In a series of Cournot oligopoly experiments with various numbers of firms, we compare production decisions in and out of the companies with the possibility to target punishment at specific market participants. We find strong evidence that targeted punishment enables firms to establish and maintain collusion. More so, we find that the collusive effect of targeted punishment is even stronger in markets having a high number of competitors suggesting a reversal of the conventional wisdom that collusion is easier the fewer the firms. For the first hypothesis since there is not targeted punishment the sum of all quantities increase with the increase in firms was proved untrue as more of the quantities drastically reduced. The second hypothesis concerning the decrease in quantities due to the targeted punishment go mixed results and therefore the hypothesis was not accurate as a result. Targeted punishment according to the third hypotheses, which postulates that there is a reversal of conventional wisdom in dealing with the possibility of targeted punishment on firms. The possibility of punishment especially that of targeted punishment increases the quantities overall while the targeted punishment consequently increases.

Hypothetico deductive methods similarities and differences

The two researchers have used different approaches in dealing with their hypothesis. The hypothetico deductive method by the first researcher is similar to the second researcher in that both use information obtained from secondary sources. The data obtained is finally used to determine whether the hypothesis is true or not. In both articles, the hypotheses are proved to some extent. In the first article, the hypothesis is one, and it is proved correct while in the second article the third hypotheses are accurately proved from the data obtained. The difference sin the articles is the use of hypothesis since in the first study on public procurement uses one hypothesis while the second article on the collusion of firms that uses four hypothesis to prove the data and study.

The rules that can be used in the hypothetico deductive methods include the use of similar data analysis methods that will help to ensure that the data analyzed is by the set standards. As such the research follows on the various methodological approaches that will collect valuable data to prove whether the hypothesis is true or not. Another rule will be to set up a relevant hypothesis according to the study. Researchers will be required to think over their study topics and come up with one or more hypothesis that is relevant to the study, and that will help to find out the conclusions that are helpful to answering the problem in question. Therefore, the rule will be to ensure that the hypothesis is relevant and thus to the point to ensure that the objectives of the study are met.

Importance of the rule

The rule is important in that it helps the researchers develop methodologies that are relevant to the study in questions and ensure that they think over their hypothesis about the results they get. Such a rule will help the researchers engaging in the scientific method to widen their scope while creating a research study regarding widening their thinking not only to focus on the hypothesis but to focus further ahead of the results and to ensure that the suggested solutions to the problem as in tandem with the study objectives. In creating various predictions about the study, it is important to ensure that that the predictions give relevant possible forecasts to the solutions of the problem at hand and as such help the researcher to think on the research topic. The hypothesis in such a case should be realistic and not blown out of proportion to make it easier for the researcher to put in place methodologies that are achievable and that can produce better results.

Conclusion

Research is an important part, especially when considering the hypothetical deductive method. Experimental methods are an important part of the study and it is important in ensuring that the researchers focus on proving a problem they have discovered especially one which can normally be tested in a lab or with observations using scientific methods. Since research is an important part of business especially when coming up with solutions to a problem, it is important to ensure that the scientific methods are used in ensuring that the study is conducted in a clear and concise manner.

Egypt’s Political History and Religious History – Research Paper

Egypt has a rather long political, as well as religious, history. Its history makes it one of the oldest nation-states globally. It is widely deemed as a civilization’s cradle, having experienced many of the earliest advances in organized religion and government, hence politics. The ancient Egyptian kingdom came into being around 1350 BC under King Menes. The kingdom, which was typified by flourishing religious practices and customs, was ruled by successive dynasties for about 3000 years. When the 30th dynasty was in power under Pharaoh, or King Nectanebo II, the kingdom fell to Persians around 343 BC. In a few years, Alexander the Great toppled the Persians. During Alexander’s reign the Ptolemaic Egyptian Kingdom, a strong Hellenistic state, arose. Ptolemies adopted Egyptian culture and religious life. Cleopatra VII was the last Ptolemaic Egyptian ruler. Even then, the Hellenistic way of life went on and on even after Egyptian had been conquered by Muslim Arabs. Saint Mark the Evangelist introduced Christianity to Roman Egypt in the first century. Egypt moved transited to the Byzantine era from the Roman era when Diocletian was in power, between 284 AD and 305 AD. During the transition thousands of Christians were murdered. After 451 AD, Christians established the Egyptian Coptic Church firmly following the Chalcedon Council (Tignor, 2011).

