Tag: Technology

Issues Facing The Information Technology Manager In Constantly Expanding And Changing Information Technology Environment

The world has experienced an extensive growth of Information Technology as different organizations, institutions, and companies continuously adapt the new technology. This extensive use of information technology has come with different challenges that IT managers must handle to enhance effective use of IT technologies in their respective organizations. The level of challenges grows in an environment when IT is constantly expanding and changing. The IT managers in this environment play a significant role in managing risks associated to expanding and changing IT environment. Some of these risks include privacy, security, accuracy, control and ownership. This paper focuses on discussing issues facing IT managers in an environment where information technology is constantly expanding and changing.

Issues Facing IT Managers in a Constantly Changing and Expanding Environment

The growth and expansion of IT technology use has come with a number of problems. One of the main issues facing IT managers in a growing and changing IT environment is security. Information system security practices entail the application of both non-technical and technical measures to safeguard assets of an organization from different threats. Information systems are often exposed to different kinds of threats that can result to different forms of damages which may result to significant financial losses. System bleach can result to loss of data confidentiality, integrity and availability. This can highly influence the general business operations of the affected organizations. Lack of availability makes it hard for the organization to operate for the entire period when the system is unavailable. Compromising data confidentiality can results to unhealthy competition in the market, make it easy for the company to lose customers to the competitor with unauthorized access to company’s data. Integrity compromise can result to huge errors in different parts of operation, which interferes with accuracy and to some extent, it may impact the trust that customers have in an organization (Jouini, Rabai & Aissa, 2014).

Expansion of IT system comes hand in hand with great need to improve the security system to eliminate the system vulnerabilities which hackers can use to compromise the system. It is also important to note that hackers tend to advance their system security bleach knowledge and techniques as the IT system technology advances. This leaves IT managers with a great challenge of ensuring system security, especially in anexpanding or changing environment where network system need to be expanded. IT manager should thus test the system to ensure it has no security loopholes. Regular security system auditing will also be needed to be able to uncover any vulnerability that could be exploited. Development of a recovery system by creating backup system will also be necessary to protect the company’s data among other measures (Alnawaiseh, 2014).

Privacy is another major challenge facing IT managers in a changing and expanding IT environment. Most organizations are currently taking vital and private information on their customers storing them in their information systems for recording and enhancing proper care and services to their customers. This is especially seen in healthcare organizations, banks, and government organizations among other institutions. These organizations normally pledge ensuring total privacy for the customers data to ensure no unauthorized individuals or unconsented third party access these data (Kotz et al., 2016). The IT managers are thus required to enhance both internal and external security of the system to protect data privacy. Internal security is required to limit the database access rights to ensure that only authorized persons can access the database. Other measures may include data encryption to ensure any successful security bleach does not guarantee data manipulation or reading. Educating users on personal security measures such as password strength and secrecy need to logout individual account when not at workstation among other measures. This is not quite easy especially since the IT manager requires the collaboration of other workers to ensure total internal security of the system, and it may be quite challenging in a growing organization while new workers are introduced often and hence, constant training of the workers on internal IT system security will be needed (Ziegeldorf, Morchon& Wehrle, 2015).

Another major challenge facing IT managers is accuracy. Accuracy is normally determined by the efficiency of the system and also by the user’s proficiency in using the system. System error can be as a result of technical issues which can occur during system development, implementation or configuration. IT managers thus need to keep have updated information on the new systems that may be required in their organization, and technical skills in installation, configuration and testing of the system (Manson, 1986). They should also ensure that the organization workers are well trained to be able to effectively work with any new system. New workers should also be trained on the same. Ensuring accuracy can be quite challenging in a changing environment especially due to the need of involving all workers in the changing process. Change introduces new training demands and need for new skills to be able to handle the new system. Regular training will be required to ensure that the users are comfortable with any changes that are introduced in the organization.


IT managers have a great role of ensuring accuracy, security and privacy among other things in a growing or changing environment. This is not an easy task, especially in this era where cybercrimes are on the rise. Competitors and malicious hackers are always on the lookout to identify any security loophole that may make them to access information that can be of benefit to them, or that they can use against the system. IT managers are thus required to put extra effort in promoting system security and system operation efficiency, while ensuring system privacy, accuracy, integrity, confidentiality and availability.

How Technology Impacts Work Relationships

Technology is being extensively embraced to enhance business operations in the world. Most organizations are relying on technology to enhance communication among workers and between workers and the managers, to monitor performance and to give real-time feedback. Other technology applications include provision of cloud based training and digital checklists. Technology can be used to enhance good and quality communication between workers and their employers which makes it easy to air grievances direct to the managers, without passing through the supervisors. Technology makes it easy for workers to have an open communication to the managers and also to have instant feedback, or further discussion. This improves workers trust in the system and also makes them to feel valued, especially since their issues are addressed on time. Performance analysis and real-time feedback makes it easy for workers to devise plans to improve their performance before it deteriorates further (Bahreini, 2017). It also gives them a chance to monitor the effectiveness of their work strategy and make changes where necessary. Managers can also assist in setting goals and defining strategies to attain them. When workers see their managers investing in assisting them to improve their performance they are likely to develop respect and trust toward them. Performance improvement plan can also be done by investing on workers training on aspects that may need to be improved on, aspect that makes workers to feel valued and hence increasing their respect toward the management. This fosters positive relationship between the workers and the management.

Some forms of technology application can also be used to strain the relationship between the employee and the employer. This can actually be perceived in matters related to workers privacy and spending of the working time. The extensive use of technology in the workplace increases the chances of use of working time to accomplish private businesses. There increasing cases of use of mobile devices to handle personal issues or to socialize, especially through social media. This can be one reason for poor individual performance and in most cases it provokes conflicts between workers and supervisors. Extensive exploitation of company’s resources that include internet and mobile devices by employees for personal business does not only resulted to misuse of the companies’ resources, but also wastes of company’s time. This technology initiated behavior has resulted to the employment of surveillance at the workplace as a counter measure to the issue. Disciplinary actions are taken based on surveillance results, especially if an employee is found wasting company’s time on personal activities.Employees surveillance is however not positively embraced by workers. Most of them feel that it is invading on their privacy(Chang, Liu& Lin, 2015). Surveillance is also considered to acts as a sign of managers or company’s lack of trust on its workers. This creates a strained relationship between workers and the management, killing the free will to employ extra effort to enhance organization success among workers. The idea of being tight monitoring also creates tension among workers.

How is Technology Changing the Face of Business Today?

Technology has transformed the way firms do businesses by permitting small enterprises to operate in the same business level as large enterprises. Today small enterprises utilize a range of technologies to create competitive advantages in a competitive market. Technology is enhancing business operation by permitting automation of various business processes that include financial processes, decision making, communication, data sharing, and in some cases selling of goods and services. Effective communication, which include well integrated internal communication and distance video conferencing enhance effective sharing of information. This makes it possible for the organization management to make informed decisions even when the organization is operating internationally.Computer network technology has enhanced the process of data sharing, communication and online business operations, and the use of social media in business marketing.Technologies that include cloud computing and big data have made itpossible for small businessesto operate internationally by offering different alternatives of holding large data. This together with advancement of web technology has enhanced business operation through e-commerce (Jetter& Neus, 2009). This has made it easy for small companies to trade internationally, expanding their market and competing in the same field with large companies. Expansion of mobile technology has highly promoted the expansion of internet use among different people in the world including those that are marginalized. This has enhanced the expansion of online market even further. Mobile technology and the internet have also enhanced the growth of remote business operations where companies can easily outsource workers at a cheaper price across the globe, making it easier to acquire the right business expertise despite the business location. This has highly enhanced business efficiency and cost management, which eventually result to increase in business profitability (Cascio & Montealegre, 2016).

Most Critical Business Process that Utilize Information Systems in Walmart

The selected organization in this case is Walmart. Walmart uses information system in enhancing its e-commerce operations. The company has customer relation management (CRM) system which focuses compiling customers’ data especially those purchasing the company’s products online. CRM system records customer interaction over social media, phone, email and the company website providing the management with aptitude to track productivity and performance based on system logged information. The company also has Point of Sale (POS) system which is used to facilitate the exchange of goods for money. This system is used to collect financial data and inventory data enhancing financial management process as well as inventory management system. The company also has radio frequency identification devices system which is used to keep track of goods purchased online while being shipped to the customer. Others include inventory management system to keep track of inventories and ensure they are always within the authorized range, management system that enhance the management processes,, payroll system for controlling workers payment and integrated communication system for enhancing effective communication within the company.

How IT makes the Company’s Business Processes Faster, Cheaper, More Accurate and Customer-Savvy

Information technology enhances business operations in various ways. Automation of various business processes such as the ordering and order processing processes have made it possible for some companies to offer their services much faster compared to competitors. Other organization have considered making the purchasing process much easier by providing e-commerce website where buyers can view products in the market select what favors them and place an order. The online platform provide them with an easier way to view all products on sale, their description, pricing, and customers review, giving them a unique opportunity to select what suits them best. It also permits them to order easily and much faster by eliminating the traveling distance from their home to the stores. The process is completed within minutes after customers make payment and the product shipped to the provided address. This makes shopping much easier and faster. It also eliminates time wasting and cost involved in travelling to the store. IT also compiles volumes of files into a single database where items can easily be sorted or searched within a few seconds, using keyword or unique identification parameters (Ahmad, 2014). This makes it easy to search for needed business information faster and without delay. The ability to summarize huge business data into a simple report makes it easy to analyze business trends and to make business decisions. For instance, information on rate of sales per months can easily be summarized by total daily sales report for one month, information that can easily tell whether the company needs to improve its strategies to increase sales or not (Cascio& Montealegre, 2016).

