Browse Tag: U.S.A

Academic resources related to the United States of America.

Should USA Enter World War I – Propaganda Poster Assignment Instructions

Your assignment is to create a “ propaganda poster ” either for or against the US entering WWI. Your poster must be a combination of graphics, photos, or other images that you find from your research and a short slogan or other motivational saying supporting your cause. You must provide a reference on the poster worksheet for each graphic, photo, or other image that you use in your poster unless you created it yourself. There is a list of resources to get your started at the end of this assignment that are also listed in the course shell.

Your “poster” can be on a PowerPoint slide, a Google slide, Google Drawing, a Word doc, a pdf, or other presentation format. Once you have created your poster, it is best to save it to a pdf format. You will also fill out the poster worksheet to explain your poster and list the sources you used in making your poster. Upload both your poster and the poster worksheet through the submit button here in Blackboard.

Requirements

  • Create a poster. Requirements for the poster:
    1. Clearly convey one of the positions listed below. The United States should:
      • Remain neutral and only proving humanitarian aid.
      • Join the Allies.
      • Join the Central Powers.
    2. Have at least one statement that advocates for your position.
      • e.g. Dogs for neutrality!! Don’t let your masters pull you into this needless war!! Who will defend them when you are gone?
    3. Include information about who you are and why you are advocating for that position either in an additional statement or in a graphic form.
      • Are you an immigrant supporting your home country or your new country?
      • Are you a union worker who agrees or disagrees with the union position on the war?
      • Are you a concerned US citizen speaking out about US policies or issues of equality?
      • This does not have to be based on who you are now.
    4. Have at least one illustration, photograph, or other graphic that helps convey your position.
    5. Be easy to read and show some thought about the design. (Don’t just slap images and words on a slide and call it done.)

Police Brutality In The USA – Sample Research Paper

Police brutality has covered media headlines for the last two decades. The citizens have continued to riot in cases where this brutality exceeds the standard range of punishment. Fatal shootings are becoming common. Amazingly, the police officers responsible for the killings are not held for long before they are released to their normal duties. Studies have noted that police use excessive force to the minority groups. For instance, Latinos and African –Americans have confidence that the police use this force on suspects, rather than the ideal victims of the offense (Bucerius & Tonry, 2014). On the other hand, a number of people think that the excessive force is necessary to prevent additional crimes in the society. Therefore, it is important to analyze the disparate views on the two sides of this aspect. Since the issue of police brutality is based on racial grounds, the police should be held accountable for their misconduct. This will enable them to treat all groups of individuals with equality; hence use appropriate amount of force.

 

The use of brutal force by the police defeats logic since they are supposed to maintain law and order and use as little force as possible in carrying out arrests. Police are supposed to ensure people follow the law and where necessary seize those who prove stubborn and follow deviant ways. Unwarranted police brutality only draws the wrath of people especially when people are discriminated against. Racially, people of color are highly prone to such treatment by police and if there are no changes in police conduct as they carry out their duties, people will harbor negative attitudes towards the police and policing will be difficult. Police brutality thus does not help and getting to the root of such actions is quite important in ensuring the code of conduct for police is maintained and carried out with equity regarding all races. People may not be criminals but may hold dissenting views regarding the police and even lack respect for them because of the brutality meted on them. Police, in this case, can be targets of their own doing where people attack them in the course of their duty. Such brutal shootings have been directed towards young black boys who are mostly teenagers. The use of excessive force, in this case, takes on the use of shootings or pepper sprays in some cases. Carrying out duties discriminatively affects the rights of most minorities and some of the case of white officer’s shootings innocent teens have been evident especially in the Ferguson shooting where Michael Brown who was unarmed was shot by a police officer in Ferguson (Matthews, Szalai & Flaherty, 2016).

Brutal force does not help in the carrying out of justice especially when innocent people are targeted. Such force may lead to injuries which would have been avoided if the polices had followed due process. Police have to measure situations and consider their investigation together with evidence and further confirm the credence of the suspicions at hand. As such, they should do much groundwork before they can use force. Many people are mostly wrongfully jailed especially those who are minorities. Therefore, innocent people suffer at the hands of law enforcement officers. Police in different communities are aware of the activities that are usually happening in their precincts and should therefore provide ways in which people are treated as innocent before proven guilty (Banks, 2013). The guilty by association approach, which is racially inclined, has mostly brought out rebellions in the targeted minority groups especially African Americans. Police as such have created in such minorities a mindset that they are criminals even without being proved in a court of law. The many arrests involving such minorities make them rebellious to the police force and therefore they opt to defend themselves because ether police do not view them in equal light as the majority races. Brutal force meted racially on people who are innocent may criminalize a person, group or a section of society thus leading to an ineffective society that is does not care about policing or the law. Black life matter has come out to demand for African American rights following the recent shootings of young black boys (Mac, 2016). The use of brutal force causes resentment and dissent. Consequently, people opt not to respect the police and even consider all means to protect themselves from the police.