In the Middle Ages, between 639 AD and 642 AD, Muslim Arabs conquered Byzantine Egypt. The Muslim Arabs introduced Sunni Islam to Egypt. Many Egyptians blended Sunni Islam with their native religious practices along with beliefs, giving rise to several Sufi orders, which continue to survive. The Muslim Fatimid Caliphate continually nominated several Muslim leaders to rule Egypt for about 600 years. When the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty ended, the Mamluks ruled Egypt (Tignor, 2011).

Ottoman Turks conquered Egypt in 1517 AD and decreed that it was an Ottoman Empire Province. Ottoman Egypt lasted from 1517 AD to 1867 AD though the Mamluks continued exerting considerable influence on it. In 1798 AD, Napoleon I led French troops to invade Egypt. Even then, the troops were attacked by British forces after a while. The resulting political power vacuum gave rise to a struggle for power between the Mamluks, Albanian mercenaries that served the Ottomans’ interests and Ottoman Turks. Muhammad Ali Pasha, an Albanian seized power in 1805 following the expulsion of the French. Muhammad’s Muslim dynasty ruled Egypt, largely as an Ottoman Empire province, up to the 1952’s revolution. Various European states, especially France and the UK, intruded into the province’s political affairs when the dynasty was in power (Tignor, 2011). France and the UK helped crush a nationalist uprising against the dynasty in the 1870s and 1880s militarily. Egypt became a British protectorate in effect with the protectorate’s figurehead being Tewfik Ismail even as it remained an Ottoman Empire Province by law till 1914. More and more Egyptians joined the ranks of varied nationalist movements. From, Egypt was pronounced a British protectorate under Sultan Hussein Kamel, authoritatively when the empire’s Young Turks decided to fight along the Central Powers in the First World War according to Perry (2015).

The revolution that happened in 1952 gave way to military leadership in Egypt, which was pronounced a republic under president General Muhammad Naguib in 1953. Gamal Abdel Nasser compelled Naguib to resign in mid-1954 and assumed the country’s presidency in mid-1956. In the 1960s, the country’s economy deteriorated and the masses lost faith in Nasser considerably until when he passed on in 1970. Anwar Sadat succeeded Nasser as president. During the Cold War, Egypt was initially a Soviet Union ally. Even then, Sadat shifted its allegiance to the US over time. He instituted an economic reform program known as Infitah and remained keen on crushing secular and religious oppositions militarily. His dalliance with Israel made him detested by the Muslim world and an Islamic militant assassinated him in 1981 (Tignor, 2011).

Hosni Mubarak succeeded Sadat. Mubarak maintained Egypt’s ties with Israel, making Egypt a common target for attack by Islamic militants and terrorists. The militants particularly targeted Christian Copts and government installations as well as officials. Different Islamic militant groups, including the 1990s’ Al-Gama’a al-Islamiyya, executed violence campaigns against Christian Copts and government installations as well as officials. Mubarak dominated the country’s politics via the National Democratic Party. Different Islamic militant groups evolved into political parties based on extremist religious persuasions in an effort to take power.  The 2011 revolution protests saw Mubarak resign and the assumption of power by the military with Mohamed Hussein Tantawi as the state’s head. The elections held in the same year had Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood elected as the state’s head and president (Tignor, 2011). Morsi’s efforts to immunize his orders lead to extended protests and violence across the country, leading to his removal as the state’s head and president by the military in July 2013 (Perry, 2015). Justice Adly Mansour of the Egypt’s Supreme Constitutional Court took oath as a transitional president. Adly Mansour’s interim administration facilitated the writing and promulgation of a new constitution and the subsequent election. In the election, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi was elected president. Abdel Fattah el-Sisi continues to persuade tolerance of religious differences.

