Tag: Social Media

Social Media and Human Resource Management

The world has in the recent past experienced increase in the use of social media in all places that include workplaces. This has highly changed people’s behaviors in the workplace, where people tend to spend most of their free or even work time on social media. Social media is also widely used by the companies for public relation which include enhancing the company relation with its customers.  Social media has also been attracting human resource review during hiring and even for confirmed workers as a way of evaluating their character and behavior. This extensive use of social media has thus created a significant impact to the human resource management of different organizations. This paper analyses the impact of social media on HRM.

Influence Social Media has on Human Resource Management Success

Social media has a great influence on HRM activities in today’s workplace. Social media attracts HR professional urge to investigate more about a job applicant or an employee through their social media accounts. Most of them view their public profile and learn more about their personal details and character from their post. This is likely to influence their decision regarding an applicant or their judgment regarding an employee, and in most cases assist them in making the right judgment with regard to the new employee character or in any other matter other than discriminative aspects (Wilkie &Wright, 2014). Social media can also aid in identifying the right individuals based on their qualification. Media such as LinkedIn is a professional network that can easily link the company to the kind of employee it is searching for based on their qualification (Wright, 2014b). According to Waden (2016), most workers are found to use significant part of their working time to engage in social media activities. This is said to affect the individual work productivity and eventually resulting to a considerable decline in organization productivity. Uncontrolled use of social media is also likely to affect the image of the company. This mostly happens when unauthorized workers make post on behalf of the company without much scrutiny on the content of their posts (Swain, 2017).

Challenges of Human Resource Management Professionals Using Social Media to Learn about Current and Potential Employees

HRM professional are currently experiencing challenges accessing job applicants and employees personal accounts in the social media. According to Wilkie and Wright (2014), different states are making laws to prohibit HRM professionals from asking for personal social media accounts login details from their employees or job applicants. These laws which have by now been enacted in twelve states regards asking for login details from employees as a bleach of individual privacy and hence it is prohibited. The American congress is also pushing to be able to enact similar law as a national law. This according to Wright (2014a) will protect people who post anything on social media without thinking of the consequences it can bring to their professional life.

Another major challenge HRM professionals are facing is legal risk of obtaining personal details protected by the antidiscrimination law in employment. Most social media accounts owners give so many details about their lives which include their age, race or ethnicity, and religion among other protected personal information. The HRM team fears that dismissing an employee due to other permitted reasons may initiate legal battle claiming having been terminated due to discriminative reasons. This can highly take place especially if the employee knows that the HR had access to his or her detailed personal information from the social media (Wright, 2014a). Moreover, HR cannot dismiss an employee based on something he or she posted in states where social media privacy law is enacted, unless it can be viewed in a public domain; while viewing the profile without having to login.

Use of Social Media in Private Companies with Regard to HRM

Social media is extensively being used in various private companies to enhance HRM activities. Zappo for instance has recently abandoned the traditional method of recruiting which involved positing job in its website and waiting for applicants to apply to a new method that focuses on using social media. In the new system, anyone interested in working for the company should join the company’s social network known as Zappo insider where the company will be posting available jobs openings. The company gives its social media members a higher priority than other people in job provision (Robb, 2014). Kroger Co. is another company that has transferred its recruiting process to social media. Kroger HR basically shares job openings to people through the company Twitter and Facebook accounts. This has enabled the company to reach demography of workers they could have never attained in the previous means of job opening advertisement. Spitfire Group is also using social media to attract new talents. The company integrates LinkedIn, twitter and Facebook in a Financial Force HCM system which is a cloud based system for managing human capital in sales department (Rabb, 2014). This demonstrates that social media use in HRM activities is growing extensively and more is still anticipated in the future. 

Parenting Limiting Teenagers’ Use of Social Media

The invention and development of mobile devices, internet and social media platforms has highly changed the society. People are currently interacting more virtually than they do physically, especially in social media. Digital technology has turn to be very popular not just to the grownups but also to children and teenagers. Most teenagers today have social media accounts where they interact with their peer, post their updates, photos, and videos among other things. Sometimes these teenagers are engaged in activities that could be considered unhealthy for their age and future. Social media has been associated with growth of a number of vices for young children which include cyber bullying, and radicalization of teenagers among others. This has made most parents reluctant to permit their children to use social media unsupervised. The European commission’s General Data Protection Regulation enacted regulation demanding parental consent prior to commercial services processing of personal information for children below 16 years old, which was later reduced to 13 years (Magid 1). This move initiated a debate on whether parents should be permitted to limit the use of social media by teenagers. This paper evaluates varying positions regarding this matter.

The use of social media has increased among the world population in the recent past. Today, most people including teenagers spend a considerable amount of their time on the social media. This has been highly facilitated by growth in smartphone use among teenagers. According to  atechnology use survey conducted in 2014 to 2015 by Anderson and Jiang (1), ownership of smartphone has turned to a nearly universal element of life of teens where by 95% of teens currently report having access or owning a smartphone. These mobile links are consequently fueling more-persistent activities online, such that about 45% of teenagers now claiming they are online on an almost-constant basis. The use of social media by teens has for a number of reasons been considered unsafe. According to Ramasubbu (1), peer pressure susceptibility and difficulty in or lack of self-regulation makes teens in social media vulnerable to various evils that include cyber bullying, sexting, and facebook depression, which are genuine threats. Social media also introduces other life threats that include sleep deprivation, internet addiction and social network-induced obesity. Despite the risks, social networking certainly plays a crucial role in learning technical skills and extending social links. After weighing the risks and benefits, different individuals have conflicting stands regarding allowing or disallowing teenagers to use social media with or without parental supervision.

Exposure of teens to social media has both risks and benefits. However, the risks experience in teens’ exposure to social media can be minimized through parental control. Parental control in this case involves knowing the teenager virtual social connection that include the child’s friends the kind of stuffs those kids share or discuss in the social media. This will make it possible for parents to guide their children on how to use social media responsibly for their own benefit and t protect innocent teens from encountering challenges that may come along with unmonitored exposure to social media. Parental monitoring ensures that teens are not involved in risky behaviors that can influence their future negatively. It also guide teens in understanding why some information should not be shared in a public platform, especially in the internet where such information can easily be duplicated such that it is hard to completely eliminated it in the social platform after posting it. Thisensures that they are able to use the social media responsibly even in the future.

However not everyone thinks that teens use of social media should be limited. According toDrexler (1) limiting teens use of social media either through direct snooping to their social accounts or though indirect snooping by viewing their pages as close friends do infringes their right to privacy. Teens are entitled to privacy especially in social media where one can say things that are not even true to fit in. Parental interference may discourage teens from interacting freely with their teens and thus, making them missing out on important personal growth matters or in skills earned by use of modern technology.

In Drexler(1) views enacting supervision law creates a great possibility for some young people whose parents are illiterate, lack technology knowledge or have limited access to this technology to miss out on important technological aspect in their growth, as most of them will not find importance of consenting to such technologies. Moreover, some parents may shy away from filling in the consent in fear of being exposed to government agencies especially the immigration. Consequently there will be a high level of imbalance among youths on the development of technical skills acquired in social media use. Thus, parental involvement in the use of social media may limit the technology use of these teens creating imbalance in teens’ technological development.      

Gould and Guardian Readers (1) refute the idea of parental limit in teens use of social media claiming that teens freedom in use of social media teaches kids an essential lesson on how to conduct themselves in a virtual environment. It teaches them on the meaning of public, what to share in public and what to remain in private through experience. It also teaches that some mistakes done over the internet cannot be erased. This cannot be learnt by being strictly supervised but by letting them exposed, to be able to learn. This gives them the knowledge they require to be able to behave responsibly over the social media in the future. In Gould and Guardian Readers views, parents can protect their children from the social media vices without surveillance to their act in the social media. According to him, most of the vices in social media are not caused by technology, but by individual behaviors. Thus, it is enough for parents to speak to their children, caution them on the vices and give them the freedom they need. In Gould and Guardian Readers, parental guidance and trust will be enough to caution a teen on what to do and not to do in social media.

The main strength of refuting argument is that the individual involvement in social media is basically defined by individual behavior. This implies that a child who is well behaved will find it inappropriate to have some kind of discussion in social media or sharing some pornographic materials in the social media. This implies that the situation is not defined by the system, but by individuals. Refuters consider limitations of teens on social media by parents as an interference of right. This is a weak argument since no parent would offer privacy right to jeopardize their children’s safety. Children have right to be safe and to be protected from social vices that can destroy their future.

Exposure of teens to social media can be beneficial to them and risky at the same time. After weighing the goodness and vices of this act, the regulation body found it necessary to demand parental supervision for younger teens. This is a great move in protecting negative social media influence to young kids. However, the critics’ terms this as interference of children’s right and as a way of limiting the development of their inner control. They also think that this can create inequality in the development of technological skills among teens, especially for those whose parents have other personal reasons to limit their use of technology. Nevertheless, it is important to realize that social media is a new technology that is likely to influence teens life both negatively and positively. Parents thus have a role to safeguard their children from social media vices and promote its positive outcome.

