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Criminal Justice Policing Awareness Report – North Providence Police Department

Imagine you have been asked to provide information to your community at a town hall meeting about the functions of your local police department. You have been asked to provide a Policing Awareness Report handout to the people who attend.

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Consider the research on the following items:

  • The impact of policing in your community
  • Community programs offered by the police
  • Theories of criminal behavior that most align with the goals and programs of police in your community

Write a report to provide to the townhall meeting attendees in which you explain your findings with the following sections to answer the following:

Mission:

1. What is the mission of your local police department?

Goals:

2. What goals does your local police department have? How do they work to accomplish these goals?

Community:

  1. What are the various roles police play in your community? What is their impact?
  2. How do your local police partner with citizens and other entities?
  3. What community programs (e.g., D.A.R.E., Police Explorers) are offered by your local police department?
  4. Explain the programs, including the benefits they provide to society and the role the police play in these programs.

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Policing Awareness Report Overview

Over the past decade, relations between law enforcement agencies and the general public have become a major focal point within the United States. These relations are at an all-time low across the nation; with many expressing their distrust for the police and whether they are actually serving and protecting the communities they frequently patrol. Calls for accountability within law enforcement agencies now occupy the national debate with many lobby groups blatantly claiming that police officers have largely failed to discharge their duties diligently (McGuire et al., 2021). The sharp rise in officer-involved shootings of racial minorities is now a major area of concern for activists who now call for a complete overhaul of law enforcement agencies in the United States. Incidences such as the slaying of unarmed individuals, such as George Floyd and Briana Taylor, have reignited the debate on police brutality and the inaction of state and federal agencies. It is for this very reason that groups such as the Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement have called for a thorough policing of law enforcement agencies and even gone as far as making controversial suggestions such as de-funding police precincts.

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In light of the recent realities in police-community relations, it is worth noting that the North Providence Police Department (NPPD) has remained dedicated to upholding the basic tenets of policing within our community. The North Providence Police Department has , time and again, made it abundantly clear that their sole responsibility is to maintain law and order within the entire Providence region while guaranteeing individuals of their personal safety. However, the department also acknowledges that it also has to express a tough stance against sporadic crimes witnessed within the area and to deal with offenders within the confines of the law. The recent spate of armed robberies, home-invasions, smash-and-grab burglaries, and homicides are a clear indication of the challenges the department is up against hence the need to support the department during this difficult period. Officers from the North Providence Police Department currently serve between 33,000 and 34, 000 residents residing within the Providence region and its environs (North Providence Police Department, 2021). Although the officers are thinly stretched throughout this extensive swathe of territory, they remain committed to offering much-needed law enforcement services and maintaining order. The NPPD is also a notable pioneer of community policing which it considers a necessary strategy when attempting to cultivate trust and accountability with the local population.

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Mission of Policing Awareness

The primary mission of the North Providence Police Department is to improve relations with the local communities to pave the way for community policing in the long run. Department chiefs now realize that the solution to crime, especially in inner-city, is implementing a rigorous community-policing strategy designed to curb antisocial behavior among vulnerable members of society. This strategy should also involve developing a deep inter-personal relationship with community leaders able to alert the police about suspicious activities within their areas while establishing possible mitigation strategies designed to curb insecurity. Moreover, the department also seeks to ensure that community policing is designated as a mainstream policing strategy within the Providence region and also taught in the police academy. This is meant to ensure that rookie officers are immediately conscious of their role in serving the community while developing relationships based on respect and trust. Besides, the North Providence Police Department’s mission also encompasses the provision of high-quality policing services and a timely response to any reports filed by complainants (North Providence Police Department, 2021). This will only be achieved by focusing exclusively on personal excellence in policing and espousing personal responsibility among law enforcement officers.

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Goals of Policing Awareness

The main goal of policing awareness is building public trust to guarantee that the community will develop total trust in the local police department. This process should always begin with law enforcement agencies reiterating that their sole objective is to serve the people rather than police. Departments that are able to form a rapport with the local communities often reap the benefits of this relationship; evident in an overall reduction in spates of crime while boosting public trust in law enforcement agencies. Additionally, policing awareness by the North Providence Police Department also seeks to promote professionalism among its officers to ensure that their conduct remains within the law. This often involves capacity building programs designed with the main aim of ensuring that officers are fully aware of all critical tenets of the US Constitution and are able to implement them while respecting people’s individual rights (Ling, 2015). This fits perfectly in the department’s goal of maintaining public safety while upholding individual’s personal rights , inclusive of the protection of life and property. This goal can only be achieved through an exclusive focus on developing workable collaborative programs to blur the purported divide between the public and law enforcement officials.

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Role of the Community in Policing Awareness

Today, the North Providence Police Department realizes the sheer importance of improving relations with local communities as a basic solution to some of the problems plaguing the department. Officers from the department now recognize their individual impact in transforming the tide of negative relations between law enforcement agencies and local communities (Fielding, 2015).One of the most highly-recommended strategies has often involved the regular patrolling of major crime-ridden areas while also attempting to develop a symbiotic relationship with the public. Additionally, the department recently created a highly trained crisis management team to address any emerging challenges stemming from police interactions with the public. This program was specifically designed to cultivate public confidence in the police while also ensuring that individual officers are always held to account. The “Coffee with a Cop” program is also among one of the most successful community policing initiatives now designed to improve relations between law enforcement officers and the public.

Read also Community Policing Concerns and Issues and Proposed Solutions

The ultimate success of the North Providence Police Department also relies heavily on its emphasis on the actual importance of intra- and inter-departmental collaboration across precincts located in different regions across the US. This strategy is designed to serve as a useful conduit for the dissemination of critical information on police-community relations and some of the most viable solutions to employ when aspiring for long-term success. Moreover, this process also includes the integration of programs designed to involve community leaders in the decision-making process while ensuring that individual feedback is always considered. High-level cooperation initiatives, such as partnering with local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies also creates a unique opportunity for brainstorming on how to improve police relations with citizens. Security-based information can always be shared within such forums which always goes a long way in improving the operational capability of strategies such as “Code Watch and Community Watch”.

Read also Community Policing Should Be Adopted To Address Crime Most Effectively

The involvement of law enforcement agencies in policing awareness strategies is also essential when attempting to lessen the divide currently present between the police and law enforcement agencies. Bridging this gap, through notable initiatives such as “Coffee with a Cop” and “Code Watch and Community Watch”, fosters a great deal of trust in the capacity and dedication of law enforcement agencies and is bound to eventually go a long way in improving damaged relations. Such forums also provide a unique platform for conducting theft awareness initiatives, the integration of mediation in solving local disputes within the community, and the identification and documenting of serial repeat offenders.

Applying Critical Thinking in the Workplace Environment

The contemporary workplace environment is a complex and dynamic area of functioning guided by a strict code of conduct and basic standards developed over time to promote efficiency and productivity. From time to time, supervisors, front-line managers, and upper management are tasked with identifying novel organizational strategies likely to elevate the subjective experience of staff while also ensuring they meet set organizational objectives. Critical thinking is one such idea that has recently been championed by managers and organizational teams as one of the most relevant competences to possess in today’s fast-paced global business environment (Elder, 2022). The rationale behind the formal adoption of critical thinking skills within the modern-day workplace environment is that organizational staff should always be afforded a certain degree of autonomy within an individual occupational capacity.

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Critical thinking often entails having the ability to isolate individual work-place scenarios requiring immediate attention, identifying a feasible solution to this problem, and being able to make the right decision when faced with an ethical dilemma. According to Hester (2021), organizations should always strive to foster and nurture critical thinking skills among their employees as one of the most reliable techniques when seeking to bolster both intellectual and organizational development. Developing an organizational culture centered on the application of critical thinking skills within the workplace environment is now hailed as a revolution in capacity building. The application of critical thinking skills, therefore, plays a major role in the subsequent creation of a workplace environment where staff are provided with an opportunity for career advancement through the streamlining of personal goals with organizational objectives.