The Triggering Dynamics of Aggression and Violence – Research Paper

Chapter 1: Problem Statement

Statement of the Problem

In the past decade alone, violence and aggression have become prevalent in society with this plague affecting individual from diverse demographics. Warburton and Anderson (2015) contended that there naturally exists a powerful desire for aggression from a person’s instinctual endowment. As a result, it is common for them to become unfriendly and become susceptible to acts of wanton violence. The position stated earlier also aligns with that of Sønderlund et al., (2014), who showed that the level of destructiveness differs significantly amongst individuals and groups in different social contexts. However, while the literature reveals the causal effects of aggression and violence, the extrinsic and intrinsic causes of these issues are not analyzed in depth to identify the primary triggering dynamics of aggressive and violent behavior in the community.  The rationale of this study is to bring to light the triggering dynamics of aggression and violence with the focus on domestic violence amongst young African-American married couples.

Purpose and Significance of the Study

The intention of this research proposal is to assess aggression and violence, with the focus on the fundamental triggering dynamics that have been ignored for a long time. Moreover, in a world where attention is not given to victims of aggression and violence (such as those who experience domestic violence), this study seeks to uncover the realities of aggression and violence by evaluating the causative agents. Warburton and Anderson (2015) reveal that most of the preliminary studies in social psychology about harmful and destructive behavior are anchored in aggression with no particular research that focuses on violence and its adverse causal effects. In this regard, conducting the study on both aggression and violence, while focusing on young African American couples, would go a long way in realizing the fundamental aspects that trigger the behavior. It is important to note that there are parallel issues in social psychology that are surrounded by numerous complexities, especially when it comes to identifying their primary causes, the more reason why this study is vital. Tedeschi’s (2003), on the other hand, opines that the factors that instigate aggressive behavior are also assumed to influence violent behavior. It is with such a precedent that this study will critically evaluate the causal aspects of violence and aggression amongst young African-American married couples, and consequently further add to the existing psychological knowledge base.

Research Design

This quantitative study will employ a descriptive research design anchored on depicting the behavior of the sample group accurately to identify and validate the hypothesized primary causes of aggression and violence. Close interaction will be necessary to ensure that the subjects are initially aware of the study’s intentions beforehand. About the position held by Clause (2014), this factor will be achieved through conducting a survey of different forms; from face to face interviews to handing out questionnaires to be filled by the sample group. Furthermore, the use of open coding in dividing data collected from different segments will ensure that it is sifted at a later date. Transcriptions of the interviews will be scanned, for cross-analysis purposes, thus enabling the gathering of any reoccurring terms among the interviewees.

Ethical Considerations

The study will adhere to the American Psychological Association (2010) Code of Ethics concerning the conduction of research to safeguard the safety and interests of the participants. Ideally, research participants must sign informed consent forms for them to participate in the research study. The researcher will inform the participants on matters concerning their rights, the research question(s) under examination, the research methodology and surveys put to use in the research study (Nishimura, Carey, Erwin, Tilburt, Murad, & McCormick, 2013). Moreover, the participants will not be under any form of coercion for them to take part in the proposed research study. They will have an option of withdrawing or refusing to participate at any given point. The research also upholds the confidentiality of the participants through ensuring that their private information is only privy to the coordinator of the program. Accordingly, upon accomplishment of the study, all participants will be issued with a copy of the final research inference to evaluate the findings and raise concerns if necessary.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

In light of the adverse causal effects of aggression and violence, the research questions are as follows:

  • Are extrinsic factors such as the media influence and its permissibility on the subject responsible for triggering aggressive and violent behavior in the community?
  • What is the relationship between intrinsic factors such as personality disorders or predisposed personality traits and aggression and violence?
  • Between extrinsic and intrinsic factors, which mark as the fundamental triggering dynamics of aggressive and violent behavior in the community?

Huesmann, Dubow, and Yang (2013) contend that numerous controversies revolve around the influence of media depicted violence in aggressive and violent behavior. However, as an external factor, the media appears to have a significant impact on people’s behaviors including destructive actions. On the other hand, In light of Kolla, Meyer, Bagby, and Brijmohan (2017) insights on predisposed personality traits, the relationship between personality disorders (intrinsic factors) and aggressive as well as violent behaviors in the community is also strikingly undeniable.

