Browse Tag: Singapore

Information related to Singapore as a country e.g research papers, essays, assignment instructions and sample answers e.t.c

Pacific Rim Country Paper – Singapore

History of Singapore

Singapore was established by British traders who needed a port of call in 1819. It was operated by the British settlers until in 1941 when it was invaded and colonized by Japanese who renamed it to Syonan. The country was ruled by Japanese for three and half years when the British force returned and administered the country until 1946 March. It turned to be Crown Colony on 1st of April 1946. The country first election was done on March 20th 1948, but experienced a state of emergency on June same year which remained for 12 years. Another election was held in 1956 June, and attained self-governance in 1959. In 1963, the country merged with Sabah, Malaya, and Sarawak to form Singapore and later separated in1965 August, where it becomes independent, democratic, and sovereign nation later in the year. It has since managed to grow politically, socially, and economically (Singapore Expats, 2017).

Geographical Landmarks and Important Geographical Features

Singapore has a number of distinct features that one can use to describe the country or to take directions. Most of them are manmade which are used to complement the natural landmarks for tourist attraction. These landmarks include Marina Bay Sands Resort Complex, Little India ad Arab Street, Singapore Flyer, Raffles Hotel, Garden by the Bay, Changi Chapel and Museum Botanic Gardens, Singapore Zoo, China Town, Fort Canning Park, PulauUbin, Orchard Road, Asian Civilization Museum,Sentosa Island, and Clarke Quay among others. The country’s landmarks clearly show that this is a multicultural city where diversity has been enhanced.Below is a picture of Marina Bay Sands (Hynes, 2017)

Marina Bay Sands , Singapore - Pacific Rim Country
Marina Bay Sands , Singapore – Pacific Rim Country
Garden by the Bay, Singapore - Pacific Rim Country
Garden by the Bay, Singapore – Pacific Rim Country

 

Economic Situation

The country has been experiencing negative economic trends since 2015 when its GDP declined from that of the previous years, economic growth declined, rate of consumption increase, and rate of investment and manufacturing declined. Singapore economy is highly influenced by India which is her strategic partner (Focus Economics, 2017).

Major and Minor Regions

Singapore has a total of 10 main religions. The main religion in Singapore is Buddhism which accounts for more than three-fifths of the population of Singapore. Others religions include Islam which accounts for 16% of the population in Singapore, Christianity, and Hinduism. Taoism is another main region which involves ancient Chinese Lao Tzu religious philosophy teachings. There are other small religions which only involve a small part of the Singapore population. They include Jews with only 300 followers, Sikhs which accounts for only 15000 people in the country.A good example of the religious diversity in the country will be seen in the picture below (Santa Grand, 2016; Guruswamy, n.d.).

 

The Overall Culture

The country has a diverse population originating from different parts of Asia and Europe. Its culture is highly influenced by Eurasian, Malay, East Asia and South Asia. Therefore, its culture and local customs are a mixture of different ethnic influence and unique. The Singapore culture is defined by various ethnic groups in the country. Western, Chinese, Indian, and Malay influences are all tangible in the country, resulting to a mix of local and traditions customs. The country’s culture diversity in Singapore is also seen in a number of spoken languages which include Tamil, English, Malay, and Mandarin. This cultural diversity can also be seen in different religions in the country (Internations, n.d; Yilmaz, 2013).

Singapore – Annotated Bibliography

Department of Statistics, Ministry of Trade & Industry, & Republic of Singapore. (2014). Singapore. (2014). Report on the household expenditure survey 2012/2013. Retrieved from < https://www.singstat.gov.sg/docs/default-source/default-document-library/publications/publications_and_papers/household_income_and_expenditure/hes1213.pdf>

This is a governmental document providing survey results on household expenditure in Singapore for year 2012/2013. This report provides an over of how the country’s population spends on various aspects that include food, health, transport, communication, recreation and culture, education services, clothing and footwear, and housing and related expenditure among others. The report also gives analysis on the household income for different individuals including those that are employed and who are in business. The report will contribute on providing actual statistical information on the Singapore people expenditure which can be used to determine whether one can afford living in Singapore or not.

Mewr.gov.sg. (2015). Our home, our environment, our future. Sustainable Singapore Blueprint 2015. Retrieved from < http://www.mewr.gov.sg/ssb/files/ssb2015.pdf>

This is a governmental report on measures that are taken to ensure environmental conservation and sustainability. The report gives details on measures that each individual is playing to enhance sustainability. It also gives update on rules that have been imposed to enhance environment conservation in the country. This includes information on how people should use resources such as water, energy and also how they should dispose their waste product to enhance conservation. This report will be vital in my project since it will provide information on living standards that the new dwellers should maintain to meet the conservation and sustainability standards of a country.