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Elements of Critical Thinking Required in the Workplace Environment

Growth and organizational progress is a methodical process known to rely heavily on shrewd leadership and the ability to identify the most beneficial policies to implement within the workplace environment. Critical think has often been described as a complex assemblage of logical perspective and positions designed to guide professionals in making informed decisions in a difficult situation. It typically encompasses the ability to make spontaneous rational decisions based on specified organizational culture and, therefore, serves as a crucial foundation for developing a practical plan of action. Management teams are usually at the forefront of establishing organizational standards to be observed by staff across each organizational level to promote uniformity. This particular aptitude is normally developed through rigorous training through refresher courses based on capacity building and the eventually creation of a logical reference point for application. Management teams are, thus, obligated to ensure that participants gain a rich understanding of all basic elements of critical thinking as a crucial starting point during such endeavors.

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Moreover, this process also includes acknowledging some of the main barriers to efficiency and realization of critical thinking within the workplace environment to ensure staff are equipped with solutions to such problems in the foreseeable future. Resistance to change and work-related stress have often been cited as some of the most common barriers to critical thinking among staff operating within high-pressure business environments. Countering these two elements through employee education and the proper identification of possible contingency measures may be the difference between success and failure in an organization. Employees who happen to experience a high level of work-related stress are often associated with the irrational decision-making skills and an overall inability to satisfy key performance indicator (KPIs). They are prone to agitation and emotional outbursts out of sheer frustration and the inability to satisfy basic organizational requirements. Management teams are, therefore, required to be particularly mindful of the basic dissemination of elements of critical thinking to staff to avoid unwarranted confrontations with staff while promoting collective consensus in the workplace environment.

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Relevance of Reason, Emotion, and Community in Critical Thinking

At the present moment, reason, emotion, and communication play a fundamental role as the basic tenets of critical thinking within the context of the workplace environment. Management teams, front-line managers, and supervisors often expect staff to exercise an elite level of critical appraisal during different scenarios with the expectation that they are fully capable of exercising reason during high-pressure scenarios. The capacity to reason sets employees apart from any possible rivals and is typically encouraged as one of the ways of ensuring a company always has a competitive advantage over contemporaries operating in a similar sector (Dirkx, 2017). The ability to reason widens the basic scope of possibilities for an organization given that individuals with this aptitude are able to evaluate the benefits and implications of organizational decisions based on existing facts and operational standards. Any inadequacies in the system, such as a potentially faulty warranty policy, are painstakingly evaluated based solely on established facts and empirical evidence gathered over an extended period of time.

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The integration of evidence-based strategies frequently creates scenarios where any potential technical inadequacy is subjected to a thorough practical evaluation to establish possible malfunctions and the subsequent identification of feasible solutions. Besides, reason is also bolstered by an individual’s emotional intelligence and their ability to apply within the archetypal critical thinking scenario. It involves taking into account the ideas and perspectives of other team members and debating them respectfully to arrive at a consensus. Emotional intelligence also entails being acutely aware of individual’s mental state at any given to promote a sense of congruence while preventing the overlap of ideas. The ultimate inclusion of communication as a crucial element of critical thinking also ensures that any emerging conflict is solved through dialogue based on existing interpersonal relationships. This often entails avoiding aggressive posturing during communication as one of the most practical solutions when seeking to avoid direct confrontations known to foment resentment and conflict within a team.

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Fallacies and Argument in Critical Thinking

The modern-day workplace environment is frequently plagued prejudgments and wrongful assumptions made by employees based on subjective experiences. Team members who happen to acknowledge the actual influence of fallacies and arguments within the context of critical thinking stand a better chance of making remarkable contributions to the organization due to this type of elite reevaluation. Today, ad hominem fallacies feature prominently within the contemporary workplace environment and are said to have a major impact on the arguments voiced by team members and decisions made during a particularly taxing situation. Although team members may voice their claims and conclusions based solely on available evidence, their argument may end up being rejected based solely on warped assumptions made by others within this operational framework. Dismissed arguments should, therefore, be subjected to re-evaluations, by other members of the management team to determine whether they were warranted or employed as a personal attack.

Conclusion

Critical thinking is, perhaps, one of the most highly acclaimed aptitudes in the modern-day workplace environment. It is specifically designed to ensure team members are able to make practical decisions in the face of challenging circumstances and are eventually able to bolster the decision-making process with fact-based assumption. Full acknowledgment of the influence of the basic elements of critical thinking in the decision-making process is also necessary to attempting to promote practicality at work. The role of resistance, work-related stress, reason, emotion, and communication should also be routinely evaluated by a relevant management team. This opens the door to discussions on the potential effects of fallacies and arguments during the decision-making process and the influence of able leadership in resolving any such problem.

Jeffery Dahmer: A 2022 Psychoanalysis of a Serial Killer

The Netflix series Dahmer: Monster: The Jeffrey Dahmer Story had 856.2 million hours watched 28 days after its release. All those hours are evidence of the intrigue around Jeffry Dahmer, one of the most infamous serial killers from the United States. People have described his demeanor as calm and non-threatening on social media. 

It then begs the question – what would flip his psychological switch and lead him to commit such heinous atrocities?

What is psychological analysis?

Psychological analysis is a science originated by scientist Sigmund Freud. A psychological analysis of behavior studies free association, unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts. Its main objective is to study the mind and the unconscious mind to achieve an understanding and effective treatment of mental disorders.

To psychologically analyze Jeffry Dahmer, the best place to start is his background and history.

Who is Jeffry Dahmer?

Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer was a sex offender and serial killer born in May 1960 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Dahmer was the firstborn child of Lionel Dahmer, a research chemist, and Joyce Annette, a teleprinter operator instructor. 

Jeffrey Dahmer became famous for serial killings, sexual offenses, cannibalism, and necrophilia crimes he committed from 1978 until his apprehension on 22nd July 1991. His crimes earned him the monikers; The Milwaukee Cannibal and The Milwaukee Monster.

He was born while his father was still a university student, which limited the amount of time Lionel spent with his young family. At the time, his mother was young, craved attention, suffered depression, and was reportedly a hypochondriac. Joyce attempted to overdose on Equanil, a medication used to treat anxiety. In an interview, Dahmer said he recalls doubting the solidity of his family.

Despite those dark spots, he was shown affection by his parents. Sources close to the family claim his parents showed an utmost fondness for young Dahmer. Many people can relate to such a situation where parents are busy building careers and discovering themselves. Some are too busy and occupied to be consistently available for their children.

How did Jeffrey Dahmer become a serial killer?

Like many children, Dahmer maintained a happy aura during his early years. However, he became silent and fearful after he underwent a double hernia surgery when he was three years old. During an interview, his father said as Dahmer grew, he developed an affinity for animal bones.

Dahmer then began collecting insects and skeletons of small animals such as squirrels. He was then interested in bleaching animal bones and preserving remains of dead animals with formaldehyde which his father obliged as he thought his son was developing an interest in science and specifically Chemistry like his dad.

During his high school days, Dahmer was persona non grata or an outcast. He found solace in alcohol and even referred to it as his medicine to classmates at 14. Even as a teenager, he was articulate in speech, polite, and very intelligent despite not reflecting on his grades.

Dahmer said he began fantasizing and obsessing about killing when he was about 15 and 16 years old. He described feeling sexual desires and wanting to possess power and control over other men. These feelings continued to evolve and led to Dahmer luring and sexually abusing, murdering, and dismembering 17 young men.

His first murder happened just after graduating from high school. He killed hitchhiker Steven Hicks who he lured to his house by offering beer. Dahmer had the intention of sleeping with Hicks. Fearing rejection and Hicks intending to leave after they were drunk, Dahmer struck him repeatedly with a dumbbell and then used its bar to choke him to death. Dahmer then describes pleasuring himself while standing over his lifeless body.

