Tag: Terrorism

Aum Shinrikyo on the Transportation System in Japan – Terrorists Group Activity Analysis

Aum Shinrikyo on the Transportation System in Japan

Aum Shinrikyo attack on the Japan transportation system was considerably unique and different from other common terrorist attacks. Unlike others where bombing is the main form of attack, this particular attack which took place in 1995 used a deadly chemical known as Sarin in form of a liquid. The attack was carried out by five individuals who had a total of 11 plastic bags full of Sarin; a deadly nerve gas, which is considerably powerful and that had been previously declared by the United Nations as a weapon of mass destruction. The gas was released to the air causing temporal blindness to thousands of commuters, and managed to kill about 13 individuals. Although the attack was not very deadly in terms of damage caused, the specialists claimed that if the team had proper knowledge on the chemical use, or if the chemical was used properly, it could have caused dire results to the Japan population (Kyodo News, 2010).

Aum Shinrikyo on the Transportation System in Japan and how it relates to risk management perspectives of John Parachini on chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive (CBRNE) weapons of mass destruction (WMD)

According to Parachini (2000), the federal government has established a number of ways to fight terrorism some which are considerably expensive. However, in Parachini (2000) views, the country stand minimal chances of experiencing the kind of terrorism being carried out in other foreign countries like Syria and Afghanistan. In Parachini (2000) views, the risk management and preparedness team focusing on fighting terrorism in the country should stop taking the worst case view and instead consider planning for attacks of low consequences with multiple chemicals use and trails of non-contagious biological agents. This implies that the country should consider defining the best strategies and preparedness to handle chemical and biological attacks. Moreover, (), claimed it is much easier to experience a chemical attack than other forms of terrorist attacks since some of the most lethal chemicals are legal and locally available. Thus it is much easier for a terrorist to plan for an attack using such weapons without being suspected.

A similar situation where legal and locally available chemical are used for terrorism was demonstrated in Aum Shinrikyo attack. Sarin is a legal chemical created in 1930s in Germany to be used in the development of pesticide. The chemical is highly toxic odorless and colorless. This means the chemical can be used to kill masses, especially since it is hardly detected. The chemical is said to cause nerve system disruption where it muscles and glands are overstimulated resulting shutting down of respiratory system. A single drop of Sarin is considerably dangerous, although a large amount is required to cause mass destruction, since it is non-persistent. This case is a perfect situation of what Parachini (2000) is referring to. The availability of Sarin for industrial used made it easy for terrorists to access it for massive destruction. Development of strategies to handle such threat would have prevented the attacks maybe by controlling their purchases through limited authorization.

Parachini (2000) also advocated for the use of local and/or state resources for fighting terrorism in any region. This according to Parachini (2000) would make any region more prepared to mitigate any risk of terrorism than depending on federal resources that are shared in and outside the country to meet the country’s interest of fighting terrorism. The federal government exposure ton acts of terrorism outside the country makes it to always plan for the worst-case in the country which is highly unlikely as terrorist understands that their mission can be highly unsuccessful due to the security measures implemented in the country. This simply means, the applied measures may fail to detect conventional attacks that focus on creating small impacts without fail. Only proper local and state terrorism mitigation plans can thus address such acts which targets mass destructions in tens and not thousands, but which can be very lethal if not managed with time. This is similar to what was experienced in Japan where the attack was only realized after taking place, with no suspension and without proper measures to address such situations. Consequently, the two workers who decided to get rid of the chemicals died due to poor handling of the chemical. Local mitigation which includes education on how to identify the chemicals used, how to neutralize its effect, or to avoid its effect could have been of great use to the transportation subway workers and all passengers using the subway. This raining can only be done locally.

Parachini (2000) also advocates for reduced publicity on the country’s vulnerability to terrorism.According Parachini constant public discussion and analyzing the progress of terrorism investigation and attacks makes the country shift it concentration to the real attacks. In addition, this publicity somehow acts as an advertisement of the country vulnerability to various terrorist attacks in the country. Parachini (2000) thus advocate for acting silently and developing unknown mitigation where terrorists lack information about the country’s strategies to fight terrorism and thus, lack the chances to lay their plan since they do not know of the barriers they can meet.  In Parachini (2000) a comprehensive terrorism risk assessment should be done with conventional attacks in mind and workable mitigation process created to minimize chances of any terrorist attack and ensuring that resources are effectively used to fight terrorism. With such plans, Japanese government could have managed to handle the attack and safe the life of the victims.

State Sponsors of Terrorism – Assignment Instructions

The U.S. Department of State designates and maintains a list of countries that are officially designated as state sponsors of terrorism. There are currently four (4) countries on this list: Cuba, Iran, Sudan, and Syria.

Choose one (1) of the four (4) countries designated as state sponsors of terrorism. Next, use the Internet or Strayer databases to research the terrorist group(s) that your chosen country sponsors.

Write a three to five (2-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Describe the key reasons why your chosen country has been designated by the U.S. Department of State as a state sponsor of terrorism.
  2. Summarize the history of your country’s sponsorship of terrorism.
  3. Examine the terrorist group(s) that your chosen country sponsors and address the following:
    • Identify the major reasons that your chosen country sponsors the group(s).
    • Describe the level and type of support the chosen country gives to the group(s) it sponsors (i.e. money, training, equipment, intelligence, etc.). Assess the severity with which the effectiveness of the group(s) would be impacted if they stopped receiving support from its state sponsor.
    • Summarize any attack(s) carried out by the group(s) being sponsored by your chosen country, as well as the motivation and purpose for the attack(s). Analyze the benefits afforded to state sponsors because of the attack(s).
  4. Identify any public statements regarding their relationship made by the chosen country and / or the terrorist group(s) sponsored. Evaluate the validity of the statement(s) based on known facts.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Interpret the operational functioning of terrorist groups.
  • Describe the history and development of the major terrorist groups in the world.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in terrorism and antiterrorism.
  • Write clearly and concisely about terrorism and antiterrorism using proper writing mechanics and APA style conventions.

Role of Terrorism in the Creation of Israel

The term “terrorism” is often associated with Palestinian Arab groups in the Middle East, and news about their campaigns has for a long time been the subject of lengthy discussions. However, historical truths largely been swept under the rug reveal that Jewish terrorism was indeed the first of such action in the region. It was meant to frustrate the operations of British security forces and therefore eroding their capability to control Palestine (Pedahṣûr & Perliger, 2009, p. 12). The area where modern Israel stands today had been in control of the Ottoman Empire as a Syrian province belonging to the Mamluk Sultanate until its conquest in 1917 after the end of First World War. It was the Lawrence of Arabia who had successfully invaded the Ottoman outposts with Bedouin tribes that had been promised their own nation (Ciment, 2015, p.28). At the time, the Belfour Declaration of 1917 with Lord Rothschild had also promised a “national home” for all persons of Jewish descent who wished to settle in the area after the war. It was these two agreements that set the stage for conflict especially when its appeared as through the British were not keen on living up to their end of the bargain and were simply wanted to govern the area. In this essay I, will explore ways in which terrorism played a role in the creation of the state of Israel.

