Browse Tag: Schizophrenia

Academic resources related to Schizophrenia which includes essays, research papers, assignments and sample answers, articles critiques , article summaries , movie and book reviews e.t.c

Article Response Essay : Schizophrenia: A Sibling’s Tale

The steady rise in number of mental health conditions across the globe is currently one of the biggest debacles facing contemporary society. Nonetheless, many seem to forget the adverse effects that these conditions have on family members acting as first-line primary caregivers. It is for this very reason that I opine that Stephan Kirby’s expertly written article (Schizophrenia: A Sibling’s Tale) offers a new perspective on this phenomenon. Leanne Bowman’s account as sibling to a schizophrenic individual reveals that there are complex sets of challenges that they have had to endure. The article, therefore, provides special insight into the needs of such patients and what can be done to aid families to make a smooth transition after diagnosis.

An intriguing point to note was that the article provided an important care blueprint related to the topics currently being studied in this module. The provision of care to persons with mental conditions has always been an area of major concern for persons in the healthcare profession. Studying accurate diagnosis methods ensures that sufferers receive the much-needed help with a high level of precision guaranteeing their recovery (Rosenberg, 2017). Moreover, the article is also linked to the importance of developing an amicable relationship between caregivers and those using their services. This rapport is useful in ensuring that family members are made aware of what to expect in the post-diagnosis phase, in addition to receiving feasible intervention strategies.

There are a number of questions that the article raised to me. Firstly, the role health care professionals have with regard to disseminating crucial information relating to a serious mental condition. During the diagnosis at the hospital, Leanne is clearly appalled when healthcare professionals discuss amongst themselves and fail to involve the family in a conversation centered on their loved one. Common practice often contends that family involvement in the provision of care is one of the most effective ways of combating such maladies (thus, it is surprising that the nurses were shallow in providing their description of the condition). The second question was whether intervention models have been explored extensively and knowledge of their viability shared. It is succinct that little is known about the concept of expressed emotion (EE) and the loopholes that it may have in practice.

Schizophrenia often manifests in the form of a double-edged sword, with both positive and negative symptoms. It is vital to acknowledge that the so-called “positive” symptoms refer to expressions additional experiences while “negative” ones refer to the reduction in ordinary experiences. Hallucinations often add color to the sufferer’s life, enabling them to escape reality albeit for a little while. Most even view it as an added advantage since they experience a sense of euphoria during such ordeals. Delusions also serve as positive symptoms that may be expressed by a general feeling of grandiose. The said person is, therefore, able to lift their moods and go about their day in confidence. Conversely, lack of volition and motivation serve as chief negative symptoms of the condition. Sufferers lack the motivation to carry out tasks and may even have a hard time expressing their thoughts to others.

Various forms of therapy have been developed over the years to aid persons suffering from these debilitating illnesses to cope with their symptoms.  In Schizophrenia: A Sibling’s Tale, Leanne mentions the use of medication when caring for Jamie. Antipsychotic drugs such as amisulpride were integral in the recovery process since symptoms were soon alleviated.  Additionally, detention at a psychiatric facility has also proved useful to patients since they get a unique opportunity to understand their condition and how to cope with it best. The idea is to arm the patient with the necessary tools that would enable the victim to deal with their condition safely (In Haan, L, In Schirmbeck, & In Zink, 2015, p. 78). Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) also works well in schizophrenic individuals. The combination of this form of therapy and the provision of medication helps suppress the symptoms more effectively.

Schizopheria in Today’s Youth – Annotated Bibliography

Chan, V. (2017). Schizophrenia and psychosis: Diagnosis, current research trends, and model treatment approaches with implications for transitional age youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 26(2), 341-366.

This paper is a review of schizophrenia among the young people. The paper investigates more on the onset symptoms, diagnosis and chances for accurate diagnosis, and the measures employed in managing and treating the condition. The paper reviews on individuals with high risk of acquiring the diseases and the challenges experienced in its diagnosis in the onset of the symptoms at young age, especially due to matching symptoms with other co-curing conditions, and lack of some conspicuous symptoms of schizophrenia in the first episode at young age. Thus, there is always case of misdiagnosis which delays treatment. The paper also encourages the use of evidence-based intervention methods for youths as a way of reducing risks of mortality and increasing chances of living close to normal life in adulthood. The paper will be used to inform the research on schizophrenia diagnosis challenges among the youth and the best intervention methods that can be used.

Hollis, C. (2000). Adolescent schizophrenia.Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 6, 83-92.

This paper was among the first papers to focus on schizophrenia among adolescence and young people. The paper focused more on etiological and clinical significance unusual early schizophrenia onset in adolescence and children. The main focus was to determine if the children and adolescent experienced similar symptoms as adults who suffered from schizophrenia. The paper also determines whether their reaction to treatment was similar to that of adults. This article mainly focuses on understanding schizophrenia among young people and children, with intention of determining whether the discovered methods of diagnosing and managing schizophrenia are good enough to handle the condition among young people. The paper will be used to inform the research more on diagnosis and management of schizophrenia among young people.

Schwartz, C., Waddell, C., Barican, J., Garland, O., Nightingale, L., Gray-Grant, D., &Pauls, N. (2009).Understanding and treating psychosis in young people.Children’s Mental Health Research, 3(3), 1-29. 

This paper provides a review of previous studies on schizophrenia. The paper gives detailed information on the condition. It includes statistics on the number of children and young people diagnosed with the condition in Canada, determining when the first episode occurred. The paper discusses the causes of schizophrenia and how it affects the life of the patient, as well as the diagnosis challenges and the importance of accurate diagnosis. The paper also determines how others can intervene to assist and support youths diagnosed with this condition especially with financial challenges associated with schizophrenia treatment. The paper also touches on the best method to treat schizophrenia by reviewing the previous evidence based researches. The identified techniques include therapy and pharmacology. Other methods of promoting their quality of life like training them to be independent and to overcome the mental symptoms are discussed. This paper will be used to inform the research on the best measures that can be employed to minimize the negative impact of schizophrenia on life of young people.

Thara, R. (2005). Schizophrenia: Disabling today’s youth. Harvard Health Policy Review, 6(2), 81-88.

This paper gives a general overview of schizophrenia and demonstrates how it affects life of young people across the globe. The paper describe both the indirect and direct costs of schizophrenia, and the challenges that still exist of understanding the disease especially among the young people. It touches on biological and genetic factors and how they influence the disease occurrence across the globe. The paper discusses incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia, its symptoms and signs, outcome and cause, and care methods that can be applied to improve the quality of life of young people diagnosed with the condition. The paper will be used to inform the research especially on the spread of the disease across the world and its preference among other things.

Winklbaur, B., Ebner, N., Sachs, G., Thau, K., & Fischer, G. (2006).Substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia.Dialogues ClinNeurosci, 8(1), 37-43.