Alcoholic Dependency and Personality Change

Drinking at an early age morphed into alcohol dependency as he grew older. This dependency contributed to dropping out of college months after admission. He had recorded low grades in Introduction to Anthropology and Administrative Science.

After dropping out, his father encouraged him to enlist in the army, which he did. During his military service, he would get apprehended often for being drunk. He progressed and served as a medic after being deployed to West Germany. He performed well until his performance dropped due to regular intoxication. He would later get discharged as he could no longer effectively undertake his duties.

Back at home, his sexual fantasies, alcohol dependency, and tendencies advanced and eventually got him arrested for indecent exposure, his first arrest.

Another instance when he was in trouble with the law is when his neighbors called the police after they noticed a young boy naked and bleeding just outside his house. The police returned the boy to his residence. Dahmer is heard on record calmly explaining they were lovers and had just had a quarrel, a claim the police believed. The young boy, Konerak Sinthasomphone, was one of the serial 17 victims.

In an interview aired in February 1993 by Inside Edition, Dahmer said when his family moved to Milwaukee in 1981, he discovered and started reading pornography. He would then frequent gay bars and use his allure and manipulation to convince men to go home with him. He describes only wanting to drug and sleep with them while unconscious but sometimes would wake up having hurt his victims without any recollection of doing it.

On one occasion, Dahmer remembers waking up next to a man he had beaten while in a stupor. He then killed him and carried the body out of the motel they were in using a suitcase. Dahmer then dismembered the body and dumped it using plastic garbage bags.

During media interviews after his capture, he described watching The Exorcist III movie as a ritual before committing his egregious crimes. He also says he desired to build and dedicate to himself an altar where he could keep parts of his victims as memorabilia. At times Dahmer took photos of his dead victims. Other times he kept body parts like skulls and other bones.

Psychoanalysis of Jeffery Dahmer the Serial Killer

A serial killer is a murderer who seeks psychological gratification by killing more than three people over a month or more. Murders committed by serial killers are usually premeditated and are associated with sexual offenses.

During his trial, Jeffery Dahmer had a psyche examination done by a forensic psychiatrist. He was diagnosed with psychotic disorder, borderline personality disorder, and alcohol dependency. The psychiatrist also determined that Dahmer was legally sane. The examinations were vital as they were a factor in his sentencing. Dahmer was handed a sentence of 941 years without the possibility of parole for 16 murders of the 17 murders he committed.

People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder may exhibit the following symptoms; mood swings, anxiety, delusion, suicidal thoughts, a distorted self-image, comfortable in isolation, and lack of interest in routine activities. During media interviews, he describes having these symptoms from an early age.

Symptoms of the psychotic disorder include; hallucinations, emotional detachment from family and friends, paranoia, timid behavior, diversion from topics during conversations, and irregular sleeping patterns.

Causes of the above disorders vary depending on an individual and their environment. However, drug and alcohol abuse, a history of domestic violence, emotional abuse, and neglect are risk factors for the conditions.

The Milwaukee Cannibal experienced some of the above risk factors. His constant intoxication and self-isolation during his upbringing could have been a factor as to why he became a serial killer. 

What dumbfounds people is how he killed 17 people in gruesome ways for all those years without getting caught.

His ability to evade capture from authorities and conceal his nature from his family and the public can be due to various factors. Dahmer was a white male, had a calm demeanor, was articulate in his speech, and it was accepted and known he kept to himself. Dahmer also targeted victims who would be hard to notice were missing.

Evading the Law his Murderous Behavior

His killing spree was between 1978 and 1991, a dark period for men from the gay community. Many were outcasts, were rebuked by their families, and hence would lose contact after running away. There was also no social media which made contact between his victims and people they knew difficult. Such victims were easy targets for Dahmer as no one would report them missing.

In the 1993 interview, Dahmer does admit being aware of his actions. He also claimed he felt remorse and guilt for his actions. His ability to manipulate and convince victims could be a trait due to borderline personality disorder. His psychotic disorder explains his inability to stop himself from going through with his heinous actions. He stated that although he knew his actions were wrong, he couldn’t inhibit his compulsive urges.

Upon his apprehension in 1991, Dahmer waived his right to a lawyer. He wanted to confess to all his murders and stated that it was a relief that he finally got caught. According to him, if he wasn’t apprehended, he might have continued with the murders.

During all his interviews and court hearings, he stayed calm and collected. He described in detail his sexual crimes, cannibalism, murders, and necrophilia. His physical appearance and demeanor amazed many people as he told of his actions as it seemed like he was explaining a recipe.

Dahmer’s story demonstrates the importance of treating mental conditions early. People deemed normal by society can be serial killers and offenders and commit these crimes for a long time without people noticing. 

Increase in Family Violence During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Covid-19 Pandemic and Family Violence

Countries across the globe are battling COVID-19 by employing measures that include school closures, national quarantines, online work, lockdown, and border closures to minimize the transmission speed. Almost every region in the world has experienced some kind of restriction, with measures differing from one area to another. For instance, United States enacted regional lockdowns, while countries such as Italy enacted indefinite total lockdown. The situation worsened as the number of infected people increased worldwide. Other than the increase in the rate of infection, COVID-19 has impacted societies, relationships, and families in unpredictable and unimaginable ways resulting in socioeconomic crisis. COVID-19 is subjecting societies to pressure that goes past social care systems, political leadership, international solidarity, and healthcare infrastructure. One such weighty impact that is currently being experienced at an alarming rate is the effects of increasing cases of domestic or family violence during the pandemic (Sharma and Borah 2).

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Domestic and family violence is one of the common social problems in our society. Domestic and family health violence are approximated to impact 10 million individuals in the United States annually. It is a public health issue and nearly all healthcare professionals will treat or evaluate a family or domestic violence patient at some point. Family and domestic violence define a wide range of abuse that includes psychological, economic, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse toward elders, adults, and children (Huecker et al. 1).

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Family violence has been a serious social problem in our society for a long time. However, the situation is said to have been worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. The rates of violence against women are currently on the rise and are a major concern during the COVID-19 pandemic globally. According to Sharma and Borah (2), a recent article from The Guardian documents a surge in domestic violence and stresses on a pattern that can be observed worldwide. According to the report, Brazil experience a rise in domestic violence incidences by 40-50% during the pandemic. The UK experienced an increase in calls associated with domestic violence cases by 25% in a week after lockdown and strict social distancing measures were executed (Sharma and Borah 2).

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In the USA, there was a spike in domestic violence cases during the Pandemic in various states. Portland, for instance, experiences a spike in cases of arrest associated with domestic violence by 22%, there was a 27% increase in cases of domestic violence calls in Jefferson Country Alabama in March 2020 compared to the same time in 2019. New York City also experienced an increase in domestic violence helpline calls by 10% in March 2020 compared to the same time in 2019 (Sharma and Borah 2). Cyprus and Spain experience a spike in helplines call by 20-30% in the first few days of lockdown and also in a week after the report of the first case of COVID-19 in the countries. France also recorded an increase in domestic violence by 30% since March 2020, with Paris alone recording a 36% increase in domestic violence (Nittari et al. 5).

A study by the Center for Global Development on violence against children and women during COVID-19 revealed a general increase in children and women violence across the globe. Jordan documented quadrupling of self-reported violence against women. Also, China demonstrated a 278% increase in police calls for domestic violence during the pandemic. The study also recorded an increase in domestic violence in Bangladesh, Iran, Nigeria, Germany, Chile, Colombia, Italy, Mexico, Hubei, Iran, Isfahan, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Malaysia among others (Bourgault et al. 2-3).

Why did Family Violence Increase During the Covid-19 Pandemic?

The increase of family violence during the pandemic is highly blamed on policies and regulations employed by most countries to control the spread of the disease. Most countries employed COVID-19 containment measures that included lockdowns, quarantines, and social distancing have resulted in social isolation, movement restriction, and economic insecurity. This increased domestic violence risk factors. Victims were quarantined with abusive partners, reducing or eliminating the safe window they used to have before the pandemic. Lockdown has offered greater freedom to abusers. It has made it easier for an abuser to enact control tactics by reducing the victim’s access to the internet, phones, and other people.

