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ANCC PMHNP Certification Exam

Checkpoint for Certification Plan

National certification is a most momentous chapter for would-be licensed nurse practitioners today.  It is particularly vital for any aspiring Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioners (PMHNPs) as a test of mettle, ability to meet set prerequisites, and surviving rigorous preliminary evaluation by the esteemed American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC). The main objective of administering the Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing Practice Board Certification (PMHNP-BC) exam has traditionally been to gauge the overall efficiency, expertise, and knowledge of nurse practitioners (NPs) in their capacity as aspirant clinical staff (Kub, 2019, p. 281). Competency testing in nursing practice is, therefore, crucial in determining proficiency based on capabilities linked to nurse-patient relationship, initial review of patients, and the consequent management of disease.

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Application Requirements

Applying the most suitable initial preparation for the ANCC PMHNP certification exam is fundamental and critical to success. Planning ordinarily involves becoming well acquainted with current application requirements, academic requirements, personal groundwork and subsequent financial preparation. I can proudly report that I have successfully completed my application within the apportioned time and met the eligibility criteria as outlined by the Florida Board of Nursing (Florida Board of Nursing, 2020). I already hold a valid Registered Nurse (RN) license, with broad experience working in the field of mental health, and presented my education credentials for review, pursuant to board regulations.

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 Preparations for Certification    

            Due to the germane significance of the PMHNP-BC) exam, I have resorted to developing a detailed and structured study plan capable of aiding me during my final preparations. According to Thomas, (2017), final preparations for a major tests and examinations may prove taxing, which is why a customized study plan comes highly recommended. My study preparations were, therefore, marked by considerable changes in usual routine and the creation of a fresh plan based on the scheduled exam timeline. I set aside one hour each evening solely dedicated to extensive revision in a remote section of our expansive home library devoid of distractions. My family members have also been supportive during this demanding period. They have continually strived to provide an ideal home environment to amplify my efforts. My father even went the extra mile and purchased electronic bundles of peer-reviewed journals for evaluation to improve my outlook and knowledge on printed literature.

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Furthermore, I have extensively combed through the internet in search of ascribed online repositories with relevant PMHNP material, audio file reviews, and preparatory exams to gauge my grasp of module materials. Honing research skills is beneficial in the identification of imperative patterns in published literature in a wide range of nursing (Rose & Regan-Kubinski, 2016). This maiden perception of printed literature will support efforts to make an informed decision during any given scenario in the near future. Conduct an in-depth review of all examination requirements to avoid making slipups is also crucial during preparation (Wesemann, 2019). In my opinion, my most noteworthy decision yet was booking the exam well in advance and administered during the first week of April. I plan to spend the remaining time engrossed in relevant academic material, identifying areas where I still experience considerable difficulty, and engage my supervisors, and preceptors for further clarification.

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Scheduled Tasks

            The recent decision by the Board of Examinations (BoE) to provide a copy of the exam timetable has, to a great extent, expedited timely completion of major tasks. For instance, I have tweaked my study sessions and developed an enriched version to reflect key calendar events identified in the exam timetable for the purpose of congruence. However, this busy regimen has sadly meant that a number of the key tasks are pending. At the top of my to-do list is my goal of improving my overall grasp of psychopharmacology and pharmacology, in addition to the implications of both aspects in nursing practice.

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 Additional tasks will include a comprehensive review of study material with the aim of engaging fellow students; evaluating available study resources and applying a degree critical outlook during the initial evaluation.  Given the current state of the nation and being in the middle of a global pandemic, I intend to implement a “contactless” methodology; using the group feature in Facebook and WhatsApp applications to create discussion forums to discuss the ANCC PMHNP Certification exam and relevant pitfalls to avoid. 

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Time management will also be among scheduled tasks. I intend to prepare and improve my mastery of a skill well capable of influencing whether I succeed or fail my active endeavor. Part of my preparation will also involve purchasing electronic versions of previous PMHNP-BC exams and the General Testing and Renewal Handbook to boost my comprehension level with direct regard to the certification process. Similarly, financial preparation also proves instrumental during routine preparation (Lauchner et al., 2016).  This will generally entail setting funds aside for exam-related expenditures, study resources, transportation and licensure cost.

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National certification presents one of the most exciting exploits yet. I am an aspiring Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioners (PMHNPs) with an optimistic disposition and the primary objective of thriving in my forthcoming American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) administered exam. I met the eligibility criterion set by the Florida Board of Nursing (FBN) and have been profoundly involved in preparing for the exam. Currently, I feel adequately prepared due to my work ethic and discipline and ardently look forward to my future role as a budding Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurse Practitioners (PMHNPs).