Drug abuse is considered as one of the major comorbidity among schizophrenia patients. According to the article, majority of schizophrenia patient are drug or alcohol users, especially male patients and those with low education level. The paper discusses schizophrenia and drug abuse comorbidity and how it affects the life of young people. The paper discusses the use of cannabis, cocaine and nicotine among schizophrenia patients and how these drugs act as a relapse risk factor. The paper also demonstrates how the use of drugs interferes with schizophrenia treatment plan and how they add to the psychotic symptoms among these patients. This paper will contribute in demonstrating the risk of drug abuse comorbidity among schizophrenia youths and how it can worsen their condition and quality of life.

Schizophrenia and Today’s Youth

Outline Introduction

The research focuses on the topic of schizophrenia and how it affects or influences the life of young people today. Schizophrenia is a mental condition whose symptoms are mostly realized at teenage or before adulthood. The symptoms can also be realized earlier during childhood. However, in most cases, they happen at teenage, a stage where every child is experiencing hormonal, physical and psychological changes in the body. This makes the condition to be more challenging and to initiate advance reaction among youths, and hence creating the need for advance research on the topic. This paper provides an outline on how this research will be conducted.

Literature Review

This section will focus on sourcing information from the existing scholarly literature materials with intention of building the research foundation. Reviewing what is known provides guidance on conducting the researcher on what know regarding a topic. The subsection in this case will include (Guides.library.ucsc.edu, n.d.):

  • Problem formulation: Schizophrenia in today’s youth and how it influences their life negatively. Schizophrenia is a lifetime disease that cannot be completely treated, but its symptoms can be controlled.The paper will focus no determining how the disease discovery at this stage affect the life of young people, and how the situation can be managed to reduce the negative impact created by the disease to the youths.
  • Literature Search: The literature will focus on the causes of the diseases, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, preventive measures, treatment, and its impact on youth’s life, especially based on the fact that it impact individual cognitive ability, education, social life, and general wellbeing. The search will concentrate more on peer-reviewed journals and booked to get the background information and research findings on different aspects of the disease.
  • Data Evaluation: The literature that makes remarkable contribution to the understanding of the topic include materials providing general statistics of the affected youth and the advancement of the situation, literature on the possible impact of the disease on the life of young people as well as literature on preventive measures and treatment measures which are evidence based to control the condition.
  • Analysis and Interpretation – this section will summarize the literature findings, denoting is known with regard to disease impact, preventive measures and treatment, to justify the need for further research based on the perspective of the selected topic; or the research gap to be covered through this research.

Program Plan

The program plan section will include (Thecommunityguid.org, n.d.):

  • What has worked for the schizophrenia patients in the past and how efficient was the solution
  • What would be the cost of the intervention method and possible achievement with the employed investment
  • The evidence gap

 

Program Evaluation

The program evaluation section will include (Cdc.gov, 2017):

  • List of engaged stakeholders; those affected by the project and project primary users
  • Program description; needs, logical and context model, stage, expected effects, resources, and activities.
  • Design evaluation; purpose, agreements, users, methods, uses, and questions
  • Gathering of evidence; logistics, indicators, quantity, sources and quality
  • Justify the conclusion: standard synthesis or analysis, recommendation, judgment and interpretation
  • Sharing the lessons learned: Dissemination, design, follow-up, preparation, and feedback.

Policy Analysis Paper

Policy analysis section will include (American.edu, n.d):

  • Problem definition: Problem to address; schizophrenia in today’s youth, catalyst event or series of events, need for immediate attention, type of the problem, stakeholders’ interest.
  • Establishing Goals: policy goal; Define the best strategy to prevent, minimize or eliminate the negative impact of schizophrenia on the young people; Relation between goal and the problem, organizations involved, regions of focus.
  • Selecting a policy: policy selection; policy on governmental measures to ease schizophrenia impact on youth’s life; considered alternatives, rejection of alternatives and the reason for rejection, possible trader-offs
  • Policy implementation: involved agency, changes made on the policy, importance of the changes and opinion policy implementation by other agencies.
  • Policy evaluation: policy goal achievement, problem solved, policy consequences and cost, cost efficiency and the policy success.

Research Proposal

The research proposal section will include (Al-Riyami, 2008):

  • Title: Schizophrenia and today’s youth
  • Abstract: the summary with all parts of research proposal including the research question, study rationale, the research hypothesis, and the description of the research methodology, design, instrument, sample, and procedures.
  • Introduction: Schizophrenia background information and how it has been influencing life of young people. It will also include the statement of the problem, and the research question context as well as the rationale of the study.
  • Objectives: To determine the schizophrenia impact on today’s youth and to determine how this can be controlled to improve life of youths diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  • Variables: The research will include independent and dependent variables
  • Independent variables: Schizophrenia
  • Dependent Variables: Youths
  • Intervening variables: Preventive and treatment measures
  • Questions and Hypothesis: What are the impacts of schizophrenia on youth’s life? How can this be managed to improve the quality of life of the affected youths?
  • Methodology: The aspects to be addressed in under this topic include research design, research subjects, sample size, intervention, ethical issues, data collection, data analysis and quality control, gantt chat, study significance, result dissemination and budget.

Safety Plan For A Client Di agonized With Schizophrenia – Ted Case Study

Read the Topic 5 Ted Case Study then c reate a 1,200-1,500-word safety plan for a client similar to Ted, who had been diagnosed with schizophrenia that addresses potential depression and suicidality.

The safety plan should include:

  • What symptoms would a client with schizophrenia exhibit? What symptoms did Ted display?
  • How would you have addressed Ted’s symptoms related to delusions, hallucinations, and depression?
  • What other diagnosis might Ted have been misdiagnosed with and why?
  • Describe which theories would have been most effective and which theories would have been least effective for treating Ted’s schizophrenia. Explain your rationale.
  • Describe treatment options for addressing all of Ted’s symptoms.
  • Explain how a client’s religious or spiritual beliefs come into play during the process of dealing with depression and suicide.

Include at least five scholarly references in addition to the textbook in your paper.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

What is schizophrenia

Paper instructions:

Include answers to these questions in essay:
What is schizophrenia?
What factors make this particular population vulnerable to this disease?
What environmental factors make the population vulnerable to this disease?
What are the modes for schizophrenia transmissions? If any?
What are the methods used to control the spread of this disease?
Are there alternative methods used by the selected population for treatment?
What is the effect of alternative treatments?
View a sample research paper on Schizophrenia or order a unique solution to this assignment at an affordable price. 

Prescribing Trends in Schizophrenia

This study will seek to investigate first episode schizophrenia. It will explore the trends in prescribing for schizophrenia as well as how “evidence-based medicine” has influenced decision-making for schizophrenia treatment. To achieve this, research evidence, clinical expertise/experience, patient values, and organizational issues affecting decision-making, in a prescription for schizophrenia, will be adequately addressed.

Schizophrenia is a critical disease affecting the brain and requires special attention. The choice of treatment method that is antipsychotic treatment is a crucial issue challenging schizophrenia treatment (Edlinger et al., 2009). Edlinger et al. (2009) carried out a study to investigate various factors affecting decision-making in an antipsychotic prescription for treatment of schizophrenia. The study took place in Innsbruck where 108 patients (both in and outpatients) were the respondents. The main factors investigated in the survey include “sociodemographic and illness-related variables, pre-treatment, the reasons for the change of treatment (lack of efficacy, side effects, non-compliance), side effects of pre-treatment and body-mass-index (BMI)” (Edlinger et al., 2009, p. 246). From the study, it was evident that socio-demographic as well as other “illness-related variables had no influence on physicians’ decision-making on the choice of treatment for schizophrenia.