The formation of armed movements in the 1940s within the Palestine region aimed to carry out acts of terrorism to critical cripple British installations and ultimately force them to leave. These Zionist movements were committed to seeing the creation of a Jewish homeland by any means possible. The untenable contradiction that the British had gotten into before the end of the First World War was the reason Jewish immigrants were keen on carrying out these symbolic acts (English, 2016, p. 23). Some, like the Labor Zionists, stood for a strategy of active defense while the Revisionists were more of a nationalist front that was keen on carrying out offensive acts on anyone deemed as an enemy of the creation of this state. The Holocaust further fueled these efforts, especially when the Zionists realized that the Jewish people were almost annihilated. Underground groups, therefore, began a series of coordinated attacks on police boats, British railways and oil refineries that marked the beginning of their insurgency (Hoffman, 2016, p. 29). Additionally, some movements went on to use pressure tactics to force a change on the Jewish immigration policy. Nonetheless, the campaign continued with its activities and carried out one of its most significant operation; the bombing of the King David Hotel located in Jerusalem which served as the British headquarters in Palestine. In the Empire, a British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) series, Jeremy Paxman interviews one of the terrorists, Sara Agassi (BBC Empire Episode 1: A Taste of Power, 2017). Agassi claims (52:10) that even though the attack killed 92 people, she still had a sense of satisfaction at the end as it was a mission just like any other meant to achieve a specific political goal.

The Zionist carried two front attacks to gain legitimacy to rule over themselves in the region. They would employ tactical paramilitary methods that were now meant to reduce anarchy in the country which would then enable them to govern in a stable state after the British exit. It was at this point that the insurgents introduced Improvised Explosive Devices (IED’s) well disguised along the roads as stone markers. These devices would blow up vehicles, killing and maiming the occupants, which was a method aimed at reducing British mobility. Bombs put in abandoned cars, British officers executed after mock trials and attacks on economic targets were some of the terrorist acts frequent in the region. It was terrorist attacks that informed the British decision to quit their Palestine Mandate in September 1947 and led to the formation of the state of Israel the following year.

Guerrillas And The Spanish Peninsula – Type of terrorism Used By Spanish Guerrillas To Deter French army


            The term guerrilla originates from Spanish ‘guerra’ which a common word used during duke of Wellington’s campaign at the time of Peninsular War (1808 – 1814). This is the period which Spanish and Portuguese irregulars commonly referred to guerrilleros were battling with French forces. Therefore, guerrilla warfare is described as a war that is fought using small-scale actions by a fast-moving irregulars against a police force and military (Chakravorti, 1994). Many published literature of the Spanish peninsular have focused most on the French soldiers’ experience and morale. This paper discusses the type of terrorism that Spanish guerrillas used to deter the French army. Although the discussion mainly focused on the Spanish guerrillas, it is important to understand that the peninsula war was fought by Spanish and Portuguese irregulars against the French soldiers in Iberian Peninsula.

Types of terrorism used

In Iberian Peninsula, Spain employed three strategies to fight against French army commanded by Napoleon. The first strategy was the use of Spanish Army, the second strategy was the assistance from the British Expeditionary Army and the third strategy was use of guerrilla warfare. It is the third strategy that was the main focus of this discussion. Analysis indicated that guerilla in Spanish first strategy was to use terrain to perpetrate their terrorism activities against French army (Esdaile, 2003). The use of geographical topology as the tool of war to fight French army was a perfect strategy for guerrillas. This because the guerrillas were able to carry out attacks in every corner of the build, bottom of the gorges and in the wilderness without allowing their enemies to rest.

The strategy was unique to peninsula since Napoleon’s army was not able to use the strategy of “Separate to live, unite to fight” which was strategy behind the success of French army in other parts of Europe (Pisa, 2011). Analysis indicated that mountains in Spain provided perfect geographic landscape for guerrillas to attack and inflict maximum damage on the enemy. In fact French Colonel Joseph Conrad Marnier acknowledged that French army faced a lot of challenges because they were fighting against invisible enemy.

The second strategy employed by the guerrillas was ambush and quick retreat. This is the strategy that is intended to demoralized French army because the ambush was lethal. Studies have indicated that frequent ambush and quick retreat was tiresome, hence exhausted the manpower and resources as the French army tried to conquer the guerrillas without success (Pisa, 2011). All these factors coupled with terrain, sickness, hunger, violence and weather conditions negatively affected the ability and will of the French soldiers to effective perform their duties.

The third strategy was to completely block French soldiers from receiving any support from the villages and peasant. The guerrillas also employed tactics such as raiding the isolated and small posts, destroying French communication lines, assaulting couriers and convoys. This forced the French soldiers to constantly patrol the roads in order to protect their supplies and troops from these attacks.

Justification of these strategies

            The application of these strategies by guerrillas was justifiable since they were less in number and poorly equipped as compared to French soldiers (Pisa, 2011). Analysis also indicated that these strategies worked in favor of guerrillas because many French soldiers sustained casualties that force Napoleon to deploy many soldiers to the area in an attempt to conquer the guerrillas.

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Cyber Terrorism : The America Response

This paper discusses the threat of cyber terrorism on the infrastructure of the United States, and the strategies that the federal government explores to respond to such threats. It is essential to note that cyberterrorism entails the utilization of computer network applications to interrupt or destroy national infrastructures of critical significance such as government operations, transport, energy, air traffic and various other utility systems. According to the arguments of Clarke and Knake (2012), the risk of cyberterrorism continues increasing each day because of one functional premise: the increasing dependence of critical infrastructures and nations computer networks in order to execute their operations. This has resulted into massive creation of new vulnerabilities. Cyberterrorism being a modern approach of attacks, appears appealing to many modern terrorists because of the ‘convenience’ it presents to them. According to Whitman and Mattord (2011), modern terrorists prefer cyberterrorism because of its media appeal, its psychological effect, its capacity to create enormous damage, and its anonymity. Cyberterrorism poses enormous threats and as a result, it grabs the attention of the information technology industry, the community that addresses security, and the mass media. Experts operating in various fields, politicians and journalists have been noted popularizing scenarios where cyberterrorists use electronic means to access computers that control air traffic, dams and many other functional activities. These actions wreak havoc, which endangers the national security together with the lives of millions of citizens.

The threat of cyberterrorism to the American or Critical infrastructures begun being discussed way back in 1997 when the commission of the president presented a report regarding protection of critical infrastructure (Martin, 2014). The concerns of the report majorly centered on the computer systems that were essentially helpful in remotely controlling various process equipment. Such computer systems were highlighted as particular areas of vulnerability. Cyberterrorism poses great dangers on the critical infrastructures of the United State. For a long time, a notion has been existent to suggest that critical infrastructures’ vulnerability and computer networks’ vulnerability are similar. However, considering the modernity in the technology of computer networks and how quick it spreads into activities of economy rules out the notion. The existing evidence suggests that the increasing vulnerabilities of computer networks have become issues of serious concern in business while considering that the enormity of their threat to national security cannot be overemphasized.