HSBC.com.tw. (2013). Country and education guide: Singapore. HSBC Premier. Retrieved from < http://www.hsbc.com.tw/1/PA_ES_Content_Mgmt/content/taiwan_51/download_form/premier/overseas_edu_Singapore_guide.pdf>

This is a guide developed by HSBC group to aid new immigrant in Singapore to understand the country. The guide gives more information on the country’s population, spoken languages, currency, time zone, climate, telecommunication, cost of living, transportation, health and medical, and education. However, the guide emphasizes more on education system adopted in the country, and the services offered in different schools. This information includes cost of education in different schools and the procedure for applying to be enrolled in Singapore schools. This paper will contribute to my project by providing extensive details on Singapore education system to new settlers.

St Joseph’s Institution International. (2015). Living in Singapore. Information for Staff. Retrieved from < https://www.sji-international.com.sg/ckeditor_assets/About%20us%20files/Living%20in%20Singapore_May%202015.pdf>

This is a research paper that gives a general information regarding living in Singapore. The paper gives brief history of the country, brief information culture and other information on the country safety, languages spoken in the country, the climate and the weather conditions, renting property and their distance to various landmarks as well as their rental cost. It also gives more information on transportation and the phone applications available to help one go around the town.  The paper also gives general information on education and more information on social amenities available in the country and where they are located. It also gives more information on financial matters and health care information. The paper gives general information that would help visitors or new dwellers familiarize themselves with the country. This paper will contribute to by projecting by giving specific information that may need to be known for one to easily live in Singapore.

Tambyah, S. K., Tan, S. J., & Kau, A. K. (2009). The quality of life in Singapore. Soc Indic Res, 92, 337-376.

This is a research journal article that investigates the Singaporeans quality of life. The journal conducts a survey research were 1038 respondents were involved. It provides a general overview of life in Singapore including the history of the country, demographic composition of Singapore and human development, government, economic development and stability, global connection, as well as civil liberties and political lights. It also investigates on other life aspects that include people lifestyles, life priorities, and the general quality of life in the country. This journal provides crucial information about life in Singapore that can be used to add background information in my project about Singapore and living in Singapore.

Decision Making on Transport Use in Singapore and Perth

Different individuals prefer using different mode of transportation based on different factors. According to customer choice theory, customers make their choices based on their income as well as the prices of services and goods. This assists us in understanding how personal incomes and tastes influence the market demand. In transport sector, customer choice is influenced by a number of factors other than prices. One of the major factors that determine the transportation choice is the purpose of travel. There are main purposes of travel that include commuting for work or study, travel for shopping, pleasure, and business, among other purposes. This highly determined the choice in the mode of transportation to be used in the two cities. The choices quite similar in the two cities while considering this purpose. Most individual who travel for work focuses on the cost of transport, route taken, destination, and ability to fight congestion. They normally chose the most convenient and cheap form of transportation, bus being selected for being located close to job destination, while train being considered for being free of traffic congestion. Workers normally travel during the peak hours which are characterized by traffic congestion. Personal cars are also highly considered by work commuters, particularly due to convenience and short walking distance to the workplace. However, they are prone to traffic jam and thus, they may be less convenient compared to rail when time factor is considered (Corpuz N.d).

Business travellers in Perth consider using personal cars if there are no shipments involved. This is considered to be more convenient compared to other means of transport since they may need to make various business stops. Buses and trains are used where shipment in and out of the town are required. This is particularly made easier by easy connection from bus to trains and vice versa. School transportation is selected based on convenience, cost, and security. A more secure for of transport is highly considered with low cost and that is convenient (Corpuz  N.d.). Convenience in this cases focuses on alighting area compared to the school position with private bus being more commonly used to ensure children are dropped at school. Shopping and leisure travel commonly involves group travel, either with family members or friends. In this regard, group convenience is considered first. Unlike leisure travel, shopping travel involves carrying of large loads from the shopping point to transportation terminals. In this case, personal car or a taxi is highly considered. Travel for leisure may include personal car or private bus based on the number of the group (Ibrahim 2005).