Automation also makes business process more accurate, especially in section requiring computations. The cases of computational errors while making payments or during production process are completely eliminated, enhancing production of quality products and accurate figures. IT also makes products information readily available online, as well as customers review and information of related or similar products. This makes it easy for customers to make decision about different products in the market. IT technology enhances automation of different business process making the work easier and faster to process. This scales down the number of workers needed to carry out different tasks in an organization compared to organizations that work manually. This thus helps in cutting the operational cost of an organization, resulting to cheaper products or services (Ahmad, 2014).

Effect of Evolution of Medical Technology, Graduate Medical Education and Professionalization of Medical and Nursing Staff on the Delivery of Care

How has the evolution of medical technology, graduate medical education, and the professionalization of medical and nursing staff affected the delivery of care?

Continuing professional development and ongoing education in the beginning of the 21st century was authorized by health care facilities so as to enhance the ever changing management of health care system and medical practice. This however was examined due to issues in care cost, redundancy, and continuity. To handle these problems, there is a need to integrate the five central competencies needed to transform patients care quality, safety and education based on the Advisory Committee on Interdisciplinary, Community and Based Linkages (ACICBL). The five competencies comprise of the information technology utilization, patient-centered care, employment of evidence-based practices, and interdisciplinary teams work.

Healthcare system has also experienced great improvement with the changing technology. Technology has in many ways managed to change various life aspects, including creating a breakthrough in biomedical science, communication, medicine, and in informatics or collection, storage and use of the patients data. Research, development of advanced medical equipment, and advancement in treatment methods permitted medical providers to utilize innovative means and new tools to practice medicine. The use of telehealth has also played a great role in enhancing patients’ education and promoting self-care among patients with chronic illness and ensuring good health by checking on individual lifestyle. The increase in treatment accessibility has increased chances for breaches and security compromise. The integration of the health information technology to the system of health care opens up opportunities for research and exploration, which assist in enhancing health care system efficiency than ever before. Technology has highly contributed in enhancing patient care. Patient care is more reliable with advanced technology as doctors and nurses can currently utilize hand-held devices connected to the healthcare system to input, access patient date, and updating it instantly to the health care patient’s medical record (Bahouth, Esposito-Herr& Babineau, 2007).

Patients assessment and test results which include lab results, HER, vital signs records, and other important patient data can currently be viewed in one menu, which a true transformation. Barcode readers are also being used to enhance medicine administration in hospitals. This is basically meant to minimize medical errors, since the technology allows matching the prescription with the medical database to see the similarities. Barcode technology and ability to retrieve patient’s records through hand devices also creates alerts to nurses and doctors on patients’ allergies and other possible medical complications while Technology has therefore enhanced quality of care, efficiency and reduced medical error, especially with regard to data and patient history. All these changes demonstrate a high level of transformation in the healthcare system promoting efficiency and reliable care.

Financial Implications of Implementing Electronic Medical Records

Information technology has enhanced operational activities throughout the health care industry. Much has been discussed in financial analysis, price, and acquisition discrepancies. The decision to acquire and implement technology, and justify the cost has perplexed physicians and health care facilities.

Assume you are an office manager in a physician’s group practice. As the office manager, you have been asked to review and explain the financial implications of implementing electronic medical records (EMR). You will address potential areas of financial concernand provide your recommendation to the physician’s group on whether or not to implement EMR.

Create a 12- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® in which you outline the following areas of financial concern and conclude with your decision on whether you would recommend EMRs to the stakeholders. Include detailed speaker notes.Cite at least three outside sources and your textbook. Discuss the following areas with the focus on the financial aspects:

    • Implementation process; This should be your introductory slide.
        • Why implement?
      • What is involved?
    • Financing technology; Choose at least five.
        • Capital expenditures
        • Opportunity costs
        • Budgeting, cash flow
        • Depreciation
        • Present value
        • Payback
        • Projected revenue
      • Overall costs
    • Costs not considered in the implementation process; Choose at least two.
        • Threat of litigation
        • Layout of facility
        • Life expectancy and value of the equipment
        • Maintenance
      • Increase in operational costs
    • Financial incentives for implementing new forms of technology: Choose at least one.
        • Government, as in Medicare reimbursement
        • Health care professional societies
        • Health plans, as in pay-for-performance programs
      • Quality improvement agencies that may offer financial incentives, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance, the Utilization Review Accreditation Committee, or the Joint Commission
    • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Final recommendation

Format your presentation consistent with APA guidelines:

    • Title slide
    • Introductory or overview slide
    • Slides presenting the information required for the assignment
    • Detailed speaker notes with in-text citations
    • Recommendation or summary slide
  • Reference slide

Post your final project as an attachment.

Data Archiving Solution For A Company

An effective information technology manger must be as adept at the application of data storage techniques relative to business continuity. The organization is counting on IT to have a plan in place that ensures that business operations will continue in the event of a disaster. Most organizations today have a 99% uptime requirement. This means that data services are available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, for 99% of the year. Data archiving supports a well-designed disaster recovery plan by moving a copy of the data used in the production environment physically away from the organization’s data operations center to a remote location.

Imagine that your company has two locations—one in hurricane-prone Miami, Florida, and the other in earthquake-prone Los Angeles, California. The company policy is to handle data network storage in-house. The company processes high-volume transactions daily, and the data is considered mission critical.
    • Discuss your solution to archiving the company’s data, and be prepared to defend your option versus other students’; proposals.
  • Elements of your answer should include the following:
      • Hot site versus cold site
      • Data mirroring capability
      • Tape and optical drive backups
    • Offsite data storage services
Grading Criteria:
Your paper should indicate that having an offsite data storage program is essential to supporting the goals of business continuity. The fact that the organization handles all of its data storage in-house is a risk, especially considered the environmental risks of each location.
In an ideal setting, the hot site data mirroring option would be preferred as it would ensure real-time backup of crucial data while also providing the shortest lead time between the system going down and coming back up at the hot site; however, this option is expensive.
A less cost-prohibitive option is the cold site because it does not have operational equipment in it but is a predetermined location for operations to move to in the event of a disaster. The lead time in setting up a cold site would severely effect business operations. Data archiving in the form of backup tapes or optical drive platters provide the data used in cold site recovery as well as day-to-day file recovery. Backup tapes typically contain a full backup performed once a week, with incremental backups done daily.

Using Information and Communication Technology in Secondary Schools in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects


Though it has been rightly said that what is wrong with education cannot be fixed with technology; there is
no doubt that modern life is dominated by technology. There is universal recognition of the need to use
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education as we enter the era of globalization where
the free flow of information via satellite and the internet hold sway in global information dissemination of
knowledge. Already, Nigeria is on he wrong side of the international digital divide, as it has not made
significant effort to integrate ICT into secondary school curriculum. A great deal of instructional and
administrative work in secondary school in Nigeria is still carried out manually. This paper, therefore,
examines the major obstacles militating against the use of ICT in secondary education in Nigeria. It
identifies he high cost of computer hardware and software; weak infrastructure; lack of human skills and
knowledge in ICT, and lack of relevant software appropriate and culturally suitable to Nigeria as the major
stumbling block o the adoption of ICT in secondary education in Nigeria. Also, secondary schools in
Nigeria are not given adequate funds to provide furniture, relevant textbooks and adequate classroom let
alone being given adequate fund for high-tech equipment. At present the cost of subscribing to the Internet
is too high for many of the impoverished secondary schools in Nigeria. In modern society, Nigeria needs
ICT to aid teaching and learning and educational management. ICT is an instrument for the economic and
technological development in the 21st century; therefore, Nigeria cannot afford to be on the wrong side of
the digital divide.

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Case Study : Disney’s Information Technology Infrastructure Library Journey

The Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) is a set of concepts and techniques for managing IT infrastructure, development, and operations. ITIL offers eight sets of management procedures: service delivery, service support, service management, ICT infrastructure management, software asset management, business perspective, security management, and application management. Disney began adopting ITIL best practices in the mid-2000s. Read “ Disney’s ITIL® Journey”, located at HERE

Write a two to four (2-4) page paper in which you:

  1. Describe the reasons for Disney’s adoption of ITIL.
  2. Examine the results that were attained by Disney.
  3. Compare and contrast ITIL, Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO), and Control Objectives for Information and Related Technology (COBIT) frameworks with regard to whether Disney would have attained the same results with the COSO or COBIT framework.
  4. Examine how Disney implemented auditing and compliance in its enterprise architecture.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Explain the role of audit and compliance in enterprise architecture.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the integration of enterprise systems with inter-organizational partners.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in enterprise architecture.
  • Write clearly and concisely about enterprise architecture topics using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Grading for this assignment will be based on answer quality, logic / organization of the paper, and language and writing skills

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Children And Technology

Children mostly of the age of three to thirteen have various impacts concerning technology. Technology has greatly benefited children in their development from the ages of three to thirteen and further hastened their technological and learning capacities (Kirkorian, et al., 2008). Children especially those in school who use technology can get more information on education. The cognitive skills of the children are thus improved as they learn more using technology as compared to traditional methods of education or learning. Children can further get competition skills while playing video games (Cristia et al., 2012). As such, they mostly compete with each other. Therefore, as children grow they constantly use technology and they are able to get more resources for their learning and education, which further helps them to develop mentally in a healthy manner. Computer technology has further been used in schools where children have learnt mathematics more easily.