Linda W. Belton Leadership Vision

Today, leadership vision is undoubtedly one of the most valued and significant tenets of governance. The principal reason behind this relative prominence is its ability to foster a strong sense of direction in leaders by sanctioning concentration only on important matters. Leadership vision creates an elaborate plan for realizing success by reviewing the past, acknowledging present actualities, and addressing the future. Over past three decades, Linda W. Belton has served as the embodiment of leadership vision in contemporary times through her service to humanity and espousing Ignatian values through servant leadership. Belton is a registered nurse (RN) and holds a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) degree from the University of the State of New York (“Linda W. Belton,” 2018). Belton’s leadership journey began with her initial selection to head the State Hospital system in Wisconsin where she served as a top executive before transitioning to the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Belton has since aspired to effect lasting change within the healthcare sector and society by remaining committed to the future ambitions amidst daily struggles and mounting responsibilities.

            Belton is a considerate leader renowned globally for petitioning policy makers and government agencies in the United States to lay exacting emphasis on the enactment of appropriate legislations targeting the physical health of the general population.  According to Nagle (2016), the physical health and wellbeing of a population contributes greatly to the overall economic progress of a nation and also as a tool to raise income levels. During a lengthy stint in the healthcare profession as a RN, Belton frequently witnessed the scourge of common public health challenges. She became aware of the debilitating nature of health conditions such as obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease known for severely impacting individual’s wellbeing and overall quality of life. Belton’s experience and expertise as a nurse practitioner now proved invaluable in her new role as a top executive in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA).  She aspired to realize lasting change in policy by highlighting the plight of combat veterans with a myriad of combat injuries ranging from nerve damage, traumatic brain injury (TBI), loss of sight, and spinal cord injuries. Such efforts highlighted her commitment to humanity by exploiting her influence and position to petition administrators to acknowledge the relative significance of physical health for posterity.

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            Over the past decade, Belton has remained a key figure within a cadre of professionals who value spiritual health as essential when pursuing individual’s welfare and a dreamed future. As a staunch practicing Christian, Belton’s spirituality is central to her identity and one of the major reasons why she supports undertaking this fulfilling journey. Additionally, Belton attributes her enviable value system to Biblical scriptures which have largely guided her in leadership and management. Belton firmly believes that the primary objective of any leader is providing key service to staff members while seeking to realize set organizational goals. Spiritual health and its accompanying influence on specific populations is also one of the key reasons why Belton is a leading proponent of servant leadership and its application by leaders. According to Best (2020), servant leadership is commonly associated with Ignatian values owing to its propensity to apply universal truths with a spiritual basis from scripture (p.131). Belton also presents the notion that leaders have a duty to implement servant leadership while encouraging a language of faith and spirituality within the workplace. Additionally, servant leadership is among one of the most effective leadership styles, especially in contemporary times characterized by the inviolability of work and practicality of service. Belton, thus, seeks to implement a leadership vision that takes this important tenet into account for posterity and attainment regardless of prevailing circumstances or challenges.

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            Furthermore, Belton views romantic health as a noteworthy domain due to its close association with goal setting and role in realizing aims in the future. Romantic health typically encompasses strong relationships characterized by commitment and compromise with the primary aim of accomplishing specified goals. Belton reputes romantic health as a training ground for decision-making and making informed choices which ultimately prove mutually beneficial. Romantic health also creates a unique avenue for cooperation and the identification of common goals to be attained within a specified timeframe (Gobbi, 2017). It inadvertently, molds honest and principled individuals capable of focusing on the most important aspects of an objective. Grounded employees are highly unlikely to engage in unnecessary bickering and disagreements which often result in bitter deadlocks (Murphy & Torre, 2014). Belton’s perspective, particularly advocates for respectful disagreement when drafting a vision for the future as an important strategy in preventing conflict and degradation.

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            The family unit forms an integral component in society. Through it, individuals are modeled and shaped appropriately with the aim of ultimately becoming productive members of society and the attainment of future goals. Belton views family health as an instrumental constituent in overall development owing to the creation of wholesome individuals. Her tenure at the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) saw frequent interactions with combat veterans which provided an unadulterated view into the significance of family health.  Davis (2017) opines that combat veterans represent the classic examples of the aftermath of compromised family health. For instance, disability for a services member affects the ability to play their role as the main source of income and may have a lasting effect on the actual stability of the family. This new reality may hinder the family from attaining set objectives in the long run such as starting an entrepreneurial venture or enrolling in college. Family health provides a robust foundation from which actionable ideas can spring to aid in achieving success in the near future.