It is essential to note that protection of critical infrastructure influences creation of a new set of national security challenges because of involvement of different factors. Cyber-attacks mainly centers its focus on commercial and civilian services and systems (Martin, 2014). The range of such emerging problems depends on the definition of national security as well as the existing thresholds for determining damage. Present at the national level are dozens of various systems offering critical infrastructure services whereby failure can lead to denial of the service to civilians for hours. In order to create terror cyber terrorists have always had to initiate simultaneous attacks on many targets in order to achieve their strategic objectives. Some examples of the famous cyber-attacks happened in 2009 when a sequence of coordinated attacks was witnessed against new agencies and financial websites of South Korean and the US governments where botnet activation was involved (Setola & Lopez, 2012). Many computers were hijacked eventually leading to a scenario called DDoS attack, which essentially means interrupted systems due to overloaded servers.

It is; however, essential to note that the U.S government has put in place a number of measures to enable it respond to the threat of cyber terrorism. The response has been the cyber incident response plan that is centered at the national level. The formation of this plan followed the cyber security policy of the president that called on the coordination of various groups both at the state and at the local level. The plan is essential for helping the Department of Homeland Security manage the response of private industry, international partners, local and state governments, and federal agencies. The establishment of the National Cybersecurity and Communication Integration Center by the Department of Homeland Security in 2009 is another one of the U.S.’s response to cyber threats (Whitman & Mattord, 2011). The United States, through the Department of Homeland Security, responds to cyber threats by ensuring that there are trusted external connections to the internet. This timely response to the threat of cyber terrorism enhances national and global security by minimizing vulnerabilities to computer networks. For instance, the response will help to protect air traffic systems from being interfered with. Without administering appropriate response measures, cyber terrorists can disrupt flights and affect air transport thereby endangering the lives of the crews and passengers.

Canada responds to the threat of cyberterrorism through embracing its cyber security strategy. The strategy provides a vigorous set of reliable legal framework, strategies and legislation to address computer-aided and computer-related terrorism activities and crimes. The strategy depends on synchronized efforts that use crucial elements of international alignment, domestic security sector, and cooperative partnerships like INTERPOL, European Police Office, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Setola & Lopez, 2012). Canada has been successful in securing the government system through its cyber security strategy. The strategy, also, secures the safety of Canadians whenever they undertake their operations online. The strategy reflects on the values of Canada, which touches on privacy, accountability, and the rule of law thereby enabling the government have integrated activities. The cyber security of Canada is established on three pillars: securing the systems of government, collaborating to secure crucial external cyber systems; and enhancing online security of Canadians.

The U.S. National strategy for response to cyber threats differs from the one used in Canada in the sense that it entails a number of priorities. The U.S national strategy encompasses securing cyberspace of the government, a training and awareness program regarding the cybersecurity of the nation, a program for reducing the threat and vulnerability of cyberspace security of the nation, and a response system for enhancing the cyberspace security of the nation (Setola & Lopez, 2012). On the other hand, the cyber security strategy of Canada emphasizes three main priorities: securing the systems of government, collaborating to secure crucial external cyber systems; and enhancing online security of Canadians. Through the cyber security strategy, the Canadian government has been able to able to protect its critical infrastructures from cyber threats. This is evident through development of better governance approaches to enable government enhance cyber security.

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Combating Future Terrorism – Assignment Instructions

Since the September 11 attacks, the future complexion of terrorism has become quite ambiguous. Subsequently, counter-terrorism strategies have evolved to address terrorist attacks of any form against the United States. For your Final Paper, you must address the following points:

  • Decide whether international or domestic terrorism currently constitutes the greatest threat to the United States. ◦Use historic, cultural, and diversity aspects to support your conclusion.
  • Summarize some of the strategies the United States can utilize to prevent future terrorist attacks. c.Assess whether socio-economic strategies can be utilized to eliminate the motivation of terrorist groups or if military action is the only viable response to terrorists. ◦Use historic, cultural, and diversity aspects of the terrorist populations to support your conclusion.
  • Evaluate if future legislation or constitutional amendments could be utilized to hinder possible terrorist attacks. e.Analyze if additional powers are needed by the federal government to protect the country from terrorist attacks. f.Evaluate if the increasing of governmental powers is worth the potential erosion of civil liberties. g.Infer what the future of terrorism is and whether the frequency of attacks will increase or decrease over time. Support your conclusion

Writing the Final Paper

The Final Paper:

  1. Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
  2. Must include a title page with the following: a.Title of paper b.Student’s name c.Course name and number d.Instructor’s name e.Date submitted
  3. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement.
  4. Must address the topic of the paper with critical thought.
  5. Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis.
  6. Must use at least six scholarly resources,

State Secrets, The USA Patriot Act And The War On Terrorism

The state secrets previledge is basically an evidentiary rule which was created by the legal precedent in the United States. Application of such a case often involves the excusing of some of the evidence from a legal case which is purely based on affidavits which is submitted by the government indicating that sensitive information bight be disclosed from the legal proceedings which might cause national unrest(Chesney, 2007)

As part of the rules of state secrets previledge, the court thus rarely conducts and in camera investigation thus so as to protect the evidence. This leads to insufficient information and evidence to support the case. This leads to a court proceeding where the judge handles a case and provides a ruling where he/she has not verified the case. In this case, the previledge material is thus eliminated from the litigation. It is then the court’s mandate to determine ways in which the elimination of the previledge material might affect the case (McCarthy,2002).

The privileged material can lead to a wrong ruling. This is because not all evidence is produced in a court proceeding thus the ruling won’t be fair. Sometimes the documents that are held as a secret contain no secret at all. An example is a case of US v. Reynolds.  The government at that time claimed that the evidence withheld was holding very critical info which could lead to national unrest. In 2000 when the document was declassified, it contained no secret but only revealed government’s negligence (Karich, 2011). This was quite unfair as it would have validated plaintiff’s case.

The purpose of the state secrets previledge is prevent any state secret information from being exposed to the public. In these cases, the government might interrupt any civil case and ask the court to exclude any state secrets(Fisher,2008).

Since the 9/11 terror attack, some of the American presidents such as Bush and Obama have used the state secrets previledge so aggressively that they end up insisting that the entire case be dismissed if at all it will touch on the country’s security. This has ended up denying justice to millions of Americans who have been violated their rights. These administrations have argued that these cases be totally dismissed even when they have leaked to the public(McCarthy, 2002). This is because the judge’s conclusion might end up confirming the allegations which could be problematic.

According to this theory. The government can thus break the law and even the constitutional rights of the citizens as it pleases. The CIA is thus immunized from the limits and the demands of the law. By stating some critical evidences as “STATE SECRET”, the affected individuals are thus denied justice(Chesney, 2007)

The government withholding some information especially about terrorism from the public could be quite disturbing. This is because the public might be having some useful information that could be collected to aid in combating terrorism. By withholding this information, the country might still remain vulnerable to terror attacks. During terror attacks, the public are the ones who suffer most during and after the attack. They may need some answers to the questions they may be having as well as justice to the affected groups. This can’t be achieved if some of the evidence is withheld. The affected persons thus are left unsatisfied by the court’s ruling on the cases and also on the government on not handling the issue well.