Another study done by Heres et al. (2011) tried to demonstrate the several factors that affect decision-making in an antipsychotic prescription for First-Episode Patients (FEP). The survey involved 198 participants, who were “psychiatrists attending the congress of the German Society of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Nervous Diseases (DGPPN) held in November 2008” (Heres et al., 2011, p. 297). The results indicated that the participants reported 3 out of the 12 factors used in the study. These factors were “rejection of the offer by FEP,” lack of prior exposure to relapse and inadequacy of the of the Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGA) depot drugs (Heres et al., 2011, Pp. 298-299). The survey provides the factors mentioned above as the original statements influencing psychiatrists’ choice of treatment to administer to First-Episode Patients. Implications from the study are that, instead of making assumptions of patients’ likes and dislikes, psychiatrists should prefer depot treatment as the standard and routine choice for all patients including FEP.

Additionally, to comprehend the several trends in schizophrenia and this has affected the choice of a prescription; numerous scientific studies have been carried out on the subject matter.

Quality Prescribing for Schizophrenia

Patel et al. (2014) did a study to elaborate on the audit done by the National Audit of Schizophrenia (NAS) in England and Wales. This audit examined the clinical guidelines in place for schizophrenia in the in England and Wales. The audit was done 5055 schizophrenia patients where most of them attested to pharmacological treatment that was by the stipulated national guidelines. However, despite these positive remarks, it was found that at least “15.9% of the total sample (95%CI: 14.9–16.9) were prescribed two or more antipsychotics concurrently and10.1%ofpatients (95%CI: 9.3–10.9) were prescribed medication in excess of recommended limits” (Patel et al. 2014, p. 499). Similarly, the results of the audit proved that 23.7% of the patients under study received clozapine. These findings gave a chance for UK to be compared with other countries like the equivalent US guidelines on clinical/pharmacological treatment (Patel et al., 2014). They also gave the implication that professionalism needs to be enhanced among mental health practitioners. A study done by Ho et al. (2011), demonstrates why it is significant to uphold professionalism in the mental health field. The study proved that prolonged use of antipsychotics significantly influences the brain volumes. The long-term use of antipsychotics was “associated with a greater decrease in brain tissue volumes” (Ho et al., 2011, p. 134). These results could contain substantial implications concerning the clinical decision-making on prescribing for schizophrenia.

The use of antipsychotics treatment has both positive and negative results. In their study, Edlinger et al. (2009) demonstrated “persistent positive and negative symptoms” evident in “First-Episode Patients” (p. 246). Similarly, Patel et al. (2014) explain the emphasis placed on adequate trials of both antipsychotics and clozapine in schizophrenia treatment, by both UK and US guidelines. It is, therefore, paramount for more studies to be done exploring the quality of prescribing for antipsychotics as well as clozapine in the quest to manage schizophrenia in the UK.

Clinical Expertise/Experience and Guidelines 

Several studies have been done to relate “clinical expertise/experience” with respect to decision-making on prescribing for schizophrenia. A study by Ito, Koyama and Higuchi (2005), provides evidence that due to their experience, psychiatrists have a perception towards the use of drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia. The study included “139 patients with schizophrenia, in 19 acute psychiatric units in Japanese hospitals, who were due to be discharged between October and December 2003” (Ito, Koyama & Higuchi, 2005, p. 243). The results of this study were that only 27% of the participants were on preferred or standard dosage; 73% were not on a typical dosage. Among the 27%, 78% were on atypical antipsychotics while for the 73%, 94% of them were using “more than one drug” and at least 33% of them were on an “excessive dosage” prescription (Ito, Koyama & Higuchi, 2005, p. 244). From the results, it was evident that “psychiatrists’ perceptions of the use of algorithms and nurses’ requests for more drugs, as well as the clinical variables of the patients” are the main contributors to excessive antipsychotic dosage (Ito, Koyama & Higuchi, 2005, p. 245). It is clear that despite the elaborate guidelines provided by clinical experts in the mental health field, the practitioners ignore them and apply their experience perceptions to give non-standard treatment to patients; using their judgment and expertise to make a decision on treatment choice.

A book by Taylor, Paton and Kerwin (2005) elaborates the guidelines providing essential advice to the clinician, in prescribing treatments for schizophrenia, in the UK and other countries. The book gives an excellent explanation of the national guidelines in the UK, which are also applicable in other nations. These guidelines play a crucial role in clinical decision-making. A study by Warnez and Severini (2014) investigates the efficiency/effectiveness of clozapine in refractory schizophrenia treatment. The study used “publications in the last 10-year period (2004 and 2014)” which were obtained from “PubMed, Psychinfo, EMBASE and Cochrane databases” (Warnez and Severini, 2014 p. 2). The findings from this study indicate underutilization of clozapine, despite the primary emphasis of its use by the clinical guidelines. This creates the implication that more research needs to be done to provide adequate and reliable evidence for the effectiveness of clozapine, which will erase the fears by psychiatrists that the treatment may cause severe side effects.

Trends in Prescribing for Schizophrenia

Over the years, there has been a dramatic increase in the use of antipsychotic drugs especially in developed states such as UK and US. A study carried out by Pincus et al. (1998) was geared at investigating how the increased recommendations for psychotropic medication have influenced the prescribing patterns. The study utilized available data to investigate the changes between the year 1985 and 1995. To achieve this, Pincus et al. (1998) used information from “National Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys conducted in 1985, 1993 and 1994” (p. 526). These surveys took place in the United States. From the surveys, it was noted that there was a significant increase in the number of patients, going for psychotic medication, by 12.91 million, which was “from 32.73 million to 45.54 million” (Pincus et al., 1998, p. 528). In 1985, females comprised 67.1% of the total visits for treatment while in 1994; the percentage of females going for the medication was 64.1%. The number of those with 18 years and below increased from 1.10 million to 3.78 million. These results were evident due to the following recommendation for various medications to manage schizophrenia.

A study by Siris et al. (2001) demonstrated the standard clinical practices as well as prescribing trends in schizophrenia. The research took place in the US, Canada, Europe, and Australia were around 80, 000 participants were involved. The researchers issued questionnaires with 48 items that were fixed and open questions. There were 37,513 participants chosen in the USA, 43,454 in Canada, and others in Europe and Australia who received the questionnaires. From the USA, 1,128 members responded; of whom were all psychiatrists. “Responses to questionnaires regarding treatment approaches and care scenarios demonstrated that the level of adjunctive prescribing of antidepressants in the USA is often higher than other regions,” (Siris et al. 2001, p. 185).