Police should carry themselves professionally as their duty calls to ensure that the people they serve are not hurt. Professionalism does not just mean the use of force in settling matters. Police can engage in fruitful conversations or negotiations whenever there is need to prevent any use of unnecessary force. Police have in most riot situations treated people with brutal force. Though the tasks of the police are, mostly quite dangerous, police need to deal with protesters tactfully. In reducing the brutal nature of operations by police, top officials in the police force should not militarize the force by stressing on the use of weapons constantly on people who may not pose a threat (Hess, Orthmann & Cho, 2014). The police in such a case get the mindset that each person is a suspect starting from the children to adults. The color of the uniform worn by the officers may influence their behavior from being calm to being aggressive. Authoritarianism results and police treat people as targets to brutal force. The police should provide services in accordance with the constitution. Therefore, the government in place should consider overhauling various practices that have contributed to the militarization of the police and eventual use of brutal force. Demilitarizing the police is quite an important aspect of ensuring that the public are served humanely. Police in Maui, Hawaii used great force on peaceful protesters and later denied having done so.

Brutal force further has a negative impact on the freedom of people in a country. Black people have mostly been targeted even when they have not committed crimes. As a result, the police according to them are their enemies. People do not see the police as protectors but oppressors. To certain sections of the society, there is no freedom because they are targeted or discriminated against. Excessive force can be used in situation that suspects are violent and may not want to give in. such a case is quite different from a person who is walking peacefully and is stopped by police and expected to comply even though he or she has not done any wrong. Justice meted out with equity promotes confidence in the justice system by people of all races. Gangs usually use lethal force and the police should ensure that they only use excessive force in such situations (Williams, 2015). The magnitude of the force used by the police should be equal to the situation they are facing. Police deny people freedom when they go against their rights of freedom and movement. Some of the innocent people may feel threatened whenever they are near police because of the excessive used on them in the past. The constant suspicion surrounding such people creates fear in them of the police. Therefore, though police fear for their lives at every instance while dealing with criminals they should not use counterproductive means in dealing with crime. Police in creating fear create situations where they suspect mostly colored people without first proving their innocence. Latino populations have shown increasing fear for police as a result among other minority races (Hughes & Robinson, 2016).

The use of force is thus justified only in various circumstances where the life of certain people together with the police is in danger. The use of brutal force can be levelled at gangs who do not want to yield or in cases where the police are a disadvantage of either succumbing to certain situations involving criminals. Police should thus use force when their lives are in danger or where criminals directly threaten lives of other people. Such force is applicable to situations where the criminals are violent and no negotiations can be done peacefully. Therefore only in cases where their safety and that of others is threatened should they use great force. On the other hand, it is important for police to consider all options before engaging brutal force (Roberg, 2014). Police can engage their faculties in dealing with matters before they take down a suspect using brutal force. Police have various means that they can employ to prevent excessive use of force by learning how to handle suspects and being proactive rather than being reactive when carrying out their duties. Therefore, the use of excessive force should be limited only to dangerous situation that is life threatening.

Officers should avoid the use of brutal force at all costs. Police in a civilized society should carry themselves with the utmost respect in serving the people in their respective areas. The police are mostly given the important mandate of ensuring that people are secure. Therefore, when somebody is suspected, decorum should be maintained in handling of such a person. Brutal force has been evidenced mostly in black communities and minorities. Most of the blacks are innocent and thus suffer racial discrimination. Brutal force in such cases does not help matters but builds up dissidents in the minorities and others who are discriminated against. Brutal force should be relevant to the situation at hand. Such force should depend on whether the lives of the police are in imminent jeopardy. Demilitarization of the police force should take place and the use of force defined in different circumstances according to the dangers the police face (Spence, 2015).

Clean Air Act (CAA) – USA Environmental Law

Clean Air Act (CAA)

            The first Clean Air Act (CAA) was enacted in 1963 authorizing the establishment of national program that is responsible for addressing issues related to air in the environment. Another mandate for CAA was to facilitate the translation of research findings into actionable techniques for reducing air pollution. The second CAA resulted from a revision of the first CAA in 1970(Vicario, & Ohliger, 2015). The revised CAA included the definition of EPA’s responsibilities for improving and protecting the quality of air in the United States and the stratospheric ozone layer. Additional legislation was included in the CAA in 1977 and 1990. The inclusion subdivided the country into air quality regions as well as setting the concentration standard for various air pollutants. The main objective was to minimize the amount pollutants in the air thus reducing the human health risks. CAA regulates the ambient air pollutants such as particulates, ozone, sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx), Lead (Pb), Hydrocarbons (HCs) and Carbon Monoxide (CO).