A Viable Social Media Strategy And Marketing Research Tool Help Understand The Target Market For A Health Care Organization

Assignment Instructions

Both social media and the Internet have changed the way that health care organizations market to their target populations. Complete the following:

  • You have been asked by the chief executive officer (CEO) of a local health care organization in your city or town to create a viable social media strategy for the target market.
  • Additionally, he asks that you develop a marketing research tool that will help the organization understand its target market.


Sample Answer – Viable Social Media Strategy And Marketing Research Tool To Help A Healthcare Organization Understand West Allis Target Market


Social media refers to digital technologies and media that permit users to exchange or share information, and to generate media content in community or individually. This media is progressively becoming an instrument supporting processes of healthcare, sharing and gathering information, promoting social networking, bringing people together, and communicating bout health issues, and it in this manner support patient empowerment (Denecke et al., 2015). Internet evolution from a restricted, technical resource, current vibrant “Web 2.0”where individuals have the ability to share information implies increasing number of persons living with different health problems are now placing private health facts into public  domains that include blogs, discussion boards, virtual environments, videos, and social network sites (Denecke et al., 2015). The great use of social media in positing and searching health information provides a great opportunity for healthcare marketing through social media. This paper evaluates how social media can be used to access the targeted market in healthcare industry.

Social Media Strategy for Target Market

The targeted market is basically people in the surrounding where the hospital is located. One of the best strategies to get to the targeted market through social media is by establishing a health blog. The blog should basically discuss health issues affecting people in the targeted market. The blog should basically be a guide to healthy life and it should thus focus on pointing out the health problem or diseases, their causes, the people at risk in the population, how the condition can be prevented, primary measures to be taken when infected or when one is suffering from the condition, and the support one should get from the health care organization and those that offer the needed care. The blog can act as a healthcare marketing tool where patients with various conditions will be referred for better treatment and care (Ventola, 2014). The blog should also be interactive such that the readers can ask questions and receive response, or they can give their experience or reaction toward the issue or the quality of the provided healthcare services.

The blog can also be linked to various social media pages and accounts in MySpace, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube that are managed by the healthcare organizations. These social media platform should similarly address health issues addressed in the blog. Their main aim would be to expand the blog discussion by sharing the blog link or gathering more opinions by enhancing message accessibility and extensive discussion regarding the health issue to all targeted individuals (Ventola, 2014). Thus, social media will be used as a means to recruit the targeted population to the healthcare organization blog. This will highly aid in blog marketing and with time, most people will be seeking the blog for more healthcare information, and direction to better care. YouTube accounts should mostly focus on providing professional opinion regarding the health issue and guidance on how one can seek health assistance from the healthcare facility (Denecke et al., 2015). The blog should also permit patients to book for important healthcare appointments, especially with regard to serious or common health issues addressed in the blog. The blog title should clearly link the blog with the healthcare organization, targeted market and health issues. This will make it easy for the readers to trust and own it, since it will clearly be addressing their health issues based on the title (Ventola, 2014).

Marketing Research Tool that Will Help the Organization Understand its Target Market

Market research refers to the process of collecting information regarding the targeted market, competition and customers. It can assist an organization in learning and understanding more about the targeted market. Market research helps one to understand the market needs, wants, believes and reaction to various situations. The best tool that the organization can use to understand the targeted market is a survey. The targeted region contains three major cities, with a population of about 34725 individuals. This quite a big population to access to and hence, it must be well represented in the research. Survey is the best market research tool since it will ease the coverage, eliminate biasness due to random participation and ensure that more is known about the targeted market. The population is considerably diverse based on gender, age, socioeconomic status, level of education, race and ethnicity, marital status, and area of residence. All these factors play a significant role in determining the population health. Thus, they need to be considered in the market research and thus a tool that will manage to gather more information within a short time period like a survey questionnaire would do, will be very relevant. The identified tool should also have the ability to extract information form wide variety of the people in the targeted region, including those who would feel shy to participate in a face-to-face encounter. The survey question will be simple and will use simple language. Moreover, they will be distributed through various methods including electronic methods such as emails and via social media links (Mahajan, 2015).

To ensure electronic distribution of the questionnaire, online survey platforms will be used to ease in the capturing of participants responses and in the analysis and interpretation of the data. Online distribution will also increase the number of the respondent and the sample, and hence obtaining the actual picture on the ground. The survey link will be shared in social media platforms that include Facebook, Twitter, WhatsUp and MySpace (Patino, Pitta& Quinones, 2012). Questions in the survey questionnaire will focus on determining the health issues the location is experiencing, the available care, the healthcare affordability, individual healthcare knowledge, their believe with regard to healthcare services, their expectations, their unmet healthcare needs, and some of the main challenges they experience while seeking or receiving healthcare in the region. This will help the organization to understand the market better (Mahajan, 2015).


Social Media’s Adverse Effects with a Special Focus on Cyberbullying – Argumentative Essay

Social Media: Friend or Foe?

Over the past century mankind has made inordinate advances in innumerable fields within a relatively short span. This great leap forward took hold in the 21st century owing to the availability of new technology and novel innovations prevalent in this era. Incidentally, futurists contended that technological advancements will herald a new era and influence every facet of human life. Thus, the Information Agesoon became a plausible reality, with pundits predicting that it would greatly influence the economic systems that would now depended on information technology. Similarly, the development of the internet accorded innovators a unique opportunity for exploitation and promoting improved interactions between human beings. The general idea was to seemingly create a knowledge –based society where top-notch technology would be implemented to influence computer microminiaturization and the development of nascent communication platforms (Kowalski, et al. 34). Social media thus emerged from this premise seeking to provide an interface where computer-mediated advancements could be harnessed appropriately hence promoting the transfer of ideas and information. It is therefore an undisputed fact that social media has been responsible for the creation of virtual communities where individuals interact through a wide range of web-based applications. In essence, a farmer in rural Iowa can now communicate directly with a nomad on the steppes of Mongolia through web-based technologies that allow them to share messages instantaneously. These drastic changes have brought about sudden modifications in human interaction and transfer of information that differs greatly from paper-based media. One of its distinctive features is its shift from mono-logic traditional dissemination of information toa new style of interaction. Nonetheless, it is vital to remember that social media is a double-edged sword that bredcyber-bullying amongst young individuals. The purpose of this argumentative essay is, therefore, to elucidate the position that social media is a contemporary foe, with a special focus on the rise of cyber-bullying as a new-fangled phenomenon.

Firstly, social media has had a relatively negative influence on society with regard to creating ideal opportunities for bullies to seek out new victims. In this social media epoch, nearly 71 % of American teens participate actively in a social networking website(“Cyberbullying: How to Make it Stop | Scholastic.com”).  With such huge numbers of potential victims surfing the inter-webs, bullies have discovered a new niche to exploit mostly targeting vulnerable individuals. Prior to the introduction of social media, bullying often involved a small clique of individuals who would ordinarily derive pleasure from harassing their counterparts. Though harrowing, these face-to-face interactions had a silver lining of their own. Victims were familiar with the perpetrators and could even avoid them. Contrary to popular belief, the number of individuals being subjected to such forms of harassment was lower then, compared to those of individuals currently grappling with cyber-bullying. According to the National Crime Prevention Council on Cyber-bullying Research Report (NCPCCRP), 43 % of middle and high school students admit to being harassed in online spaces(“Cyberbullying Continues to Challenge Educators”). It is vital to acknowledge that this phenomenon was made possible by the introduction of the social media portent that seemingly created a new realm for prospective bullies. In reality, social media has also made the situation worse making victims easy pickings for their tormentors. They are unable to hide from them and are easily humiliated in public forums with thousands of participants. Social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and Whatsapp allow users to create these group mediums meant to aid in sharing vital information in real-time. Unfortunately, they soon become openings for cyber-bulling cases where teens have been particularly known to abuse this privilege.  School administrators are at this battle’s front-line advising students to act responsibly while in online spaces. Students are thus expected to be constantly aware of the contents they intend to post online and whether or not it has the capability of adversely affecting others.

Social media has also emboldened bullies, making them even more callousand without the possibility of them being sanctioned for their actions. Cyber-bullies have now come up with new and innovative ways to harass persons and ultimately becoming the bane of their victim’s existence. One way is through fake profiles that use pseudonyms. Behind this veneer they can post mean and hurtful material with malicious intent knowing fully that their real identity will remain a mystery(“Kids on Social Media and Gaming”). The misuse of these websites and applications has also been further worsened by the Communications Decency Act. Through this piece of legislation, web operators cannot be held liable for any inappropriate behavior that takes occurs on their online platforms. The result is a breeding ground for bullies who are well aware of the fact that they can get away with these heinous and vile acts. Moreover, the introduction of social media also made it possible for bullies to operate incognito, therefore making vulnerable students regular targets. In sites such as 4chan, Chatroulette, Foursquare, and Stickam users have the ability to send messages anonymously to select individuals. As a result, messages are sent anonymously with the victims being unable to fathom their origin. It is particularly worse in the case of rumors spread since they can reach a large audience in a short amount of time. Through social media, bullies have been able to hatch elaborate plans on how to lash out and abuse their targets while being fully aware that their identities will remain a mystery. Nevertheless, teachers and school administrators can deal with this problem by immersing themselves in social media and comprehending the various dynamics in play. Through such actions they gain insight into all happenings around them, learningthe slang currently in vogue and being aware of students who are habitually targeted for harassment. In so doing, they are able to intervene and provide counseling and avert eventualities such as suicide.