            Belton has also played a significant in promoting cooperate social responsibility and making lasting contributions to the community. Her efforts began early in her career as a RN where she strived to reduce health disparities through health promotion (Belton, 2017, p. 65) Belton further envisioned a future where members of staff within an assortment of organization would acknowledge their role to the community. In particular, the participation of key executives within the healthcare industry builds a sense of trust among minority communities which have traditionally been relegated to the periphery (Wilensky, 2016). Belton’s work with veterans in inner city communities in State of Wisconsin through leadership recently saw her champion the involvement of leaders in transforming the status quo. Additionally, her efforts also include promoting cultural and spiritual competence among clinical staff to improve patient outcomes while encouraging care-seeking behavior.

            The past thirty years also represent a rich past for Belton owing to numerous professional contributions. Belton has always viewed the management of employees as an art which should be accorded a considerable level of respect. She has proven her mettle as a committed leader within the professional sphere which was primarily why she soared above her contemporaries as a remarkable leader. Belton’s servant leadership style brought civility to the chaos witnessed in the Veterans Integrated Service Network before streamlining is activity. She is also among the originators of the Civility, Respect and Engagement in the Workplace (CREW) initiative to promote professionalism within the workplace environment (Belton, 2018). As a consequence, she has received the Presidential Rank Award on three different occasions due top sheer determination in the sector. Belton’s programs are still applied today in the VHA as a blueprint for unique leadership skills in the quest to reach a projected vision.

Leadership vision is central to governance and the subsequent realization of future objectives. Linda W. Belton, formerly of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is the quintessence of leadership vision by underscoring physical health, spiritual health, family health and romantic health while making social and professional contributions. Thus, lasting change can now be attained through this framework for the years to come, in the wake of mounting responsibilities and nascent plights.

Challenges Facing Health Profession

Discuss two challenges facing the health professions. What are two policies that would address those challenges? What are the politics of those policy recommendations, if any? You may write about the health professions in general or choose a specific health profession to write about. Make clear in your entry if they are policies already adopted; proposed or under consideration; and/or ones that you would recommend”

While today is a time of growth, it is also a time of growing pains. The healthcare industry in the country is facing many challenges ahead in 2021. The most prominent challenges that the health care system faces is: service integration, service quality, internet connected medical device security, and publicly sustainable pharmaceutical pricing. The greatest challenge is improving healthcare quality of care while reducing cost. This issue can be solved by using intelligently leveraging clinical information for predictive analytics, precision medicine and population health analytics (Balasubramanian & Gallagher, 2019). Medical technology innovations continue to produce radical service delivery advancements. However, it will take some time before these advancements reach their full potential.

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There is a problem with information and service integration. The medical community welcomes big data advancement but implementation is not as fluid. Non-relational databases merge patient information from many sources, providing actionable metrics. Relational databases cannot efficiently manage unstructured information, such as clinical notes and transcripts. Very few care providers are able to transition from relational to non-relational databases using traditional electronic health records. Non-relational databases are able to fully exploit all recorded patient information despite the format. Some patients are not willing to share their medical information making non-relational databases hard to implement. Because of this limited information, drug manufacturers waste immeasurable expenses on research and development, which is passed on to consumers in the drugs’ prices. It is important to educate patients on how information sharing reduces costs and helps develop a more personalized service delivery plan.

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Another challenge is effective payment model discovery and implementation. Insurers and benefactors have recently instituted new payment models that use financial incentives that hinge on patient outcomes rather than service quantities. The incentives include bundled payments, global payments and shared savings. These incentives are the primary cause of high healthcare expenses in the US. Insurers simply pay for services rendered, patient advocates believe that traditional models incentivize care providers to provide quantity rather than quality health care. These providers receive disbursements directly; they are not keen to work collaboratively with others. This leads to increased expenses and unsatisfactory patient experiences (Robiner, 2006).

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The good news is, new payment models seek to alleviate these problems. Medicare serves as a proving ground for the new models. The organization improves, tests and implements new payment models to improve patient outcomes and decrease costs. The shared savings model has gathered more attention among care providers. The most effective model is using the Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs). In this policy, these healthcare groups take responsibility for improving patient outcomes and reducing costs. This approach encourages providers to coordinate services and uniformly promote preventive practices. There is a problem with the urge to search for a win-win outcome with pharmaceuticals. Patients, insurers and regulators keep complaining about the exorbitant drug prices.

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The new policies require that these manufactures have to substantiate their pricing. These enterprises are also under scrutiny from the public, insurers, and pharmaceutical value assessment groups. Some pharmaceutical executives advocate for fair pricing and feel that insurers should reward organizations prescribing new, cost-effective drug treatments (Kreitzer & Meeker, 2009). Many groups have been formed to evaluate and monitor drug pricing. Each group uses its own formula to measure price traits by using parameters such as: economic viability, effectiveness, patient outcomes, and toxicity. Legislators are calling on drug prices determined strictly by manufacturing costs, which will significantly decrease medication fees.