The use of technology has offlate increased among children as more parents and schools embrace technology in various activities the children engage in. the thinking of children is affected when they use technology continuously (DeJarnette, 2012). Small children who may be three years may be affected negatively especially in their social interactions as they continually concentrate on playing games, watching television and other media (Li & Ma, 2012). Though

Various technologies like video games enable kids to concentrate on more than one stimuli they are predisposed to a decreased memory and distraction (Bavelier et al., 2010). The ability to empathize and thus express feelings normally is affected by frequency in which children use technology. As such, it removes their normal expressions especially those involving emotions. Children using technology can further be prone to safety and privacy risk from malicious internet users. Such lead perpetrate sex offences against the children online. Children can further be bullied online. Technology does not include moving around and therefore a child can stay without exercising which may lead to obesity (Buntin et al., 2011).

How Clinicians Develop A Therapeutic Relationship And Maintain A Caring Environment With Patients, Utilizing Telemedicine/Tele-Health Technology

For patients, tele-health/telemedicine technology provides a viableenvironment that allows for person-centered care. Clinicians are able to develop a therapeutic relationship and maintain a caring environment with patients training in tele-health programs, which enhance their skills in the provision of person-centered care. This also involves expertise on the side of clinicians to negotiate relationships with patients skillfully to ensure consistent outcomes with every contact they make. When clinicians make use of non-video tele-health technology, they are better able to create the atmosphere necessary in fostering a non-judgmental attitude and the sharing of personal information (Heckemann, Wolf, Ali, Sonntag, & Ekman, 2016). This enables clinicians to excel at their jobs and meet the needs of the patients by delivering healthcare services that are equal and fair to all patients and thus creates a caring environment. Tele-healthcare also plays an integral role in the establishment of long-term healthcare relationships because of its ability to combine organizational values, shared team values and a protocol-driven service structure (Heckemann, Wolf, Ali, Sonntag, & Ekman, 2016).


How Tele-Health Technology Impact Outcomes Of Population Health Management

Tele- health technology refers to the use of technology as the medium in conducting health practices and delivering healthcare services. The primary functions, processes, and scope of healthcare provision differ only in the fact that healthcare providers make use of tele monitoring equipment, digital assessment tools, telephones, computers, and the internet to make assessments, plans, interventions, and evaluation of healthcare outcomes. Besides reducing the costs of unnecessary care, tele-health technology among other health systems utilizes data analytics in the identification of opportunities that can help improve the health of patients. This has become increasingly possible because accurate and precise data helps healthcare providers to highlight both avoidable costs and patients who might be at the highest risk of poor outcomes. Tele-health technology relies on telecommunications technologies and electronic information to support not only long-distance education in health-related professions, patient education, health and public health administration but also in the support of long distance clinical healthcare (Schlachta-fairchild, Elfrink, & Deickman, 2008).

Outcomes of population health management have been impacted positively by tele-health advancements with providers reporting evidence of reduced time spent on paperwork, increased face time with patients, more patients are seen daily, reduced hospital admissions and reduced bed days for those admitted. Patients are also reporting the positive impacts of tele-health innovations citing that communication with health care providers has improved significantly, it is now easy to access and provide information on medical conditions and their symptoms, and the process of examining medical tests and health records has improved. There is evidence of increased confidence, high satisfaction, and better treatment compliance among patients due to the use of tele-health especially in the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) among others.

ITC 596 – IT Risk Assessment Case Study in support of a significant technology decision

The final assessment for ITC 596 is to deliver an IT Risk Assessment Case Study in support of a significant technology decision that is to be taken by a fictional company called Aztek that operates in the Australian Financial Services sector.
Senior executives in both business and technology divisions within Aztec have collected a portfolio of projects from their respective strategists that could be potentially funded for deployment. The portfolio includes projects such as:

  • Allowing employees to bring their own devices (laptops, tablets and mobile phones for example) into the workplace to be used as their main or sole devices in achieving their work tasks.
  • Migrating business-critical applications and their associated data sources to an external Cloud hosting solution.
  • Outsourcing key IT functionality such as the network, desktop management or application development to a third party.
  • Upgrading or introducing a major technology such as mobile platforms and applications, migrating to an improved networking technology (such as IPv6), creating a corporate-wide email archive for compliance purposes, or upgrading applications and desktop operating systems.

Each of these potential projects carries significant IT risks which will need to be managed to support the business case as to whether the project should go forward. In this case study, you are the IT Risk Assessment lead at Aztek, and your role is to be the interface between business stakeholders and technologists, translating potential technical difficulties into risk language to facilitate effective decision-making by stakeholders.

For the Aztek case study you will need to select one of the projects from the list above for a thorough IT Risk Assessment. You may select another project beyond those listed above with the approval of the subject coordinator, and you may wish to select a project that is relevant to your workplace for example.

Your deliverable for this ITC 596 Case Study is an IT Risk Assessment report, written for the intended audience of Aztek management providing a risk assessment of the project you have selected to consider.
Your report must be a Microsoft Word document, 15 – 25 pages in length at 12 point font and single spacing. The report must address the following criteria:

  • An Executive Summary at the beginning of the report which provides a clear statement of the IT technology project that is being assessed, and an overview of your recommendations to Aztek management as to the merits of the project based on your risk assessment (2 – 3 pages in length).
  • A review of the project with respect to the Financial Services sector, which would include any relevant government or industry regulation or compliance, and any established best practices (2 – 3 pages in length).
  • A review of the project impact on the current security posture of Aztec, as expressed by its current maturity against IT Security policies and procedures (3 – 5 pages in length).
  • A risk assessment based on threats, vulnerabilities and consequences derived from an IT control framework and any existing industry risk recommendations for the project. For example, there are several consortia for Cloud Computing that have created IT Risk Assessments for this technology (4 – 10 pages in length).
  • Specially address risks for Data Security from the viewpoint in the project of what data will be used, who will have access to the data and where will the data flow (2 – 4 pages in length).

Network Monitoring Technology – Simple Network Management Protocol

Simple network management protocol

  • Simple network management protocol (SNMP) is a network monitoring technology that deals with security in a network
  • The SNMP software helps in the monitoring of devices on the network on the specific network devices that has the installation.
  • The SNMP softer is an agent which forms part of the windows server 2003 which further work with other SNMP software to perform various managerial tasks in organizations.
  • They interact together to enable the monitoring of networks applications and devices and thus the management systems perform the monitoring function.

Simple network management protocol
Simple network management protocol

Simple network management protocol Purpose

  • SNMP is mostly used in the configuration of devices in remote positions, monitor performance of network and audit the utilization the network together with finding out faults in networks and unauthorized network

SNMP management agents and systems

  • SNMP usually puts in place a management system for hosts in a network (Dyllan et al., 2001)
  • Such hosts include hubs form a strategically placed computer, bridges, routers, servers or workstations
  • SNMP further carries out management functions by using a spread out design of agents and management systems

SNMP management system

  • An SNMP agent usually receives information from the management console or system
  • Devices that run the SNMP software is referred to as a management system
  • The management application system usually does not run on identical hosts like the SNMP agent
  • Information is usually found from a managed computer which is referred to as an SMNP agent which can the space available on the hard disk or the total sessions active in the network
  • The management system is further instrumental in making an alteration to the configuration of an agent

Simple network management protocol Advantages

  • It works well in network monitoring
  • Effective in fault management
  • MIBS are effected and defined for the devices in the network
  • Disadvantages
  • Big retrievals are sflower
  • It is difficult for rollback configuration

Government Technology Needs Essay


Minnesota Bridge Collapse is an incident that took place in 2007 killing that people and injuring about 145 individuals. A number of cars were destroyed and the state economy was highly affected since this bridge was second busiest in the state. The situation was blamed on poor construction or definition of construction materials. The incident called for quick response form the fire brigade and other local disaster response agencies that were able to save lives within the first two hours. This process employed a number of technologies that focused on reducing suffering, protecting property and saving lives (Cip.gmu, 2013).