Thirdly, social media has had a deleterious effect on the psychosocial state of students in learning institutions across the country. In most cases, those targeted by cyber-bullies are normally individuals at the furthest fringes of society. They typically hail from low-income families, a broken home, are insecure about their physical appearance and position in societal stratum. It is estimated that 61% of such individuals are ordinarily suffering from depression even before having to deal with their peer’s ruthless(“Cyberbullying Continues to Challenge Educators”). What is even more shocking is the fact that victims opine that bullying is a rite of passage that every school-going individual has to go through. They, therefore, fail to inform their parents or guardians whenever it occurs and, as a result, gets worsens as time goes by. Cyber-bullies take advantage of such situations to constantly taunt their victims to a point where some end up become clinically depressed. An immediate consequence of these actions is a steady drop in academic performance since they are unable to concentrate on their education. Their thoughts are usually preoccupied with the harsh comments that they read online which ultimately affects their psychological equilibrium. Absenteeism in victims of cyber-bullying is rife with some even preferring to quit school altogether. Social media thus ends up becoming an impediment to education. Schools are supposed to be the best years of an individual’s life, especially since they are quite impressionable and able to learn efficiently. Social media prevents this process from taking root since the primary preoccupation of victims is the constant barrage of insults that usually comes towards their direction. Teachers can help prevent such eventualities by being involved in their student’s lives. By so doing they can observe the emotional energy that students bequeath and hence being able to point out, with accuracy, a situation that warrants their attention. Spending time with the students during recess in the hallways and lunch hour allows them to observe any sudden changes and students being ostracized by their colleagues.

Even with a large majority of schools adopting a zero-tolerance policy towards cyber-bullying, a grey area still exists when tackling inappropriate out-of-school behavior. Strict codes of conduct have made it clear to students that they are bound by the school rules even when away from the school premises.  The reason why this is the case is often due to students usually having unsupervised time which can be spent engaging in retrogressive activities. Students may be attacked during this period, but the theatre of confrontation is the school since this is where they face their tormentors. It is for this reason that educational institutions have sought to broaden the scope of intervention, playing an active role in social networking sites. Common Core State Standards(CCSS) have been implemented across the United States to make certain that students feel safe while at school and free from stress. Manual and computer administrated assessments have recently been utilized to ascertain the general well-being of students. On the other hand, controversy still exists with regard to the extent to which punitive measures can be executed. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) has been at the forefront of ensuring that administrator’s actions do not end up being an affront to the freedom of speech. After the Tinker v. Des Moines 393 U.S503 (1969)and the Wisniewski v. Board of Education rulings the Tinker Standard was implemented, limiting the powers that were previously enjoyed by teachers(“We Hate Ashley”). Before implementing any punitive measure for off-site behavior, schools had to prove that these particular actions were of a foreseeable nature. This meant that they had the foresight of causing a form of disruption within the learning environment. Administrators have developed feasible strategies to surmount this challenge. Clearly defining the schools code is one such approach that often makes certain that the rules and regulations are reviewed in the presence of both parents and students.

In finality, social media is relatively newfangled innovation with undesirable effects while promoting cyber-bullying amongst school-going children. Social media was responsible for introducing cyber-bullying into the mainstream, allowing perpetrators to hassle their targets anonymously which often resulted in adversative psychosocial effects. Even with the implementation of zero-tolerance policies to deal with this problem, there are those who still believe in free speech espousing the Tinker Standard before making any determination.

Role Of Social Media in Politics – Magazine Style Article

You will write a magazine-style article that addresses the role of social media in politics. Our readings offer some disagreement on this issue. They also point to both national and international political scenes. This is a tough assignment. You probably have some experience with social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.), but you may not have thought a lot about the technology or its social implications. You also probably have some knowledge of current political events and major political matters of the last few years (e.g., Arab Spring, Occupy Wall Street, the last Presidential election, etc.), but you have probably not studied these matters in depth. In this article, your audience are other college students, who probably have similar levels of knowledge to yourself. Social media does seem to change the way we engage in politics. Whether or not it is a significant difference appears to be a matter of debate. This is a matter that might be of interest to those who have a stake in politics (which should be all of us). Your job is to find a way to connect to this issue, make it important to you, and then attempt to make it important and interesting to your audience.The Process

  • Readings and discussion: as you work your way through the readings and participate in discussion you should try to keep in mind how the points being raised connect with your own experiences with social media. Where do the arguments the others make strongly conflict with your experience? Where do the resonate? Most importantly, where do the authors’ perspectives shed new light on your experiences?
  • Your social media experience and politics: depending on your own use of social media, you’ve likely had some experience with political action online. Perhaps you’ve had some experience with local political issues being raised via social media (e.g. circulating a petition, organizing meetings, spreading the word, etc.).
  • Writing an article: As you write your essay you should consider how the authors appeal to their audience through a style that is not dry and academic but still manages to make a complex argument and deal with difficult issues in a thoughtful way.


  1. Your article must be a minimum of 1000 words in length.
  2. You must participate in the online, peer review workshop.

Evaluation Criteria

You will be evaluated by the following criteria, roughly in order of decreasing importance:

  • Discussion of the role of social media in politics
  • Engagement with at least one of the readings from this module
  • Ability to address a general audience
  • Engagement with the style and form of the article
  • Thoughtful response to workshop feedback
  • Spelling, grammar, other stylistic concerns.

Is Facebook Making us Lonely? – Short Argument Essay

The Stephen Marche article is based on a question of whether Facebook is creating loneliness among its users. The rate of loneliness among the American population seems to have increased recently, especially with invention of internet and social media. Most people seem to be concentrating more about their Facebook friends, forgetting physical relation. The article is based on the case of an old celebrity, who dies to what is associated to loneliness. This happens even after having so many Facebook friends. The incident made many people believe that Facebook makes people lonely. Nevertheless, Stephen does not buy this idea. According to him, Facebook is just a platform where a person transfers his or her existing connection virtually. In addition, people get to feel better when they share their status or comment to their friends in Facebook. Stephen argues that people who want to be lonely can be lonely even without the social media. The only relation between loneliness and Facebook is that most lonely people tend to spend most of their time on Facebook. They therefore in a way try to use Facebook to fight loneliness or to pass time; hangout (Marche 2-4).

I highly agree with Stephen that Facebook does not create loneliness. If anything, Facebook improves the status of the lonely people. Facebook among other social media provide a platform where one can chat and share their feelings with people, unburdening their emotions and distress. Facebook in particular ease the technique of accessing old friends that one could not manage to connect with in the normal situation. This makes it easy for people to catch up, share life events whether happy or painful, and gets an opportunity to get encouraged and supported by old friends that matters in their life. According to Ranaiey, Taghavi and Goodarzi (163), lonely people do not have different reasons of using social media compared to non-lonely people. This implies that they do not use social media because they are lonely. However, lonely people are said to spend more time in the social media compared to non-lonely people. This could be because they do not have quality physical social relations and hence they try to compensate that with virtual interaction with their old friends. Most lonely people are alone. Although being alone does not guarantee loneliness, most people who live alone lack strong family connection and hence they do not find it hard to use all their social time in the social media. They tend to find or get the satisfaction they would wish for in the social media.

Loneliness according to is frequently considered as the social isolation psychological embodiment, mirroring the person’s experienced discontentment with closeness and frequency of their social connections or the inconsistency between the associations they have and the association they would wish to have (Steptoe et al. 5797). In most cases, when a person experience dissatisfactions in their relationship, they tend to isolate themselves and completely cut their social interaction. However, this is different from what happens in the Facebook. People interact with each other virtually in the Facebook. Although the interaction is not physical, the sharing, and conversation taking place among friends is similar to the physical interaction. This means Facebook tries to substitute the natural interaction aspect, but not to kill social interaction as isolation would do. Thus, just as Stephen put it, Facebook only transfer physical connections into a virtual platform and hence, it does not add much to individual interaction desires, dislikes or likes, but only act as a tool to enhance this interaction. Thus it cannot be held responsible of creating loneliness. On the contrary, Facebook help people meet again after a lone separation and rekindle their friendship and social interaction. According to Cotton, Anderson and McCullough (2013), internet use allows older adults to remain in contact with one another and converse with their social ties. Similar to other digital communication platforms, Facebook can reduce the geographical distance impact for all who use it. Although intensive Facebook reduces individual physical interaction, it does not block individual’s social interaction. It only changes the ground or the platform where most of the interaction takes place.