It is thus evident that state secret’s previledge is an unfair act as it does not benefit the citizens but the government only. It also puts the state at risk of more terror attacks.


The Future of Digital Crimes and Digital Terrorism

Having a clear comprehension of the past is an essential tool, which the law enforcement agencies require in order to prepare for future crime trends and be able to develop appropriate practices for investigation and prosecution of computer crimes. This is, also, necessary for conducting research regarding all the past, current and future features of emerging strategies in digital crime and digital terrorism. This paper provides comprehensive information on the future trends of digital crimes and digital terrorism. It will cover, among other things, the overall economic and social impact of utilizing information technologies in combating digital crime and digital terrorism.

The world of today is more interconnected as compared to the way the situation was in the past. Although this interconnection brings many advantages, it also, provides a huge opportunity for increased risk of digital crime and digital terrorism. As most people around the world become increasingly reliant on modern information technology options, they become more susceptible to cyber-attacks like social media fraud, spear phishing, and corporate security breaches (Taylor & Fritsch, 2014). In considering the economic impact of utilizing information technologies to combat digital crimes and digital terrorism, it is worth noting that the economic situations of the United States and other developed economies around the world shape their continued exposure to various aspects of digital crimes. On the legal front, it should be clear that various legal traditions and regimens alter the possibilities and costs of responding to various aspects of digital crimes and digital terrorism.

There are a number of existing challenges that result from the independent nature of the law enforcement agencies within the U.S. in regard to computer crimes and terrorism. The web or internet is just a void that does not have a face. If any person does the right thing using the internet, it is usually difficult to uncover their identity. This is the similar situation that exists with an individual who commits a crime using the internet. Besides, proving an individual’s guilt is as difficult as proving the identity of the culprit. In most cases, therefore, the masterminds behind the threats do provide means and tools for committing digital crimes only for the innocent victims to get caught in the cycle. Challenges, also, exist in terms of ensuring adequate technical and analytical capacities for law enforcement. Besides, most digital criminals work in environments that are borderless where there are laws of multiple jurisdictions (Richelson, 2015). Challenges, also, exist in terms of raising awareness and implementation of information security practices. In order to mitigate these challenges, the U.S. requires implementing a solution that is in form of a three-legged stool: practical experience, technology and legal remedies. In terms of legal remedies, the existing laws as well as the functions of local and federal officials require evolving in order to combat the growing digital crime and digital terrorism. The embraced technology should be the kind that provides satisfactory protection. This implies that real-time intelligence should be employed to prevent digital attacks. In terms of real-world experience, it is essential for law enforcement agents to have knowledge of the behavior of digital criminals.

In order for federal agencies to protect the nation against digital crimes and digital terrorism, the U.S. government requires employing technologically innovative people to work in federal agencies like FBI and Secret Service. The government should, also, ensure the presence of adequate cyber security and bureaucratic structure policies. Besides, there should be establishment of an effective reporting and regulation practice in order to enable federal agencies counter the growing trends of digital crimes (Carter, 2012). The government should, also, sponsor federal agents for further training to develop their skills and improve the overall effectiveness of federal agencies in regard to protecting the nation against digital crimes and terrorism.

In regard to the future trends in digital crime and digital terrorism, the number of crimes reported to law enforcement agents regarding electronic media and computers will continue rising. This will provoke changes in resource allocation and the level of knowledge that prosecuting attorneys will require (Gibson & Krohn, 2013). Virtual offences against persons will continue increasing following the noticeable expansion in social networking sites, personal computing, and networking. It should, also, be clear that computer hacker gangs will rise in developing economies due to motivation from money, politics and religion. The U.S. should create and implement strict digital crime policies in order to succeed in combating digital crime and digital terrorism.

In conclusion, having a clear comprehension of the past is an essential tool, which the law enforcement agencies require in order to prepare for future crime trends and be able to develop appropriate practices for investigation and prosecution of computer crimes. In considering the legal front, it should be clear that various legal traditions and regimens alter the possibilities and costs of responding to various aspects of digital crimes and digital terrorism. Challenges in combating digital crimes exist in terms of raising awareness and implementation of information security practices. In order for federal agencies to protect the nation against digital crimes and digital terrorism, the government should ensure the presence of adequate cyber security and bureaucratic structure policies.

Analysis of Captain Phillips and the Portrayal of Terrorism in the Movie


Directed by Paul Greengrass, Captain Phillips is a portrayal of a real-life hijacking that occurred in 2009 when four armed Somali terrorists took control of the cargo ship Maersk Alabama. At the time of its hijacking, the cargo ship was being manned by a crew of just 20 sailors that were in the process of hauling tons of cargo including food from the United Nations World Food Program that was designated for a number of African countries. In the movie, the critically acclaimed American Actor Tom Hanks gives the performance of a lifetime in his role as the eponymous Phillips who is a hard-working sea captain that pilots ships through treacherous waters off the Somali coast. This paper will provide an analysis of the movie Captain Phillip as well as the portrayal of terrorism within the movie.

The movie opens with what is a postcard-perfect shot of a white house in Vermont inside of which Captain Phillips is shown to be packing and checking up on his route. Philips and his wife, Andrea are soon other way to the airport and talk about their kids, the future and the challenges that their children will face in a fast-changing world. The scene portrays intimacy and has the effect of humanizing Phillips. In directing the movie, Paul Greengrass is observed to employ the use of quick camera work as is depicted by the fact that while in one minute Phillips is shown hugging his wife at the airport, in the next he is walking down the decks of his ship the Maersk Alabama, testing its various unlocked security gates and directing his crew to run through an anti-piracy security safety drill. Almost immediately after the crew finish up on their safety drill, they are confronted by a real-world threat in the form of two rapidly approaching skiffs full of Somali terrorists. Phillips and his crew manage to dodge and evade the skiffs by increasing their speed and shifting courses so as to churn up a series of destabilizing waves that damage the engine on one of the terrorist’s skiffs while the second skiff withdraws after Phillips makes a false call to a U.S. Navy ship. The next day, one of the terrorist ships returns with four heavily armed terrorists that are able to board the Maersk Alabama and start a distressing siege. The crew of the cargo ship go into hiding when the ship is boarded and the terrorists only manage to capture three hostages.

The leader of the Somali terrorists Muse (Barkhad Abdi) delivers an outstanding performance in the movie despite the fact that he had no previous acting experience and his skinny bravado is quite memorable. In one of the movies most memorable scenes, Captain Phillips offers the terrorists $30,000 from the ship’s safe but Muse refuses the money and rhetorically asks the captain “30,000 dollars, am I a beggar?” This is soon followed by a cat and mouse game between the ship’s crew members and the four terrorists that end with the crew forcing the terrorists off the ship and the terrorists making off with Captain Phillips and taking him hostage abroad a covered lifeboat.