Identified Technology

The Minnesota bridge incident attracted the use of three different technologies that include transportation technology, emergency dispatch technology and wi-fi technology. Basically, the incident cased transportation crisis since it disconnected two regions that were connected with the second busiest bridge in the state. Different transportation technologies that included the use of plane were necessary to transport casualties to the hospital to within the shortest time possible despite of the bridge breakage. The bridge destruction created a need to direct other travelers on the best route to use to connect between the two regions that were initially connected using the Minnesota Bridge. This called for the use of computer-aided dispatch (CAD) system that aided in the mapping the emergency response vehicle location using global position system. This aided in ensuring that the right routes were taken to the site position and also to the hospital facility that could have aided the casualties. The incident also created communication network congestion such that it was hard to pass information using cell phones from one place to other. Communication is very important during disaster since it is required to alert the authority, disaster response agencies among other bodies and individuals. This attracted the employment of unlimited wi-fi technology to enhance communication and thus easing traffic redirection and emergency response agency communication.

Transportation Technology

Transport is very essential during disaster since it allows the response team to move from their operation center to the disaster site. The transportation means and technology determines how fast the response team will arrive to the site. After the destruction of the bridge, response team required the use of planes to move to the site and to evacuate a number of casualties that were trapped under the bridge or in the river. Air lifting was necessary in some cases especially to those who were trapped in the river. This technology was employed by the local government to ensure effective response.

The use of computer-aided dispatch technology involved mapping different vehicles that contained GPS device and tracking them in the traffic system. This was met to ease navigation and to direct these vehicles on the best routes to take to avoid congestion since transportation system was highly affected by incident. This assisted in ensuring quick transportation of those that were rescued from the disaster site. This technology was employed by the local government who took it upon their roles to save the life of those who were affected (FEMA, 2007).

Wi-Fi is a LAN wireless technology which permits an electronic device to connect or exchange data to the internet by use of 2.4 GHz UHF and % GHz SHF radio waves. Wi-fi technology involved the use of wireless connection that provided enough internet access to the area surrounding the bridge region. Wi-fi technology was enhanced in 2006 by a private company, and thus, to enhance wi-fi network in the region, the company just needed to install a device in the region to fit it in the network. The need for effective communication from the disaster site resulted to the need of extending this technology to other parts of the country. With this technology, disaster management individuals were able to use their mobile devices to communicate with their colleagues, media and those related to the disaster casualties. The installation was funded by the local government and thus it can be termed as a local government initiative. This also assisted in effective communication during re-construction (Escher, 2009).

The three form of technology were basically focused on quick response and saving the life of those that were directly affected by the incident. Enhancing communication assisted in ensuring those that were in the disaster site could communicate with their colleagues in the office or with authority to get more help to assist the casualties or to get more advanced equipment to evacuate those who were trapped where materials on the ground could not reach. The CAD technology was meant to enhance the transportation of the casualties via road despite of the congestion. It was also meant to direct other response group quickly by evading traffic jam. Use of choppers was basically to ensure quick transportation of casualties since they did not need to consider the traffic aspect and they could easily navigate to the best hospital were life was saved.


Technology plays a major role in enhancing disaster management. Basically, disasters interfere with a number of previously established infrastructures, making it hard to ensure effective response. The three technology employed in Minnesota bridge collapse disaster endured saving of life and reduction in the suffering of other individuals.

Technology and Training Systems – British American Tobacco

BAT – Technology and Training Systems

This paper describes the findings of an evaluation of the technology requirement essential staffing systems, training systems, employee productivity and career development systems deployed in British American Tobacco to manage and enhance employee competency and productivity. It further proposes suggestions needed to improve the technology requirements relevant to the organization aspects mentioned above that are key for managing and increasing employee competency and productivity. Many organizations in the 21st century continue embracing employee training as a strategic tool that can accelerate their productivity, continuing growth as well as capacity to retain talented employees. Management and training programs serve the sole purpose of improving organizational capabilities and employee capabilities (Kirov, 2015). In this regard, technology and training systems are implemented with consideration that investment in the improvement of employee skills and knowledge results into increased productivity and effectiveness.

In regard to employee productivity, British American Tobacco has considered the significance of partnering with Fujitsu in order to be able to provide adequate support to all its employees at the global level. This partnership has enabled BAT to deploy an employee productivity system known as Office 365, which has been found to enhance working lives and productivity of employees in the organization (Kirov, 2015). Office 365 is a technology system that has enabled BAT to provide a range of tools to its employees some of which include social networking and email services via hosted versions of Office Online and SharePoint, Skype for Business Server, Exchange Server and integration with Yammer. The main aim that drove BAT to deploy this employee productivity system in its organization was to modernize its communication tools and email systems. The system aims at supporting employee and business growth in the cotemporary digital era. Through implementation of this system, the company intends to increase communication and flexibility for all users thus improving employee experience. The system, also, boosts the functional competence of employees in regard to comprehension of issues that relate to human resources management, economics, operations, information technology, strategy, accounting, and finance.

In regard to staffing systems in the organization, it is essential to note that ensuring that an organization has the required staff is usually challenging and complex, especially in situations where the organizations runs operations in various countries across the globe. Proper staffing systems are essential requirements for multinational companies such as BAT, which conduct operations in many countries. One of the staffing systems embrace in the organization is the needs-based-staffing. The organization uses this system to hire full-time-employees only whenever there is adequate work available. Meanwhile, the company prefers using contractors, especially in handling certain part-time functions such as IT maintenance, sales representation and bookkeeping. A staffing system is an essential requirement in any given organization considering that it helps in ensuring that the staff have the right experience and skills for successful completion of the project. The second staffing consideration that is embraced in the company is known as cost-based-staffing. Through this system the company is able compare the costs and benefits of outsourcing a function and hiring a full-time person. According to Patton (2014), the true costs of employees are determined through supplies, equipment, payroll taxes, wages, salaries and other benefits. The human resource department relies on this system to when conducting a quarterly budget review for contractors and project their annual cost in order to determine the right time for bringing a full-time employee on board.

Career development systems entail an inclusion of various components that are utilized in an organization. In this regard, managers at BAT ensure that they have adequate information about tools deployed in the organization in order to maximize the effectiveness of the system. Self-assessment tools comprise the first technique of career development systems that are deployed in the organization. Self-assessment tools are career exploration tools that require employees to complete self-evaluation exercises followed by provision of information regarding their opportunities, work obstacles, long-term goals, short-term goals, preferences, work attitudes, interests, competencies and skills (Kelleher, 2013). Implementation of this system is essential for helping employees understand their personal aspirations and desires. Career planning workshops are, also, part of career development systems in the organization. Organization of such workshops enables employees to obtain feedback from other employees and determine the reality surrounding their aspirations and plans. Such workshops are essential to employees in the sense that if they find their aspirations unrealistic, they can make decisions that will make them assume completely new direction.

In regard to the training systems, BAT rolled out several training and development programs way back in 2011 when it launched a modern online system for training and development (Patton, 2014). The system aimed at enabling the BAT community access various e-learning applications so that the company can have a clearer view regarding the capability and training gaps that exist in the company operations. The continue embraces e-learning versions of trainings that incorporate strong applications of visual designs where every module contains 20 minutes sections to provide learners with the support they need in regard to accessing essential training resources. Work-based tasks, which are, also, known as springboard exercises are utilized for purposes of prompting high quality interactions between the trainees and line managers.

This section presents suggestions that BAT management requires considering in order to improve the technology requirements in regard employee issues discussed in this paper. In regard to implementation of Office 365, the organization requires making arrangements so that it does not always rely on bandwidth and network. This is essential for preventing limited access to company data and software in the event that the provider of the internet goes down. Besides, the company should have one of its employees controlling its data rather than hiring someone from the outside (Kelleher, 2013). In regard to improving staffing systems, the organization should consider utilizing metrics. This application tool will enable the human resource officials have the correct record of the filled employee positions, retention rates, and the available vacant positions for filling. In regard to career development systems, the organization requires implementing flexible systems that that resonate with the dynamic nature of workplace environment and work itself. This follows a consideration that rapid change needs a knowledgeable and skilled workforce that has employees who are flexible, adaptive and focused. In regard to the training systems, the organization management should ensure that it does not apply the approach of “one-size-fits-all”. Therefore, all employees should not receive equal treatment during e-learning process. The line managers should allow fast learning trainees to share the concept with slow learning trainees.

In conclusion, this paper described the findings of an evaluation of the technology requirement essential staffing systems, training systems, employee productivity and career development systems deployed in British American Tobacco to manage and enhance employee competency and productivity. The partnership with Fujitsu has enabled BAT to deploy an employee productivity system known as Office 365, which has been found to enhance working lives and productivity of employees in the organization. Career development systems entail an inclusion of various components that are utilized in an organization.

Critical Analysis Essay Of A Qualitative Study Article In Information Technology

A Qualitative Study of Health Information Technology in the Canadian Public Health System

Zinszer, K., Tamblyn, R., Bates, D. W., & Buckeridge, D. L. (2013). A Qualitative Study of Health Information Technology in the Canadian Public Health System. BMC Public Health, 13(509), 1-7.


Over the past decade, Canada has seen the adoption and advancement of Health Information Technology in the public health system. The support of the development, effective use, and broad adoption of health information technology has however faced significant challenges that continue to persist. With improvements in the infrastructure of health information technology in public health practice, practitioners and policy makers are confident that the process will become efficient and effective.It is with the intention to explore these possibilities of improvements to the infrastructure of health information technology that Zinszer, Tamblyn, Bates, & Buckeridge (2013) conducted this qualitative study. The study focuses on the Canadian public health system and exploresthe policy aspects of the health information technology by engaging provicincial and national organizations’charged with the establishment of strategic direction and policy for health information technology.