The environmental law tasked the relevant institutions with the responsibility of developing technology-based emission standards for specific industry categories (SICs).The law specify the amount of pollutant a specific industry is allowed to emit into the air as well as compelling industries to state the technology they use(Vicario, & Ohliger, 2015). Congress included air toxics such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury in the 1990 amendment. The amendment also required environmental protection agency to identify industrial sources of toxic air based on the 187 list of air pollutants. Subsequently, the agency initiates steps of ensuring the industry change production processes or install control mechanism in order to significantly reduce air pollution. The last amendment also included programs of ensuring that the use of chemicals that lead to the emission of gases that deplete the ozone layer was phased in the production process.

Major provisions

The environmental law Clean Air Act was codified as 42 U.S.C et seq. The law sort to protect the environment and human health from emissions that pollute ambient, or outdoor air. The 1990 amendment ensured that the environmental law consisted of four major provisions: requirement for the prevention of catastrophic releases, standards for stationary “area source”, health-based standards and maximum achievable control technology (MACT)(McCarthy, et al., 2011).

  • Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT): This is the technology-based emission standards developed by EPA. The agency is mandated to establish standards based on sources of 187 pollutants listed in the CAA. In addition, the agency is required to categories the source of pollutants based on the established emission standards(McCarthy, et al., 2011). Environmental protection agency is tasked with the responsibility of reviewing and revising emission standards periodically, generally after every eight years. It is also prerogative for the agency to respond to the petitions, add or remove source categories from the 187 pollutants listed. The environmental law requires EPA to establish emission standards for listed sources of pollutants. The set standards must achieve the “Maximum degree of reduction in emissions”. The establishment of the set standards must factor in the non-air-quality and economic factors in the implementation process. One requirement of MACT standards was that “it shall not be less stringent than the most stringent emissions level that is achieved in practice by the best controlled similar source.”
  • Health-based standards: This is the second major provision of the environmental law. It requires the EPA to establish health-based standards that addressed the residual threats of adverse environmental and health effect existing after the implementation of MACT. The law directed the EPA in consultation with Surgeon General of the United States, prepare and submit a report to Congress detailing influence of residual risks to the public health and recommended legislation to minimize the risks(McCarthy, et al., 2011). In addition, the environmental law requires EPA to contract National Academy of Sciences (NAS) to conduct risk assessment, establish a Risk Assessment and Management Commission to inquire and prepare a report on the effects of policy and effective use of risk assessment and management
  • Technology-based and health-based programs: This is the third major provision addressing the problem of major source of hazardous air pollution. The law requires EPA to set standards for stationary “area sources” identified to cause threat or adverse effect to the environment and human health(McCarthy, et al., 2011). This provision mandated the EPA to set regulations that controls stationary area sources considered liable for emitting 90 % of the identified thirty hazardous air pollutants that poses greater risks to the urban dwellers. Unlike MACT, EPA may formulate standards that imposes less stringent and readily available control technologies.
  • Catastrophic releases of air toxics: The law mandated the EPA to constitute an independent Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board. The independent board is tasked with the responsibility of inquiring into accidents that leads to emission of hazardous substances, carrying out research and developing reports that include recommendations on how to prevent sudden catastrophic releases as well as minimizing the risk of accidents(McCarthy, et al., 2011). The law also require EPA to provide guidelines for detecting, preventing and correcting catastrophic releases of hazardous substance by major sources.

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Impact of The Immigrants in The USA – Research Paper

Introduction

America has ever been branded as “a country of immigrants”, and this problem has been compounded further by globalization, which makes terrorism and migration easier (Tim Kane and Kirk A. Johnson). There are various impacts of immigrants in US on both economy and other development parameters.

Percentage Number of Immigrants in the USA

Throughout the American history, it is clear that immigration has played a key role in the vitality of the country’s economy as well as enrichment of culture and demographic dynamism. On an economic perspective, immigrants are job creators, consumers, taxpayers and entrepreneurs, (CAP Immigration Team). Many pundits, however, argue that immigration system in the US is broken and needs an overall overhaul. They argue further that although the borders of the country are much secure now, there is need to enact laws to provide mechanism for citizenship for many immigrants living in the country and level playing ground for all the Americans.

Latest statistics on the number of immigrants in the country shows a substantial number of immigrants in the country. There has been a general rise in the number of immigrants in the US since 2000-2012. During this span of time, the foreign population grew in the country from 31.1- 40.8 million people and this translates to 31.2% increase in number of immigrants.