Loneliness is mostly perceived not as an outer aspect of interaction, but an inner satisfaction. According to Cotton, Anderson and McCullough (e42) social isolation refers to objective experience of contact absence with other people, particularly the contact absence with individuals who offer desired or needed social support. Thus, social isolation is lack of meaningful social associations. Although social loneliness and isolation are closely associated concepts, persons that are socially isolated might not report loneliness feelings even though they do not have social contract. On the contrary, an individual who has rich social contact and is not socially isolated may report loneliness feelings if that contact does not seem as fulfilling what the individual wants from the association. This piece can counter the common counter argument that claims that Facebook reduces individual physical social interaction and hence act as a source of loneliness. Based on this piece, loneliness cannot be measured by having or lacking what people would consider social contact. On the contrary, it is measured by the satisfaction the contact offer. Thus, it is not how one socializes, or with how many people, but the quality of the association. This simply implies that a person may manage more satisfying social relation via Facebook, than other would have in physical social interaction. Thus, I do not support the argument that Facebook brings loneliness, on the contrary, I believe that Facebook acts as a means of reducing loneliness among individuals who have failed in establishing strong social ties in their adulthood. The chance of reuniting with childhood friends and confidant increases the quality of their social interactions, reducing loneliness.

Can Social Media Tools Such As Facebook And Twitter Enhance The Organization Image And Create A Competitive Advantage

Can Social Media Tools Such As Facebook And Twitter Enhance The Organization Image And Create A Competitive Advantage?

Yes. Social media tools have currently found great applications such as marketing and customer relationship purposes (Nord, Paliszkiewicz, & Koohang, 2014). The development of technology and the innovations of the social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter have created a platform, which brings together millions of people.  Most organizations have social media pages, twitter accounts and LinkedIn profiles, where they can easily interact with their customers and potential customers. These platforms have grown to be a source of competitive advantage for many companies.

The social media platform provides an avenue from which an organization can reach its potential customers with less costs (Ribarsky, Xiaoyu Wang, & Dou, 2014). The organizational cultivation of social media relationships with its customers has an added advantage of creating brand loyalty. For example, Strarbucks successful media presence has helped the company in sharing experience with the customers and this has enabled the company to develop more customers across the platform. Nothing is exciting a customer than getting the experience of having a one-to-one communication with the company representatives.

Moreover, many customers with many responsibilities rarely find time to seek feedback on certain products using traditional methods such as premise visits (Mjema, 2002). These traditional methods offer fewer opportunities for such customers to get product reviews. Therefore, social media offers advantage on such aspects of products such as reviews, which provides a competitive advantage over the companies without social media presence.

The increased costs of living means companies who wish to remain competitive must improve product quality with relatively competitive market prices. In order to create such a value, many companies must cut costs of its production, distribution and other marketing processes such as advertising.  Marketing process forms on of the key aspects of strategic plans for any organization, yet it consumes substantial amounts of investments. In addition, most advertisements can reach the unintended audience, yet substantial investments have been used. For example, a mortgage advertisement targeted at real estate developers through the radio may reach college students. However, the use of social media increases the ability of a company to reach the potential and indented customers at virtually no cost. The presence of social media platform offers an opportunity from which a company can cut such costs.

Although there are sponsored organization posts within the social media, social media acts as a tool for market research (Ribarsky, Xiaoyu Wang, & Dou, 2014). According to the author, most organizations employ the social media as a platform for conducting customer analytics. For instance, an organization that intends to introduce a product in the market may introduce it through its social media account. In doing so, the organization will receive views and suggestions about such a product from its customers and potential customers. Such views and suggestions would otherwise cost a lot of money if the test marketing were to be carried out. Moreover, the production units can use such views to tailor its products to meet specific customer demands. This offers the company an opportunity to meet the changing consumer preferences, thus offering it a competitive advantage in the market.

The other way in which the social media has been employed by businesses to create a competitive advantage is use of blogs. A company that regularly makes expert posts on its blogs convey the message of being the best in the industry. Such a strategy is likely to attract new customers as well as retaining the existing ones through creation of a differentiation from the competitors (Ribarsky, Xiaoyu Wang, & Dou, 2014). Actually, the use of social media offers a number of advantages, which when exploited well can provide a powerful competitive edge over competitors in the market. It even can be used to attract the best talent in the market. It is such powerful tools that it has seen many organizations across all the industries adopt the social media as a medium of communication and creating competitive advantage.

Mediated Communication and Social Media – Discussion

Mediated communication and social media (e.g., email, blogs, Facebook, Skype, and Twitter) have played a major role in changing the way that organizations engage in communication with their customers and with employees internally. As I have seen in the Military, mediated communication has had its share of friction over the years. Some recent examples may be extreme; however, it shows the magnitude on how mediated communications (Facebook) can quickly tarnish the reputation of a service that took years to build. A few examples (most recognized photo in the media) was where U.S. Marines urinated on the enemy’s bodies, and the other was the SS (Scout Sniper symbol) next to an American flag in Afghanistan. Both of these photos went viral within minutes after its posting on Facebook. The after affects are still being felt today. All too often, social media users are lulled into a sense of complacency, which fails to acknowledge the fact that one’s audience can be considerably larger than previously thought. What can we do to better remind ourselves of the potential reach of our messages?

Intellectual Property Legislation and Social Media

Intellectual property (IP) laws, or legislation, are continually face novel challenges brought about by social media, particularly with regard to copyright. Social media poses diverse risks to IP rights owing to its marked potential for transmitting copyrighted content virally. In the US, there are various pieces of legislation regarding the management of social media resources with respect to the rights (Daim, 2014; Halbert, 2014). This essay focuses on one of the pieces, the Leahy–Smith AIA (America Invents Act).

The AIA is a federal legislation enacted in 2011 and its key provisions became operational in either September 2012 or March 2013. The AIA represents a pronounced change to the country’s patent system, which has remained largely unchanged from the early 1950s. The AIA has considerable similarities with the Patent Reform Act that the Senate proposed in 2009. It was sponsored by Representative Lamar Smith along with Senator Patrick Leahy. Its overall effect is switching the patent system to a structured first-inventor-to-file (FIF) patent system from the traditional first-to-invent (FI) patent system from March 2013 (Daim, 2014; Halbert, 2014). As well, it gets rid of interference proceedings as well as provides for post-grant legal challenges, or opposition.

Besides, the AIA expanded the classic prior art’s definition, which is widely used in establishing patentability. Prior art, as well as actions, which block patentability within the AIA’s meaning, include public disclosures such as specific public filing dates, sales, use, and publications. Others include third party patent applications on the same works and specific inventor publications. As well, the AIA significantly expanded the art, including foreign sale offers as well as public uses (Daim, 2014; Halbert, 2014). If an applicant does not publish own invention before filing he or she does not enjoy any grace period.

The AIA has markedly transformed the traditional patent law regarding social media such as Twitter. In particular, those keen on protecting own innovations, as well as inventions, ought to be wary of what they post, or publish, on Twitter or other social media. That is because under the AIA, the prior art’s definition has expanded so significantly that particular disclosures that one may make on Twitter or other social media may be deemed prior art against them when they file for specific patent rights.

Besides, with the switching of the patent system from FI to FIF, comprehensive disclosures may give room to entities to file for the same rights on inventions before the owners of the inventions do the filing (David & Halbert, 2015; ; Halbert, 2014). Additionally, even though the AIA has simplified the pathway towards the invalidation of commercial method patents, business should remain cautious of claims of patent infringement stemming from particular processes or techniques that they implement on Twitter or other social media (Ossian, 2013).

Social media might facilitate IP theft in various ways. First, it might give room for the leakage of specific confidential information related to IP filings to the disadvantage of innovators and inventors. Second, social media may facilitate improper IP distribution. For instance, staff members posting information on ongoing projects on social media can create room for IP theft by business rivals. How can businesses bolster their systems for responding to the IP-related risks posed by social media? Given that such risks often give rise to lawsuits against businesses, every business should consider taking up cyber-liability insurance to safeguard their interests from the costs that may stem from IP loss lawsuits.

Integrating Social Media into Traditional Marketing

To date, traditional media plays noteworthy roles in commerce. In recent years, many businesses have sought to integrate social media, a budding media, into their public relations and marketing functions. Businesses are increasingly seeking ways of blending their offline spaces and online spaces (Academy of Marketing Science & Kubacki, 2014; Powell, Groves & Dimos, 2011). For instance, some businesses have devised ways of using Facebook together with billboards in marketing. Others are seeking for ways through which Twitter can work together with television. Several trends are clear from the efforts made by businesses towards the integration of the social media, as well the related technological tools, into their traditional advertising along with marketing campaigns.

Trends in the Integration of Social Media into Customary Advertising and Marketing Campaigns 

            As noted earlier, a number of the trends are obvious from the integration. First, more and more businesses are utilizing their traditional media in driving own social channels. They are using media like radio and print advertisements in promoting the channels like Facebook. They traditional media carry information persuading clients to join the businesses’ social conversations happening on the channels (Safko, 2013; Tripathi & Mukerji, 2013). Second, more and more businesses are using social media conversations in their traditional spaces. For instance, many businesses are using welcome comments made by clients on their social media platforms on their traditional spaces. The businesses are using such comments as testaments, or testimonials, carried by traditional like newspapers. Third, many businesses are utilizing traditional media as prizes. Many businesses are developing social media contests and showcasing those winning them on traditional media like print advertisements and television spots (Academy of Marketing Science & Kubacki, 2014; Powell, Groves & Dimos, 2011).