With the engagement of representatives from at least 24 key stakeholders, the study aimed at identifying the policy aspects of health information technology that were currently succeeding in Canada and the challenges that were being faced. From the findings of the qualitative study the team would then be best placed to make suggestions regarding the future directions in the improvement of not only the adoption of health information technology but also its effective use in the public health system.According to Zinszer, Tamblyn, Bates, & Buckeridge (2013), the qualitative study succeeded in its quest as it effectively identified the benefits of health information technology in the Canadian public health system and further identified the barriers to effective and efficient adoption of health information technology in the public health area.

This paper seeks to provide a critical analysis of the qualitative study of health information technology in the Canadian public health system as carried out and presented by Zinszer, Tamblyn, Bates, & Buckeridge (2013). This paper will conduct the critical analysis by carrying out an extensive and intensive literature review of peer reviewed articles with the aim of highlighting the limitations of this qualitative study, the theoretical divergences and the main points of consensus between the study and articles reviewed.


Canada launched a $1.6 billion initiative in 2001 towards the implementation of a nation-wide system Figurethat allows and promotes the interoperability of electronic health records. This initiative is a brainchild of Canada Health Infoway; a corporation funded by the Canadian government, and which was envisioned to enhance collaboration between provinces and territories towards the development of a national framework with core aspects. Despite this massive investment, Canada still lags behind in the adoption of the electronic health records compared to other countries in the west such as the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Australia as depicted in Figure 1 below.

In light of these findings, the paper recommended the following to aid in the effective and efficient adoption and use of health information technology in the Canadian public health system: automation of core processes and the identification of innovative applications in the advancement of outcomes in public health. For this to happen and yield the desired results, it would be necessary to develop expertise and institute a process through which stakeholders in the public health arena can contribute to policy designed to govern health information technology. To spearhead and take up these roles, the authors recommended that the Public Health Agency of Canada would be the best-suited body as it has the capacity and know how to propel effectivelythe required advancements(Zinszer, Tamblyn, Bates, & Buckeridge, 2013).

The Limitations

The outright limitation of this study is that while collecting views and opinions from the key stakeholders made up of representatives from provincial and national organizations that concern themselves with giving direction, developing policy and other such matters regarding health information technology, the material collected was treated with equal weight. There was no considerations made with respect to the differences and variables that have occasioned a difference in opinions and feedback from the key stakeholders that participated in the study. Since the outcomes and settings would be widely varied if such considerations were made, the study opted not to employ any formal weighing mechanisms on factors that could the evidence leaning towards generalizations. To this effect, statistical methods, multiple measures, and sampling were not subjected to a formal weighing system; participants in the study were simply drawn from 24 key stakeholder organizations based on their expertise, interest, and active participation in the matter.

Theoretical Divergences

Concerning the recommendations proposed by this study towards the improvement of the effective and efficient adoption of the health information technology in the Canadian public health system, there appeared to be theoretical divergences from some of the other studies and literature reviewed for the purpose of this critical analysis.For instance, while this study made recommendations for improvements by charging the Public Health Agency of Canada with the responsibility of coordinating and influencing the process of adoption for this e-health plan, in their recommendations, Rozenblum, et al. (2011) took a different approach. They recommended that instead of the top-bottom approach advanced by this study, a bottom-up  and a clinical-needs-first approach would yield better results in fostering a solid and meaningful adoption process. This approach is far more realistic as it would use financial incentives based on patient outcomes and a national policy for investment to achieve a not only compelling but also a functional system of electronic health records.

This study does not make a concerted effort to acknowledge that one of the reasons the e-health plan is taking so long to be adopted is because it does not meet the needs of the public health system and thus most providers are simply dissatisfied with it performance and prefered thereby not to use it (Buntin, Burke, Hoaglin, & Blumenthal, 2011).

Main Points of Consensus between the study and articles

The articles and the study had many things in common in terms of their assessment and analysis of the successes that health information technology has achieved so far in the Canadian public health system. According to Rozenblum, et al. (2011), from feedback by key stakeholders the e-health plan has made important achievements in the areas of patient registries, national standards, digital imaging and funding. Just like in this study, Buntin, Burke, Hoaglin, & Blumenthal (2011) in their investigations measured the successes of Canada’s adoption of health information technology based on the criteria of how the system impacted outcomes, which can be measuredin terms of provider satisfaction, efficiency, and quality.There is sufficient evidence from the world over and from benchmark institutions to demostrate that quality and efficiency of healthcare can be improved by health information technology(Chaudhry, et al., 2006).

Regarding the barriers hindering the effective and efficient adoption of the rolled outhealthinformation technology identified by this study, Rozenblum, et al. (2011) also found similar challenges. Among them:  the use of a rigid approach, the failure to establish a business case for the use of electronic health records, inadequate involvement of clinicians, the absence of an e-health policy and an emphasis on interoperability on the national level as opposed to the regional level slowed down the plan’s adoption(Hu, Chau, Sheng, & Tam, 1999). By looking at the United States where similar challenges are being faced in the adoption of health information technology, it becomes even more apparent that a business case for this initiative needs to be developed since more hospitals and even more doctors find this initiative significantly costly to install and maintain. In addition to these, as users there is a general feeling among doctors and hospitals that e-health plans do not have a compelling financial return on investment. Privacy and security concerns among both physicians’ and consumers’ alike is also a major hurdle to the speedy adoption of health information technology (Blumenthal, 2009). Innovation is key in the efforts to stimulate the adoption of this initiative since there are numerous opportunities and benefits to be found when players bring their expertise and strengths while leveraging partnerships to transform the delivery of healthcare(Leventhal, 2016).

Towards improving the infrastructure for health information technology, the issue of aligning the development of policy on health information technology and the major strategic directions of health care reform(Rozenblum, et al., 2011), emerged as one of the main points of consensus between the study and the articles.By posing the question of how technology can influence the experience of patients and ways in which an organization can leverage the use of technology to provide a patient with a positive return on their investment, an important link is drawn between health information technology and patient experience. This link holds the answers to the sustainable adoption of health information technology, highlights areas where innovations would be best applicable and how its application can yield maximized benefits for all stakeholders(Werder, 2015).

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Information Technology Project Scope Management Plan

Assignment Instructions


You have been asked to be the project manager for the development of an information technology (IT) project. The system to be developed will allow a large company to coordinate and maintain records of the professional development of its employees. The company has over 30,000 employees who are located in four sites: Florida, Colorado, Illinois, and Texas. The system needs to allow employees to locate and schedule professional development activities that are relevant to their positions. Sophisticated search capabilities are required, and the ability to add scheduled events to the employees’ calendars is desired. The system needs to support social networking to allow employees to determine who is attending conferences and events. This will promote fostering relationships and ensure coverage of conferences that are considered of high importance.

Once an activity has been completed, employees will use the system to submit the documentation. The system should support notifications to management personnel whenever their direct reports have submitted documentation. The system should also notify employees if their deadline to complete professional-development requirements is approaching and is not yet satisfied.

Project Scope Management Plan

For the given scenario, create a project scope management plan that will detail how the project scope will be defined, managed, and controlled to prevent scope creep. The plan may also include how the scope will be communicated to all stakeholders.

Project Scope

After you have the project scope management plan developed, define the project scope.

Sample Answer – Information Technology Project Scope Management Plan


This project scope management plan provides the framework of scope for this project. The plan details the scope definition, management and control to prevent creep. Any communication that pertains to the project should strictly adhere to the project scope management plan as outlined.

This project is for the development of an Information Technology system that allows the company to coordinate and maintain records of over 30000 employee professional developments. This includes sophisticated search capabilities and social networking to allow employee interactions. The project shall include the design of the software, programming, coding, testing and implementation. It is anticipated that neither external resources nor any form of outsourcing shall be involved in the project.

The Project Scope Definition

This project encompasses design, programming, testing of an information technology system that will allow a large company to coordinate and maintain records of the professional development of its employees. The project deliverables include a cover of over 30000 employees located in Illinois, Texas, Colorado and Florida. The system will allow the company employees to locate and schedule professional developments that are important for their positions. Moreover, the system will include sophisticated search capabilities that will enable the employees to schedule events to their calendars.

The other deliverables include support for social networking, to foster relationships and cover conferences, and a support for notifications that will allow employees to get feedback as well as submit documentations to the relevant management.

The new information technology system will be accepted once it has been tested and found to be operational and compatible with the existing information technology infrastructure in all the departments. The project excludes maintenance, and that only internal staff and resources will be employed to its completion. In addition, the project time should not exceed 3 months, and with a budget not exceeding $500,000. The project sponsor and respect departmental heads will be responsible to provide for the support.

Scope Communication

The success of any information technology project depends on the how the scope is communicated (Dalcher, 2015). If the project scope is under communicated, then it may lead to scope creep. The scope communication shall involve documentation of tasks and regular review of requirements. The scope definition and documentation shall involve all the relevant stakeholders, the project sponsor and the end-users. This shall ensure that the projected is effectively communicated to all the relevant stakeholders and the project team.