Corruption In Public Organizations

How does corruption come about within an organization?

Corruption in an organization starts with simple unethical behavior such as covering for each other as a form of favoritism, small scale embezzlement, to serious bribes and kickbacks mostly for a client or an employee to get more than he or she qualifies for. Corruption can include incidences that can include various activities that include discrimination, small-scale embezzlement, favoritism, bribes, and misappropriation. Organizational corruption entails kickbacks and bribery, collusion to defraud, and misappropriation (Hechanova et al., 2014).

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What conditions must exist, or what factors allow corruption to seep into public organizations?

Corruption is an ethical behavior that is highly practiced by unethical and unprofessional individuals in an organization. For it to happen there must be a poor level of supervision in the organization, with the majority getting a high level of operational freedom without accountability or auditing. It also exists in an organization with an unethical culture where behaviors such as kickbacks are not discouraged or are considered normal, and where management believes in favoritism among similar actions (Hechanova et al., 2014).

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What forms do you think corruption can take within a public organization?

Various forms of corruption can take part in public organizations. Some of these corruption activities include systemic corruption engaging large-scale embezzlement via false procurement, ghost workers on government payrolls, and large-scale public property disbursement to privileged and special interest. This can also be done through kickbacks and bribery, collusion to defraud, misappropriation via public property disposal or economic privileges rendered to the special interest, and misappropriation via public tender among other forms of large-scale embezzlement (Hechanova et al., 2014).

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How do you think corruption in public organizations most significantly affects the community?

Corruption results in several negative effects on government organizations. It results in unproductive public expenditures, reduced organization or government legitimacy, values distortion, inappropriate acquisition of technology, labor force inefficiencies, money float, and reduced competitiveness. It is also associated to reduce economic growth, poor life quality, poor morale, and low levels of the economy. The community ends up getting substandard services that are not fulfilling. It also results in a deficiency of vital resources in public facilities making it hard to fulfill community needs. It also results in low foreign investment, which increases uncertainty and risks in the country and among members of the community (Hechanova et al., 2014). The community suffers from a lack of quality services and the inability to depend on the government to solve its public and private problems. This community can experience other serious health, poverty, and economic issues due to a lack of proper governmental support.

Read also Critical Analysis Essay On Corruption

Land Clearing – Environmental Harm in Australia

Over the past century, the exponential increase in human activity has had far-reaching consequences for ecosystems globally. Australia has recently been identified by the Word Wildlife Fund as an epicenter of environmental degradation and currently among the top 11 countries with the highest land clearing rate (WWF-Australia 2020). Land clearing is of great significance in Australia, with prominent actors such as Shane Fitzsimmons of the New South Wales Rural Fire Services linking it to the 2019-2020 bushfires. Furthermore, land clearing is a fundamental issue warranting further discourse especially since climatic changes that have taken place over millions of years have resulted in gradual drying of the continent and the creation of an ecological time bomb. Although Aboriginal Australians were known to clear dense vegetation for hunting and the creation of footpaths, the arrival of European settlers took the practice to epic proportions for agricultural purposes.  Land clearing and the accompanying deforestation is now identified as major human factor with regard to global warming likely to occasion the loss of flora and fauna while increasing the frequency of bushfires (Environmental Development 2013). This paper will, therefore, provide an in-depth evaluation of land clearing as a major environmental issue in Australia and the nature and extent of the problem. A ‘green victimology’ lens will also be applied in examining the notions that federal and state government regulation of land clearing serves public and corporate interests. Furthermore, this paper will also feature a discussion of how the Victorian government could better serve victims of this environmental harm.

Scope, Nature, and Extent of Land Clearing in Australia

            Land clearing within the Australian context is an age-old practice characterized by deforestation and the elimination of native of vegetation. The arrival of European settlers in the 19th century and technological innovations have further exacerbated the situation by speeding up environmental harm in continent. For instance, large scale farmers and ranchers frequently level native forests, woodlands, and wetlands for commercial purposes. According to Diamond (2014), 90% of the native vegetation in Australia was cleared between 1920 and 1980 at the height of the “Million Acres a Year” program which was initially endorsed by the Australia state government. Land clearing in Australia has now been taken to the extreme, resulting in immense environmental pressure which causes the degradation of native vegetation, salinity, and sedimentation in coastal regions. Agriculture is among the primary motivations for land clearing in Australia. The extensive forests, woodlands, and wetlands of the Australian Outback have historically viewed as waste land in need of development. The Commonwealth and State Governments have traditionally supported this idea with the main aim of improving the nation’s economy. Ranching and wheat production also emerged as lucrative ventures which prompted the implementation of institutional incentives in New South Wales and The Australian Capital Territory in support of systematic land clearing.