Although there has been a steady rise in the number of immigrants in the US, the percentages are yet to hit a record high of 14.8% recorded in the country in 1890. In 1960, the population of foreign immigrants was 5.4% of the entire population in the country. This has since risen and the new numbers recorded in 2012 shows that the number of immigrants in the country constitutes 13% of the entire population of the country. The composition of the immigrants can be broken further. The 40.8 million immigrants consist of 18.6 million naturalized US citizens, and these are the foreign population born in the country. The remaining percentage constituted of 1.9 million of immigrants on temporary visas, 11.3 million unauthorized migrants and 13.3 legal permanent residents.

Impact of the Immigrants in the USA

There are many views that have been put forth regarding the impact that immigrants have on the economy of the country. However, many economists argue that immigrants have more benefits to the country than its negative effects. Although there are some negative impacts of the immigrants in the country’s economy, for instance states and localities spend more in educating them, the cumulative benefits outweigh the negative impacts.

  • Impact on Education

The large number immigrants that are naturalized as citizens owing to their birth, drains a lot of money from the states and localities who have to educate them (Amuedo-Dorantes and Sparber). In addition, many of the illegal immigrants and those who posses temporary visas make use of the educational facilities and these drain a lot from the economy. The ruling of the supreme court of the US, in 1982, in case, Plyler v. Doe, ruled out that the undocumented immigrant children have a right to access to education in the US public schools.

Some of these immigrants go back to their countries of origin after their education and this represents a brain drain for the country. Not only do immigrants come as mature people, there are many Mexican children, who illegally cross the border into the country. The immigrants who are not born in the country do not speak fluent English and this adds more cost to their education.

The impact of immigrants on the economy and education is more compelling on individuals who are educated and possess skills in the fields of Information Technology, Science and Engineering. If such individuals are allowed to work in the country, the likelihood of outsourcing such jobs is eliminated and the same individuals are retained and hired, pay taxes and thus adds to the economy.

  • Impact on Healthcare Provision

Unauthorized immigrants have a great impact on the healthcare in the US. Most of these illegal immigrants access healthcare yet no one will pay for them in form of insurance and other forms of tax. This forms a great burden to the federal government since these costs will then be absorbed by the healthcare institutions and the government. The rates of “uninsurance” in the country drive costs of healthcare (‘Elderly Immigrants: Emerging Challenge for the U.S. Healthcare System’).

Most of the cases that create a major challenge include pregnancy and the elderly immigrants. These groups of immigrants create a big challenge in terms of costs that such hospitals, healthcare institutions and public entities have to shoulder. The costs of treating and nursing the elderly immigrants are high since most of them do not have any form of repaying for the services. Similarly, maternity and delivery services are more expensive and costly to such institutions. These cause a major cause of concern to the economy of the country. The undocumented immigrants have the right to use emergency services since hospitals are mandated to provide these services regardless of the ability to pay or immigration status (Wolbert). The users of such services include mothers who want to deliver. The long-term impact of the costs of the healthcare services to the state, undocumented by immigrants, has been estimated to be in the regions of $6-$10 billion per year.

  • Impact on Housing

The international convention that seeks to protect the rights of the migrants and the universal declaration on human rights, advocates for the rights of the migrants to adequate and good housing, social housing schemes and against exploitation in payment of rents. Although the immigrants have a lower homeownership rates compared to the natives, these rates have improved drastically from 1990’s onwards. The immigrants live in less adequate houses than the native in the US does.

Although homeownership and adequacy is low among the immigrants in the US, recent studies show that the immigrants have had positive impact on the growth of the housing sector in the country. For instance, (Poppe), did extensive research on the home ownership among the immigrants in the US and the results revealed that although the immigrants have poor house adequacy, especially those who live in rural areas, there has been an increase in the demand for housing due to influx of immigrants to the US.

  • Language of Accommodation

Most of the immigrants that move to the US are from Mexico and neighboring Central American Countries. Most of the immigrants have poor English language skills. The naturalized immigrants have better language skills and speak fluent English. The fact that most of the immigrants have poor English language skills tends to impact negatively on their chances of getting employment and their children accessing education since the language of instruction in public schools is English.

  • Criminal Activities

Most of the immigrants are in the US illegally and many are from Mexico. Most of them have difficulties getting necessary licenses to like natives. Even those who were born in the country, especially those who studied disciplines related to medicine, have found difficulties accessing the necessary licenses in order to operate as doctors and nurses and most of them are left operating cabs instead of practicing.

However, many studies have revealed that most immigrants are less likely to commit offences compared to Native Americans. Most of the criminal offences are perpetrated by the natives, who are more likely to be incarcerated than the immigrants are (Das).

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Explain why this situation is interpreted to be a USA PATRIOT Act case – Answered

Read the following article titled: “Mom says Patriot Act stripped son of due process,” dated April 29, 2009, from the WRAL Website located at http://www.wral.com/news/local/story/5049867/.

Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:

  1. Explain why this situation is interpreted to be a USA PATRIOT Act case. Suggest whether you believe it should or should not be interpreted as a USA PATRIOT Act case.
  2. Describe how we can balance the protection of the population with traditional civil rights in a free and open society.
  3. Determine whether technology that shows a crime originated at a specific location is sufficient evidence to conduct a raid as represented in this case. Explain your determination.
  4. Suggest at least one (1) change you would make to the USA PATRIOT Act, if possible, to correct civil rights issues raised by cases such as this.

 

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA format.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Outline the process of investigating crimes and security incidents.
  • Discuss the infrastructure of Homeland Security and emergency planning agencies.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in security assessment and solutions.
  • Write clearly and concisely about topics related to Security Assessment and Solutions using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.
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Culture Analysis Using Geert Hofstede’s 6 Dimensions – USA, Mexico, China, Israel And UAE

Six Dimensions on China, United States, China, United Arab Emirates and Mexico

Introduction

The six dimensions of Hofstede are individualism, power distance, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and indulgence. All the four countries, China, Mexico, Israel, UAE and the united have different ranks with regard to the six dimensions. The dimensions are gauged up to 100 according to the national cultures in the respective countries. The Hamburger business in New York should focus on the differences in the various cultures to ensure that it does not have difficulty in adjusting to the different cultures in the respective countries.

Power distance

Mexico on the six dimensions rates fairly when compared to the United States. The power distance of the country is 81 and as such, it is considered a hierarchical society. The people are assigned various roles especially in organization that they are to do in accordance with their level in the organization.  Israel scores below the United States with a value of 13 showing a society that is on the lower end with more equality and accessibility between those who are low and at higher positions. The power distance in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) is higher than that of the US at 97 showing that the society is quite hierarchical. At 80 china exhibits a society that embraces a lot of inequality and is second to emirates and higher than the US. The United States at 40 shows a society that is mostly equal and people can have their roles defined differently according to various situations that may arise.

Individualism

On individualism, Mexico scores 30. As such, the society is termed collectivistic. Israel scores 54 the culture of Israel exhibits both collectivist and individualist aspects. UAE scores 25, which shows that it is a collectivistic society. Loyalty is highly regarded in the society among the groups. Strong relationships are thus considered in such societies that are collectivists between members of a group. China has a value of 30, which highly shows its collectivistic culture. The high score of 91 shows that is it is a hierarchical society and is higher than the three countries as people can do business with those they do not know.

Masculinity

Mexico has a value of 69, which shows that the society is masculine. At 47 Israel is near the middle of a masculine and feminine culture though it is mostly masculine, as such, success, achievement and competition are highly valued. The UAE scores 50 and, therefore, it is neither a masculine nor a feminine society. China scores 60 and encompasses masculine cultures that is oriented and driven towards success. Leisure time is not valued as such. The high score of 62 shows that, the United States has a high orientation and drive toward success, as compared to the other three countries. It can easily set up business in the three countries since there national culture is masculine in nature.

Uncertainty avoidance

Uncertainty avoidance deals with the unknown future and the country scores 82 meaning it has a great tendency in avoiding uncertainty. Israel scores 81 a higher value that the US. The people in the society value time, thus punctuality, and hard work together with together with security and precision that are motivating factors among individuals. The UAE scores 80 and thus exhibits a society, which greatly avoids uncertainty. China scores 30, which is very low when compared to the other countries. As such, truth is viewed in a relative manner and as such, it is considered as an ambiguous society. The united has a score of 46 and is thus second last with respect to the three countries. New ideas can thus be encouraged together with innovation and inventions.

Long-term orientation

Mexico scores 24 and, therefore, it is a normative culture where truth is highly regarded. Israel scores 38 in this dimension and shows that the society is highly normative valuing honesty while upholding traditions and respect for the various norms in the society. The UAE has no score for the dimension. China scores 87 showing that it is a significantly pragmatic. Truth is, therefore, dependent on time, context and situation. The United States has a score of 26, which shows that it is a normative society. Most Americans carry out analysis to prove whether the new information is true.

Indulgence

Mexico has a high score of 97, which shows that it a highly optimistic country. On indulgence, Israel has no score yet. The UAE has no score for indulgence. With a value of 24 china exhibits a society that is restrained. On indulgence, it has a score of 68 that exhibits a society that values hard work at the same time a society that embraces prudence.

Conclusion

The US, therefore, has to deal with power distance as most of the countries exhibit high inequalities about positions of people in the society. The United States ranks highly on individualism, as such, it has to work hard to create a culture in the companies in the three countries that will help foster strong relationships and thus teamwork and loyalty. On average all countries exhibit masculinity and thus the US will not have to struggle much with this dimension. The US ranks lowly with china while the other countries rank highly and thus more effort is needed in ensuring that a culture that is pragmatic and more optimistic is created in the hamburger business. The US has a low value on long-term orientation, this it is normative as compared to the other countries, and it needs to work on establishing a culture of honesty. The US is high indulgent and it will only need to work less to boost indulgence in china, UAE and Israel.