Fourth, presently, many businesses are continuing their marketing accounts or stories carried by traditional media on social platforms. The former is rather effective in reaching masses. Even then, it is commonly limited in terms of airplay and space. Many businesses have taken to capturing audiences with their marketing accounts or stories using it, but carrying them on online. That is helping the businesses in intriguing clients to establish more information relating to the accounts and the businesses in general (Safko, 2013; Tripathi & Mukerji, 2013). Fifth, more and more businesses are exploiting their traditional media resources with regard to spreading marketing messages but capturing the corresponding feedbacks using social media. That means that the businesses are now utilizing social media to make the communication between them and their markets truly two-way. They are using it to tap into their clients’ opinions and thoughts regarding their marketing campaigns on traditional media.

Sixth, an increasing number of businesses are promoting online content using their traditional media budgetary allocations. Businesses are now increasingly keen on sharing their growing pools of marketing content using online avenues like webinars, e-books, and blogs. The contents are useful to their target markets. The usage of the allocations in marketing content using online avenues is exemplified by internet-based display advertising and paid online searches (Academy of Marketing Science & Kubacki, 2014; Powell, Groves & Dimos, 2011). Seventh, a growing number of businesses are increasingly using traditional media in responding to recurring complaints against them made on social media. Notably, social media provides a reliable way via which businesses can learn about the complaints leveled against them by own customers. Businesses are making their responses to such complaints stronger by carrying them on traditional media. That makes the businesses come off as taking such complaints and related matters seriously.

Another trend is that, presently, more and more businesses are organizing offline marketing campaigns or events like marketing conferences using social media. The businesses are holding presentations, tweetups, and meetups in their offices while promoting them through own social channels (El-Gohary & Eid, 2013; Lee, 2014). Besides, it is now clear that more and more businesses are testing markets’ reception of their services, ideas or products using social platforms. The businesses are using traditional channels in promoting the services, ideas or products but getting the related feedback via social media (Safko, 2013; Tripathi & Mukerji, 2013).

Recommendations for the Incorporation of Social Media into a Teens’ Market Segment

Some of the most popular social platforms used in marketing services, ideas, and products to teenagers are Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. Businesses that are keen on the marketing services, ideas, and products to teenagers should not only have marked presence on the platforms but also engage the teenagers actively on the same platforms. The businesses ought to be keen on what inspires, as well as motivates, teenagers. The adoption of the following recommendations can make a business rather successful in reaching out to the market segment comprising of teenagers.

1.      The business should develop engaging and highly visual marketing content

The behaviors expressed by teenagers shift rather quickly, with their principal turnoffs within social spaces being unoriginality and boredom. To ensure that the marketing content run by the business on social media is not boring, it should be an intrinsically visual and appealing brand. The growth of the content should be organic (Safko, 2013; Tripathi & Mukerji, 2013). The content should come off as authentically present within the social spaces frequented by teenagers.

2.      The business’ marketing efforts to the segment should promote self-expression.

Teenagers find expressive and creative messages appealing. They take up the messages and utilize them expressively and creatively. Teenagers are likely to take up messages that they can customize and personalize. They are likely to take up services, ideas, and products which they can use in creating content (El-Gohary & Eid, 2013; Lee, 2014). The business should develop marketing content that the teenagers can share, respond to, comment on, pull in, and push out easily. The business should put efforts geared towards the promotion of increased self-expression with its services, ideas, and products (Powell, Groves & Dimos, 2011). Besides, the business should offer the targeted teenagers ways that they can use in sharing the content they develop.

  1. The business should appeal to mobile and multi-screen utilization.

Even though television advertisements are traditional in their orientation, the business should integrate television spots with its social platforms. The business should exploit the growing trend of social television among targeted teenagers and all teenagers in general. The business should broadcast its marketing content on diverse platforms since teenagers find merely watching one of the platforms like the television boring over time (El-Gohary & Eid, 2013; Lee, 2014).

Measuring the Recommendations’ Outcomes

The outcomes of the actualization of the recommendations can be established in various ways. The outcomes can be established using predictive analytics along with marketing metrics (El-Gohary & Eid, 2013; Lee, 2014). The latter measures marketing outcomes based on effectiveness. Businesses can use the metrics in gauging the outcomes of the actualization of the recommendations in terms of sales changes. Predictive analytics entails the usage of statistics in examining and determine given data patterns like sales data patterns in given market segments (Academy of Marketing Science & Kubacki, 2014; Powell, Groves & Dimos, 2011). The analytics can be used in establishing the behavioral changes in teenagers constituting the market segment in which they recommendations are implemented.

Effects of Social Media

Positive Effects

Social media has positively impacted businesses. Today, most businesses thrive on social media with some of them carrying out their businesses on social media. The traffic on social media makes it a prime platform for businesses to do their advertisements and engage with their customers as well as potential customers. The aspect of social media “virality” is the sole interest of all businesses using social media for marketing purposes and even sales.

Social media has enhanced communication and is considered the most viable choice of communication by most people today. This is because it is efficient and a convenient channel of communication. Additionally, it is cost effective since you only need internet subscription to access social media sites. It is also free to join most social media sites (Imtiaz, 2015).  It is effective in the sense that one is able to send and receive messages and ascertain the receipt of the same.

Social media offers opportunities to share knowledge and therefore a convenient platform for learning. A lot of information is posted on social media either on blogs or on comment boxes and some of these information are academic writings which are useful information. By the same token, there are social media personalities who use social media specifically to provide educative information. Following these personalities exposes one to a lot of useful information.

However, despite the numerous benefits of social media, there are also negative impacts of social media. As a platform where people engage and create virtual relationships, it establishes a domain in which all mannerisms of social ills are perpetrated. Despite the security measures and regulation put in place to limit user content, it is difficult to control users given the many subscribers and parody accounts.

Negative effects

Whereas social media is good for allowing easy communication, it is addictive and this is one of its negative effects. Obsession to social media can be dangerous because it might lead to depression. Social media addicts spend countless hours on social media and this lowers their productivity levels in virtually everything. Teenagers are mostly the victims of this circumstance and this is because they have a yearning to interact, make friends and satisfy their psychological desires.

Social media sites for example Instagram can be psychologically dangerous to kids due to the genre of pictures and videos shared on such sites. Some of the pictures posted on such sites contain violence and sex and this is erodes the mental make-up of kids and teenagers. Kids are affected because they lack the reason to differentiate between good and bad (Imtiaz, 2015).

Social media has also been used by cyber bullies to threaten and bully people. Cybercrime has increased and this partly due to social media. It is easy to access people’s personal information on social media especially the ignorant group that does not embrace the security measures on social media sites. Social media is full of parody accounts that are created with malice aforethought making it a potentially dangerous platform.

Lastly, social media has affected how the youth generation communicates. Various forms of lingo have been developed since the inception of social media. To cut on time, there are numerous abbreviations that have been created to speed up the communication process and this has destroyed the purity of language. For example, the abbreviation “LOL” has been globally recognized to stand for “laugh out loud” and this simply due to social media. On the other hand it has led to culture collusion and intercultural mingling among the youths and other social media users.

Difference Between Social Media And Other Medias


Virality in social media context refers to the tendency of information to circulate from one internet user to several other internet users within the shortest time possible. Social media is a platform that promotes circulation of information and this is through sharing and reposts. More often than not, sensitive information posted on social whether written or pictorial has the potential to go viral (Ellison, 2007). Social networking sites like twitter, Facebook, Pinterest and Tumblr among others provide for information sharing options. This functionality is indifferent to other media which makes it unique to social media.

Businesses find this aspect of social media very useful especially in terms of marketing. Today most businesses prefer viral marketing to traditional convenient marketing techniques. The possibility of a product to draw attention via social media is very high especially when it goes viral and this is good for business. Activists and non-profit organizations also have particular interest in the virality of social media. They use social media to spread information about pressing concerns and issues that affect the public.

Mobile Use

This simply refers to the use of social media on social media devices such as smartphones and tablets. Today, people use mobile devises to access information on social media at their own comfort zones. There are social media applications that are installed in mobile devices to allow for communication and information access. In addition, other features are present in mobile devices such as location of user information, time of information access and delays. This is different to traditional media.

The most important factor in using social media on mobile devices is the immediacy with which information is exchanged between one social media user to another. Smartphones for examples allow for immediate notifications whenever posts are made or messages are sent via social networking sites. This aspect is unique to social media and it also fosters the virality aspect of social media because users can react to posts and messages as immediately as they get notifications via their mobile devices.

Business potential

Whereas traditional media offers wide variety of opportunities to businesses in terms of marketing, social media has brought convenience in online marketing as well as online businesses. The time-location sensitivity aspect of social media has improved market research because businesses can now carry out market research on social media considering time and location aspects. Social media also allows for relationship development between the customer and the service provider because it encourages engagements, inquiries and response to critical questions about services and products of a business.

In addition, social media facilitates promotions and discounts. Businesses and companies are able to promote products and give discounts to specific users of their product at given timelines. For example, companies offering transport services can use social media as a marketing platform to promote their services and offer discounts to their customers at given times of the day or on specific days in a week. Regular checks on business online platforms bycustomers improve business relationships and customer loyalty because customers have access to information anytime.