The thunderous naval firepower and swirling helicopters that characterize the movie’s final act cause it to be broadly characterized as an action movie. Replete with night vision navy seal deployments, nerve wrecking claustrophobic lifeboat scenes and cross-hair-tension where big boats become giant, captivating characters, the movie is able to successfully cause its audience to suspend its disbelief. In the movie’s final scene, Tom Hanks, who has been delivering a tremendous performance throughout delivers a new career performance when the captain develops post-traumatic stress. The life-like portrayal of Phillip’s post-traumatic stress has the effect of raising the standards on what an action thriller based on a true-story can do. In this movie, Greengrass is able to successfully demonstrate that it is actually possible for mainstream cinema to not only be intelligent and visceral, but also successfully captivate its audience’s attention.

The depiction of terrorism in Captain Phillips draw the audience to the reality that there is a form of 21-century piracy that has nothing to do with football, illegal downloads or the character of Captain Jack Sparrow played by Johnny Depp swashbuckling through the scenes of a Disney franchise movie. The existential realities of modern-day Somali piracy are an interesting, but unexpected theme in the movie. In a conversation between the Pirate-terrorist Captain Muse and Captain Phillips, Muse reveals that one of the reasons that drove him and his colleagues into piracy is the illegal fishing that has been going on off the Somali coast that has had the effect of reducing the volume of fish the local Somali fishermen are able to catch, and the revenues that they are able to generate from this activity. Ever since the collapse of the Somali government in 1991, the warring clans, warlords and different factions have been unable to reunite the country (Meredith, 2011). This has resulted in the development of a situation where the country’s maritime regions have been left exposed to the ravages of illegal fishing as there is no government force to help in patrolling and protecting this region (Hansen, 2011).

At first, exasperated Somali fishermen took to attacking foreign trawler to extract heavy fines from fishermen at knifepoint. This eventually developed into the full-blown terrorism practice of hostage-taking and extortion. Not to be left behind, the local terrorist organizations eventually entered into the piracy business and began to target ships that were not connected to the initial grievances of the fishermen in the busy shipping lanes of the Gulf of Aden (Menkhaus, 2009). This caused the piracy that had been rampant along the Somali coast to evolve into terrorism.

The maritime terrorism in the Captain Phillips movie is a duplication of the basic strategy of Somali terrorist attacks over the years although the weapons and equipment that are used by these terrorists have been progressively upgraded and the tactics have been developed that allow for these terrorists to strike even those vessels that are far away from the Somali coast (Mineau, 2010). In a similar manner to the movie, Somali terrorists operating in the Gulf of Aden tend to attack ships from small, open and highly powered fishing boats that are known as skiffs. While one or two skiffs provide fire cover, the attacking skiff races across the ocean and catches up with the target ship. The terrorists on the attack skiff then enter the ship using ladders (Pham, 2010). Once the terrorists are onboard, they quickly subdue the crew, hold the crew members hostage and command them to steer the ship towards the Somali coast (Percy and Shortland, 2013). In the movie, Muse and his fellow terrorists were unable to fully execute this tactic as the crew members were able to hid themselves in the engine room from where they were able to disable the ship and prevent the terrorists from steering it to the Somali coast.

A variant of this this strategy takes place when fishing vessels are hijacked for the purpose of being used as a mother ship. This is seen to be the case in the movie where the U.S. Navy identifies the mother ship as a fishing boat that had previously been captured by the Somali terrorists. In the movie, the mother ship tows the skiffs until they are able to identify a suitable target. The Skiffs only deploy once they identify a suitable target which is in this case the Maersk Alabama. In real-world situations, terrorists often hijack fishing vessels and use them to move around the shipping lanes without their being recognized as terrorists by naval forces. In addition to this, these fishing vessels are used to cover long journeys across the Indian Ocean. The motherships are usually abandoned once they are no longer required or the naval forces start becoming suspicious of their operations.

In the movie, the terrorists remove the captain from the ship with the objective of holding him hostage so as to extort a ransom from the ship’s owners and discourage any potential attack on the terrorists as they escape to the Somali mainland. The terrorists in the movie appear to operate with a strict code of conduct that compels them to try and keep their hostages alive and in a reasonable condition. This is shown by Muse’s efforts to try and protect Captain Phillips from being abuse by his fellow terrorists.

Muse and his fellow terrorists are shown to be merely the footmen of the warlord Garaad who is ultimately the person in charge of the region where Maersk Alabama was captured as it sailed across. The terrorists operating along the Somali operate in zones that are controlled by different warlords. These warlords are ultimately responsible for all of the terrorist activities that take place in their regions and pocket the lion’s share of any ransom that is received for the return of captured ships. This aspect is illustrated in the movie in a conversation that takes place between Captain Phillips and Muse where Muse boasts of having captured a Greek ship in the previous year that was able to net the terrorists 6 million dollars in ransom money. However, when Captain Phillips asks Muse why he was still engaging in pirate-terrorism despite his having netted such as huge amount of money within the previous year, Muse appears to get annoyed at the Captain and orders him to keep quiet. The central role that is played by the warlords in the terrorist activities is also illustrated by the fact that it is these warlords that order Muse and the other terrorists to get on board their skiffs and go and earn them some money by capturing ships.

The conversation between Muse and Captain Phillips provides a brief snapshot of the extent and the impact of the terrorist activities that are conducted off the Somali coast. While these activities have experienced a considerable decline in recent years, they were at their height responsible for considerable costs not only in increased operating expenses for the global shipping industry, but also in the number of lives that were lost (Bellish, 2012). The potential economic impact of the terrorism conducted by terrorists such as Muse is illustrated by taking into consideration the fact that well over 90% of the goods traded across the world are transported by sea and that about 40% of these good are transported through the Gulf of Aden (Dutton, 2015). It is estimated that in 2011 alone, the terrorism activities conducted by Somali terrorists were responsible for costing the global economy between 6.6 and 6.9 billion US dollars (Bane, 2013). Over 80% of this cost was borne by the global shipping industry that was forced to spend about 2.7 billion dollars in that year alone to reroute ships or cause these ships to increase their speed so as to avoid terrorist attacks. Forcing ships to increase their speeds in a bid to avoid terrorist attacks not only leads to increased fuel consumption by these ships, but also has the effect of causing a considerable degree of wear and tear to the ship engines that are expensive to repair. In a bid to minimize the losses that they incurred as a direct result of the terrorism activities that took place along the Somali coastline in 2011, the shipping industry is observed to have paid about $635 million in special insurance premiums. These special insurance premiums allowed for ships to obtain special kidnapping, war and ransom insurance policies that helped to indemnify them from any potential losses that they might face as a result of terrorist hijacking. The record number of ship hijackings that took place in 2011 resulted in the shipping industry transferring $160 million in ransom payments that was delivered to terrorists to release ships that had been captured in successful hijackings. The money that was paid in ransom to terrorists operating as terrorists was re-routed into Somalia’s pirate economy and helped to provide additional resources that were used to fund additional piracy operations (Bowden and Basnet, 2012).