American History II : Reform Minded Publications (Susan Sontag)

Intellectual Grandiosity

In the 60’s and 70’s, Susan Sontag’s ideas that were representative of fearless curiosity attracted so many debates. Sontag, at the time was an American intellectual who wrote provocative essays and articles on terrorism, war, illness, and photography(Sontag, 1983). As a cultural critic, she more often than not held a dissenting opinion to the notions of culture that the American society clung onto at the time and she would continually thrive in the spotlight her fierce criticism would shine upon her. Although her work was characteristic of high-minded pretension, it had an aura of notoriety that gave her an edge and set her aside from her peers, promoting her to the status of an influential intellectual icon. To be considered intellectually smart and curious at the time one had to know and had to have read essays by Sontag.

The Role Susan Sontag played in America’s Cultural Revolution

Sontag‘s contributions were responsible for changes experienced in the climate of intellectual debates at the time. Her ideas especially on a “new sensibility” found their way into academia at a time when the Cultural Revolution was characterized by a students’ uprising in many university campuses and colleges in the U.S.She is credited with helping to set a new tone and a new atmosphere that was consistent with the cultural changes taking place at the time. For instance in her book “Against Interpretation” Sontag clarifies, that “to interpret is to impoverish” as it slaps meanings onto art and does not allow for a heightened experience of the art(Sontag, 1983). According to Sontag, art should not be viewed as an answer to a question and should not only be viewed as to be about something but art as something in and of itself. She felt that the selling of art was deeply rooted in commercialism. She heavily criticized the tastes and standards of the American culture and its need to interpret, analyze and moralize.By assertions that America needed a “new sensibility,” an “erotics of art,” and “to dethrone the serious,” Sontag hailed the “exhilarating freedom from moralism” and by this, she gave lowbrow tastes a highbrow endorsement(Jucan, 2012).

The Outcome of Sontag’s Contributions

Unlike political revolution whose goal is to overthrow a government, the goal of counterculture’s political activism is to transform morals.The American Cultural Revolution had enormous consequences for both intellectual and artistic life.Sontag’s counterculture stance called for and resulted in some ways to a diminishing gap between high and low society: by insisting on a fusion rather than a separation of what was considered high and what was considered low. Her radical artistic and intellectual gestures of the counterculture helped the cultural shift towards the embracing of mass culture and pop art from the reverence of high modernism(Jucan, 2012).

How Susan Sontag is viewed today

Although Sontag’s work may have lost its power thrill in today’s world, her reasons for advancing the arguments she advanced hold strong. Her early career and later career reveal two conflicting sides to Sontag, while in the beginning, she was a revolutionary seeking to close gaps butin the end, she came across as questioning her initial arguments that made her so popular among the intellects(Jucan, 2012). As a fearless intellectual and a woman at that, that she helped to break gender barriers by asserting her ideas in a field that was largely male-dominated and thus became an intellectual role model for thousands of younger women.

State Secrets, The USA Patriot Act And The War On Terrorism

The state secrets previledge is basically an evidentiary rule which was created by the legal precedent in the United States. Application of such a case often involves the excusing of some of the evidence from a legal case which is purely based on affidavits which is submitted by the government indicating that sensitive information bight be disclosed from the legal proceedings which might cause national unrest(Chesney, 2007)

As part of the rules of state secrets previledge, the court thus rarely conducts and in camera investigation thus so as to protect the evidence. This leads to insufficient information and evidence to support the case. This leads to a court proceeding where the judge handles a case and provides a ruling where he/she has not verified the case. In this case, the previledge material is thus eliminated from the litigation. It is then the court’s mandate to determine ways in which the elimination of the previledge material might affect the case (McCarthy,2002).

The privileged material can lead to a wrong ruling. This is because not all evidence is produced in a court proceeding thus the ruling won’t be fair. Sometimes the documents that are held as a secret contain no secret at all. An example is a case of US v. Reynolds.  The government at that time claimed that the evidence withheld was holding very critical info which could lead to national unrest. In 2000 when the document was declassified, it contained no secret but only revealed government’s negligence (Karich, 2011). This was quite unfair as it would have validated plaintiff’s case.

The purpose of the state secrets previledge is prevent any state secret information from being exposed to the public. In these cases, the government might interrupt any civil case and ask the court to exclude any state secrets(Fisher,2008).