            The extent of land clearing in Australia has also had a significant impact on land condition. By removing native vegetation, the soil has been left bare which has had a negative impact on is stability while making it prone to erosion. This eventually prevents native vegetation and biotas from re-establishing in areas where they were removed thus creating nutrient-deficient soils. A environmental crime study by the Australian Institute of Criminology (2016) into deforestation and related land clearing practices in areas adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef noted a clear association between the practice and soil erosion. Furthermore, land clearing destroys the local flora and fauna while also creating a unique opportunity for invasive species such as feral cats and red foxes thrive, eventually upsetting the ecological balance. Dry salinity, the emergence of salt on the land surface, is a direct result of land clearing practices in Australia. The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development currently estimates that 1 million hectares of land in South West Western Australia alone is severely affected by dry salinity (The Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development 2020). This is a consequence of an abrupt rise in the water table due to the clearing of native vegetation which relies on deep root systems which previously prevented the rise of salt to the surface. Australia’s land clearing epidemic is also linked to greenhouse emissions owing to a diminished capability by the remaining vegetation to engage in the absorption of carbon monoxide.

            Perhaps one of the most profound impacts of land clearing is the loss of biodiversity across the territory. According to the World Wildlife Fund-Australia, a total of 108 species of plants, birds, and terrestrial mammals have gone extinct within the past 60 years as a result of human activities, chief among them being land clearing (WWF-Australia 2020). The fragmentation of habitats has added pressure on native species of flora and fauna which fail to adapt to this abrupt change that has often ended in their disappearance. Forests, grasslands, and health play a major role in supporting Australia’s diverse ecosystem. The extermination of native vegetation has also impacted climate extremes and may very well represent the onset of earth’s sixth mass extinction event.

Critical Evaluation of the Notion that Federal and State Government Regulation of Land Clearing Serves the Public Interest

            Cognizance of the reality of the damaging effects of land clearing in Australia and a shift in attitudes prompted Australian policymakers to lobby for the implementation of state and federal legislations to regulate land clearing. These efforts resulted in the implementation of sweeping land clearing regulations which are currently implemented in Australia. Although legislations differ from one jurisdiction to the next, they all endeavor to minimize land clearing as a viable solution to this crisis (Durrant 2015). The implementation of a large majority of land clearing legislations was as a result of the recognition of non-human victims of environmental justice and a first step towards eco-justice in Australia. Equal victimhood affirms that all species residing within a specific ecosystem should be viewed as being equal in their fundamental worth, hence the need for a moral computation of interests and possible harms within any given scenario.

            The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999) has served an important role in controlling land clearing in Australia.  Among its core objectives has been to control all activities relating to land clearing in Australia and the protection of endangered plant and animal species (Wells & Wells 2016). The Act has been successful in the creation of a clear framework for the protection of biodiversity and the environment in Australia. Furthermore, its application was also supported since it emerged as public interest litigation to safeguard the public from the adverse effects of the “Million Acres a Year” program. The EPBC Act also recognized culturally significant sites which may bear the full brunt of environmental degradation through land clearing. By replacing the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1975, the EPBC Act was now sanctioned to use its discretion to promote activities and policies bound to result in cumulative benefits for both the environment and the public (Environmental Protection Authority 2014). For instance, the Act created clear provisions for the issuance of permits and approvals for activities capable of having sweeping environmental consequences. Failure to adhere to these provisions would result in criminal penalties for any infractions noted. The notion that federal regulation of land clearing serves the public interest is applicable in this particular case. Land clearing is motivated by the financial incentive. A sizeable majority of individuals involved in such activities are a handful of rich and corrupt individuals who endeavor to clear land for their self-interests. This culture of impunity may result in dire repercussions such as environmental extremes and loss of biodiversity which would have negative on the average citizen.

            The Northern Territory’s policy on land clearing is informed by The Planning Act 1999. This legislation was particularly important in establishing a formative state legislation for the regulation of land clearing through elaborate clearing controls. Its implementation has since transformed land clearing practices within the region by enforcing permits.  The creation of zoned and unzoned land has also created a clear delineation of areas formally recognized by the Northern Territory Planning Scheme (NTPS) in controlling land clearing within the region. The axiom that state government regulation of land clearing serves public interest also rings true in this particular scenario. For instance, Clause 10.2 (3) recognizes the importance of clearing applications in preventing negative impacts of environmental clearing particularly on rural Aboriginal communities in Australia (Kinsella 2012). It is noteworthy to acknowledge that unequal distribution is a clear hallmark of environmental victimization with marginalized communities living within the fringes of society bearing the full brunt of this current state. The illegal clearing of land in the Northern Territory is mainly the precinct of wealthy ranchers, landowners, and agricultural companies motivated by profit (Steffen 2010). However, the adverse effects caused by deforestation and loss of biodiversity are the Aboriginal Australians and rural communities who are typically disempowered. By creating clear provisions for land clearing, public interest takes precedence by considering its effects on marginalized communities likely to be disproportionately affected by natural disasters occasioned by such illegalities.