Clark et al. (2002) carried out a study to investigate the implications of the trends in antipsychotic combination therapy. The study focused on “Medicaid pharmaceutical claims for” “836 new Hampshire beneficiaries with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder” in the year 1995-1999 (Clark et al., 2002, p. 75). Information was obtained from 1995 Medicaid claims and was to come up with the focused group. Out of the 836 participants, 237 had schizoaffective disorder while 599 had schizophrenia. Above 51.2% of the “599” group and 46% of the “237” were males. From the study, it was evident that there was a significant increase in prescription of antidepressants over the study period (5 years). The results indicated an increase of 57% in the number individuals taking more than one antipsychotic drug. Subsequently, atypical antipsychotics and the traditional neuroleptics realized a more than double increase in use between 1995 and 1999. Additionally, by December 1999, around 4% of the total 836 participants took a combination of atypical antipsychotics and neuroleptics (Clark et al., 2002). From the study, it was evident that combination treatment was more recommended to minimize side effects and maximize efficacy. These are examples of factors influencing the choice of therapy to apply to the management of schizophrenia patients.

Other studies have also been done on the antipsychotic prescribing trends for schizophrenia. Verdoux, Tournier and Begaud (2010) carried out research, which aimed at exploring the trends in antipsychotic drugs’ prescription. They researched for articles from peer-reviewed journals that had originally published studies in English, with samples from a real population and done between 2000 and July 2008. Also, they considered studies done after the introduction of Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAPs) in US, Canada, Australia, and Europe as well as prescribing trends with a minimum of two estimations. All studies used in the assessment demonstrated a moderate increase in antipsychotic prescriptions (Verdoux, Tournier & Begaud, 2010, p. 6). The study recognized international guidelines as one of the main contributors to the increased use of SGAPs as the conventional treatment. Similarly, there was the factor of the need for lengthened period of therapy, as evident in researches done in United Kingdom (Verdoux, Tournier & Begaud, 2010). The other factor influencing the use of antipsychotics was found to be the current “extension of licensed indications obtained for” various second-generation antipsychotics (Verdoux, Tournier & Begaud, 2010, p. 8). According to Verdoux, Tournier & Begaud (2010), the increasing “proportion of off-label prescriptions” of the antipsychotic drugs was also a factor leading to their increased usage (p. 8). However, despite the tremendous increase in the antipsychotics (APs) users, there is a call for concern due to the observed side effects from AP use in psychiatric treatment (Verdoux, Tournier & Begaud, 2010). Therefore, it is crucial for clinical expertise to address the issue of side effects from APs.

A study was done by Hayes et al. (2011) aimed at investigating the dynamic prescribing patterns for psychiatric medication in primary care. The study took place in the United Kingdom and involved 4,700 patients (participants). The participants were patients in the primary care database provided Health Improvement Network (THIN) (Hayes et al., 2011). These patients had received treatment for a psychiatric disorder (bipolar disorder) in the year 1995 and 2009. The research focused on the period in which participants was prescribed to a particular medication, as well as their ages, sex, and social status. 40.6% of the participants were under the prescription of more than one AP drugs in 1995. This percentage increased to 78.5% in the year 2009. An overall proportion of 26.4% increase was identified; this was an increase in the time utilized on any AP medication between the year 1995 and 2009 (Hayes et al., 2011, p. 3). The study also examined time spent on other treatment (mood stabilizers) where an increase of 29.9% was observed. According to Hayes et al. (2011), the increase was mainly for females in both types of medications investigated. The research supported that the prescribing trend was as a result of licensing and guidelines factors. This signifies that the two factors play a crucial role in the decision-making regarding psychiatric treatment.

Decision-making on prescriptions for schizophrenia is a broad topic that has attracted numerous studies. These researchers have been geared towards the investigation of the recent trends in prescribing for antipsychotics. Harrison et al. (2012) carried a unique study that aimed at exploring the “prescribing trends” on “antipsychotic medication” among “children and adolescents” (p. 139).  The research was geared towards explaining the dramatic increase in the antipsychotic treatment in children and adolescents. According to Harrison et al. (2012), the approval of “AP” use in some adolescents as well as children has led to increasing prescriptions for the same despite the inadequate “information in their long-term side effects” (p. 139).  Similarly, there are no strategized oversights developed to guide the use of antipsychotics in children and adolescents, despite the approval by the Food and Drug Administration (Harrison et al., 2012). This calls for more studies to understand the concept, lay down some standardized oversights and educate on the side effects (especially long-term) to the children.

First Episode of Schizophrenia and Prescribing Trends

The effectiveness of antipsychotics can also be considered as a trending factor affecting the choice of psychiatric medication. A study by Whale et al. (2016) purposed to identify various advantages of antipsychotic treatment in first episode patients. The research adopted a “naturalistic cohort design” (Whale et al., 2016, p. 323). Initially, the researchers had identified 510 patients who qualified for the first episode patients’ category. However, due to some circumstances, others were excluded from the study resulting in a final sample of 427 participants. The highest percentage of these participants was males. The investigators focused on 4 antipsychotics, which were “aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone,” which was 97.8% representation of prescriptions “for first-line treatment” of first-episode patients (Whale et al., 2016, p. 326). The findings indicated that within the first three months of discontinued treatment, the risk maximum. Similarly, it was observed that there was an insignificant difference in the time of discontinuation among commonly prescribed AP drugs. According to Whale et al. (2016), it was clear that effectiveness of the antipsychotic medication had no current significance in the decision of what antipsychotic to prescribe for first episode patients. Lieberman et al. (2005) have also carried out a study on the effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs. They emphasized on the effectiveness of different types of antipsychotics on schizophrenia patients especially those with chronic schizophrenia.

Robinson et al. (1999) carried out research on the first episode of schizophrenia, which aimed at investigating relapse. The researchers selected a sample of 104 patients to take part in the relapse analyses. The participants who had a response “to the treatment of their index episode” on schizophrenia treatment were prone to a risk of experiencing relapse (Robinson et al., 1999, p. 241). 108 patients had been treated; however, only 104 of them were monitored for at least two months after a response to the treatment. The sample contained equal numbers of males and females. For the five years after the initial recovery, the 1st cumulative relapse was rated at 81.9% while the second was at 78.0% and the 3rd was 86.2%. The research also revealed that the risk for relapse by the discontinuity of antipsychotic treatments increased by close to five times. Similarly, analyses demonstrated that participants “with poor premorbid adaptation to school and premorbid social withdrawal relapse earlier,” (Robinson et al., 1999, p. 241). Additionally, from the study, it was clear that majority of first episode patients, who recovered from schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia, were prone to psychiatric relapse within the first five years. Subsequently, the high risk for relapse within five years of recovery from FEP can be minimized through maintenance and carefully monitoring patients under antipsychotic medication.

Other Factors Affecting Prescribing Treatment Decision

            A study conducted by Mohamed et al. (1999) aimed at investigating cognitive impairments as the primary “characteristic of schizophrenia” (p. 749). The research involved 94 first episode patients and 305 normal individuals, who were all exposed to neuropsychological analyses. Out of the ninety-four FEP participants, 73 were neuroleptic naïve; fourteen had prior treatment for less than 7 days, and the others (seven) had been treated for less than 14 days. Tests were carried out to compare the 21 participants with prior treatment with those that had no medication. It was observed that there was an insignificant difference in their performances. From the tests, it was evident that participants with “first-episode schizophrenia” as well as “neuroleptic-naïve patients” exhibited significant “impairments in most aspects of cognition,” (Mohamed et al., 1999, p. 752). From the study, it is evident that more advanced models need to be emphasized in creating awareness of schizophrenia. Similarly, there is an emphasis on circuitry in the brain that is distributed by schizophrenia effects.