Project Management

The effective management of the project will be achieved through subdivision of the project into individual work packages. The separate work packages shall be performed by designated members of the project team and shall not exceed 45 working hours. This will offer the project manager with the best chance to manage the project scope in an effective way, as the project team works towards completion of the system.

The subdivision of the project shall result in the creation of three phases. The first phase will involve the initial development of the system, which includes all the design work. The second phase shall involve testing, while the final phase shall involve implementation of the information system within the whole organization. However, for effective delivery of the project deliverables, each of the phases will be subdivided into smaller packages that would require between 10-40 hours of work. This will allow effective control and management of the project scope by the project manager.

How Project Scope Creep will be Controlled

According to (Mirza, Pourzolfaghar, & Shahnazari, 2013), any variations that are likely to alter the project deliverables will case project to creep. In order to control scope creep in the project, the information system shall be under the control of the project manager, who will work together with the project team. With the directions of the project manager, the project team will ensure that only those tasks described in the work breakdown structure are performed. Additionally, the project team will generate the deliverables for each defined work breakdown structure.

Finally, the project manager will oversee and manage the processes during the project progress to ensure that the scope control process is adhered to. Any changes in the project will be forwarded only to the project many for determination on whether they are within the project intent or not. The project manager will then make recommendation after reviewing the proposed changes.

Identify and analyze what you believe to be the most significant new technology requirements for the health care industry.

  1. Identify and analyze what you believe to be the most significant new technology requirements for the health care industry. Indicate how providers should approach the implementation of this new technology requirement that you have identified. Provide support for the response.
  2. Analyze the basic technology underlying health care information systems. Argue that the need for technological innovation and / or modification is most pressing. Support the argument with examples.
  3. Recommend an innovation / modification, and explain how the recommendation could improve the overall level of health care in your own community. Include specific example(s) using local hospitals or other health care providers to support the response.
  4. Suggest a key action that senior health care leadership could take in the community in which you live to push the boundaries of information technology management. Next, speculate on the effect to the community as a result of the improvement to the health care technology.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.


Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.


The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the basic technology underlying health care information systems.
  • Apply senior management’s role in information technology management.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in health information systems.
  • Write clearly and concisely about health information systems using proper writing mechanics.

Scope Creep – Information Technology Projects

What is Scope Creep in Information Technology Projects

Every IT project has deliverables that it must meet, the duration and the cost (budget). Moreover, there are a number of requirements that must be agreed to be delivered throughout the project until its full completion. All these elements constitute the project scope (Mirza, Pourzolfaghar, & Shahnazari, 2013). However, sometimes some variation may occur in the course of the project implementation, which alters the scope of the project. This alteration is what constitutes the scope creep. Scope creep is a common occurrence in the IT projects and this is often caused by poor change control implementation, lack of involvement of the end users, consolidation of multiple projects and external changes like change in technology or regulatory framework.

How to control Scope Creep in Information Technology Projects

In order to control scope creep, a number of IT management tools are employed (Léger, Lyle, Babin, Charland, & Pellerin, 2013). Having a flexible design can help to accommodate any changes and thus controlling scope creep. The other tools that can be used is the implementation of project in phases. This offers an opportunity for the end users to roll in some of the additional information. Moreover, project scope creep can be controlled through over-communication, proper documentation of all project details and involvement of the management during the development and implementation.

Some of the possible factors that may cause scope creep in the scenario provided include changes in employee requirements, the complexity of the project requirements, which may cause the project to creep at some point and the lack of involvement of the employees in the project development and implementation.

Methods For Measuring Successes Of Information Technology Project

There are several methods of ascertaining the successes of information technology project. However, this paper focuses on three methods: determining whether the project met cost goals, time and scope; whether the project satisfied the sponsor or customer and whether the project met its objectives.

  • Determining whether the project met cost goals, time and scope: This is determine by evaluating whether the project met the intended objective. If the IT project was intended to improve productivity, growth and communication in the company, then after the implementation of project evaluators determines whether these elements have improved in the company (Schwalbe, 2008). The achievement of the IT project is analyzed based on the percentage level of the improvement realized after project implementation.
  • Determining whether the project satisfied the customers: After implementing the IT project, a survey is conducted to determine whether the project improved customer satisfaction and the employees (Schwalbe, 2008). Feedback from the customers and employees is very important since it enable the project manager to measure the success of the IT project. Feedback also enable the project managers to identified areas that needs to be improved.
  • The outcome of the project: This is achieved by evaluating the amount of money saved and return on investment after the project has been implemented. The higher money that is saved and higher returns means that the project was successful (Schwalbe, 2008). Although IT projects requires a lot of capital to invest, returns have proved worth investing since it improves productivity and efficiency of the employees. In addition, the employees improve their professionalism by continuously learn and attending conferences.

Internet – Technology Research Paper

The Importance and Future of Internet in Our Daily Life

The advances in technology have revolutionized the way people communicate, commute and produce products and services (Bargh & McKenna, 2004). In the earlier days, before the advent of the power engine, people used to move from one destination to the other through foot. However, innovations saw the development of power engines and radio communication devices that made it easier to move and communicate. More innovations in the communications saw the development of the internet, which completely revolutionized communication and business. The internet has a number of applications, from business to personal communication.  In fact, it is now hard to image a world without an internet.

The Importance of Internet in One’s Daily and Professional Life

The internet is a communication medium, which enables the connection between two or more computers (Bargh & McKenna, 2004). The entire set up consists of the wires and antennas, the routers and servers. One can access the internet through a computer or internet enable devices like mobile phones and digital televisions. The internet has become part of daily life of every individual, finding a number of applications in both personal and professional lives.

At the personal level, the internet finds a number of uses, which includes communication through social media, emails, accessing online banking/payment systems and for personal research. The use of internet had bridged the gap in distance and now it is easier for one to communicate with their friends and family in real time without having to travel. Through applications such as facebook, Skype, Whatsapp and LinkedIn among others, one can easily get in touch with family and friends Moreover, the internet provides a platform where one can make bank transactions. Most companies, supermarkets and chain stores, have been linked with the internet and have an online market place where one can make purchases and payments.

Apart from personal level, the internet finds a wide range of applications in one’s professional life. The modern world demands that one remains up to date with what is happening around him/her as the current situations may affect one’s profession. For instance, an individual working in a business world needs to have information on the current business trends. The internet comes handy as through an internet search, one can learn what is happening in other economies or within other destinations of interests. In addition, internet facilitates communication in the workplace through emails, files sharing, online workshops, teleconferencing and interviews. All these have facilitated the way businesses are done and thus have enhanced the levels of professionalism.

How Often the Internet is Used on Daily, Weekly and Monthly Basis

The internet finds use on a daily basis and perhaps throughout the year. On average, I use the internet about six hours in a day. However, this may vary depending on the daily commitments, for example, when conducting a class research; the use may be as high as eight hours. In a week, the internet is used for forty-two hours, which translates to roughly one thousand one hundred hours per month.

The Impact of Lack of Internet on Professional Life

The internet is greatly employed in every professional life, this has brought many changes, and improvements in the way things are done. A professional life without internet would mean inefficiency of communication, more time spend in management of huge data files and increased work pressure. Moreover, it would create a huge challenge of creation of a balance between work and one’s family. For instance, it would be more challenging to work in a far destination without one’s family around. The use of internet has made it easier to communicate through vide calls and this means working in far destinations is easier. However, a lack of internet may offer communication challenges, which may hamper family relationships and ultimately one’s professional life.

The Impact of Lack of Internet on Personal Life

Lack of internet would greatly impacts on daily life activities like communication, shopping, getting services that would otherwise be hard to obtain without internet like online computer games, watching favourite television programmes and online conferences and classes. The gravity of lack of internet is lack of social interaction on local and international scales. It would be hard to get real-time communication with friends and families who live and work abroad. Moreover, a lack of internet would create a gap in knowledge, as getting information would mean one could attend conferences, visit a library or read daily newspapers.

The Impact of Internet on Economy

The internet is an effective mechanism for transferring information and data management (Whyte, 2015). According to (Kenny, 2003), the use of internet promotes externalities as a use of internet creates a way in which the other person may benefit in value creation through information sharing. Therefore, it is evident that the internet is a driver for economic growth. The author further elucidates a positive correlation between the growth in the US economy and the expansion of information communication technology between 1980s and 90s. Through the internet, internet market is made possible; one is able to trade in the forex exchange platforms. Moreover, the internet has creating a number of other sources of revenues, including foreign exchange and business process outsourcing.

The Future of Internet and How the Americans Will use it in 2050

According to my opinion, the internet usage will increase and will witness more developments that are new. As choices increase and more people join the global web network, most of the people’s needs will be matched, thanks to internet synchronization with individual data and live stream adjustments of schedules such as train delays and changes in weather patterns. As put by (Gelernter, Freeman, & and, 2015), developments that capture the real-time flow will dominate the future internet developments.