How Government Could Better Serve Victims of Land Clearing in Australia

            The Victorian government has plays a central role in controlling land clearing in Australia through legislation. Although it is apparent that copious efforts have been made to serve victims of land clearing, much still remains to be done. This will guarantee the implementation of an elaborate framework capable of serving both human and non-human victims of land clearing in Australia.

            In recent years, much focus has been given to trees and native vegetation as the main non-human victims of land clearing. However, legislations have systematically failed to underscore the plight of wild animals killed in the millions across Australia as a result of land clearing. This may be due to the largely indiscernible nature of the effects of land clearing on animals. Land clearing often causes traumatic injuries on animals especially in the presence of earth-moving machinery. Additionally, land clearing restructures the ecosystem; creating an unfamiliar and hostile environment for survivors of the clearing process. Land clearing is responsible for the movement of terrestrial animals such as lizards and koalas into urban settings in search of a new microhabitat (Healey 2011). State and government legislations have focused solely on salinity, the fragmentation of habitat, and salinity as major areas which require urgent focus but failed to acknowledge the effects of land clearing on animals. The government should, therefore, amend legislations governing environmental impact assessments to consider animal welfare when approving clearing process. Proposed clearings should also be evaluated thoroughly to review their impact on animal welfare.

            The Victorian government could also better serve human victims of land clearing in Australia through restorative justice programs for environmental crimes. Although it may initially require some adjustments, restorative justice is a promising alternative capable of mending relationships between victims of land clearing and perpetrators. While punitive measures serve an important role in enforcing the law, restorative justice may be instrumental in achieving justice for victims of the crime. Unresolved conflict is capable of affecting the social fabric of a community and may cause a breakdown in relations (Williamson et al. 2010). Moreover, the application of restorative justice in the context of land clearing will serve an important role in highlighting communities that interact with and rely on the environment. This ultimately results in their stake in the environment being subsumed in the government’s broader objectives. The decision by the presiding Chief Judge to opt for restorative justice during the 2007 Garret v William case over the destruction of Aboriginal artifacts during land clearing in New South Wales for the purpose of mining should inform similar scenarios (Environmental Protection Authority 2014)


Land clearing is a contemporary debacle plaguing Australia resulting in extensive destruction of the environment. The implementation of legislations such as Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999) and The Planning Act 1999 have played a major role in reiterating the notion that federal and state government regulation of land clearing serves public interest.Nevertheless, amendments to current legislations and the application of restorative justice are also bound tobetter serve human victims of land clearing in Australia.

Three Categories of Organizations

Description of Each Category of Organization

There are three categories of organizations. They include profit-making private organizations, government or public organizations, and nonprofit organizations. A profit-making private organization is an individual owned organization that exists basically to generate profit. The owners employ business strategies to gain business operation efficiency in the quest of reducing cost and maximizing on profit. They also focus on customers’ satisfaction to expand the market for the same reason. A profit-making private organization can be involved in diverse business services or selling different goods in different industries, apart from government restricted industries. Government or public organization is a government-owned organization and hence the organization administration and oversight is done by the government through a government agency (Lee & Wilkins, 2011).

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Government organizations are engaged in the provision of basic public services at a subsidized rate. These services include education, transportation, medical care, public health services, and security among others. These organizations focus on enhancing the public good. A nonprofit private organization is an organization that focuses on furthering social courses. Its main objective is to enhance public good but in a specific aspect such as caring for orphans, elderly home care, or any other area where they feel that the government has not exhaustively managed to address the target group’s basic needs. They are mostly tax-exempted and their main role is to help and attain public good rather than making a profit (Lee & Wilkins, 2011).