Social networking                               

Social networking refers to the use of social media platforms to share information and communicate. It involves the use of social networking sites such as Facebook, twitter, WhatsApp, LinkedIn, YouTube and Instagram among others. People use social networking sites all over the world and communication via these platforms is highly advanced in the sense that it enables even the sharing of images and documents. Social networking sites allow people to create a virtual community where people can express themselves exchange ideas and information (Patridge, 2011).

Social media marketing

Today social media marketing is a common phenomenon. Companies and business create user platform from which they carry out marketing through advertisements, promotions etc. It is important to understand that social media marketing platforms have in-built data analytic tools that companies and business corporations use to carry out marketing research by tracking progress, customer-company engagement and following up on campaign adverts. For business and firms to optimize the use of social media for marketing, it is imperative that they allow for user-generated content and comments.

Characteristics of Social Media

While the definition that social media is a system of communication that brings people together, may not hold a lot of weight as to the true nature of social media, it is imperative to understand that social media encompasses four unique commonalities that can be used to establish the true meaning and nature of social media. These include the following:

Social media are web 2.0 and internet-based application

Social media comprises of applications that use the internet to operate. Some and most of these applications are social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter that operate only on web-based systems with internet connection. This means that one has to have access to internet to be able to use social media. The availability of internet all over the world has made it possible for social media to thrive and grow amidst competition from traditional media.

User-generated content

Social media thrives on user-generated content. User-generated content refers to the content that is generated by social media users. Social media has millions and billions of users who generate content form which responses, reposts, and information sharing are made possible. In social media parlance, even institutions, government bodies, business corporations and personal accounts are considered social media users and it is from these accounts that content is derived to ensure social media remains an active platform for everyone or every institution or business.

User profiles

Social media unlike other media allows people, business organizations and institutions to create user profiles from which user content is generated. These profiles are personalized or are specific to individuals, organizations or institutions with controlled access and usage as well. Management of these accounts is left to the social website management. However, users have the capacity to design their profiles to suit their preferences in terms of security, access and affiliations.

Creating networks

Social media allows users to connect with other users by being friends or joining groups from which ideas are shared and networks created. Individuals are able to interact with other individuals either via comments or through personalized messaging systems. Additionally, it allows for people to share views on posts made on social media platforms and this interactivity is important in enhancing communication.

Despite the different social media platforms in existence, the purpose of these platforms is to enable communication between individuals. The interfaces of these platforms may differ as well as user requirements but the purpose does not change. Some of the networking sites are specialized such as Instagram that uses pictures as a baseline for interaction. LinkedIn by the same token is a preferred social site for professionals etc. Additionally not all social media platforms allows for business marketing and advertisement. WhatsApp for example does not carry out adverts and marketing for businesses. It is purely for private conversations between individuals.

What Is Social Media? – Research Paper

Social media refers to a group of computer-mediated systems that allow for exchange of information, ideas, personal interest and other forms of expression via networks. Social media encompasses various forms of interactive interfaces that make it easy to communicate, share information both print and visual. Social media systems use the internet as a provider service to allow for interconnection between various individuals within a wide area.  Most applications of social media are web-based and users are able to create personal accounts, groups and business platforms. Individuals are able to generate comments and make posts through these accounts and in the process communication is enhanced (Partridge, 2011). The question that arises is on the change that social media has brought.

Social media has brought a paradigm shift in the communication sector not only by establishing efficient communication platforms but also by ensuring convenience in communication. Today, people are able to communicate efficiently at a cheaper price regardless of distance as opposed to the year before social media came to light. Whereas interpersonal communication has been enhanced, businesses have also resorted to the use of social media not only to market their products but also to sell their products.

It is important to note that social media differs from traditional media in several ways. Paper–based media and televisions are indifferent top social media in terms of quality, speed and permanence of information transmitted. Social media eases the communication processes between individuals and also the speed at which communication can be made. Today it is very easy to inform a big population of people an issue of concern within seconds due to social media as opposed to traditional media that work based on timelines.


Social media operates using a wide range of websites. Some of the most common websites are Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, LinkedIn, YouTube, Google+ etc. These websites have millions of subscribers and at any one point in time, millions of users use this sites. Observations have been made on the danger and benefits of social media. Governments, corporations, non-governmental organizations learning institutions have embraced the use of social media for communication purposes and its benefits cannot be underestimated. However, issues have arisen of depression, cyberbullying, cyber trolling and social media harassment and these are some of the dangers of social media. Today the obsession to social media in the United States has rose from 66% to 102%. This means that the use of social media is becoming inevitability in the current world.

Business organization and corporations, however, have used social media to expand horizons through improved reputation and efficient communication to customers who find it easy to deal with business organization via online platforms. They not only reduce the costs of operation but also increase their popularity base through adverts and this is a good thing for any business. In this regard, it is important to understand that social media as a communication platform has not only improved personal communication processes but also businesses across the globe because it is easier today to carry out international business via online platforms than before. Social media plays a critical role in the management and running of international businesses. Marketing is one aspect that has embraced social media in its entirety. Most business use social media platforms for marketing and even sales. Some of the social media sites also have rewarding systems for subscribers which makes it a hub for earning for some individuals. An example is YouTube.

Social Media Plan for a Health Related Campaign

The social media plays a very significant role in our society in bringing to light several aspects of peoples’ lives and their access to the health information. Since ancient times, public health institutions and organizations were using radio and print media and also social marketing frameworks to broadcast vital health information to the public. But nowadays, the use of social Medias like youtube, Twitter, facebook and other social media channels has increased considerably (Andrew and Titov, 2010).

The use of the social media has turned out to be an effective manner through which health messages and information can efficiently be accessed. Social media have basically linked a lot of people to enhance the timely distribution and possible influence of safety information and health, to expand reach to diverse audiences, enablecollaborativecommunication and public engagement and encourage people to make healthier and safe decisions about their health.

Over years, the internet has greatly influenced people’s relationships. Though nurses, doctors and other health specialists continues to be the fore front for people with health issues, online sources like advice from peers are very important source of health in the United States of America. The following are the two major driving forces for online health chats; increased activity and desire specifically among persons living with chronic diseases and accessibility of social media mechanisms.

There is extensive indication that many American are going online to seek health information. Generally, 80% of the Americans are categorized as internet users by statistics carried out. About 15% of Americans have used internet in finding out about some health information like weight, diet and exercise.  About 60% were found to be using social networks like myspace, facebook and twitter.

Even though social media can talk about different presentations, inclusive of media sharing and blogging servers, social medias like facebook permits users to form and online networks of pals and associates. Each and every type of social media network can cater to different demographic and each has an exclusive role in the current social media landscape as discussed bellow.


Public health organizations can create an account or institutional facebook page. Organizations like the US center for Disease Control and World Health Organizations all may subscribe to facebook in such a manner. These pages contains most of the features of facebook like photos, posts, video uploads and discussion boards. Settings may be changed according to the organization’s needs and objectives.

For instance, most organizations permits users to like the page instated of sending a friend request. When a user likes the page of that particular health organization, they will automatically be receiving updates and posts of health information from their page.

Organizations on the social media in most cases ask usersof their websites to like them on facebook by putting a link to their official website. After clicking on the link, users are now entitled to receive updates on the health matters related to that health organization. Health Organizations do use facebook in advertising and exposing themselves to the public. Advertisement do target specific audiences coming on their facebook page.

You Tube

Health organizations may use you tube in uploading videos related to the health which comes to no cost to the users. A link may be embedded on an organization’s website or any other social media that the organization is using. You tube has been linked to Google accounts such as g-mail.


Creating a twitter account is free to both public and corporate organizations. Twitter feeds can also be fixed on external websites, together with the official websites of public health departments, such as Hamilton Public Health Services at no extra cost (Ball and Lillis, 2001). Users can follow the health department by clicking on the link provided and logging into their Twitter account to confirm their interest in following the health organization. Then they will automatically receive updates through their Twitter account, text messaging, or smartphone applications broadcast by that organization. On the other hand, non-Twitter users can click the link provided and be taken to that organization’s Twitter feed to view recent posts, though non-Twitter subscribers are not able to “follow” the feed to get updates sent to them. Besides being a collaborating outreach medium that broadcasts in real time, Twitter is an excellent networking tool. Organizations can follow community partners for their updates and re-broadcast messages broadcast by them. Related to Facebook, this type of direct networking doubles as extra promotion for an organization’s Twitter page.



Blogger, like other blogging sites such as Live Journal, Blogspot, and Word Press are free applications that allow users to create and design their own blog. With unique features like allowing lists of followers and favorite blogs, Blogger is adaptable enough to fit almost any need at no cost to the user. It can also be linked to Google accounts and other social media applications. Like Twitter, Blogger lets other Blogger users to follow an organization’s blog and get instant updates notifying them of new posts, simply by clicking a button on the blog. Non-Blogger users can also easily access agency authored blogs as long as the blog’s confidentiality settings are set to be available to the public. Blogger ensures for minimal website design through a template application, though more elaborate designs may require the cost of hiring a web developer.

Public health interventions on social media in America.