Since the 9/11 terror attack, some of the American presidents such as Bush and Obama have used the state secrets previledge so aggressively that they end up insisting that the entire case be dismissed if at all it will touch on the country’s security. This has ended up denying justice to millions of Americans who have been violated their rights. These administrations have argued that these cases be totally dismissed even when they have leaked to the public(McCarthy, 2002). This is because the judge’s conclusion might end up confirming the allegations which could be problematic.

According to this theory. The government can thus break the law and even the constitutional rights of the citizens as it pleases. The CIA is thus immunized from the limits and the demands of the law. By stating some critical evidences as “STATE SECRET”, the affected individuals are thus denied justice(Chesney, 2007)

The government withholding some information especially about terrorism from the public could be quite disturbing. This is because the public might be having some useful information that could be collected to aid in combating terrorism. By withholding this information, the country might still remain vulnerable to terror attacks. During terror attacks, the public are the ones who suffer most during and after the attack. They may need some answers to the questions they may be having as well as justice to the affected groups. This can’t be achieved if some of the evidence is withheld. The affected persons thus are left unsatisfied by the court’s ruling on the cases and also on the government on not handling the issue well.

It is thus evident that state secret’s previledge is an unfair act as it does not benefit the citizens but the government only. It also puts the state at risk of more terror attacks.

 

Healthcare Utilization and Finance – UK vs USA

The health care system of every country is representative of the welfare of the people living in it. A proper healthcare system symbolizes stress-free living standards where the people do not have to consistently worry about medical costs. The regulations and policies put in place in regards to healthcare support a healthy environment for the people and create ground on awareness on issues of healthcare (Lloyd, Braithwaite and Southon, 1999). Each country has their basis of coming up with the rules and the regulations that they have. Each state comes up with their rules depending on the current issues at the time. Since two societies can never be equal at the same time, there are likely to be some differences in what is considered the most important in each society.

The prevailing conditions in the UK and the US are very different, and their international standards towards the healthcare industry differ significantly. According to the World Health Organization, the terms of healthcare in the UK are far better than those in the United States. The countries were measured on different parameters and declared that the United Kingdom is way above the United States when it comes to healthcare (Elliott, Hatton and   Emerson, 2003). According to Who, the United Kingdom has better arrangements when dealing with issues arising in health care. The healthcare industry in the United Kingdom mostly works on the National Health Service (NHS) model. According to this model, all the citizens have the right to access health care. The entire model of the healthcare industry is based on the NHS model only. The NHS forms and regulates all the operations regarding health services. This type of central authority gives the government more power in regulating the industry (Reid, 2010). Every activity that takes place in the healthcare industry is implemented in a very organized and well-structured manner.

The NHS system allows for continuous advancement of any technology aspects coupled with the increase incompetent staff as well as improving the infrastructure of the industry. The government of the UK gives a broad range of facilities to its users and concentrates on providing the best healthcare services to its users. The government is the sole financier of the NHS in the UK. The guidelines of the hospitals are guided by the National Health Service Act of 1946. Professionals in the healthcare industry are highly trained based on the recommendations by the NHS. Patients can access services of nurses and specialists through a telephone call. Therefore, the health department in the United Kingdom is very attentive to the needs of the people and understands their responsibility in steadily improving the needs of the citizens.

The healthcare system in the United States, on the other hand, concentrates on improving the health standards of the citizens in the country. The government does not play a huge role in the healthcare industry, and private health companies work to gain control of the industry (Leatherman and Sutherland, 2005). The entrepreneurial structure in the country mostly operates the industry as the government does not take the responsibility of providing health services. All the same, health facilities in the country are highly advanced, and technology is much more advanced when compared to those of the United Kingdom. The health hierarchy in the United States is very extensive, and various departments offer various services to the patients (Lloyd, Braithwaite and Southon, 1999).  Due to the high levels of privatization of the health industry in the country, the country experiences a high degree of expenditure in the per capita income. The government representative in the healthcare industry is the department of health and human services which control the activities of different sub-agencies.

There are three main categories in the United States healthcare industry. There is primary care, secondary care, and tertiary care. The healthcare industry in the United States is much complex when compared to that in the United Kingdom. Private medical insurance companies play a huge role in the healthcare system in the country (Elliott, Hatton and   Emerson, 2003).In the United Kingdom, all the members of the society including the unemployed, retired and children have access to healthcare. The system does not discriminate based on any of these factors.  The unemployed in the Great Britain are entitled to a job-seeker allowance and can still access health care as long as they are actively looking for work. However, in the United States, most of the unemployed citizens are usually uninsured meaning that they have less access to medical care. There is Medicaid that caters for people with very low incomes. The unemployed in the United States are often advised to take up Medicaid although their access to healthcare may be limited. Healthcare in the United States is mostly tied to insurance. The working people in the United States pay partially while the employer pays for the majority of the fee. This means that if a person is unemployed, they may not be able to access medical care due to the high costs involved. Retirees in the United States are eligible for Medicaid once they reach the age of 65. However, they may be required to make some payments, and for some, the previous employer may be making the payments. Children in the United States are eligible for Medicaid even if their parents are not insured. However, children from uninsured families may experience more barriers to health care as compared to children from insured parents.