Another aspect that determined choice of transport is the cost involved. Perth experience a high use of personal car compared to Singapore. This is due to rise in car ownership reduction in real cost of employing cars and income growth in the country. The transport planning in the country has also played a great part in encouraging the use of private cars due to the regulation of congestion during peak hours. This has resulted to high use of private transportation compared to public mode of transportation (Soacconference.com.au. 2016). However the situation is quite different in Singapore. The Singapore transportation system is encouraging the use of public transport compared to private mode of transportation. This is done by increasing the overall cost of using private cars in the country which include high parking fees. This makes public transport to be more preferred since it is considered to be less stressful, cheap; fare set per distance, and with enough time to relax particularly after work.  Taxi is considered to be highly expensive compared to the public form of communication and thus, it is less preferred, particularly by daily work commuters (Der and Ing 2010)

Other factors determining the choice of form of transport include comfort, speed, and reliability. Perth population focuses more on speed than anything else, while choosing their form of transportation. This is followed by the reliability of the form of transportation based on individual transportation purpose, this is followed by the convenience, comfort and finally how secure the form of transportation is. In Singapore, convenience and cost the first aspects to be considered. Personal cars are highly comfortable; however they are costly and inconvenient particularly while looking for a parking space in the city (Olsson 2003).

The change in travellers’ behaviour is highly determined by changes in the transportation system in each city. The establishment of harsh condition for personal car use in Singapore pushed more people into public transport, reducing the rate of private travel in the city. Similarly, the establishment and enhancement of heavy gauge rail has reduced individual preference to light rail to a point of ending its services in the city. In addition, increase in the use of cars in Perth was highly facilitated by new urban planning in the city which started at around 1950s. The good transport conditions encouraged people to buy cars in the city. Thus, individual behaviours on the choice of transport can highly be influenced by the change of situations (Soacconference.com.au. 2016). In Singapore, the public transportation was highly mad with congestion. This resulted to the introduction of a new initiative to encourage those who can to travel a few hours before the rush hour. The initiative was characterized by subsidized fare during these hours. This enhanced the change of travellers behaviours where by most of them considered taking advantage of subsidized fares, and travelled earlier enough. Consequently, the Singapore public system was able to ease on the congestion issue, which highly affected the travel convenience in public bus traveling system.

Comparing the Trends in Transport Use in Perth and in Singapore

Perth and Singapore are two cities located in different parts of the world. Perth is located in the Western Australia while Singapore is located in Malaysia. Perth contains a well-developed road and rail transportation system.  The most commonly used mode of transport in the city include cars, commercial road vehicles, motorcycle, heavy and light rail, ferry ,  buses, walk, private horse, and cycle. The mass passage transit in the city is normally conducted by heavy rail, ferry, light rail, UPT bus and other private buses. Perth has been experiencing a steady increase in the number of passengers per kilometre travel year after year. However, there has been a great change in the passengers’ behaviours over years. The use of cars has grown across Australia exponentially since 1945. The use of other modes of transport that include horse, motorbus, heavy rail, light rail, and walking has decline greatly with time. Perth is famous as one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. There are 723 cars in the city for every 1000 person. Thus, car transportation is highly used in the city. This trend stated in 1950s after a new city planning choice was made in Perth (Curtis 2008).

The preferences on the mode of transportation have been changing gradually in Perth over time. Based on table one below, in private motor category, preference on cars has been growing at an average of about 1.25% between 2000 and 2013, preference on commercial vehicles recorded annual growth of 3.31%, while preference on motor cycles recorded annual growth of 7.23% for the same period. The table also shows that cars have been highly used, followed by commercial vehicles, and then motor cycles. Despite a high rate of annual growth in motor cycles and commercial vehicles, there use is considerably low than cars. In mass transit category, bus is more preferred than heavy rail, and ferry. However, heavy rail registered a higher annual growth; 8.0% compared to bus with annual growth rate of 2.32%. Light rail stopped being used at around 1960, while dependence on ferry as a mass transit is declining at rate of 1.05% per year (Australian Government 2013; Cosgrove 2011.).

The level of car ownership in Singapore is considerably low compared to that of Perth. In 20052006, Singapore had100 cars per every 1000 persons compared to 709 cars for every 1000 persons in Perth. This means, more people depend on cars in Perth compared to Singapore. In addition, the yearly car passenger kilometres in Singapore for the same period were 3040, while in Perth they were 13652. However, Perth recorded low yearly transit service vehicle kilometres per individual, 45.7 compared to Singapore, 92.2 in the same year.  Singapore common modes of transport include rail, bus, and cars. However, similar to Perth public bus is the most preferred form of public transport compared to rail (Kenworthy 2012).

Based on Table 2, it is evident that buses have been the most common form of public transportation in Singapore compared to heavy rail, light rail and taxi or cars. Unlike in Perth where the use of light rail ended in 1960s, Singapore still use light rail and its population is actually increasing gradually year after year. However the rate of growth is considerably small; below 1%, compared to that of Perth. Similarly, the four modes of transportation in Singapore demonstrate a positive steady trend, though taxi keeps on weaving. Unlike Perth, Singapore does not use ferry in public transportation.