Assumptions

In light of the research design of this proposed research study, the participants will answer the interview questions honestly and openly. This postulation is anchored on insights by Baskerville and Wood-Harper (2016) on efficient research methods, which emphasizes the importance of objectivity in the utilization of structured methods of data collection. With the strict adherence to ethical considerations as directed by the American Psychological Association (2012) guidelines, the selected sample group will have a sincere interest in taking part in the study and will not have additional motives for getting good grades in their course. This assumption follows as selection of the sample group will be from high school and college students, as well as adults from a particular workplace setting. Consequently, the inclusion criteria of the sample will be appropriate in ensuring that the participants have all been through aggressive and violent situations.

Limitations

There may be possibilities of unknown factors or conditions at the various institutions where the participants work, study and reside that could pose grave threats in collecting objective responses from the participants. Such a myriad of factors may be responsible in one way or another or promoting acts of violence when couples are in their home. Mertens (2014) that has gone a long way in revealing the uncertainties that revolve around structured and semi-structured methods of data collection.

Operational Definitions

The use of violence and aggressions is sometimes interchangeable, further adding to the complexities of their comprehension and mitigation. In this research, violence will constitute the intentional use of force with the aim to injure another person or the destruction of property while aggression, in this context, will refer to the anger or violent feelings one feels before the actual action. Although expert address issues of violence and aggression in several preliminary psychological studies, the causal effects are often not termed into definitive factors. Moreover, each of these problems manifests themselves in numerous forms were under aggression there are; accidental, hostile, expressive and instrumental aggression while under violence there are, physical, sexual, emotional and stalking (Vassos, Collier & Fazel, 2014).

Expected Outcomes

This quantitative project expects to acquire the following factors by the end of the research;

  • Measuring the degree of impact of both extrinsic and intrinsic factors on aggressive and violent behavior in the community.
  • An in-depth analysis of factors that the study identifies as the primary causes of aggression and violence from various pieces of literature.
  • An identification of the leading causes from the identified extrinsic or intrinsic factors that can be adequately mitigated and controlled.
  • Publishing the quantitative study  of  the report

Fast Foods and Obesity Research Paper

The rise of the fast food business in the 1970s was the beginning of a new industry that currently has around 300,000 establishments in the United States alone. It was a new business model meant to attract potential consumer with new products that were intended to boost their profits. Even though the venture was noble in its formative stages, it was soon apparent that there was a direct correlation between fast foods and the rise in obesity cases. It was more shocking when researchers went on to reveal 19% of children were now at the risk of developing type two diabetes which was mostly unseen before (Barbour, 2011, p. 47). It is possible to investigate this issue by first taking a trip back memory lane during the pioneer days when people had to cultivate their plants, take care of their animals and prepare their foods from scratch. During this period there were no pre-made meals or box mixes and the planning of meals had to be done a day in advance. A change from this norm to the quick and easy foods such as the greasy burgers that we are now accustomed has led to an unprecedented rise in obesity rates across the globe. In this essay, I seek to prove that the consumers are not entirely to blame for this epidemic and practical options to solving the debacle.

The rise in obesity cases across the globe has led to a blame-game scenario where fast food franchises absolve themselves of liability while blaming the consumers binge eating demeanor as the primary cause. Recently there have been cases of individuals who had taken this rivalry to a new level when a group of young individuals decided to sue McDonald’s for causing their obesity. Absurd as it seems, those facing this contemporary affliction may not be entire to blame. Their affordability and accessibility are some of the primary reasons why individuals increasingly find themselves having to consume these foods. Keeping away from these foods proves difficult, especially when those expected to avoid them for their detrimental effects seem to lack an alternative (In Sanford, 2014, p. 56). It is important to note that teenage consumers in particular lack options while growing up as the fast foods that they come across are ubiquitously quick and cheap which increases their allure. Food chain franchises have profit as their priority with the consumer’s health coming second. It is apparent that these establishments and stakeholders in the industry are fully aware of the health risks that their products might have on their consumers. Appropriate safeguards are lacking as they intentionally avoid going public with this information making the fast food industry a significant culprit.