Apart from Europe and America, there are other studies done in parts of Asia to support the changes in prescription patterns for psychiatric medication. Sim et al. (2004) carried out research to elaborate on inadequate data regarding prescription trends in Asia. The study purposed to investigate antipsychotic polypharmacy prevalence in patients who have schizophrenia with a comparison between those receiving one type and those receiving more than 1 type of antipsychotic. The research included 2,399 participants (patients with schizophrenia) who came from 6 different states in East Asia. “Daily doses of antipsychotic medications were converted to Standard Chlorpromazine Equivalents (CPZ),” (Sim et al., 2004, p. 178). From the study, 45.7% of the participants exhibited antipsychotic polypharmacy, common in China, Taiwan, Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong and Japan as the highest. However, this prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was unevenly distributed among the states under survey. Medication usage, socio-demographic features, as well as clinical features were found to be the most common factors influencing poly-pharmacy. It is also true that “association of poly-pharmacy with less use of atypical antipsychotic further increases and compounds the side-effects burden,” (Sim et al., 2004, p. 182). Similarly, it is evident that social, clinical and cultural factors are the major issues affecting the prescribing trend in East Asia. These involved interplaying factors are similar in other countries and contribute to the common components influencing the choice of an antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia.

From many types of research, social, clinical and cultural factors have been discussed as the primary interplaying factors that affect decision-making on medication for schizophrenia. However, apart from these factors, some studies have identified the cost of treatment as another factor playing a role treatment choice. Gilmer et al. (2007) conducted research to investigate the trends as well as the cost of treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs. The study focused on Medicaid beneficiaries who suffered from schizophrenia. It took place in San Diego, California, USA. 15,962 individuals were identified from Medicaid Data; these were schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotic treatment between the year 1999 and 2004. They divided oral antipsychotics into four categories; “first-generation antipsychotic medications only, single second-generation medication in addition to first-generation drugs and multiple second-generation medications” (Gilmer et al., 2007 p. 1008).

The researchers investigated participants receiving SGAPs treatments, time spent in polypharmacy; patients admitted as well the cost of pharmaceuticals. The findings were patients undergoing SGAP medication increased by 10.4% in 2004 “(from 3.3% in 1999 to 13.7% in 2004)” (Gilmer et al., 2007, p. 1007). Consequently, it was observed that the cost of antipsychotic treatment increased from $ 4,128 to $ 5,231. The percentage of those under second-generation polypharmacy, receiving the treatment for twelve months, was observed to increase by 9.3%, which was from 5.1% to 14.4%. “Annual expenditure on antipsychotic medication saw the largest gains of any therapeutic class, increasing from $ 250 million in 1999 to $ 719 million in 2004,” (Gilmer et al., 2007, p. 1010). However, this did not reflect to reduce in antipsychotic patient admission or improvement in adherence to treatment. Similarly, from the study, there is a major concern for the hiking costs for antipsychotic medications in Medicaid programs. Consequently, this leads to increased examination of SGAP prescriptions, which results to the dictation of the practice to reduce the high costs. Therefore, the cost of medication is another factor influencing decision-making for prescribing antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia.

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Schizophrenia Paranoid Disorder Research Paper

Schizophrenia is a disorder that makes it difficult for people to distinguish between what is real and unreal. It makes people be unable to think clearly, manage emotions, relate with other people, and function normally. Despite the serious conditions of the disorder, it is possible for an individual to manage the disease. The first step is identifying the signs and symptoms of the disease. In most instances, schizophrenia starts during the late teens. However, it may also appear during the young adulthood years or later life. There are isolated case where the disorder affects young children and adolescents. The signs and symptoms of the disorder include social withdrawal and inability to manage emotions. It is not clear what the causes of schizophrenia are. However, genetic and environmental causes and abnormal brain structures are thought to be the some of the causes of the disorder. Full psychiatric evaluation and laboratory tests are some of the major methods of diagnosing schizophrenia. However, despite the serious conditions of the disorder, there is still hope for people with schizophrenia. Determining the symptoms and causes of schizophrenia is one of the major steps towards treating the disease.

Schizophrenia may appear suddenly without early signs in some cases. However, in most cases, the disorder manifests itself in subtle warning signs that may be detectable. Failure to treat seek help leads to the gradual decline in the functioning of an individual. Schizophrenia has positive and negative signs and symptoms. Positive symptoms of the disorder include “hallucinations, suspiciousness and paranoia, ideas of refers and bizarre behaviors” (Compton & Kotwicki, 2006, p. 69).  On the other hand, the negative signs and symptoms include “loss of interest, low drive, energy, or motivation, poor attention to hygiene or grooming, and social isolation” (Compton & Kotwicki, 2006, p. 69). The above warning signs may not necessary mean that an individual has schizophrenia. They may also be the signs for other mental disorders. Therefore, if an individual notices normal person starts exhibits the above signs it is vital to seek medical help, which would result in the treatment of the disorder if it were schizophrenia. Some of the disorders that may also exhibit the above signs include post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizoaffective disorder, and schizophreniform disorder (Weiner & Craighead, 2010).

Medical practitioners have been unable to ascertain the specific causes of schizophrenia. However, the signs and symptoms of the disease show that the disorder may be caused by to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Research shows that schizophrenia is hereditary. Individuals whose parents or siblings have schizophrenia have a higher likelihood of suffering from the disorder. However, it is vital to note that genetic factors only influence the occurrence of the disorder. They do not determine the manifestation of the schizophrenia. In fact, more than half of people who have schizophrenia come from families whose members do not have the disorder. Environmental factors usually act on the vulnerability of an individual due to genetic factors to trigger schizophrenia. Insufficient oxygen during birth and exposure to a viral infection during infancy are some of the factors that may make an individual suffer from schizophrenia later in life. In addition, loss or separation of a parent early in life may lead to schizophrenia. Physical or sexual abuse during childhood may also make an individual be predisposed to suffer from schizophrenia later in life (Sadock & Sadock, 2008).

Full psychiatric evaluation, medical history, and laboratory tests help in the diagnosis of schizophrenia in an individual who exhibits signs that are similar to those of the disorder. The doctor or psychiatrist usually asks a series of questions to determine the mental history of the individual and that of the family. This helps in determining whether the individual is predisposed to the disorder. In addition, how the individual responds to the questions helps in determining the presence of schizophrenia or other mental disorders. A complete physical examination helps in determining the causes of the mental problems that an individual may be suffering from. No laboratory tests can determine whether an individual suffers from schizophrenia. However, certain tests may rule out other medical causes that make an individual exhibit signs that are similar to those of schizophrenia (Mueser & Jeste, 2011).