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Differences Between a Profit-making Private Organization, a Public or Governmental organization, and a Nonprofit Organization

The main difference between profit-making private organizations and the rest is that profit-making private is owned by individuals whose main aim is to maximize the profit. Profit-making is purely funded by individuals or owners through personal means that include savings and loans. They are also taxed based on government taxation law about the size of the business or the annual revenue. Their operations are guided by government regulations especially those on minimum wages, equal employment, and safety among other things (Lee & Wilkins, 2011). However, their management and administration are privately done without a lot of restrictions from the government. They are however guided by the rule of law governing operations in their industry of operation. Nonprofit organizations focus on enhancing public good but in a specific area of operation. The majority are tax-exempted especially if they are engaged in offering public good. Unlike in private for-profit where their workers are compensated based on individual or organization performance, such motivational forms of compensation are minimal in nonprofit organizations.

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Although they are engaged in the public good, they hardly receive government funding. On the contrary, they are mostly sponsored by well-wishers. While profit is the private for-profit is enjoyed by the owner, profit in the nongovernment organization is distributed into the system to facilitate the core course of the organization Government organizations are administered and controlled by the government. They operate under a specific government agency that offers rules and regulations on how they should be run and also receive funding from the government (Lee & Wilkins, 2011).

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Parkinson Disease – Annotated Bibliography

Balestrino, R., & Schapira, A. H. V. (2020). Parkinson disease. European Journal of Neurology, 27, 27-42.

This article offers a general and comprehensive analysis of Parkinson’s disease, focusing more on the disease prevalence in Europe. The article discusses the disease epidemiology and risk factors in Europe, where the older population of older than 60 years is said to be more prevalent. The article also discusses the disease pathophysiology, disease mechanisms, and genetics, clinical features disease diagnosis and differential diagnosis, disease treatment, and future treatment of Parkinson’s disease. The article gives all the basic and comprehensive knowledge that the reader would require to understand the disease. The article can be used to inform the researcher on all basic information about the disease to advance the reader’s knowledge of the technical aspect of the disease including epidemiology and pathophysiology.

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Esmail, S. (2018). The diagnosis and management of Parkinson’s disease. Scholar Journal of Applied Sciences and Research, 1(9), 13-19.

The article aims at offering an overview and, update information on the management and diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. According to the author, the Parkinson’s disease diagnosis is clinically made and the management is presently limited to symptomatic treatments. The author identified levodopa as the main pharmacological therapy for Parkinson’s disease.  The author also highlights the clinical mimics of Parkinson’s disease that may create confusion in the disease diagnosis and measures that the physician should take to avoid misdiagnosis. This article gives an in-depth discussion of Parkinson’s diagnosis and management promoting readers’ understanding of the same. The article can be used by researchers to supplement their knowledge on how to make an accurate diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease.

Sveinbjornsdottir, S. (2016). The clinical symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neurochemistry, 139(Suppl. 1), 318-324.

The article gives a general view of Parkinson’s disease focusing more on its clinical features. The author starts by defining Parkinson’s disease, giving an overview of the most affected population in society. The author also discusses both non-motor and motor clinical features of the disease in the disease progression context. This gives a clear understanding of how the disease is manifested and its general impact on the body. The article also discusses the main Parkinson’s disease treatment strategies and their complications. This article gives a deeper understanding of Parkinson’s disease, enabling the reader to get a deeper understanding of the disease. The article can be used to inform the researcher more on the motor and non-motor Parkinson’s disease symptoms and complications that the patient is likely to experience after adopting different forms of treatment.

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act – BUS 360

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was signed on December 22, 2017 and produced some of the most significant impacts in tax law in over 30 years. Research the tax reform changes brought about by the Tax Cuts and Job Act, analyze the impact these changes have on individual tax payers, and identify related tax planning strategies.

Purpose of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and Objectives for its Implementation

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA) was a comprehensive tax reform act that was enacted in 2017. This most extensive tax law change in over three decades. The law developed 119 provisions that repealed, added, or modified segments of the U.S. tax code, with 86 of which are associated with international and business taxes (Tax Foundation, 1). The main purpose of the TCJA was to reform the personal income tax code by reducing tax rates on business income, investment, and wages, simplifying the tax code, and extending the tax base. The TCJA is also said to deliver tax reductions to middle- and lower-income families. It also increases the competitiveness of American businesses. The Act implementation objective is to ensure the effective application of the proposed changes to ensure a successful transition to the new taxation system (Tax Foundation, 1). Taxation changes will require a change of individual and corporate standards of filing their tax returns. The implementation objective should focus on consideration of the new law by all while filing their returns, correct interpretation of the law, and high level of accuracy. 