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Information Technology Certifications Research Paper


            Information technology certifications are normally non-degree programs awarded to individuals or organizations after they are cleared by the awarding organization, having achieved the qualifications as set by the awarding organization. It has been shown that those who have been certified by IT bodies have a higher pay, usually ten to twenty percent increment compared to uncertified individuals/organizations, (Polidoro, 2012). There are many types of certifications and these depend on type of certification and individual or organization intends to be certified on. The following are some of the common types of certifications.

Types of  Information technology certifications for  Information technology Professionals

Certified Information Systems Security Professional cert (CISSP)

            The International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, Inc. (ISC2) provides this certification program, (Isc2.org, 2014). This certification is one of the common certifications in the IT field. It is a global certification, which acknowledges the achievements and knowledge of an individual in the field of Information Security. The company became the first IT Company to attain/meet the strict guidelines of ISO/IEC Standard 17024.

The Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) Certification

            The Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert Certification is one of the most accepted certifications worldwide and is provided by Cisco Company. It is considered the most prestigious certification in the IT industry, (Cisco, 2014). This certification is suited for enterprising IT individuals who wish to explore new roles and adapt to the changing technologies.

Cisco’s certified internetwork expert certification is the best in its category and has long been at the pinnacle in the IT industry. They have many training programs and certifications that parallel its client growth in the industry. Due to uncertainty in the networking industry, the company is always streamlining its training programs to capture the latest changes in technology. This proves that it is not only the certification for now but also for future. Cisco has other certifications and this offers a variety matching the individual’s specific career path. The other certifications available are CCAr, CCDE and CCNP among other certifications.

Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL ®)

            This certification is offered by ITIL ® Foundations and is targeted for mid-level professionals who want to improve the IT management skills in organizations. In order to qualify for ITIL, one must have some experience in the IT field in his/her bet, (Itlibrary.org, 2014).

The certification offers some entry examinations under the foundation level. These examinations are aimed at assessing and offering awareness about the key elements and concepts as employed in ITIL lifecycle as well as processes and linkages between the ITIL lifecycles in addition to what these contributes to the service.

Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE)

Microsoft is one of the world’s renowned manufacturers of computer hardware and software. The company is available in every country in the world. Due to its indulgence in software and other applications manufacturer, the company offers world-renowned certification in the IT industry, (Tittel, 2014).

MCSE certification has been in high demand for a long time, although its demand has waned recently due to other emerging accredited institutions like Cisco, VMware’s and NetApp’s NCDA. MCSE certification is a global standard for IT professionals that are widely used over the world by international organizations and individuals. Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) certifies that one is competent to offer efficient modern data centre with expertise in systems management, networking, storage, identity management and virtualization.

Security + Certification

The Security + is an internationally recognized certification offered by Camptia Company. The security + is approved by US department of defense to meet management certification and IA technical requirements. The certification is widely accepted and used by over 250,000 IT professionals in the world, (Certification.comptia.org, 2014).

Security + Certification offers SY0-401 exam that covers fundamental principles in network and security management. The certification is vendor neutral and this means it opens up job opportunities in any industry. In order to sit for security + certification exam, one has to have two years of experience in technical networking and a bias in security.

With the increasing globalization and cybercrimes, there is more demand for cyber security. More organizations are adopting online money transfer and many individuals are doing business through online platforms. This trend is increasing and in future, more and more individuals will adopt online technology.  With this in mind, the Security + certification is inevitable both currently and in future, making it a certification of choice.

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Relevance Of Technology In A Work Environment

According to Miller (2012), technology implies the set of tools, which make it simpler to utilize, generate, manage and trade information. At all times, technology has always been present to help people in their daily lives. In the contemporary era, it makes little sense to lack a computer in the office for organizing and storing files. Technological advancements have affected various aspects of life including entertainment, communication, transport, and medical administration. This paper explores the relevance of technology in a work environment.

Incorporating technology in an office comes with a lot of advantages. In fact, it enhances the professional look of a business considering the fact that it is easier handling online and telephone enquiries in order to produce desirable results (Miller, 2012). In respect to organization of work, technology assists employees to save a lot of time through the use of well-organized systems of telephone transfer. Technology, also, assists organizations to employ electronic databases to protect the records of their clients (Miller, 2012). Encrypting such records ensures that only relevant authorities can access them.

Technology has, also, provided a lot of ease in screening for symptoms of psychological disorder. Electromagnetic brain simulation machines are some of the most common tools, which the medical field has been employing in respect to screening for psychological disorders (Taylor, 2000). However, with internet based equipment, it is easier for patients to be screened for any forms of psychological disorders right from their homes (Taylor, 2000).  In regards to advertising services, advancements in technology continue yielding a lot of benefits. For instance, the use of internet enables many people to access information about various products and services in the market. Technology has, also, changed the way people organize and handle meetings. For instance, a manager can send group e-mails to his/her staff to pass the relevant information, or organize it in a videoconferencing manner.

In conclusion, at all times, technology has always been present to help people in their daily lives. Technological advancements have affected various aspects of life including entertainment, communication, transport, and medical administration.

Analysis Of Existing Technology In Legal Process Outsourcing Organizations – Kirkland & Ellis

Kirkland & Ellis, which is based in Chicago, outsources various legal services in line with its clients’ requests (Djordjevich & Vault 2007, pp.182-183). In its LPO (Legal Process Outsourcing) engagements, it often faces confidentiality challenges, or problems, owing to the attempted or successful attempts to hack its servers. Notably, the firm has in-house advisers and in-house technical staff to deal with such problems and the attendant risks, which present considerable legal along with ethical concerns relating to confidentiality according to Nollkamper (2000).

The firm has varied technical resources that are aimed at addressing the confidentiality threats posed by attempts to hack its servers. It has always tried to strengthen the controls it has put in place regarding the access of its entire IS (Information System). The administrator level of the IS presents the firm with considerable capability of concealing confident information not to be accessed by unauthorized parties. Even then, at times, the user passwords and user names that are enforced to control access of the IS are easily guessed by potential hackers as opined by Lewis (2012) and Nollkamper (2000). Its IT staff members at times forget to convert the default wp6-database prefix to random figures that cannot be guessed easily (Pan, Thomas, Yuan & Taylor 2012).

The other principal technical resource geared towards helping Kirkland & Ellis deal with the confidentiality problem posed by web server hackers is the firewall installed to protect its web applications from being hacked or breached. Notably, WAFs (Web Application Firewalls) are based on hardware or based on hardware (Behrens, Riley & Khan 2005; Serrão, Díaz & Cerullo 2010). The firm has a WAF installed between its website server on one hand and data connection on the other hand. The WAF reads all the data going through it. The WAF serves a filtering gateway for every incoming data and blocks attempts by hackers to access or attack the server. As well, the WAF filters out other undesirable traffic, including malicious bots and spammers (Behrens, Riley & Khan 2005). Notably, the server is at times hacking by individuals who breach the WAF successfully. There is a need to add technical resources to build on the server protections offered by the user passwords and user names and the WAF. The following is a graphical expression of the usage of the WAF technology at the firm.

The user passwords and user names and the WAF contribute to the confidentiality problem related to the hacking of the Kirkland & Ellis web server. As noted earlier the user passwords and user names that are enforced to control access of the firm’s IS are easily guessed by potential hackers. Its IT staff members at times forget to convert the default wp6-database prefix to random figures that cannot be guessed easily. That adds to the vulnerability of the server to being attacked (Behrens, Riley & Khan 2005; Serrão, Díaz & Cerullo 2010). The usage of the user passwords and user names can be incorporated in or used to inform one of the proposed solutions to the problem: having the firm ensure that its server is secure via smart password management. The firm ought to make sure that its passwords, chiefly for the users they offer shell access, or admission, are changed regularly and cannot be guessed without difficulty. Besides, if the firm utilizes several servers, it ought to utilize inimitable passwords on each of them.

As noted earlier, the WAF contributes to the confidentiality problem related to the hacking of the Kirkland & Ellis web server as well. The WAF allows for the breaching of the server at times because it is not capable of communicating actively with related security components. The inability to communicate actively with the components makes it unable to provide absolute protection of the server from being served. Notably, the WAF’s inability to provide the absolute protection is not constrained to its relative weakness or strength as a product. Rather, it is just unable to sufficiently protect the server independently. On its own, the WAF is easy to be bypassed by hackers and is not equipped with the means to giving signaling users when it is bypassed or compromised (Behrens, Riley & Khan 2005; Serrão, Díaz & Cerullo 2010).

There have been suggestions that Kirkland & Ellis bolster the protection offered by the WAF by enhancing its security technology. There has been a proposal to have the firm get a new perimeter security model which views the firm’s WAF as a strong enforcement point and allows for its empowering to communicate actively with the whole of the IS. The lack of such a model is often blamed for the WAF’s inability to respond to emerging or new breaches, or attacks, sufficiently (Behrens, Riley & Khan 2005; Serrão, Díaz & Cerullo 2010). As well, the lack of such a model is often blamed for the firm’s inability to modify its WAF security measures appropriately. The WAF is seen as ineffective since it is not a distributed system capable of integrating central monitoring communications to forestall all security breaches relating to the server adequately.