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Moreover, victims were disconnected from their normal support systems such as community, friends, and family, with the consequent increase in difficulties in seeking help. Moreover, it has been postulated that isolation paired with economic psychological stressors such as limited social support, unemployment, limited resources, and reduced income, that accompany the pandemic and resulting in a possible increase in negative coping strategies such as binge drinking, can integrate to create a perfect storm to ignite violent behaviors in the family (Mittal and Singh 4). 

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Despite the recorded increase in domestic violence during a pandemic, some studies have identified a realized increase in unreported gender-based violence cases during the pandemic. According to Mittal and Singh (4), most of the employed policies put in place to address the COVID-19 pandemic made it hard for some of the victims to report cases of family violence. Several gender-based violent shelters and NGOs experienced a decline in helpline number calls during the pandemic. This includes Jagori, a Delhi-based NGO that experience a 50% drop in helpline calls. A similar situation was experienced in Norwegian shelters for domestic violence victims. This was blamed on abusers’ freedom to control victims, and lack of collaboration among the involved agents in addressing family violence, mostly due to lockdown and other measures (Bergman et al. 1).

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To address the issue of increasing family violence during the pandemic, the involved agencies should focus on ignored measures during a pandemic. The agents should find a way to expand community partnerships and collaboration and creating awareness. They should also find better reporting methods that are unlikely to alert the abuser. For instance, rather than using phone calls, they can consider using SMS, WhatsApp chats, emails, Tweets, or Facebook chats. The involved authority should also facilitate the provision of counseling, and other therapeutic intervention using telephones or the internets, especially among individuals going through psychological problems or experiencing other stressors that can initiate negative coping techniques. Addressing psychological issues before they escalate would help in reducing the increase in violence.

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The research has highly enlightened me on increase in the cases of family violence during the pandemic. Before the research, I expected that most people living with abusive partners were likely to experience an increase in abuse frequency, due to lockdown and lack of safe space. However, the rate of increase in reported domestic violence cases made me realize that the pandemic created a new set of abusers, as a result of economic and social stressors. This means there have been a huge number of couples experiencing abuse for the first time. This shows the magnitude of the COVID-19 crisis on people’s lives, especially due to its effect on people’s economic and social wellbeing.

U.S. Drug Prices, Why Are they so High?

Drug Prices in The United States

Nearly one in four Americans who take prescription drugs say they struggle to afford the medication they need. A recent report from RAND Corporation found that US prescription drug prices are 256% higher than other countries; averaging the prices seen in 32 other countries (Light & Caplan, 2018). The ratio of sales to volume weight is significantly higher in the US. Zolgensma, a drug that treats spinal muscular atrophy, is the most expensive drug in the U.S. It has an estimated annual cost of $2,125,000. Unbranded generics account for approximately 12% of prescription drug spending at manufacturer prices (Walker, 2015). The branded drugs make up 11% of the US prescription volume and 82% of expenditure. Therefore, brand drugs are the primary driver of the higher prescription drug prices in the country. These prices, in fact, have been exponentially increasing for a while.

Why Are Drug Prices so High In United States?

The simple explanation of this excessive drug prices is monopoly pricing. By using the patent protection and FDA marketing exclusivity, the government gives pharmaceutical companies a monopoly on brand-name drugs. Monopolies are the highest risk factors for excessive prices.

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It is very difficult to note the actual out-of-pocket cost to consumers for a prescription because of the consumer rebates and price adjustments to insurers. Thus, the true cost of these prescription drugs is difficult to determine (Berman & Thomas, 2017). These prices are engrossed in a web of price adjustments and middle managers from the gross price to the actual price that the consumer pays. Patients’ out-of-pocket costs continue to grow while net costs to insurers keep declining, meaning that the insured patients are bearing a disproportionate share of the costs relative to the terms of their insurance agreements (Bollyky & Kesselheim, 2017). Clearly, the health insurance system in the US is so unique to any other developed country.

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Another reason for the higher prices in the country is because the government does not set ceiling prices in the US as other countries do. Also, there are marketing exclusivity periods for patented innovator drugs. There is a group of middlemen known as Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs) that negotiates prices with pharmaceutical companies for inclusivity of health insurance coverage lists (Berman & Thomas, 2017). These groups often promote implementation of direct discounts or rebates that lead to higher prices to the consumer. This results in a war of internal pricing where manufactures are given incentives to increase list prices while increasing discounts to keep PBMs happy.

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Has The Government Done Anything To Lower Drug Prices?

In mid Sep 2020, the Trump administration signed an executive order to lower prescription drugs by “putting America first.” A Most Favored Nation strategy to drug pricing creates a trading opportunity among states making originally bilateral agreements multilateral (Bollyky & Kesselheim, 2017). The implication of this is that the drugs covered under the most favored nation pricing scheme will be expanded. This initiative will allow Medicare to use the lower prices of the other developed countries than paying higher for the same drugs.  Also, Trump announced the end of the Unapproved Drugs Initiative program that was responsible for major shortages of vital medicines (Light & Caplan, 2018).

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This implies that the drug prices may be five times less expensive than before if the Biden administration implements this policy. The true cost of a drug depends on who’s paying, and everyone involved is pushing costs up. There should be fundamental rebate reforms to fix both the cost-shifting problems in the US and develop a more open and reliable net price. Medicare should be allowed to negotiate drug prices in order to help drive costs down and end the monopoly in pricing. Also, it is important for every citizen to have health coverage to benefit from negotiated pricing.

Conjunctivital Injection, Its Pathophysiology, Causes and Diagnosis

What is Conjunctivital Injection (Hyperemia)

Conjunctivital injection is a nonspecific response of the human body characterized by adjustment of blood volume to support tissues located in various body system. The condition results in a marked enlargement of the conjunctival vessels; causing localized irritation, redness, and inflammation along the affected regions. Binary scales, such as the McMonnies/Chapman-Davies scale (MC-D), are a common reference point for healthcare providers assessing patients with suspected cases of CI, especially given that they are able to compare the redness in patient’s eyes with a collage of relevant reference images. The initial review of patients is fundamental methodical process which aids healthcare providers in determining the severity of Conjunctivital injection infection in patients in addition to intra- and inter-observable variations present.

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The Pathophysiology of Conjunctivital Injection

The pathophysiology of CI can be tracked from a single sophisticated internal process where blood flow is adjusted in immediate response to pressing metabolic needs in the body. This eventually results in micro-circulation and local vasodilation in which the various blood vessels seek to actively compensate for a sudden oxygen debt during a period of intense physical activity. Moreover, vasodilation in cases of CI may occur as a response to trauma or the presence of microbial infection known to cause inflammation. It is primarily controlled by the sympathetic brain system and acts in response to drastic changes impairing normal function within the endothelial cells (Beckmann et al., 2015).

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Immediate medical attention is recommended in such scenarios since micro-circulation constitutes a medical emergency given that it predisposes patients to ischemic organ damage, severe sepsis, and multi-organ failure. The active engorgement of blood vessels in cases of CI is also a common feature associated with the condition, especially since the body tries to restore optimal blood pressure within vascular beds located in various body systems. CI eventually causes a dangerous elevation of vascular CO2 concentration and other existing blood metabolites which acts as a localized stimulus for active vasodilation. It is also important to note that CI is the foremost most reliable sign of dangerous vascular changes taking place within the body in direct response to infections caused by a foreign microbial colony or an inflammatory stimulus. The eventual result is the severe reddening of the hyperemic vessels due to vascular engorgement as indicated in the McMonnies/Chapman-Davies scale (MC-D) diagnostic criterion.