While it is the human cost of the pirate-terrorism phenomenon that tends to capture media attention, of great concern is that not all pirate-terrorism incidents are eventually resolved in a successful manner. While the hijacking of the Maersk Alabama in 2009 ended in a successful hostage rescue that was undertaken by US Navy Seals, there are however other incidents such s the hijacking of the civilian yacht, Quest in 2011 that are not as successful and left four American hostages dead as a result of a failed rescue attempt. In addition to this, most piracy incidents tend to go completely unnoticed such as the 35 hostages that were killed in 2011 during the course of the various pirate-terrorism-related incidents that took place during that year (Hurlburt, 2013).\

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Ways of Preventing Terrorists and Terrorism Acts in United States

Terrorism is deemed as any act designed to cause terror hence being taken as politically linked feature revolving of ethnicity, nationalism, religion, social or ideology amongst various factors. Due to the fact that, terrorism is the symptom of struggle that is influenced by religious, social or nationalism cause, then its response is commonly determined by beliefs, class of ethnicity view (Bush, 2012). Moreover, since attitudes to religion, nationalism, and social status appears to evolve over a certain duration of time, it emerges that terrorism act, and the organizations or individuals engaging in terrorism may and often are re-evaluated retrospectively, being either criminalised or legitimised based on the subsequent prevailing political perspectives. Otherwise, this assignment is aimed at demonstrating immense ways of preventing terrorists and terrorism acts as done by United States (The 9/11 commission report, 2011).

Foremost, the terrorist act are prevented through declaring a moratorium on drone attacks since some of terror attacks has been emerging as a result of retaliating for US drone attacking Yemen, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Secondly, compensation and apologizing to victims of violence is another mean of halting revenge since they casualties will feel satisfied when they realize that their losses and destructions did not occur intentionally (Fredrickson, Tugade, Waugh & Larkin, 2013). Moreover, having negotiation on various arising conflicts is a significant mean of ensuring that one of the parties will not arise quarrel emanating since its claims are not considered(The 9/11 commission report, 2011).

Furthermore, stopping reinforcing repressive militaries and dictatorship is another effectual mean of preventing terrorism since all the members of the community will be comfortable with the ruling and progression of the administration. In addition, providing support to non-violent democracy movement is another critical way of preventing terrorism since demonstrators shall feel compensated when their grievances are addressed thus reducing chances of holding grudges against opposing organizations, individuals, communities or nations (The 9/11 commission report, 2011).

Ethics Of War And Responses To Terrorism – Letter To The President

The current war poses serious threats to innocent citizens and even causes deaths of many people. In addition, the state majorly responds to terror by torturing innocent suspects. This is a complete violation of human rights because the impacts of war affect all citizens of the country, both innocent and guilty (Brandt, 1992). According to Nathanson (2010), an act of war or terrorism may be considered ethical if it is combined with distributive justice where only the guilty population is targeted. The current war and response to terror is therefore unethical because it only allows those who have suffered large-scale violation of human rights to continue suffering (Bauhn, 1989). From critical analysis of the current war, it is evident that there are other means that can be used to solve the problem that is causing the current war. According to Consequentialism ethics, an act of war or terror is morally justified if it is the only means through which the existing problem can be solved, and if what is desired cannot be achieved through any other way that is less costly and ethical (Bauhn, 1989).

This ethical view makes the current war and response to terrorism unethical because there are indeed other ethical ways through which the current problem can be solved. In addition, the government has the capacity to ensure that only the guilty and jailed. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, once said that emotion cannot be used in ethical reasoning (Nathanson, 2010). Therefore, the government should not use emotions to judge that the current war and response to terrorism is justified. Otherwise, the government should arrange for dialogue with all the countries involved in the current war as an ethical way of ending it. In addition, it is important to conduct thorough investigations in order to ensure that the exact people who have committed acts of terror are jailed.

how the provisions of the USA PATRIOT Act grants law enforcement and intelligence officials special powers to combat terrorism

The main objective of the USA PATRIOT Act was to prevent and punish terrorist undertakings in the United States as well as around the world. It is also aimed at enhancing law enforcement tools among other purposes. This law is a modification of several already existing laws, including the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, the Money Laundering Act, the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, the Bank Secrecy Act, the Family Education Rights, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act, and the Privacy Act among others (McCarthy, 2002).

A significant portion of the USA Patriot Act is aimed at preventing acts of terrorist violence from being executed against the people United States in the future. A good example of the act’s preventative measures includes making intelligence information sharing process between different law enforcement agencies easier. According to the Justice Department, having the right information on timely basis makes it easier for the agencies to “connect the dots” of data and thus making it easier to detect potential terrorist threats and address them effectively (McCarthy, 2002).

In addition, the USA Patriot Act makes the process of enforcing money-laundering statutes easier and also allows law enforcers to apply measures, such as to freezing certain organizations’ assets, which disrupt terrorists financing undertakings. The Act also gives law enforcement officials the power to monitor and intercept personal conversations, telephone and Internet conversations, and thus they can easily detect terror plans. Another way that the act helps combat terrorism is by increasing the funds allocated to guard and secure the country’s Northern border (Evans, 2001). For many years, terrorists and potential terrorists have exploited the United State’s Northern border to enter the country and thus guarding it makes it harder for potential terrorists to enter the country. Furthermore, the Act provides resources necessary for training incidents respondents such as firefighters to ensure that any terror attacks are dealt with effectively. It also gives the Attorney General the power to offer rewards to individuals who assist in combating terrorism.

Finally, the Act allows government agencies to exercise the powers they use non-terrorist crimes in investigating terrorist acts. For example, delaying search warrants notification, which can be an effective crime-fighting tool that that has been used by American courts for decades to combat illegal activities including drug cases, organized crime, and child pornography (Evans, 2001). This is a vital tool employed in preventing, detecting and debilitating potential terrorists on timely basis.

Media Coverage of Terrorism – International Security and Assistance Force

Media Coverage of Terrorism

The international Security Assistance Force (ISAF) was established in 2001 December by the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). It was established as Afghanistan security mission led by NATO. This was done by the UNSC 1386 resolution as predicted by the Bonn Agreement. The main purpose of ISAF formation was to help Afghanistan government to fight terrorist. This was to be done by enhancing the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF) training and helping the country to reconstruct main institutions of the government. The ISAF was also involved in the Taliban insurgency war from 2001 to date. ISAF has its headquarters in Afghanistan in Kabul town (Nederlands Instituut, 2009). It is guided by cooperation and assistance motto in all its operations. The current ISAF commander is known as General John F Campbell from the USA, who has been operational since 2014. The current deputy commander of ISAF is Lieutenant General Tim Radford from the United Kingdoms who has also been in operation since 2014. The deputy commander transition position is held by Lieutenant General Paolo Ruggiero from Italy. The current chief of staff is known as Lieutenant General Frank Leidenberger (DEU) (NATO, 2015).

ISAF has highly been involved in social development in the Afghanistan especially in government, education and agriculture sector. This has been basically met through security enhancement, making it easy for citizen to continue with their daily operation. IASF According to the “ISAF hosts women’s shura to promote positive change” article, the ISAF funded for Afghan, civil society, students, professors, and parliamentarians consultation or shura to discuss corruption and gender issues and their impacts in the society.  This consultation focused more on women education in Afghanistan among other problems affecting women in the Afghanistan society. The consultation was specifically funded by the Transparency unit of ISAF. This article demonstrates how far the ISAF has gone to support education and other social development in Afghanistan (Cruz, 2012). In the “Construction Begins on agriculture, livestock building in Kandahar,” the paper describes the effort the IASF has employed to enhance the agricultural growth in the Afghanistan. IASF sponsored the construction of $145,000 building to act as an agricultural and livestock directorate offices for the country. Being one of the regions that depends on agriculture , this move was to assist in the promotion of agricultural performance of the region by ensuring that the right agricultural related advise are at the disposal of farmers and that their operations are well taken care of. The ISAF has also been able develop the government in Afghanistan (ISAF Joint Command, 2012).