Notably, the creation of a secure network-based LPO environment needs Kirkland & Ellis to not only install a WAF at it internet gateway but also ensure that the WAF is a comprehensively distributed system. It should ensure that the WAF incorporates complementary solutions, including internally deployed firewalls, intrusion protection, malicious code scanning, virus code scanning, vulnerability scanning, and virtual private networking. Presently, the firm’s WAF is devoid of internally deployed firewalls, intrusion protection, malicious code scanning, virus code scanning, vulnerability scanning, and virtual private networking complementary solutions. The firms is presently dependent on an independent, or standalone, WAF at the gateway, exposing the server to marked hacking risks as demonstrated by Conrad, Misenar and Feldman (2012, pp.113-115).

The usage of the Kirkland & Ellis’ WAF can be incorporated in or used to inform one of the proposed solutions to the problem: the firm to secure its server via the usage of secure shells rather than telnet as suggested by Barrett, Byrnes and Silverman (2005). Telnet is typified by sessions that are unencrypted. That means that passwords and the related usernames conveyed through it are unsafe since they are transmitted as plain text or data. As noted earlier, the firm’s WAF reads all the data going through it. The WAF serves a filtering gateway for every incoming data and blocks attempts by hackers to access or attack the server. As well, the WAF filters out other undesirable traffic, including malicious bots and spammers.

Notably, the user password, user name, and the WAF technical resources employed by the Kirkland & Ellis are incapable of presenting it with absolute protection from attempts to hack its web server. The problem of the inadequacy of the password, user name, and the WAF technical resources in providing the protection has not been successfully addressed by the firm’s in-house advisers and in-house technical staff charged with deal with such problems and the attendant risks for a long time. Consequently, the resources have been presenting the firm with considerable legal along with ethical concerns relating to confidentiality in the past. As well, the resources present the firm with considerable legal along with ethical concerns relating to confidentiality currently.

Notably, Kirkland & Ellis has over the years been keen on protecting own IS using the available technological resources. The adoption of emerging technologies to secure its IS can thus be deemed as being a significant component of the firm’s historic behavior. Thus, its extant approach to new, or emerging, technologies does not come off as a new behavior. Rather, it comes off as falling naturally in the firm’s history of consistently and enthusiastically adopting new technologies. The history is attested by the actuality that the firm has varied technical resources that are aimed at addressing the confidentiality threats posed by attempts to hack its servers. It has always tried to strengthen the controls it has put in place regarding the access of its entire IS. The adoption of the proposals to the firm to secure its server via the usage of secure shells rather than telnet and via smart password management will be an affirmation of the firm’s inclination to adopting emerging technologies promptly to secure its IS.

How Technology Is Changing The Way We Communicate In The Workplace


The rapid advancements in technology have seen the modern day 21st-century workplace incorporate changes that are meant to improve the manner in which activities are carried out. These changes have more recently been deeply entrenched in the modus operandi of most organizations leading to an increased reliance on Information Technology (I.T) and computer networks. As a result, communication in the workplace has been directly affected by these improvements in technology. In the past, it was integral for business partners or associates to meet and discuss the pressing issues that had to be dealt with but presently, such meetings can he held over Skype or “face time” while still achieving the desired goal. A speedy evolution has taken place from those days when simple emails and fax machines were used for important communication to this new digital era where video-conferencing can be used to hold important board meetings (Wallace, 2004). Presently, communication is simply cheap and instant with almost all organizations having their employees that are connected to the internet through their smartphones to social networks and web-conferencing. New technology is important in offering easy collaboration amongst members who find it difficult meeting physically when they are in the same work team (“How Technology Is Changing Work and Organizations (PDF Download Available),” n.d.). The ready availability of web-based solutions such as Trello and Asana are important in an organization’s project management quest (Jonge, D, Scherer, & Rodger, 2007, p. 2). Moreover, the transmission of important images, videos and documents has been simplified with one having the ability to send and receive them from any part of the world, provided they are connected to the internet. The purpose of this research paper is to provide a detailed analysis on how technology inadvertently changed communication in the workplace and the effects that this has had on those working in these areas.


The 21st-century workplace is currently quite different from what it was in the past. Significant changes are now the highlight of a modern day workplace with advancement in technology playing a huge role in this sudden paradigm shift. Changes and improvement are made on nearly a weekly basis with this trend likely, not likely to change anytime soon. As a consequence, communication in the workplace has drastically changed in a short span to accommodate these new changes that aim at improving correspondence.  With advancement in technology, experts contend that the ripple effect will be that people will now start working from virtual offices and have an easier time communicating with their business associates that are thousands of miles across the globe. In addition to this, it is also argued by labor experts that employees would now enjoy flexible work schedules that would now see them juggle the many responsibilities and duties that they might be having from any location (Edwards, Edwards, Wahl, & Myers, 2016, p. 247). Change seems inevitable in the cycle of life and it seems as though embracing technology in the workplace would be the only prudent action for civil servants and those in the private sector.

How Technology is changing the way we communicate in the Workplace

To begin with, technology has had far reaching consequences on communication in organizations and workplaces. Technology has been transforming at an unprecedented rate with big data, cloud computing, machine learning, advanced robotics and intelligent manufacturing taking the front seat. With these nascent technologies, communication has been enhanced and made easier with employee output improving by the day (Edwards, Edwards, Wahl, & Myers, 2016, p. 247). Technology in the workplace has been fondly referred to as the beginning of the new industrial revolution with savvy technocratic leaders using it in communication to transform the manner in which they conduct business. In the recent past, social interaction in the workplace was social interaction but studies show that the world is quickly hurtling towards ubiquitous computing (, n.d.). In this new technology, the communication and information environments will be reflected using identification cards that use radio frequency, smart watches and other forms of wearable technology. Equipment such as mobile devices will then be connected directly to information, people, objects, computers and the physical environment that they are in. Such levels of hyper-connection mean that at any given time this technology can act autonomously and has been responsible for changing business and communication models.

With technological advancements in the workplace, the communication teams can now be drawn from an assortment of disciplines and organizations. Such an approach is relatively new, especially in the health sector, and might be viewed by many beneficial in the long run as it fosters interprofessional collaboration. Experts from an assortment of fields get to interact in new environments resulting in the sharing of vital information from different experiences that they have been through in their previous postings. A wealth of knowledge and experience is important of firms, institutions and organizations are to make progress in that they provide with regard to quality. However, these technological improvements mean that it is possible for health care teams to offer their medical services remotely to their patients. Communication between the health care provider and their patients located in far-flung areas becomes an easier task, with the necessary information being disseminated to them when need be. Traveling time for the staff and patients is as a result greatly reduced in effect increasing the productivity, capacity and centralization and capacity of these particular institutions. An example of such an approach is in the treatment of United States war veteran that suffer from psychological wounds of war such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). A negative consequence is that the patient now takes up the role of the caregiver. With many having no medical background, cases of gross miscalculations through self-diagnosis are common and sometimes end in tragedy for patients who would overdose on their own medication.

With improvements in technology, what often follows is an increase in globalization. To make it big in the international market and leave an indelible mark, cooperation need to create the global networks that would see them spread to all corners of the world. It is here that communication becomes vital as their success will be largely depend on the business connections they will make and how well they maintain these lines of communication. Communication is aided directly by technology and its advancements simplifying business transactions between businesses and their clients who, more often than not, are many miles away from where they are located. A simple correspondence between a customer and a firm can see the timely delivery of goods to the recipient without any hitches, leaving both parties satisfied with the result of their business transaction (In Klewes, In Popp, & In Rost-Hein, 2017, p.246). In addition to this, firms are able to set up their satellite offices in any country that they choose to while trying to secure dominance in the world market. Communication would have been difficult in the formative years as the only mode of communication would either be through mail or fax, both of which wouldn’t be able to provide timely correspondence. An internet connection can enable a business establishment to communicate with its employees in their satellite offices based overseas, communicating the reception of their goods in that market and any impediments that they may be facing. However, a negative effect of this scenario is that the physical presence misses out in the employee’s work experience. Direct contact between the employer and the employee is vital in ensuring that they are guided appropriately to ensure that they have full grasp of what is expected of them at the workplace and learn useful tips for prospering in the trade.

  1. IV) Conclusion

In conclusion, technological advancements are redefining the communication landscape in the workplace. The perks that come with having an elaborate communication system at the workplace ensure that there is sufficient coordination in all activities undertaken. It is also easier to coordinate a large group of employees with technological advancements that are geared towards fostering communication between its employees. With clear communication channels that can be developed through storing the necessary information through cloud computing, employees become well aware of the chain of command and hierarchy. It is easy for them to now relay important information to the relevant party that would ensure that an issue brought to light is dealt with swiftly to avoid having any form of stalemate that might stall activities. Video conferencing can be used to great effect on ensuring that no member of the workforce misses out vital company developments whether they are 5 minutes away or 5 time zones away. It is therefore vital for organizations and firms to invest heavily in their communications capabilities as improvement in technology in this facet will guarantee higher productivity. Computers and Information Technology (I.T) systems can be put to good use in ensuring that they oversee certain technical or operational priorities that would create free time for other employees who were hitherto responsible for such undertakings. At the same time it is important to also acknowledge that there are numerous negative effects that may crop up as it is they that will deal the noble intentions of technology a low when the negative effects start outweighing the positive ones.