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Causes and Prevention of Conjunctivital Injection

Causes

Cases of Conjunctivital Injection, either active or passive, normally as part of a healthy physical response to uncharacteristic changes in blood pressure. These changes may be of a physiological origin or caused by disease or distress. The following are some of the most common causes of changes in blood pressure known to cause Conjunctivital injection:

  1. Intense physical exertion while exercising resulting in a cardiovascular response to compensate for more blood and oxygen.
  2. CI can also be caused by physical trauma or infection, where the outflow of blood assists in self-repair.
  3. Changes in the internal body temperature, especially when experiencing fever can also cause CI during the body’s attempt to release internal heat through the skin.
  4. Frequent hormonal changes, such as those witnessed during the pre- and postmenopausal phases in women, often cause hot flashes likely to trigger CI.
  5. Extended periods of inactivity among persons with a sedentary lifestyle may cause vascular blockages due to the excessive buildup of blood prompting a cardiovascular response to adjust changes in vascular blood volume.

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Prevention

The prevention of Conjunctivital injection today should always begin with preventative and community health awareness initiatives to improve the general public’s understanding of the condition and existing steps to prevent it. This process would entail making sure each individual is aware of CI as a singular event where changes in blood pressure trigger a response in the body in an attempt to obtain much-needed nutrients and oxygen. It would then be accompanied by outlining some of the conditions predisposing individuals to developing CI, either passive or active, and how to prevent such an eventuality (Brunt et al., 2011). CI can be averted by making major lifestyle changes, such a avoiding a sedentary lifestyle and engaging in frequent light to moderate physical exercise. Moreover, the condition can also be prevented by proper weight management and eating a heart-healthy diet.

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Diagnosis-Symptoms and Treatment

Symptoms Associated with Conjunctivital Injection

A thorough examination of patient’s presenting with suspected cases of CI based on existing diagnostic criterion is necessary when seeking to promote individual welfare while improving healthcare outcomes. The clinical evaluation will, therefore, involve an assessment of the most common CI symptoms based on chromaticity, the tortuosity of blood vessels located within the region of interest, and the morphology of blood vessels (Bernstein, 2019). Symptomatic signs of CI may include reports of trouble breathing, severe chest pain (angina), and unexplained body aches. Other prominent symptoms associated with CI include coughing, swelling of lower limbs, and itching across the body. Each of the symptoms discussed above are, therefore, meant to guide physicians in diagnosing suspected cases of CI, prior to the mandatory imaging, exercise-stress, and blood tests.

Recommended Treatments

The primary objective of immediate commencement with available CI therapy options is to alleviate patient’s presenting symptoms in order to afford them some level of relief. However, it is important to note that treatment for CI does not focus exclusively on the condition given that it is often a sign of an underlying health problem. Medical attention and treatment is normally recommended in cases of active CI since blood flow cannot flow autonomously, allowing the body to lower elevated internal temperature (Tamura et al., 2015). CI treatment normally incorporates a combination of dietary changes and major lifestyle changes. The dietary involved in within a treatment context involves subscribing to a strict dietary regimen incorporating heart-healthy food options. Patients will also be expected to submit to a thorough and consistent weight management routine in order to maintain a healthy body mass. Pharmacological interventions are often prescribed as a last option and may involve administering beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular support and the lowering of blood pressure.

Prognosis of Conjunctivital Injection

The treatment and recovery patients previously diagnosed with CI relies on a structured and methodical intervention therapy requiring a high level of client participation. 

CI has often been used as an important clue indicative of internal inflammation or bacterial infection among patients presenting to primary healthcare providers for routine medical assessments. Additionally, the condition may also manifest in either a passive or active form which is why physicians recommend regular patient monitoring to track disease progression and the assessment of response to prescribed treatment (Bernstein, 2019). While active CI is common and rarely causes major medical concern, passive CI portends requires immediate medical attention as it is more serious and often caused by infectious diseases. This process may also involve elements of patient education given that it would be important for the patient to gain a clear overview of the condition and risk factors likely to have predisposed them to developing it in the first place. Major risk factors associated with CI include living a sedentary lifestyle with limited movement, frequent smoking, a high sodium diet, and the misuse of alcohol.

Life-Long Consequences Linked to Conjunctivital Injection

Cases of Conjunctivital injection are treatable but are likely to result in severe life-long consequences when patients fail to consult a healthcare provider for a detailed medical review. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the life-consequences suffered as a result of CI affliction are directly proportional to the level of blood pressure imbalance experienced over time. The most common life-long challenge associated with this build-up of blood pressure is the risk of developing chronic heart failure (Jones, 2014). However, patients diagnosed with CI can avert this eventuality through the proper management of initial symptoms while also making drastic lifestyle changes. Conjunctivital injection may also cause severe heart valve problems, kidney failure, liver damage, and heart rhythm problems if left untreated for an extended period hence the need for regular health checks.

Injected Conjunctiva Diagnosis – V.S, age 12 Hispanic Scenario

The Scenario of V.S a 12 year old Hispanic Male with Injected Conjunctiva

V.S., age 12 Hispanic male, presents with a feeling that there is sand in his eye. He had a cold a week ago and woke up this morning with his left eye crusted with yellowish drainage. On physical examination, he has injected conjunctiva on the left side, no adenopathy, and no vision changes. His vision is 20/20. Fluorescein staining reveals no abrasion. He is allergic to sulfa.

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Conjunctivitis Diagnosis

  1. List specific goals of treatment for V.S. who is diagnosed with injected conjunctiva
  2. What drug therapy would you prescribe? Why?
  3. What are the parameters for monitoring the success of the therapy?
  4. Discuss the education you would give to the parents regarding drug therapy.
  5. List one or two adverse reactions for the selected agent that would cause you to change therapy.
  6. What would be the choice for second-line therapy?
  7. What over-the-counter or alternative medications would be appropriate for V.S.?
  8. What dietary and lifestyle changes should be recommended for V.S.?
  9. Describe one or two drug–drug or drug–food interactions for the selected agent.

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Goals of Treatment for Patient Diagnosed with Injected Conjunctiva

The acute bout of conjunctivitis evident from the presenting patient was likely the direct result of either a bacterial or viral conjunctivitis infection. It, therefore, becomes fundamental to set clear and elaborate treatment goals to ensure the patient recovers fully from the disease within no time

 The main initial goal of treatment for the patient is to relieve the presenting symptoms in order to alleviate irritation and to eventually enable him to lead a normal high-quality life. Moreover, another critical objective in treating V. S’s conjunctivitis is to reduce the course of viral or bacterial infection known to induce inflammation among patients. Achieving each of the above-mentioned treatment goals would eventually prove noble and critical to community and public health since treatment essentially prevents further spread this contagious disease among the general population.

First-Line Drug Therapy Prescribed to Treat Conjunctivitis

Broad spectrum antibiotics have long been recommended as an ideal treatment option for patients diagnosed with conjunctivitis. Personally, I would prescribe Levofloxacin as the most appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotic to treat the patient’s microbial infection. Levofloxacin is a first-line antibiotic drug therapy option commonly prescribed to treat bacterial and viral infections such as conjunctivitis and with a low microbial resistance profile (Sheikh & Hurwitz, 2006). Timely intervention is necessary to ensure the disease duration is shortened significantly given that one of its main goals is to prevent further infection. Levofloxacin will also be beneficial in managing and eliminating the copious purulent discharge due to its efficacy in eliminating inflammation. However, regular follow-up sessions remain crucial during recovery and as a measure of the overall efficiency of the prescribed medication.

Parameters for Monitoring Success of Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy for Conjunctivitis

Several wide-ranging parameters can be applied in determining the overall success or failure of Levofloxacin therapy in treating conjunctivitis. Successful treatment with the drug would typically result in a drastic reduction in patient’s irritation and reddening of what is commonly referred to as the white of the eye (Jones, 2014). Another important parameter to consider is a substantial and noteworthy reduction in swelling within the conjunctiva or eyelids in response to a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with Levofloxacin. Moreover, the success of Levofloxacin therapy can also be gauged based exclusively on the complete elimination of the copious purulent discharge, crusting eyelids returning to normal and an end to the burning sensation.