I used a facebook fun page and advertisements, videos and photos hosting sites such as you tube, prominent bloggers and shared videos so as to enhance the online sale of condoms and also how to use them in America. Even though less than 9% of the sales were done online, this was relatively high compared to online sales of condoms in comparable countries like Europe and Britain. Although the impact on the sales was successfully achieved, the educational part of the website was not accessed frequently showing that the public was not accessing the website for the purpose of education or even entertainment.

Another sexual health related campaign I planned meant to target youth so as to sensitize the awareness of HIV/AIDs infections. In partnership with MTV, we posted a video featuring submitted by American Youths infected and affected by HIV. In conjunction with public service announcements and separate video contests, this was believed to significantly increase the HIV awareness to the public.

Blood donation was also a best health campaign I thought about using in the social media platform to inform the public about the importance of donating blood. In partnership with American blood centers, we opted to initiate a social media like facebook to promote blood donation (Eysenbach, 2008). On the facebook page, we first encourage the users to like a certain photo showing a person transfusing blood in a campaign intended to increase the number of Rh negative donors. There was a huge traffic recorded on that page during the first four weeks of the campaign and then steadily declined until the seventh week. Afterwards, the number of Rh negative donors suggestively increased. Consequently, the organization reports a positive experience and estimates that they can reach above 190,000 donors with their facebook profile.

I also thought VERB to be an effective way to campaign on social media promoting physical activity. This campaign targeted adolescents through a number of media platforms. The campaign involved television shows, but put more emphasis on new media platforms like websites, viral videos, a text messaging campaign and human interaction referred to as Yellow campaign. Through text messaging campaign, about 25,000 teenagers were reached with messages encouraging them to participate in physical activity. Yellow ball campaign involved distributing of yellow sports balls to community and schools centers countrywide. The balls contained labels with instructions to register them on the social media campaign. Once registered teens were taught how to play with the balls and further described the type of physical activity they performed in the website. Then the balls were to be passed on to a friend to do the same. Successfully, the campaign used teen’s social network to reach over 50% of American teenagers.

The US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention shows the exceptional characteristics of social media that make it highly effective health advancement tools, listing the three P’s”: presentation, personalization and participation (Eysenbach, 2001). Social media permits tailored message that are personalized to target audiences in distinctivemanner, it permits presentation of messages in numerouslayoutsalluring to a wide variety of customers and most importantly, it permits participatorycharities from health clients themselves, enabling two-way communication that is a different and thrilling concept in public health, where information has traditionally been scattered in a one-way manner from doorkeeper to user. The Center for Disease Controllay emphasis on that social media not only lets public health organizations to control social networks to enlarge the reach of target messages, but also involves users in important way. By enabling participation by health clients in the spread of health information and information sharing, social media can extremely empower them to make good health choices for themselves and influence their age mates as wells to do the same. Arguably, this makes social media one of the most valuable devices in the public health toolbox.

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Movember Social Media Health Campaign Analysis

Movember health campaign

Movember is based in Australia, it is a non-profit organization founded in the year 2003 whose major aim is to help most men survive prostate cancer and live a better quality life free from prostate cancer, and this foundation has its campaign with men at the center of everything that they do (Eric and Ann, 2013). It is a charitable organization that has grown to a true global movement inspiring most people, more than one million towards its campaigns. It has its supporters across the world with its growth continuing with formal campaigns based in Australia. The supporters of the campaign are commonly referred to as the Mo Bros and Mo Sistas (Garone, 2011). As mentioned earlier, their major goal among others include to create a campaign promoting the growth of the moustache among the like-minded people and to have fun along the way raising global awareness. They also fund survivorship initiatives that aim at providing information and support for the men and their respective families affected by prostate cancer, this support is aimed at helping these men make informed decisions that generally improves their life quality. They do prostate and testicular cancer research.

This campaign has its target individuals, mostly the victims of the prostate cancer, the men all other the world. The campaign however targets women too, the selfless women who are out to support men in the fight against prostate cancer. These women are known as the Mo Sistas in Australia. The campaign has its peak on the month of November, during this period; the individual men of all ages do register at the Movember website where these very registered men are challenged with the prospect of sprouting moustaches. The challenge goes on for a month thereby raising money for their efforts. Movember is responsible for the thousands of men’s moustaches that are on display throughout the month. It is stated on the Movember website that these men are afterwards regarded as talking and walking billboards for the 30 days of November. It is stated that more than 1.1 million individuals are inspired to participate in the Movember campaigns. These include both the men and women (Lynn, 2010).

The scope of the prostate cancer is well identified by the campaign.  The campaign movement raises awareness of the health problems men face, the prostate cancer and other cancers that affect men globally. The Movember foundation demonstrates clearly their vision on an everlasting impact on men’s health. They are aiming at accelerating global research towards the risks involved in men’s health focusing mainly on prostate cancer. Since one of the foundation’s main aims is to fund the research in to the prevention of prostate cancer tragedy, the organization set up its GAP Program. The program uses the funds created from its campaign to gather the best researchers from around the world to work together on key challenges that will enable the breakthroughs into the research that will benefit men with prostate cancer.

Geographically, the foundation is based in Australia but its impact goes all the way beyond the geographical boundaries of Australia. However, due to its huge expansion rate, the charity has changed and expanded its target of geographical audience to a global scale. Statistically, it has been tabulated that there exist more than 208,000 charities registered in the UK.

Demographically the campaign was originally during its formation was only targeting the young men of Australia. It is of great concerned that the foundation has experienced a tremendously high growth rate that has led to its demographic expansion to a global scale too. This goes far beyond just its founding country. There was a focus on the young men since the founders believed that this target audience would be the best and more willing to participate in the campaign and that their desire to make a difference in the world would have a great impact thereby encouraging others to also participate in the campaigns. Apart from the young men, other audiences for the campaign were the friends and families of cancer victims or survivors.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Social Media Campaign Analysis

Over the past decades, organizations in the health sector have increasingly used social media tools to disseminate health messages (Newbold and Campos, 2011). Social media campaigns have been very effective methods of expanding research and fostering engagement between health organizations and their stakeholders. Health communicators have reaped significant benefits from integrating social media into health communication. Maximum effectiveness is achieved if social media campaigns meet the requirements of the best practice guidelines (Newbold and Campos, 2011). The social media campaign that is largely used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and that has been chosen for analysis in this paper is blogs and badges. The two components of blogs and badges are consistent branding across all channels and interactive content that allows users and the organization to engage in a conversation. These two components meet the requirements of the best practice guidelines set by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention largely uses small graphic images called badges to share important health information with interest groups. These small graphics have been used according to the best practice guidelines set by the organization. For example, the badges have been created in several sizes to fit different web pages. In addition, health messages included in the badges are simple and catchy. The designs or images are also attractive and colorful and can be viewed on different sites. Moreover, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention include URLs on the image and links that direct the user to its website (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011). The use of badges that meet the best practice guidelines has enabled the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to promote activities and increase awareness about relevant health topics.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also uses regularly updated online journals to share health related content with many people across the world. Blogs allow readers to engage in discussion and leave comments. The organization ensures that each and every post consists of its logo for consistent branding purposes. Blogs used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention meet the best practice guidelines. For example, the organization provides links to web pages that contain contents that support different posts. In addition, the posts have been kept as short as possible with attention-grapping headlines. The organization also keeps the posts consistent throughout all channels and offers readers the opportunity to make comments (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011).

Even though the blogs and badges meet the best practice guidelines, the campaign can still be improved by adding new keyword to different posts and by making posts and graphics appear on the first page. Adding new keywords on the existing social media campaign will allow readers to access the required content very fast. In addition, making posts to appear on the first page of search results enables users to get what they are looking for within the shortest time possible. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention should implement these two methods to improve its blogs and badges in order to enhance public engagement (Heldman, Schindelar and Weaver, 2013).

Blogs and badges is one of the social media campaigns used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The two significant components of this campaign are consistent branding and interactive content. Blogs and badges meet the requirements for best practices set by the organization. For this reason, blogs and badges assist the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to disseminate important health information that has potential impacts to diverse audiences.

NR360 – Smartphone and Social Media Use in Healthcare


Smartphones and social media have become central to everyday lives of many people. Many people use smartphones and social media sites to fulfill different tasks both at home and at their places of work (Gill, Kamath and Gill, 2012). For examples, clinicians greatly use smartphone photography to evaluate medical conditions for efficient healthcare delivery. Readily available smartphones may lead to the capture and storage of patient images that may later be exchanged through the social media. The market penetration of social media sites and smartphones is increasing at a very rapid rate in every professional field and industrial sector, particularly in the field of healthcare. This is bringing with it a number of ethical, professional, and legal dilemmas (Kirk et al., 2014). In the healthcare setting, smartphone and social media use can become security and privacy risks, making it wise to formulate policies that will guide their overuse and abuse by employees at work.