Despite the serious conditions of the disorder, there is still hope for people with schizophrenia. Determining the symptoms and causes of schizophrenia is one of the major steps towards treating the disease. This enables an individual to seek helps prior to the deterioration of the disease, which may have a huge impact on the future well-being of the individual. Treatment for schizophrenia involves medication and therapy. To facilitate recovery, an individual should have a strong          support network. Research shows that people can recover from schizophrenia if they seek treatment after their first episode of schizophrenia. A sizeable proportion may recover from the disorder but exhibit symptoms of the disorder. This shows that schizophrenia should be treated like other chronic diseases such as diabetes. With proper management of the disease, people can live happy, healthy, and productive lives. However, future research should focus on the causes of the disorder. Determining the exact causes of the disorder would help in the formulation of better therapies. This would ensure that people recover fully from the disease. In addition, determining the causes of the disorder would help in determining people who are at risk of suffering from suffering from the ailment. This would help in the development of drugs or therapies that prevent them from suffering from the disorder.

Schizophrenia In Australia

Project description

  1. Stigma in Australia in regard to Schizophrenia
  2. What is the impact on children growing up (informed by theories of child development) with a parent who has Schizophrenia?
  3. How might a person’s life be different if they had engaged in treatment in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia?
  4. How would you treat a person who has schizophrenia if they had grown up in an Indigenous-European-Australian family? What questions would that raise for you in relation to their professional care?

References

  • Bland, R, Renouf, N and Tullgren, a (2009). Social work practice in mental health: An introduction, Allen & Unwin, Crow’s Nest, Australia.
  • Ben-Zeev, D, Young, MA and Corrigan, PW.(2010)., ‘DSM-V and the stigma of mental illness’, Journal of Mental Health, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 318 – 327, (online Ebscohost).
  • Sheldon, M 2001, ‘Psychiatric assessment in remote Aboriginal communities’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 435-442, SOWK13012 course resources online.
  • Barker, J. & Hodes, D. 2007. The Child in Mind: A child protection handbook. 3rd edition. Routledge. Oxon.

Literature Review : What Is The Efficacy Of Art Therapy On Females Diagnosis With Schizophrenia

Introduction

Schizophrenia is an extreme emotional instability influencing up to one in a hundred individuals sooner or later in their lives. The problem presents with constructive manifestations, for example, mental trips and dreams, numerous individuals likewise experience negative side effects, for example, lack of concern and diminished organizational aptitudes that can extraordinarily debilitate their regular functioning (Leurent et al, 2014). Art therapy, a manifestation of psychotherapy which utilizes the medium of craftsmanship to encourage individual statement and understanding of feelings (Drapeau and Kronish, 2007), has been demonstrated through one exploratory trial to be connected with change of negative manifestations observed in people diagnosed with schizophrenia (Patterson et al., 2011). The purpose of this paper is to give a literature review on the efficacy of art therapy on females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The paper seeks to answer one question: Does art therapy improve symptoms for women diagnosed with schizophrenia? Several researchers have conducted investigations with the objective of finding out the effectiveness of art therapy on individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Literature review

Although there are quantitative and qualitative studies examining the adequacy of art therapy for female adults diagnosed with schizophrenia, a great part of the writing is somehow descriptive.  A few researchers have also used a mixture of both qualitative and quantitative methods to investigate the efficacy of art therapy for women diagnosed with schizophrenia (Schindler et al., 2006). Leurent et al., (2014) portrayed the profits of utilizing group therapy

treatment with schizophrenic in-patients. The researchers observed that the utilization of paintings and representations amid group art therapy sessions helped the patients’ capacity to address emotions of surrender and insecurity regarding whether they would survive. Drapeau and Kronish (2007), talk about how taking an interest in art therapy empowers schizophrenic patients in a psychiatric ward to express and speak to curbed emotions. Crawford et al. (2012), uncovered that group art therapy is useful in making the move from the hospital to a home environment. They additionally found that patients become more perceptive about the motivation behind their treatment and are additionally tolerate living with emotional instability after group art therapy sessions.

While it is hard to find controlled investigations of any sort of art therapy particularly with individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, one such study was directed by Richardson et al. (2007). It was an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) of art therapy situated in the group, and reported a huge lessening in negative symptoms after just 12 sessions, which these specialists considered an absolute minimum fundamental for remedial effect. The treatment model was group mental art therapy. While this methodology was at first demonstrated on group mental psychotherapy, with its spotlight on art therapy communications, Schindler et al (2006) have pointed out that psychotherapy practically speaking can fuse a scope of psychodynamic speculations, with contrasting degrees of spotlight on transference and counter-transference.  This incorporates the investigation of groups’ past encounters, and making psychoanalytic translations of the oblivious importance of their articulations, fine arts, and conduct.

In order to find out whether effectiveness of art therapy is directly related to the severity of negative schizophrenia symptoms, Leurent et al. (2014) used a total of 649 participants. The median age of participants was 41 years old and 32 percent of them were females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The participants had been suffering from schizophrenia for 15 years on average, and more than 90 percent had been on antipsychotic medication for a while. Only 29 percent of the participants had previous experience of art therapy. The effect of art therapy did not differ between patients with more severe and less severe schizophrenic symptoms. However, participants recorded improvement of symptoms following art therapy intervention. According to Leurent et al. (2014), art therapy is effective on females diagnosed with schizophrenia and the extent of efficacy is not linked with the seriousness of negative symptoms.

In their study, Crawford et al. (2012) revealed that not all people diagnosed with schizophrenia should be referred to art therapies. The researchers used 649 participants who were subjected to art therapy for a period of 19 months. This sample size allowed for detection of significance on the international assessment of functioning scale at a period of 24 months. The researchers conducted statistical analysis with the aim of treating principle. In this randomized trial the mental wellbeing and worldwide functioning of individuals with schizophrenia was not enhanced by offering a weekly art therapy notwithstanding their standard consideration. Those randomized to weekly group art therapy had comparative levels of global functioning and mental wellbeing as those randomized to an action control group over a two year period, with the exception that the movement control group had a more prominent decrease in positive manifestations of schizophrenia at 24 months. Individuals offered a spot in group art therapy were more inclined to go to sessions than those offered individual interventions (Crawford et al., 2012).

In a different study, Richardson et al. (2007), investigated the effectiveness of art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for in-patients and out-patients with serious and constant schizophrenia, both males and female. He utilized a randomized controlled examination outline to quantify the adequacy of art therapy group projects on enhancing patients’ personal satisfaction and working, diminishing manifestations, and expanding the utilization of health care institutions. The researchers assessed all patients on a range of symptoms and measures including quality of life and social functioning, with six-month follow-up. They concluded that art therapy generated statistically significant positive impacts on negative schizophrenia symptoms (Richardson et al., 2007). Since effectiveness of art therapy was observed on both females and males, modern counseling institutions should utilize art therapy on females diagnosed with schizophrenia to improve symptoms.