Patient Education Regimen Regarding Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy for Injected Conjunctiva

Today, patient education remains one of the most fundamental activities during treatment.

J et al., (2020) argue that the idea behind patient education is the literal arming of patients with a myriad of relevant medical data directly related to their recent diagnosis and accompanying steps to be followed in order to improve patient outcomes. In this particular case, I would begin my patient education regimen on Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy by reminding the patient of the importance of adherence to the treatment plan based on the recommended medication dosage. V.S. will be expected to apply the ophthalmic solution every two hours during the day. However, it will also be important to remind the patient not to apply the drops more than 8 times in a day. The patient should also keep the medicine in a germ-free secure location away from children. In case of a missed dose, the patient should proceed to take the medicine as soon as possible to prevent bacterial colonies from recovering and thriving.

Possible Adverse Reactions to Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Conjunctivitis

Typically, patients newly diagnosed with conjunctivitis have a duty to tell the prescribing clinical staff whether they are allergic to broad spectrum antibiotics such as Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Gemifloxacin, or Quinolone. This is a precautionary measure taken to prevent scenarios where patients suffer severe allergic reactions once exposed to Levofloxacin or ingredients used in its preparation. However, adverse reactions to pharmacological agents is a common fixture during therapy with broad spectrum antibiotics. For instance, an adverse reaction to Levofloxacin antibiotic therapy in the treatment of conjunctivitis may manifest as nausea, diarrhea, heartburn or vomiting (Baum & Barza, 2021). Nevertheless, patients should always remember to consult their primary healthcare provider for professional guidance if the adverse reactions persist.

Avelox as an ideal Second-Line Antibiotic Therapy Option in Treating Injected Conjunctiva

Avelox is a suitable second-line antibiotic therapy option approved by the U.S Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and is appropriate for treating patients suffering from conjunctivitis. It is of the fluoroquinolones class of broad-spectrum antibiotics and is mainly administered as an injection or in the form of Maxifloxacin Hydro-chloride tablets. However, it is important to point out that the Levofloxacin must first be proved to be ineffective in treating conjunctivitis before resorting to prescribing a second-line antibiotic therapy option. Avelox is a strong broad-spectrum antibiotic with a potential to cause serious side effects which may very well result in death. However, if prescribed, the patient should take the film coated Avelox 400 mg tablets, orally daily, until the final clearing of the bacterial infection.

Over-the-Counter Medications and Alternative Medicine Appropriate for Treating Conjunctivitis

It is fundamental to begin by pointing out that that OTC medications and alternative medicines are largely incapable of treating any common case of viral or bacterial conjunctivitis. Nevertheless, they play an outstanding role in helping patients to cope by helping to alleviate the symptoms. Artificial tears are an example of OTC medication which can play an important role in preventing ocular dryness and inflammation (Nwaele & Satre, 2013). Antihistamines are also a dependable OTC capable of preventing irritation by blocking allergy-causing histamines. A similar effect is also observed with decongestants and vasoconstrictors since they prevent the widening of blood vessels during a histamine-triggered allergic reaction.

Dietary and Lifestyle Changes Recommended for VS

The journey to recovery after suffering from conjunctivitis not only requires pharmacological intervention but also relies on a complete overhaul of diet and lifestyle patterns. A diet consisting of leafy vegetables, fruits, Vitamin A (eggs and dairy products), Vitamin B2 and Zinc are critical in preventing conjuctvitis and in promoting optimal eye health (Sheikh & Hurwitz, 2017). However, VS must remember to avoid the excessive intake of starch and sugary foods known to cause a condition known as catarrhal which is known to signal the possible development of conjunctivitis. VS must also make major lifestyle changes such as avoiding a sedentary lifestyle and trading it for physical activities such as regular exercise and wellness routines such as Yoga.

Drug-Drug and Drug-Food Interactions when taking Levofloxacin

Drug-Drug Interactions

  • Chelation Agents: Levofloxacin interacts with chelation agents, such as antacids and multivitamins, and may hinder gastrointestinal movement.
  • Warfarin: Levofloxacin is also known to interact with Warfin; causing a post-marketing effect characterized by the enhancing of its effects and elevations in prothrombin time.

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Drug-Food Interactions

  • Dairy Products: Patients taking Levofloxacin should avoid dairy products such as cheese, yogurt, and milk 2 hours before and after taking the medication to minimize the chances of an adverse reaction or possible side effects (Iacobucci, 2016).
  • Multi-Vitamins Containing Mineral Supplements: Multi-Vitamins with active components consisting of a mineral supplement base should be avoided when a patient is on Levofloxacin since it may hinder the process involved in its absorption to the blood thus reducing its general efficacy.

Implications of Cellphone Manufacturing and Use on the Environment

The Implications of Cellphone Manufacturing and Use on the Environment

The 21st century is often known for its place in history as a special era mainly characterized by numerous fast-paced developments that have paved the way for various groundbreaking technological innovations. One such development was the introduction of the cellphone as a novel innovation projected to break the glass ceiling of telecommunications while marking the start of an exciting period in the realm of technological advancement. The cellphone was welcomed by many impressed by a compact portable design that made it possible to communicate with others and relay text messages from any region globally (Norman, 2021). However, this excitement was short-lived. Activists, lobby groups, and respected pundits raised concern over the long-term implications of cellphone manufacturing and its impact on the environment and various categories of existing ecosystem. Today, these concerns are compounded by the fact that multinational companies now dominate the cellphone manufacturing industry and appear to be largely unconcerned with the potential implications of mass-producing cellphones for the global consumer market.

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This paper will, therefore, focus on providing a detailed evaluation of the harm caused by the large-scale production of cellphones globally and the most viable attempt to address this dilemma. It will also be crucial to conduct a review of the life cycle of a typical cellphone to better understand the path it takes from the industries and into the hands of individual consumers. This step-by-step process will put each of the paths taken into perspective to determine the direct effects of such actions on the environment and how it ultimately contributes to our carbon footprint. Moreover, this exercise is fundamental in determining the actual scope of the problem given that data on the actual magnitude of this problem remains disputed. Following a manufactured cellphone from the ordinary purchases made, to the packaging and transportation helps us to assess the various transportation mediums used and their direct impact on the environment. It will also be crucial to provide a broad evaluation focusing on both the immediate effects and long-term implications to better understand the breadth of this particular challenge.

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A major concern shared by detractors of cellphones in contemporary society is the presence of numerous components contained in the archetypal cellphone; all with the potential to do great harm to the environment. This is further exacerbated by the fact that each of the individual parts have unique effects on the environment, an assertion based on the numerous potentially harmful raw materials required to make the cellphone work. According to Demirbas et al. (2019),an ordinary functioning cellphone contains more than 60 elements ranging from polycarbonate thermoplastic polymers to radioactive components and rare earth minerals such as tantalum. Additionally, multinational companies such as Apple, Samsung, and Huawei remain uncooperative when required to provide an honest assessment of the potentially harmful effects of cellphone components on the environment (Jones, 2021). Whenever evidence-based journal articles are published highlighting the negative impact of cellphones on the environment, MNCs are often quick to offer a rebuttal based exclusively on the opinions of scientists working for this same companies. The idea is to trivialize the actual impact of cellphone manufacturing and use on the environment to avoid potential lawsuits by aggrieved parties or making losses based solely on opinions regarding their carbon footprint.

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The Influence of Individual Choices and its Effects on Environmental Sustainability

One of the most noteworthy aspects of today’s contemporary society is the fact that consumer behavior is largely down to individual choices. This means that consumers can choose specific consumer goods they are interested in and intend to own and can also decide to discard it for a newer and improved version. Yet, many actively fail to consider the numerous implications of individual choices on the environment and its role in diminishing. The cellphone industry is one of the fastest growing sectors due to the rapid rate of technological change taking place every day. Cellphone manufacturers normally rely on a versatile Research and Development Department (R&D) instituted with the specific aim of developing new advancements, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, designed to ensure a company has a competitive advantage over some of their closest rivals (Langston, 2017). Although such teams are invaluable to innovation, they also pose a serious risk to the environment given that they have the potential to influence trends in individual choices. It is, therefore, no wonder that emerging cellphone trends are typically overtaken by newer developments in approximately 6 months due to the development of newer and more innovative technologies.