Researchers have concluded that an increase in the calories that individuals consume coupled with low physical activities play a significant role in promoting obesity among individuals. An analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examinations Survey (NHANES) into obesity reveals that an increase in energy and quantity of high-density foods that persons consume is to blame for obesity. Furthermore, studies show that the United States has a per capita calorie intake that has risen presently to a figure that exceeds 300 kilocalories (kcal) in its population between the years 1985 and 2002. It is common knowledge that most Americans are overcommitted and overscheduled, running from activity to activity without making plans on what they would want to consume. It is for this reason that they see it fit to grab a takeout meal at bodega than preparing a meal at home. A look at the nutritional content of foods from the menus in these restaurants brings the issue into perspective. For instance, a McDonald Big Mac has 540calories/29g of fats, a Wendy’s Bacon Deluxe Double with 880calories/52g of fat and a Taco Bell Nachos Bell Grande containing a whopping 770 calories/24g of fat (Schlosser, 2002, p. 78).  It is quite astonishing that consumers are not privy to this information while it is succinct that they are serving foods that are highly processed, full of calories, fat, and sodium. An individual could easily consume 1,500 calories in one sitting. An individual choosing the typical fast food meal each day is at risk of taking in a high calorific content leading to waiting for gain and health conditions such as heart disease.

In conclusion, fast foods revolutionized life by providing individuals with a quick and affordable way of obtaining food. It is only recently that the real costs of this culture have dawned individuals with an increase in obesity cases. The fast-food franchises also play a significant role in this situation as they fail to inform the consumers of the calories that their foods contain and the effects they may have on their health. Moreover, it is quite unfortunate that most individuals are not aware of the consequences that fast foods have on them and are mostly unaware of the risk of developing cardiovascular disease from the extra fat in their meals. All players should embark on sensitization campaign encouraging the consumption of low sodium diets that would most likely maintain their blood pressure at an optimum level. Individuals should choose healthier options such as lettuce topped grilled meat, substitute their fries, choose calorie-free drinks and leave off sauces as dressings for their food for posterity purposes.

Empiricism and Rationalism – Cartesian Method Research Paper

This paper presents an explanation of the Cartesian Method whereby it will identify some of the potential problems with, and appeal of, this approach. The Cartesian method is a skeptical approach associated with the works of the modern era philosopher; Rene Descartes. Most of his works relate to acquisition of reliable foundations upon which human knowledge can be progressed through embracing natural sciences. The Cartesian method according to Mitchell (2007)is also known as hyperbolic doubt, methodical skepticism, universal doubt, methodical skepticism, or Cartesian skepticism. The Cartesian method is an approach that requires a person to be systematically skeptical regarding the truth of his/her beliefs. Descartes’ main concern in regards to this method was to find the right way to conceptualize, or pose an issue, or a problem.

Cartesian method is an approach that advocates for the scrutiny of all claims of knowledge with the objective of separating the false claims from the true claims. According to Mitchell (2007), Descartes characterized his method of doubt into four parts: (1) only accepting the information is unquestionable; (2) breaking down each question into parts or units that are manageable; (3) starting to solve problems from the simplest ones and progressing to the most complex ones; and (4) preparing a comprehensive list of issues that need further attention. The potential problem of this approach is that it advocates for having doubts about all things whose justification does not have a logical basis. The Cartesian method, also, maintains a position that fails the falsifiability criterion that relates to empirical theory (Mitchell, 2007). On the other hand, the appeal of the method is its advocacy that people should claim knowledge of things that they can have justification for. Therefore, it is a fundamental approach to defeat and overcome skepticism. A simple illustration of the Cartesian method is; for instance, a person having left a glass full of fruit juice on the table and left the house shortly believing that he would drink it when he returns. The truth, perhaps, could be that another person may have entered the house, seen the fruit juice and emptied the glass while the owner was still away. The owner will continue believing that the glass is still full until he returns and finds it empty.

In conclusion, the Cartesian method is an approach that requires a person to be systematically skeptical regarding the truth of his/her beliefs. It advocates for the scrutiny of all claims of knowledge with the objective of separating the false claims from the true claims. The potential problem of this approach is that it advocates for having doubts about all things whose justification does not have a logical basis.