In hypothetical terms, art therapy would permit individuals who have had generally little chance to discuss and attempt to deal with life injury and delayed burdens at various times to start to express their unarticulated and muddled feelings through the moderately protected medium of art. This has been depicted clearly by administration clients with a finding of marginal identity issue (Ruddy and Milne, 2005). A steady group background may empower members to relate to one another’s visual depictions of troublesome feelings without promptly examining them inside and out, and in addition basically appreciate innovativeness and the tactile incitement of the art materials (Crawford et al., 2010).

The imparted movement towards art therapy steadily fabricates common help so that group members diagnosed with schizophrenia can pace their examination toward oneself and personal well being (Patterson et al., 2011). For individuals who have been minimized and barred from interacting with the society, on top of harming early encounters, this methodology may require some investment (Smeijsters and Cleven, 2006). To the degree that common gratefulness and delight is communicated through artistic manifestations, negative symptoms of schizophrenia can be managed (Crawford et al., 2010).

The motivation behind a study conducted by Schindler at al. (2006) was to analyze if grown-ups diagnosed with serious and persevering schizophrenia and who went to a group mental health focus exhibited enhanced errand and interpersonal abilities and social parts following administration of art therapy. The study utilized a solitary subject detailed analysis design with pretest and posttest follow-up for a period of eight weeks (Schindler at al., 2006). Qualitative research questions at pretest and posttest were utilized to supplement quantitative discoveries. A total of seven participants were used in the study, three men and four women.

This design was selected to proceed with the evaluation of part improvement in an alternate setting such as an inpatient setting and with a more centered view on the procedure included in part and expertise advancement (Schindler at al., 2006). Expert’s level understudies led the treatment mediation and took an interest in week after week supervision to keep up devotion to the treatment intercession. The researcher found out that art therapy fosters personal growth and development. These findings support conclusions made by Leurent et al. in their study conducted on schizophrenia patients in (2014).

In its 2009 rules on schizophrenia management, NICE prescribed offering expressions treatments, especially art therapy to individuals with severe negative symptoms. This suggestion was focused around the 2009 rules (NICE 2009), which explored six randomized trials of expressions treatments. The trials were of changing quality, however for the most part proposed that innovative treatments were connected with lessening of negative side effects . The majority of these trials explored music treatment, however one exploratory trial of art therapy likewise demonstrated an impact on negative indications. Negative manifestations of schizophrenia may be connected with trouble taking part in mental treatments, and art therapy might in this manner be a suitable non-verbal option for such patients (Leurent et al., 2014).

In principle, it may be normal that intercessions focused around non-verbal interpretation that incorporate a social connection component, for example, intuitive group art therapy, could affect decidedly on the negative side effects of schizophrenia, for example, poor social compatibility and passionate withdrawal. Again, the principle examination of the MATISSE randomized trial did not discover any impact of art therapy on negative side effects at 12 and 24 (Crawford et al., 2012).  Crawford et al., (2010) further discovered that art therapy was not compelling for those with more serious negative side effects. These findings contrast those that were found by Richardson et al. (2007).

There are various reasons why the discoveries from the MATISSE study of 2012 may have contrasted from those reported by Richardson et al (2007). First, the study conducted by Richardson et al. (2007), was an exploratory trial with high faults and various results. The distinction seen between groups in evaluations of negative indications was around factual critical conditions and may have been seen by chance alone. Additionally, the manifestation of art therapy conveyed may have contrasted from that conveyed in the MATISSE study, despite the fact that they were both focused around comparative rules. In conclusion, results in the MATISSE study were surveyed longer after recruitment (12 months) than in the study conducted by Richardson et al. (2007) (6 months) and accordingly, any starting clinical additions noted by Richardson et al.  (2007) may have disseminated over the long run.

Art therapy helps individuals express encounters that are so troublesome that they cannot put into words, for example, a judgment of a mental illness such as schizophrenia. Some individuals with schizophrenia investigate the implications of past, present, and future of art therapy, subsequently coordinating mental problems into their biography and providing meaning for it. Stuckey and Nobel (2010) utilized drawings as a part of a push to comprehend encounters of wellbeing and disease, inspected how 32 moderately aged women with schizophrenia comprehended their condition. After an individual meeting, every member was asked to explain how she understands the illness. Utilization of color, spatial association, and piece were investigated among all participants. The drawings were considered as both visual results of the women’s information about schizophrenia and procedures of typified learning creation. It was inferred that having people draw how they envisioned their condition was an astute technique with which to investigate understandings of ailment, such as schizophrenia (Stuckey and Nobel, 2010).

Art therapy can be a shelter from the exceptional feelings connected with illnesses such as schizophrenia. There are no restrictions to the creative ability in discovering innovative methods for communicating anguish. Specifically, shaping earth can be an influential approach to help individuals express these emotions through material association at a physical level, and in addition to encourage verbal correspondence and cathartic discharge and uncover oblivious materials and images that cannot be communicated through words (Leurent et al., 2014).

Women joining in a qualitative study concentrating on disease portrayed progressing schizophrenia-related symptoms, for example, hopelessness, torment, restlessness, part misfortune, action confinement, decreased self-esteem, and changed social relationships. Engaging in diverse sorts of visual arts (materials, card making, arrangement, ceramics, watercolor, acrylics) helped these ladies in 4 noteworthy ways. To begin with, it helped them concentrate on positive backgrounds, easing their progressing distraction with tumor. Second, it improved their self-esteem and character by furnishing them with chances to exhibit progression, test, and accomplishment. Third, it empowered them to keep up a social character that opposed being characterized by schizophrenia. At long last, it permitted them to express their sentiments in a typical way, particularly amid drug use (Stuckey and Nobel, 2010).

Implications for further research

An investigation conducted by Patterson et al. (2011) on the effectiveness of art therapy, especially in connection to diagnosis of schizophrenia, has exhibited intricacy and assorted qualities in advisors’ developments of idea and practice. Underpinning difference discovered an unerring duty to the potential of art therapy to help enhancements in mental wellbeing and prosperity of individuals seen as having an insane mental structure and enduring acknowledgement of the uniqueness of experience and results (Holttum and Huet, 2014). Ramifications of these discoveries ought to be considered with reference to the way of the study, which in its adaptable approach and appreciation of the lavishness and assorted qualities of experience, imparts much with art therapy interventions (Patterson et al. 2011).

Stuckey and Nobel (2010) draw on the encounters of a chosen group of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, the universal provision in connection to speculation must be made. Hypothetical examination and accomplishment of immersion cannot be made certain that there is full range of specialist perspectives and that such investigations would not have caused discoveries to be reinvestigated. The recurrence of which any given case trademark, process or experience is observed in our participants ought not be seen as a measure of recurrence in different settings. In any case, that current discoveries are reliable with perspectives communicated by specialists in a late national review (Patterson et al., 2011) recommends that they are should be investigated further.