In both the Great Britain and the United States, patients are required to pay a copayment with the insurance company and NHS. In the Great Britain, the patient receives medication but is required to pay a standard fee for prescription drugs where the drugs have been prescribed by a physician. The aged, disabled and pregnant women may be exempted from this fee. Patients who require medication for a long time for chronic illnesses may only pay a one-off prescription fee. In the United States, there is Medicare prescription drug coverage where patients are required to pay extra amounts monthly s that they can access prescription drugs free. Where the patient has full coverage, no extra payments are needed. For a patient to be referred to a specialist in the Great Britain, they must request from their general practitioner, and if the GP feels that there is the need, then he can refer the patient to the specialist. The process is almost similar to that of the United States where the patient requires a referral letter from the general practitioner to the experts. This is for the insurance companies to ensure that patients are seeing the appropriate specialists for their medical issues.

In the United Kingdom, there is complete coverage for any pre-existing conditions as long as it was revealed when enrolling into the system. The healthcare system in the United Kingdom is extremely cost effective and helps the consumers save a lot. From the year 2014, the law of the United States protected citizens from being denied covers due to a pre-existing condition. This means that they will still receive coverage whether they have a pre-existing condition or not.Patients in the United Kingdom can save more and invest more since they do not spend a lot of money for health delivery. The NHS covers the cost of their medical needs, and since the government as control of the system, it is very stable. In the United States, however, there is increasing the cost of healthcare. Insurance companies are always increasing payments hence the patient is forced to dig deeper into their pockets. The patients are affected negatively in terms f finances. Healthcare may even be unaffordable for most people soon.

In conclusion, it can be assumed that there is the need for the government to regulate the healthcare industry. Medical care is one of the most basic needs of the citizens. The government of the UK has taken initiative in ensuring that all the residents are well taken care of medically. The government of the United Kingdom ensures that all medical objectives in the country are achieved and accomplished. The United States on the hand has made medical care expenses for citizens due to highly privatizing the industry. The government, however, has strict policies to protect citizens from any fraudulent activities and ensure that they get proper medical services. In the UK, all the sections of the population are catered for, and medical care is reasonable.

USA Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Research Paper

Critical U.S. Infrastructures

Overview

The critical infrastructure are the systems, networks, and assets, whether virtual or physical, so crucial to the United States that their destruction or incapacitation would have a devastating effect on the national public health or safety, national economic security, security, or any of such combination. While the key resources are privately or publicly controlled resources which are essential to the minimal operation of the nation’s economy and government.

This research paper looks into the Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) sectors and highlighting two examples of the critical infrastructure in every sector. The information on the uniqueness of the sector is provided alongside giving a brief description of and an explanation on how the highlighted critical infrastructure are operated and utilized. The other of investigation in this paper is the identification of a particular element of specific interest to a terrorist or is vulnerable to a natural or manmade disaster. Lastly the paper describes the protective measures in place towards ensuring safety.

Department of Agriculture

Agriculture and Food

The FA sector entails complex processing, production and delivery systems. The sectors’ mission is to protect against any disruption in the food supply which would have a serious threat on the public health, national economy, safety or even welfare (Spencer& Miamisburg. Fire Department, 2012). These food and agriculture systems are nearly in entirety under private ownership and are operated in highly competitive global markets,  striving to operate in harmony with the environment and ensuring of provision of economic opportunities and improved quality of life for the citizens of U.S. and others across the world.

The Sector Coordinating Council (SCC), Sector-Specific Agencies (SSAs), and Government Coordinating Council (GCC) operate collaboratively in accomplishing the mission of FA Sector and fulfilling the vision, and they are the core method in the coordination of the sector patterns.

It isn’t easy to guard against all the threats to the food and agriculture supply. Just like any other facet of the United States commerce, food and agriculture industries, must anticipate the possibility of the terrorist attack upon their products and evaluate their mitigation measures and preparedness to either thwart the attack, or rather mitigate the damage and recover from the psychological impact of the attack.

Department of Defense

Defense Industrial Base

The Defense Industrial Base (DIB) is an incomparable element of the national power that differentiates the United States from all the potential opponents. The DoD is developing a framework of international strategy to improve resilience and protection of the DIB Assets and ascertain the continued availability of CIKR outside U.S. DoD pursue to leverage the expertise of international partners in the improvement of its own capabilities in marine interception, counterterrorism, among other missions critical to an actively layered defense.

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