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An important observation that is often overlooked is the direct correlation between individual choices and diminishing environmental sustainability. In particular, most experts in technology and innovation continually fail to consider that the presence of new and improved features increase the probability that consumer may ditch their current device for a new one. Cellphone consumer behavior in developed countries is characterized by users discarding their new phones for new ones (Norman, 2021). Such individuals often expect that once discarded, their older phone will be recycled, and individual parts reused in other areas of technology. Nonetheless, this is not often the case. Out of the 60 odd components contained within a cellphone, recycling companies may only choose to extract individual parts with a lucrative market, such as microchips, polycarbonate thermoplastic polymers, and rubber. The remaining bits, mostly radioactive components, are duly discarded into unregulated landfills within major industrial hubs such as China, Bangladesh, and Oman.

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Individual choices and consumers’ ability to periodically obtain new cellphones based on solely on consumers’ sheer fascination with technological improvements also drives demand and creates a whole new chapter in environmental exploitation. The use of components such as iron, tin, copper, nickel, and rubber often mean that an increase in demand is accompanied by large-scale mining expeditions known for having a high destruction profile (Singh & Singh, 2021).Over the years, mining companies have done very little to mitigate the potentially harmful consequences of their commercial exploits. It is fairly common for major mining MNCs to only focus on profit while largely ignoring their role in diminishing environmental sustainability. An increase in demand for raw materials required in the manufacture of cellphones results in the signing of new mining concessions often due to depleted reserves. Large gaping pits eventually become a common feature in the landscape, as is common in Peru and Chile, which affects the landscape and the environment in question due to the large-scale removal of rocks.

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Recommendations on Mitigating the Negative Environmental Impact of Cellphones

Based on the empirical research evidence provided in this review, the negative environmental impact of cellphones is now quite apparent. However, it is also crucial to remember that both consumers and cellphone manufacturers can play an active role in averting the negative environmental impact of cellphones. Perhaps the most critical recommendation is raising public awareness on the consequences of individual choices and consumer behavior and its role in the diminishing of environmental impacts. Messages of this kind can be relayed through the traditional media and social media in the form of catchy commercials, documentaries, and bulletin programs.

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The idea is to reach a wider demographic with the main aim of discussing the dangers of impulsive consumer behavior in the cellphone market and the implications of such developments on environmental sustainability. Similarly, cellphone manufacturers should take responsibility for their business practices and the subsequent effects they eventually have on the environment. Major cellphone manufacturing MNCs can begin this process by limiting the unnecessary production of newer versions of their products in response to the dangers posed by unbridled individual consumer choices. Such actions are bound to reduce needless mining endeavors while also remembering to invest in a sustainable recycling process which also incorporates reusing and refurbishing older cellphone models.

Virtue Ethics Vs Utilitarianism Ethics Vs Deontological Ethics

Write a 350- to 700-word essay comparing the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. Include the following in your essay:

  • Utilitarianism ethics – what is the definition?, ethical thinker associated with theory, decision-making process, and Workplace example
  • Deontological Ethics: what is the definition?, ethical thinker associated with theory, decision-making process, and Workplace example
  • Virtue Ethics: what is the definition?, ethical thinker associated with theory, decision-making process, and Workplace example
  • A description of the differences in how each theory addresses ethics and morality
  • A personal experience to explain the relationship between virtue, values, and moral concepts as they relate to one of the three theories

Philosophies of Ethics

Ethics in philosophy has long been regarded as a special area of interest by academics given that it encompasses several schools of thought: all displaying a broad and diverse outlook. Yet, a common theme shared by these philosophies is their focus on the existential question of separating right from wrong. Philosophies of ethics, therefore, explore the nature of morality from multiple viewpoints, attempting to elaborate on the actual nature of morality as we know it, and examining the manner in which it affects our lives on a variety of levels. The existing categories also attempt to put meta-physics into perspective as one of the most reliable methods to employ when attempting to understand morality, justice, and truth in the context of society. Today, Virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics are the main categories often explored within the context of philosophies of ethics.

Virtue Ethics

Virtue ethics is a prominent category within the philosophy of ethics derived from both Eastern and Western philosophical tenets. Major aspects of virtue ethics are drawn from the teachings of prominent independent thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, Mencius, and Confucius; known for their prolific contribution to the philosophy of ethics. At the very core of virtue ethics is the idea that morality is directly related to the inner cultivation of virtue and character in man and the subsequent impact they have on our lives. This idea was developed with the initial aim of improving our overall understanding of character development within the context of consensus reality in society and the formation of innate morality and thoughts (Swanton, 2021). The philosophy of virtue ethics, therefore, assumes that aspects of the newly formed moral compass are primarily responsible for the variety of behaviors displayed by humanity today. Furthermore, virtue ethics contends that consensus reality compels us to act in a manner that is socially acceptable based on our recognition of social customs and norms within our societies unlike the ideas of consequential action posited in utilitarianism.

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Today, virtue ethics is known for its insistence on the importance of innate character development in inculcating “natural virtue” as the foundation of proper social customs. However, Thomas (2011)argues that certain cross-sections of society may fail to implement virtue ethics successfully into their lives if they happen to be consumed by malicious intentions, insatiable greed, hypocrisy, or inexperience during their development. The subsequent grooming and nurturing of virtue ethics is, therefore, meant to help us to develop a clear and resolute sense of right and wrong as a gateway for proper behavior in society and is quite similar to virtue ethics in this respect (Driver, 2013).

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At the present moment, virtue ethics is widely applied in the workplace environment in guiding the behavior and demeanor of staff operating within different levels of the more incredible organizational structure. Employees are fully aware that vices such as corruption and inappropriate sexual contact are unacceptable within the workplace environment, regardless of individual and cultural determinations. It is, thus, widely accepted that originators of virtue ethics sought to promote the rise of universal morality in society given the multiplicity of viewpoints and cultural diversity evident today.

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Utilitarian Ethics

Utilitarianism is a noteworthy category of the existing philosophies of ethics known for advocating for individuals’ focus on the “greater good” in any given situation. The main objective of this philosophical perspective is to ensure that any given action performed maximizes the benefits for the wider society. It is for this very reason that the application of utilitarianism is common within legal circles given that it is regarded as a useful tool in developing appropriate codes of conduct. Classical utilitarianism was developed by John Stuart-Mill and Jeremy Bentham who are, arguably, the most influential thinkers in Western culture  (Doyle, 2012). Theirs was an attempt to develop a philosophy of ethics focusing squarely on novel ideas such as consequential and ultimately using them as a basis for guiding human action and quite similar to virtue ethics. This approach seeks to maximizes benefits for the greatest number of people in society while forming the basic conditions for pain and pleasure.

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The overall application of utilitarian ethics is also based on the idea that the measure of good derived from action should benefit the greater population without discrimination. Practical applications of utilitarian ethics are also associated with the theme of quantitative utilitarianism known for its focus on maximizing the benefits of an action while, simultaneously, minimizing the stress or possible negative blow-back associated with its application. While detractors of the utilitarian school of thought have criticized it for being “superficial” in its handling of matters associated with morality, proponents of this idea champion its use as a matter of practicality and ease of application.

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Utilitarianism is also thought to promote the notion of individual freedom as a practical guide towards promoting the creation of societies guided by equity and bolstered by attempts geared towards protecting society. For instance, utilitarianism is evident in today’s workplace environment where employers voluntarily implement and abide by codes and standards outlined under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). Such actions ensure the application of a level of transparency and reliability based solely on attempts to maximize the greater good of the wider employee population while also taking their well-being into account.