Further, whilst several researchers affirm distinct and genuine precision, qualitative examination is naturally subjective, obliging inventiveness and astute judgment from scientists (Gersch and Sao, 2006). The representations of researchers’ perspectives reflect complex impacts including particular expert and individual foundations and the connection within which various studies were carried out. However, different methodologies involved continue to be subjected to various procedures of significance making the basic examinations complete. Reliable with its constructivist underpinnings, as opposed to present this record as ‘truth’, our objective is to support elaboration and refinement of the “story” of workmanship treatment and schizophrenia. To start this procedure we talk about two interlinked concerns standing up to the craftsmanship treatment calling and individual specialists inside the current ‘proof based’ mental human services connection.

As indicated by NICE (2009), direction now incorporates a suggestion that referral to art therapy be considered for women with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and the existing data should be used to help thought of referral. Psychologists should offer the most appropriate advice for females diagnosed with schizophrenia. The potential advantages of art therapy portrayed by advisors are reliable with those proposed by NICE (2009): individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia may be empowered to experience themselves contrastingly and to create better approaches for identifying with others, they may be served to communicate and to sort out their experiences into a fulfilling tasteful structure and served to comprehend emotions that may have developed amid the imaginative procedure (NICE, 2009).

Beneficial as these points may be, and regardless of boundless acknowledgement of the criticalness of patient experience and customized consideration, those accused of authorizing administrations are obliged to report against hard results. This is on account of assets are limited, rivalry for financing is extreme and assets are allotted where potential effect is most noteworthy. Coupled with the apparent non-abrasiveness of points of art therapy, this must be a variable in the inconsistent procurement of interventions to individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia (Patterson et al., 2011). Counselors and specialists are faced by strains identified with keeping up with the available alternativeness (Gersch and Sao, 2006), that is at the heart of art therapy and valid to the thought that the methodology of treatment is out of hand whilst showing productivity and expense adequacy. Questions must be raised about some information about adjusting the philosophical center of art therapy and responsibility to remaining nearby underestimated populaces and empowering them to talk with the pragmatics of consideration procurement. As Gersch and Sao, 2006 fights, art therapy confronts a genuine test in situating of itself within mental health institutions where the practice should be logically grounded to assist women diagnosed with schizophrenia.

It is right  to say that further research is expected to create an understanding of the mental and psychosocial qualities of individuals, especially women who experience schizophrenia, which patients make for a decent fit with art therapy, and what results can sensibly be impacted. Clarity must be made because the quality of art therapy inescapably attracts thoughtfulness regarding the troubles characterizing and measuring results in the midst of the astounding erratic complexities of schizophrenia. This thus posts incredible difficulties to the confirmation of ideas that presently exist in published literature (Crawford et al., 2012).

Given that a large portion of the restricted hypothetical premise for art therapy referred to by Crawford et al. (2010) and Crawford et al. (2012) was from books distributed initially in 1992-1993 and republished a few times (Leurent et al., 2013), one needs to ask what new hypothetical improvements have been made in art therapy since 1993. One other content is said by Crawford et al. (2012), and like the past ones it was not outfitted particularly to mental illness. A volume altered by Ruddy and Milne, (2005) is specifically concerned with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia-like illnesses, and a section by Crawford et al. (2012).

Nonetheless, it appears fundamental not just to have an agreeable understanding of art therapy systems in addition to components happening for individuals given a conclusion of schizophrenia: the instruments keeping up their social rejection and handicap, for example, segregation (NICE, 2009) and medication (Moncrieff and Leo, 2010). There is a requirement for studies that expand on that of Patterson et al (2011) and Crawford, et al. (2010) in discovering specialists’ understanding of their practice, and about patients’ encounters. This expansion must include shared methodologies between staff and women diagnosed with schizophrenia, for example, that of Schindler et al. (2006). This could expand on existing research to some degree on the hypothetical structure of the relationship between art therapy and schizophrenia management as illustrated by majority of researchers.

Levels of participation at art therapy may be higher when individuals are accepting inpatient treatment, and the effect of the therapy conveyed in most research settings ought to be contemplated. Aftereffects of randomized trials of other inventive treatments for individuals with schizophrenia, for example, music treatment and body development treatment, are more promising (Schindler et al., 2006). These mediations join innovativeness with different methodologies particularly when giving a charming background, invigorating physical development, and expanding communications with others. Despite the fact that it has been contended that inclusion in imaginative exercises is intrinsically useful for mental wellbeing, it might be that for individuals with serious emotional instabilities, for example, schizophrenia it is just when such exercises are utilized as a part of blend with different mediations that advantages are realized.

Conclusion

Art therapy is a manifestation of psychotherapy where the methodology of making pictures plays a focal part in the connection of the psychotherapeutic relationship. It has been generally connected to the treatment of patients and administration clients with schizophrenia and over all spectra of seriousness. It can be conveyed to all age assembles in an assortment of organizations counting those of individual, gathering, couples and family treatment; and has been connected as both a transient and a long haul intercession. Art therapy may be especially appropriate to the needs of administration clients who discover trouble in communicating verbally, in a valuable and non-ruinous way, their tricky sentiments and life encounters, as is every now and again the case among the extremely rationally sick. Its nonverbal angles may make it exceedingly applicable to females diagnosed with schizophrenia across dialect and ethnic foundations. As an extra to the work therapists handling women diagnosed with schizophrenia, art therapy may offer a potential means both to enhance the nature of consideration of treatment and to upgrade clinical results.

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Psychology Paper – The Link between Early Onset Schizophrenia

One way in which psychology examines issues in life-span development is to review current research on related topics. For this assignment you will review current research and provide a critical evaluation on that research through an annotated bibliography. An annotated bibliography is simply a brief summary and analysis of the journal article reviewed. For more information on the required format of the bibliography please click on annotated bibliography template.

You will need to find research articles located in scholarly journals. Scholarly journal articles are also referred as primary source peer reviewed articles. A scholarly journal article can be found in the South University Online Library. To find more information regarding utilizing the South University Library and accessing scholarly journal articles click on Library Guide. What cannot be used for this assignment are web pages, magazines, newspapers, text books, and other books. Finally, current research for our purposes is an article that was published within the last 5 to 6 years.

Remember this is a course on human development so when looking for articles make sure that it is related to the subject matter covered in the course. Include one or more of the following as topic areas in your search:

  • Major developmental theories across the lifespan
  • Nature of geographic, gender, social, cognitive, emotional, and developmental factors during each period of development
  • Developmental factors that impact one another.
  • Historical and current trends in development
  • Current trends which may differentially impact the future development of populations in the United State
  • Social, and diversity issues related to developmental psychology

For this assignment you will find 2 journal articles for each of these age groups:

  • Adulthood
  • Older Adults

The annotated bibliography should include for each article.

  • Write a 2 paragraph summary for each article.
  • Write a 1-2 paragraph analysis and evaluation for each article found.
  • Make sure to integrate what you learned in your course readings in that analysis

Summary: For week 5 you will also write a summary (1-2 pages) of what you learned from your research on the different age groups (including week 3 age groups) as seen from the life-span perspective. To assist in the development of this summary answer the following questions:

  • After reviewing the current research in the various age groups what similarities did you find in the types of research and what was being studied? What differences did you find?
  • Based on your course readings what developmental theories did you find that were applicable?
  • Explain how the life-span perspective provides a way of better understanding the research reviewed.