According to “The ISAF mission and Turkey’s role in rebuilding the Afghan state” article, the ISAF played a great role in 2005 to reconstruct the Afghanistan government that was completely destroyed after the country embarked on war with Taliban. The article describes the condition of the Afghanistan at the very moment when the article was being written. At this very moment, Afghanistan never had a government to coordinate operations in the country. The paper describes the consultation process that was going on with the aid of the ISAF to restore the Afghanistan government. This meeting was facilitated by the Lt. Gen Ethem Erdagi who was the then commander of the ISAF.  This discussion was taking place in Turkey a city in Afghanistan in 2005. At this time the country did not have a central state, and both the police and the army had been taken over by the independent militias. Afghanistan economy was far below all other nations in the world. In this regard, the country needed international military aid and support to reconstruct its government. The article discusses how this process was being carried out in its early stages (Erdagi, 2005).

Media ensure intensive coverage of the terrorism incidences in different parts of the world. They capture and air all possible pictures of terror irrespective of how traumatizing they are. Media also ensure a critical analysis of these incidences is presented to the public. This includes the national security failure and its contribution to a successful attack, government response to the incident, negligence or mistakes that resulted to more deaths, and past government negotiation with terrorist among other incidences. This tables the government concern and effort in the eyes of the public and thus, influencing the public opinion regarding the issue, irrespective of whether the information is true or it is just propaganda (Walsh, 2010).

Terrorist attacks are very traumatizing to individuals who are directly involved, those that witnessed and to the friends, to the relatives of the affected individuals and the country in general. However, the incident is more traumatizing to those that were directly affect since they losses properties, their loved ones, some get injuries, while others are displaced among many other problems. In this regard, quick response is needed to aid those who are affected either by rescuing and evacuating them, offering them first aid and transporting them to the hospitals, offering them food and water, offering them shelter and also offering the psychological support through counseling. If quick and effective response is not offered, the country may lose more people than necessary, and worsen the situation of those who suffered physical and mental condition. Thus affecting the psychological condition of all those who are directly or indirectly affect. This also demonstrates a negative opinion toward the government and lowering citizens’ trust on the government, while increasing their fear and state of uncertainty regarding their future.

Media coverage on terrorist instills fear in a country, especially to individuals living in the high risk region or the targeted places. It creates a state of anxiety, disturbing the psychological functionality of different people. This result to poor output from most individuals an aspect that affects the economy of the country. It also creates fear of being in some parts of the country and thus, most individual avoid those parts of the country, an aspect that negatively affect the transportation sector. This coverage also attracts petty criminal who take advantage of the state of fear to steal or commit other crimes against citizens. It may also result to migration out of the highly targeted area, an aspect that influences farming and other agricultural activities (Walsh, 2010).

The most successful fear management technique in international arena includes provision of positive statement that demonstrate the efforts employed to ensure a traumatizing incident does not occur. Positive media conference statements gives people hope and trust that the government is in the control or the government allies are on control. Thus, they feel more secure and protected. This goes hand in hand with hiding some information regarding threats or planned attacks uncovered by the intelligent units and acting against or to counter them without making it public. This eliminate raise of anxiety and fear among citizens living in those regions.




Cruz, N. (2012). ISAF hosts women’s shura to promote positive change. Retrieved from <http://www.rs.nato.int/article/news/isaf-hosts-women-s-shura-to-promote-positive-change.html>

Erdagi, E. (2005).The ISAF mission and Turkey’s role in rebuilding the Afghan state. Retrieved from <http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/the-isaf-mission-and-turkeys-role-in-rebuilding-the-afghan-state>

NATO. (2015). ISAF’s mission in Afghanistan (2001-2014). Retrieved from http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/topics_69366.htm

Nederlands Instituut. (2009). International security assistance force (ISAF). Nederlands Instituut voor Militaire Historie.

ISAF Joint Command (2012). Construction Begins on agriculture, livestock building in Kandahar. Retrieved from <http://www.rs.nato.int/article/isaf-releases/construction-begins-on-agriculture-livestock-building-in-kandahar.html>

Walsh, J. I. (2010). Media attention to terrorist attacks: causes and consequences. Research Brief. Institute for Homeland Security Solutions. Retrieved from <http://sites.duke.edu/ihss/files/2011/12/IHSS_Research-Brief_Walsh.pdf>

Terrorism Campaign and Planning Process

Terrorism Campaign

An Outline and Definition of the Strategies for Conducting a Terrorist Campaign  or Act.

A deduction of the empirical studies stipulates that a greater percentage of the terroristic acts are a scheme of highly coordinated campaign. According to Hall (2003), the strategies for undertaking a terroristic act would widely be categorized into campaigns of intimidation, spoiling, outbidding, provocation and attrition.

Terrorist use intimidation in trying to convince the population that terrorists are very strong enough towards punishing disobedience and that the government is weak in attempts of stopping them, in order for the people to behave as the terrorists wish. The spoilers unleash their attack in an effort to convince the enemy which moderates on terrorists’ side are untrustworthy and weak, thus derailing the efforts to reach a peace settlement. The terrorist groups engaging in outbidding use violence in persuading the public that the terrorists have a higher resolve in fighting the enemy than the rival groups, and hence of worthy of being supported in their course (Forest, 2007). A terroristic strategy considered to be provocative is one which attempts to induce the enemy to respond to terrorism with indiscriminate violence, which radicalizes the population and makes them to be in support of terrorism. The use of attrition strategy encompasses the terrorists seeking to persuade the enemy the terrorists are very strong enough in imposing considerable costs in case the enemy continues a particular policy.

Planning Process for Executing a Terrorist Attack

Terrorist operations are basically prepared with motive to achieve the highest probability of success with minimal risk. Those individuals planning to execute a terroristic attack avoid an adversary’s strengths and put their concentration on an adversary’s weaknesses. A detailed planning process becomes an essential aspect.

Information gathering and collection against potential target points is carried for a couple of years before an operation is executed (Roy, 2004). Then tactical missions combine in complementing the strategic goals and the operational objectives. This is primarily because terrorist planning and operations’ overarching objective is to achieve a greater psychological impact on the target population. There is a further intelligence gathering and surveillance by the terrorist upon their target point. The terrorist receive additional information on a target’s patterns over a period of time and targets indicating vulnerabilities receive extra attention and priority of effort. After a proper evaluation of facts like target attracting high profile media attention, attack affecting larger audience, costs versus benefits among others, the terrorists then undertake specific target selection. A pre-attack surveillance and planning then follows. Rehearsals then is conducted to ensure equipment and weapons training and performance (Forest, 2007). The action is then undertaken at a designated place, time and conditions of attack. Lastly the terrorist ensure an escape and exploitation plan with exception of a suicide operation in which the impact is hastened with the willingness to die.