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Deontological Ethics

The origins of deontological ethics can be traced back to humanity’s initial attempts to demystify individuals’ place in society and the overall duty ethics within this particular perspective. Ideas commonly associated with deontological ethics were first popularized by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, motivated by their biblical origins and practical application in a real-life capacity (Denis, 2018). Kant was particularly interested in the application of this ethical approach on a rules-based order in society while also considering the benefits likely to accrue from its application in a professional setting. One of the most outstanding differences between deontological ethics and the above-mentioned utilitarian school of thought, is that the former opposes the institution of explicit moral requirements for ethics. Moreover, deontological ethics also opposes the use and application of arbitrary systems of moral virtue since they do not hold any form of moral authority over individuals and are, therefore, unable to restrict human behavior.

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Deontological ethics is, however, seems quite similar to ideas held by virtue ethics given that both attempt to clarify the position and application of moral behavior. This is often cited as the main reason why deontological ethics is rarely associated with controversies associated with its application in a practical sense given the degree of philosophical superiority it seemingly projects. Fewer complications, therefore, arise from its use and application in society today given its low profile for emerging complications and in determining the types of positions likely to influence human intuition in the long haul (Palmer, 2020). Additionally, deontological ethics is also quite similar to virtue ethics in the manner in which it cedes authority with regard to the application of authority as a guide in assessing some of the most beneficial human behaviors known today. It also provides an expansive view of human morality based on an extensive form of inquiry designed to prove its viability as a categorical imperative among a wide array of ethical philosophies.

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Conclusion

Philosophies of ethics, such as virtue ethics, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics, attempt to improve our overall view of normative ethics as one of the best available ways of answering what we ought to do in life today. Apart from this crucial objective, they also serve some of the most useful frameworks available today for distinguishing right from wrong. Applied ethics is also critical throughout this particular process given that it helps us navigate the contemporary society in which we currently live while tackling major practical issues known to be of major moral importance today. An in-depth evaluation of each of the aforementioned categories is, therefore, fundamental in improving our overall understanding of select inherent similarities and differences and practical application in today’s fast-paced work environment.

Animal Rights, Should Animals Have the Same Rights as Humans

Animal Rights

The concept of animal rights is, arguably, one of the most controversial issues of our time. At the present moment, animal rights remains a contentious matter due to its basic grounding in moral principles which essentially highlight the importance of animal welfare and treating non-human sentient beings with utmost dignity. According to Nurse & Wyatt (2020), the current conception of animal rights recognizes the importance of allowing non-human animals to live on their own terms without being subjected to harmful and exploitative human desires. However, critics of this moral philosophy remain quite critical of the introduction of this emerging concept and claim that animal will eternally remain subservient to humankind. This debacle has sparked numerous debates on the fidelity of mainstreaming the idea of human rights led by progressive countries such as the United States and Britain.

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Moreover, these countries now equate animal rights to human rights and currently advocate for the protection of non-human sentient beings from torture and inhumane treatment by individuals typically expected to serve as their guardians. It is for these reasons that most developed countries have become the center of animal rights lobby groups calling for the legal protection of animals through legislation. Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966 remain some of the most prominent laws enacted to safeguard animal rights in contemporary times. The primary objective of each of the above-mentioned pieces of legislation was to enshrine the humane treatment of animals into acts of law as an official recognition of the drive towards offering basic welfare protection for non-human sentient beings. Today, animal rights activists such as Leo Anguiano and Nathan Semme remain at the forefront of animal rights campaigns while actively striving to highlight the overall significance of such efforts in realizing positive change in the treatment of animals globally.

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Animal Rights as a Necessity for a Progressive Society

Debates and candid discussions surrounding animal rights are necessary today and relevant when attempting to create a progressive society. It is quite evident today that humankind has focused exclusively on raising the collective consciousness by emphasizing on the importance of forming a global community based on fairness, equality, liberty, and dignity. Such efforts provide a unique explanation on how we have managed to reduce wars, conflict, and strife while countering dangerous vices such as tribalism, racism, ethnocentrism, and sexism. Yet, this progress can only be achieved by also considering the overall importance of ethics and the adoption of moral principles which bring out the best in humankind.

Acknowledging the significance of animal rights, therefore, goes a long way in nurturing the basic ideals necessary for inculcating a progressive and futuristic society. This process should entail the total rejection of the anthropocentric assumptions made by humans regarding our superiority to non-human sentient beings and the realization that animals too deserve protection from harm and exploitation. The integration of this concept in the mainstream should, therefore, take the form of animal’s right to equal consideration in the greater scheme of things given that such a perspective is bound to expand the scope of animal rights and its application. Besides, animal rights seem like an ideal framework for cultivating human advancement by recognizing our symbiotic relationship with non-human sentient beings as a sub-set of post-humanism (Mclaughlin, 2016). These ideas are repeated periodically in major world religions such as Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, and Shintoism as a pathway to improving the human condition while promoting environmental sustainability.

Animal Rights as a Safeguard against Abuse and Exploitation

The enactment of animal rights is also fundamental as an integral measure in preventing the wanton abuse of non-human sentient beings and their subsequent exploitation by humans. At the core of this particular idea is the full recognition of animals as animate creatures with the capacity to feel pain and experience suffering like human beings. The act of safeguarding animals from all forms of abuse and exploitation, therefore, falls squarely within the scope of legislation such as Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966. Apart from outlining the manner in which pets should be treated within the context of a cultured society, these laws also extend their protection to farmed animals by stipulating basic standards for treatment. Their tenets cover relevant animal rights issues such as outlining basic guidelines for the sale, purchase, handling, and transportation of non-human sentient beings regardless of their purpose but with the sole aim of promoting their welfare.

These guidelines also strive to offer an acceptable level of psychological protection to animals. particularly farmed animals and non-human primates. It is, therefore, no wonder that both the Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966 are explicit in their prohibition of inhumane lab experiments on animals and engaging in violent acts such as dogfighting. Biller-Andomo (2015), consider this a step in the right direction given that the premise acknowledges the fact that animals also suffer in a manner similar to human beings, sparking critical conversations on animal consciousness among reformist legal scholars. Such arguments have steered the drive towards a complete revaluation of the legal status of animals as one of the primordial steps towards curbing incidences of animal cruelty and the subsequent promotion of humane practices.

Link between Animal Rights and Environmental Sustainability

Animal rights and the enactment of federal and state legislation safeguarding animals remains a necessity, especially given that it is associated with environmental sustainability. Over the past decade, climate change activists such as Greta Thunberg have warned of the potential of a grand environmental catastrophe due to the systematic failures of the leadership class in realizing its urgency. This reality is also projected to result in the unprecedented destruction of a wide range of animal species likely to result in a major ecological imbalance globally. Animal rights, thus, play a significant role in averting this phenomenon by relying on systems protecting animals and ensuring populations remain at an optimum level for posterity. Designating animals as non-human persons ensures these life forms thrive in a global landscape known for experiencing a rapid rate of change and ultimately promoting environmental sustainability (Aaltola, 2016). This shift in meta-ethics is also bound to promote the inclusion of divergent schools of thoughts on animal rights and our role in championing equal rights for non-human sentient beings. A realization of the association between animal rights and environmental sustainability also shatters and demystify the myth of human supremacy over non-human sentient beings.

Conclusion

The epistemological axiom of human supremacy over animals is a controversial point of view criticized by its detractors who encourage open debate on the importance and significance of animal rights today. Animal rights, through legislation such as Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966, highlight the importance of exploring this new perspective with the main aim of ensuring that it remains a relevant issue in contemporary times. Animal rights is now viewed as a necessary precondition for progressive society, a safeguard against abuse and exploitation, and one of the most significant strategies to adopt when seeking to promote environmental sustainability. Full acknowledgment of this reality is, therefore, a crucial imperative for human development and the welfare of non-sentient beings and will eventually go a long way in ushering moralistic ethics within the sphere of mainstream society in the current global environment.

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