Discussion regarding HIPAA regulatory requirements

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, (HIPAA), of 1996 contains standards for privacy and security of patient information. The Act seeks to protect identifiable health information, thereby ensuring security and privacy of patients’ information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act summarizes the regulatory requirements that all healthcare professionals, including nurses must adhere to in order to help protect identifiable health information. Under the privacy rule of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, healthcare professionals are required to provide patients with complete information on how their health information is disclosed and used. This is achieved by issuing patients with a Notice to Privacy Practices that documents how one’s information may be shared or used. The document also explains the legal rights of the patient as well as those of the healthcare provider with respect to protected health information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

Additionally, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act states that patients have the right to scrutinize, review, and have a copy of their health information that is held by a healthcare institution. Every healthcare provider that is covered by the Health Insurance and Portability Act must comply with the patients’ request for access of their information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015). Again, under the Health Insurance and Portability Act, patients have the right to request healthcare institutions to amend their health information, particularly when the information held is either incomplete or inaccurate. Moreover, patients have a right to obtain an account of disclosures showing that the healthcare organization has shared an individual’s health information with an external institution under the Health Insurance and Portability Act (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

In addition, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act states that all patients have the right to request a healthcare institution to disclose their protected information to individuals or organizations for treatment purposes. The Act also established civil and criminal sanctions for violating its requirements. Violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulatory requirements is considered unprofessional, unethical, and illegal. Healthcare professionals, including nurses, must therefore understand and put these requirements into practice for effective protection of patients’ health information (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

Selected conclusion

Healthcare professionals who use smartphones and social media must adhere to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulatory requirements. In the given scenario, taking Jerod’s photos as well as his personal information during medical assessment is professionally, ethically, and legally wrong. Focusing on the third conclusion, posting Jerod’s pictures taken using a smartphone on Instagram and Facebook is considered unprofessional, unethical, and illegal. The act is a complete violation of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act limits and prevents nonconsensual use and revelation of patients’ health information. The moment Jerod’s picture is posted on Facebook and Instagram, it will be available to millions of people who are also members of these social media sites. The fact that Jerod’s pictures were taken when he was unconscious and half-way dressed is a clear indication that Jerod is not aware that his pictures are being distributed by the healthcare professional. The act is therefore punishable under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2015).

Advantages and disadvantages using smartphones and social media in healthcare

One example of technological advancement in healthcare is the use of smartphones and social media by healthcare professionals. The use of smartphones and social media in healthcare has got a number of advantages and disadvantages. One of the advantages is that, smartphones and social media enable managers of healthcare institutions to disseminate relevant information to a large group of people in the shortest time possible. In addition, healthcare professionals use smartphones and social media sites to expand their horizons and learn more about patient care. Again, healthcare professionals enjoy educational opportunities where research and creative ideas are presented on the internet and social media sites. Physicians, nurses and other healthcare experts build professional networks using smartphones and social media sites (Hasley, 2010).

The use of smartphones and social media sites may pose privacy and security risks to both workers and patients who may have their details posted on the internet and other social media sites. In addition, healthcare professionals may use smartphones and social media sites to discuss the behavior of their colleagues as well as those of patients. Furthermore, healthcare professionals may take pictures of patients using smartphones and later post them on social media sites. Generally, the use of social media and smartphones may bring about numerous improvements on the nature of care received by patients, and at the same time ruin the professional, ethical, and legal relationship between a healthcare professional and his or her patient (Hasley, 2010).

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Obama’s Social Media Campaign Analysis

Over the resent years, the number of people and organizations exploiting social media marketing potential has increased exponentially. Many people have used Twitter, Facebook, Twitter, Google plus and YouTube to successfully create awareness, market and sell various products and services (Aaker& Smith, 2010). Yetthere is still a great knowledge gap on how to leverage social technology to successfullyproduce social good. Social good is believed to be a product, either service or goods, that benefit the greatest number of individuals in the largest conceivable way(Bimber, 2014). Contrary to the popular misconception, asuccessful social media campaign isfounded on the psychology of individual’s social behaviors and not on the current technology.

The Dragonfly Effect byJennifer Aaker and Andy Smith is a book that was published in 2010 that concentrates on how social media has the supremacy to make significant difference. It emphasizes on the behavioral mechanisms that influence the level of impact a social media campaign has on its audience. The Dragonfly Effect Model is founded on four wings that dictate the efficacy of any social campaign. The wings are Focus, Grab Attention, Engage, and Take Action. Just like a dragon, a social media campaign moves at the intended speed anddirectionality only when the four wings are in harmony (Aaker& Smith, 2010).


In 2008, president Barak Obama’s Presidential campaign was a historic event not only because he was the first African American to ever win presidential elections but also because he was the first presidential candidate who had ever used social media as his main campaign strategy successfully (Van Aelst, Van Erkel, D’heer, & Harder, 2014). In 2008, this social media, although prevalent, it was not as ubiquitous as it is today. When Obama commenced his campaign in 2007, twitter was just gaining popularity and thus distributing voting mementos via Twitter and networking with supporters on Facebook was a bold move that left a lasting impression (Van Aelst, e.t. al., 2014).

During his second campaign in 2012, social media platforms had advanced drastically and the number of adult Americans on social media had grown to from 37% in 2008 to about 69% (Van Aelst, e.t. al., 2014).  In 2012 there were speculations that social media would have a similar impact on presidential election as it had in 2008 so other candidates also tried to harness social media technologies as well. However, Obama had an edge since his teamhad the expertise from previous experience and he also had already established social media following.  Social media predominated by relationships hence having an already existing social media system was a noteworthy benefit over Romney’s campaign that was just starting out on social media (Bimber, 2014). In the end, Obama’s campaign dominated the social media in 2012 just like it did in 2008.

The Dragon Effect model presents four key ideas presented for a successful social media campaign, all of which the Obama campaign had. The ideas include: formulating and communicating a clear message and vision; defining a digital landscape; building relationships; and having clear calls to action(Aaker& Smith, 2010).

Formulate and communicate a clear message and vision. In this aspect, Obama’s campaign focused on Hope, Change, and Action.

Define a digital landscape.  Obama’s social media campaign strategy was built on knowing the most influential bloggers, exploiting the main communication hubs, and having presence in the leading social networks.

Build relationships. The campaign team focused on three key actions, which were listen, be inventive, and ask questions.

Clear calls to action. Every action conducted during the social media campaign was geared towards getting an offline activity, getting people to vote.

Measuring the effectiveness of a social media campaign can be problematic since there is no standard gauge for measuring effectiveness. The number of posts or tweets does not determine the success of the campaign; user engagement does, usually indicated by the content sharing. For instance, Obama’s social media campaign can be said to have been more successful than Romney’s since it recorded twice as many Facebook “Likes” than Romney’s page and his twitter page logged approximately 20 times more re-tweets than Romney’s page (Van Aelst, e.t. al., 2014).  This can be attributed to having an already existing fan base but also on sharing followers’ friendly content.

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Develop Social Media Marketing Plan

Drawing on the concepts, skills, techniques and learning of the course, plus personal experiences and observations, you are an expert Social Media Consultant required to develop a Social Media Marketing Plan for an organisation which either has no Social Media  presence or a poor one. Alternatively, your plan could focus on an existing (or newly-launched) product or brand within the organisation. The term ‘product’ is used in its widest sense and includes physical goods, services, destinations, people, ideas etc. The organisation may be a business or not-for-profit organisation. It should have at least 5 employees or a minimum turnover of $0.5m and can be chosen from:

· A company/business you are familiar with through current or previous employment
· A product or brand discussed in class
· A company/business of interest, even if you have had no direct connection
· A current high-profile company (e.g. featured in business press)

social media marketing plan
social media marketing plan

It does not have to be Australian but, if it is an overseas company, it must have a website and/or social media presence expressed in English with appropriate referencing. It should be chosen because it has little or poor current Social Media presence and you consider it needs to implement an Social Media Marketing Plan to become more relevant in today’s world.
You should avoid choosing a multi-national organisation unless you focus on a single country where they have a presence.
If it is a very large company, you should focus on a single business unit to be realistic.

Social Media Outlets Analysis – Assignment Instructions

As the prevalence of social media continues to rise, consumers are recognizing ways in which social media can direct them to better sources for purchasing. As a result, businesses are now jumping on the social media bandwagon at a rapid pace, embracing social networks to achieve their marketing and business goals. Identify one (1) of the major social media outlets and write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:

  1. Discuss the four (4) components of a legally astute social media marketing manager who utilizes social media outlets for consumer transactions and how each component can mitigate the risk involved in doing business in cyberspace.
  2. List and analyze methods of alternative dispute resolution and determine which would be most effective in resolving genuine disputes that arise with consumers who may make purchases from businesses that provide links via social media.
  3. Since consumer transactions on social media can occur across state lines, determine how the federal government can best control these transactions.
  4. Examine the three (3) branches of government and discuss which can effectuate the most significant impact on regulating consumer transactions via social media outlets. Support your decision.
  5. Explain whether or not the agency relationship exists on social media sites between the social media provider and businesses that utilize the site for advertising. Support your answer.
  6. Use at least three (3) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.


The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
  • Describe the legal environment of business, the sources of American law, and the basis of authority for government to regulate business.
  • Explain basic court procedures, types of courts, and alternative dispute resolution methods.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in business law.
  • Write clearly and concisely about business law using proper writing mechanics.