The terrorist planning processes is depicted to be similar in a number of ways with other types of planning process across the human day-to-day undertakings. For instance, the organizational management planning process is of similar phases and stages. That is, the organization outlines its purpose and vision as the first strategy in the planning process. The stakeholders table the organizational strategic goals and objectives as the second process. A third phase is the “current state” analysis. Then the last two stages involve the implementation planning and the evaluation stage of the entire organizational management planning process (Hall, 2003).

Challenges faced by Terrorists in Planning Terroristic Attack

There is a greater organizational challenge faced by the terrorist in the planning process. The ideological and political leaders, the principals, have to delegate certain duties ranging from, planning attacks, recruiting, soliciting funds among others to low-level operatives, middlemen and their agents (Purpura, 2007). Such delegation process experiences difficulty as the operational elements usually see the world differently compared to their leaders and thus tend to disagree on the best way to serve the cause.

There is lots of security costs in strategizing to control the resulting agency problem. Therefore the terrorists face a significant tradeoff between control and security (Roy, 2004).  This tradeoff is modelled as an agency challenge in which the principals are better informed than the agents on the mapping from policies to outcomes, but ensuring dissemination of such information to assist the agents attain better outcomes is expensive.

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CIS 523 – Cyber Terrorism And Targets Outside Financial Community

Prompt :  Cyber terrorism scenarios typically focus on the financial industry, envisioning attacks on bank networks or stock exchanges. But many other organizations could be damaged in a cyber attack, and the harm could affect huge numbers of people. As a group, discuss this issue. List several potential targets outside the financial community and discuss the damage that could result if those targets were attacked in an organized, concerted manner.

Cyber terrorism attacks are deadly terror attacks that are planned through the digital network. When cyber terrorism occurs, its severity is even more than that of the unsophisticated worms and viruses observed in many organizations today. Majority of cyber terrorists attack the financial industry causing great damage to financial institutions and their clients. According to Gross (2003). cyber terrorism can cause countries and organizations billions of dollars. Apart from the financial industry, cyber attacks can also take place in many other organizations causing harm huge numbers of people.

There are several other organizations in which cyber attacks can occur. These include academic institutions, military camps, companies which offer varieties of products and services to customers, and other government institutions. According to Gross (2003), the energy sector is very vulnerable for cyber attacks. The consequences of cyber attacks on the energy sector can be more severe than other attacks that take place on other government institutions. For example, in 2008, a digital attack took place on a pipeline in Turkey causing a very serious explosion. The attack occurred following infiltration of the pipeline through a wireless network and tampering with the system. Pipelines are now recognized as unquestionably vulnerable attacks to cyber attacks and this can cause damages as severe as physical attacks. Academic institutions and other organizations may lose very important data following cyber attacks (Gross, 2003).

History of Terrorism – Aurora Theater Shooting Research Paper

The Aurora Theater Shooting

The 20th July 2012 Aurora Theater shooting in Colorado was a terrorist attack by a 24 years old suspected gunman James Holmes. On that day, Colorado awoke to the worst mass shootingever since the Columbine massacre after approximately 50 people injured and at least 12 were killed by a lone gunman who wielded tear gas and fired randomly at cinema goers who went for the midnight premier of the Batman movie.

The gunman entered into one of the three cinemas that was showing “The Dark Knight Rises” at the multiplex cinema in Aurora, a suburb of Denver, at around 12:30 am. He made his way in to the cinema through a side exit, when he was dressed in black and had put on a flack jacket and a mask while carrying hand guns and a rifle. He flung a gas canister above the audience into the air, with fumes and a loud bang spreading through the auditorium (McCann, 2014).

The suspect was arrested by police officers while he was near a car behind the theater. When he was found by police he had a handgun, a rifle and a knife. Another gun was later found from the scene of incidence.

Impact of the Aurora Theater Shooting

Cancellation of shooting sport competitions

The cancellations happened due to the fact that there were imposed concerns over the legal implications of the new gun laws and the political opposition. Those 300 shooters who were expected to be in attendance in the International Defense Pistol Association’s Rocky Mountain Championship in Montrose between 4th -6th of July no longer provided the local business with food, lodging, and gas.

Wasted government resources and time

There were new gun legislation which would impose new burdens on the law enforcement system, limiting their resources and time, particularly in a case where the officers are forced to take extreme measures in ensuring stoppage of the black market trading like California. Besides all that, the legislative battle on gun legislation prevented the Colorado government from giving focus on other important issues that could be of improvement to the well-being of its citizens (Caraley, 2013).

The other consequence of the Aurora Theater attack is the lingering physical maladies.

As a result of killing of 12 people and 58 getting injured in the July 2012 shooting spree, people still experienced insomnia, and facial tics and stress-induced epilepsy years later. The psychiatric experts noted that it wasn’t easy to know who would experience serious the after-effects of the attack. Nearly 7% to 8% of the individuals would go on to develop the post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, as a result of such a deadly attack, according to the Dart Center for Journalism and Trauma.

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History of Domestic Terrorism in the United States – Assignment Instructions

For this assignment, prepare a PowerPoint presentation that details the history of domestic terrorism in the United States. In your presentation, discuss the two most infamous acts of domestic terrorism, the Oklahoma City bombings, and the attacks of September 11, 2001, which led to the creation of Homeland Security in 2003. Also distinguish between left-wing terrorist groups, right-wing terrorist groups, and foreign terrorist groups that are active in the U.S. Briefly explain each type of terrorist group, including their domestic terrorism philosophies; include the act or acts of terrorism that the group has performed domestically. Detail at least 5 challenges that these domestic terrorist groups present to Homeland Security.

Your presentation should consist of no less than seven (7) slides, excluding the title slide and references slide. Thus, a proper presentation should have a total of 9 slides at a minimum.must include foot notes Below is a suggested format for your presentation to help you get started.must be original work

Suggested Presentation Format:

Title (Slide 1) Summary of Domestic Terrorism the U.S. (Slide 2) Details of the creation of the Department of Homeland Security and its purpose (Slides 3-4) Agencies that make up the Department of Homeland Security (Slide 5) Left-wing & Right-wing Terrorist Groups (Slide 6) Foreign-born terrorist groups (Slide 7) Challenges to Homeland Security (Slide 8) References Download a preformatted template for this PowerPoint project here

Click here to review the document Brief History of the Department of Homeland Security (pp. 1-12 – specific focus on pp. 5-7). This document will help you prepare your presentation.

In addition to fulfilling the specifics of the assignment, a successful presentation must also meet the following criteria:

Length of the presentation should be at least 7 slides, excluding cover slide and references slide(s). Viewpoint and purpose should be clearly established and sustained. Assignment should follow the conventions of Standard American English (correct grammar, punctuation, etc.). Writing should be well ordered, logical and unified, as well as original and insightful. Your work should display superior content, organization, style, and mechanics. Appropriate citation style should be followed.