Significant changes Brought Forth by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

The TCJA law comes with several changes in the country’s taxation system. One of the changes is that the Act intended to reduce the corporate income tax rate by 9% to 21% and shift the U.S. to a terrestrial taxation system from a worldwide taxation system. The main advantage of this change is that the net profit of those companies increases than before. Another advantage of the increased earnings gives the company a chance to grow at a higher rate than before creating new job opportunities and hence reducing unemployment. The main advantage of this change is that the government will experience a 9% loss in corporate taxation revenue. This change also brings the possibility of government budget deficiency or reduction in the development rate in the country, due to lack of enough funding.   The Act also lowers statutory tax rates at nearly all taxable income levels and moved the thresholds for various income tax brackets.  Each taxation bracket has experienced a reduction in the taxation rate (Tax Foundation, 1).

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One of the advantages of this change is a reduction in individual taxation rate, hence an increase in net income especially for low-income earners. The other advantage is an increase in individual, couple, or household purchase power, hence an improvement of their lifestyle, especially for those at the middle blanket. One of the main disadvantages of this cut is the reduction of government revenue from individual taxation. The reduction rate in the taxation bracket is inconsistent, thus initiating some sense of discrimination especially for the least income earners and the second last bracket group.  The tax rate for the two groups does not change the reduction then seems discriminative which is likely to create a negative feeling among the affected individuals, especially those in the lowest income blanket. The third change is raising the exemption on the alternative minimum tax to $109400 from $86200 for married couple filing, and augment the phase-out threshold to one million dollars. This is meant to encourage married people to file their returns as a couple (Tax Foundation, 1). The change is going to increase the net income for the married couple. It is also going to increase the number of married people filing returns as a couple. This is another strategy of using taxations to keep families together. The main disadvantage is that this further reduces government tax revenue. An increase in the exempted amount for couples seems discriminative for the single parents who struggle to raise their kids alone. The government should have considered offering them an increase in their exemption amount or the introduction of a new relief that favors them and makes their life more bearable (Tax Foundation, 1).

Impact that each of the Three Significant Changes has on the Taxpayers as an Individual and a Family

One of the main changes is the reduction of tax brackets rates for individuals. This will reduce individual taxation per year, and hence increase individual net income. The situation applies to those who file their returns as single individuals and those who file their returns as a couple. An increase in net income is likely to improve people’s quality of life, by increasing their purchase power. It can also result to increase in their savings, nutritional level, among other things. The amount saved from the reduced tax can be used to better their lives as individuals or as a family. Another change touched on family benefits. The TCJA doubles the child credit amount from $1000 to $2000 (U.S. Department of the Treasury, 3). TCJA also extends the child tax credit family limit, extending this provision to families with higher income. This relief the parents of eligible children, mostly below 17 years and with social security numbers form some of the costs involved in caring for their children. The credit increases the family net income and hence reducing the child care responsibility burden. Extending the salary limit increases the number of families who enjoy this credit.  TCJA almost doubled the standard deduction for single, heads of household and joint filers from what was deducted in each group, based on the previous law. This increases the net income for each individual or family, an aspect that improves their financial status and betters their life. It also assists in reducing family debts, improving diet and nutrition, and the general quality of life (U.S. Department of the Treasury, 3).

Tax Planning Strategy to Maximize Tax Savings Based on the Three Significant Changes Identified

Any taxpayer can focus on maximizing tax savings based on the new TCJA. One of the strategies to achieve this is by filing the returns as a couple. This has several advantages that include reduced tax rate as per the new law based on their bracket range. A joint filing range is always favorable than filing as single individuals for married people (Tax Policy Center, 2). Another strategy is by ensuring all children aged 17 and below in the house have a security number. This will help in claiming full child tax credit from the government, which will increase family net income. Another strategy is by taking advantage of set standards. One should always identify the standard that favors his or her returns filing system to be able to deduct the provided standard to reduce the taxable income. Taking advantage of provided standard deductions, child tax credit, and the most cost-effective returns filing system where possible will ensure that the couple or an individual minimizes the amount to be taxed. This results in overall household, individual, or couple net income, improving their financial level in the family (Tax Policy Center, 2).

Workplace Safety for Roofing Supervisors – Training Program

Need for Training and Development for Roofing Supervisors

            A recent rise in the number of serious roofing accidents among staff working for Alliah Construction has warranted the need for training as a measure aimed at drastically reducing the number of onsite incidents. Safety training is particularly essential for roofing supervisors especially since a report compiled by an inspector from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) following an accident linked it to numerous safety violations. A breakdown in communication has further contributed to this current scenario since the inability to comprehend basic instructions among workers has resulted in the flouting of safety precautions.

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Purpose of the Training Plan

            This training program aims to contribute directly to a reduction in the number of onsite roofing accidents involving staff working for Alliah Construction.  The training of roofing supervisors is particularly crucial since it is bound to result in a better understanding of safety guidelines outlined by OSHA. This will also promote clear line of communication between crew laborers and roofing supervisors to eliminate the possibility of non-adherence to safety requirements.  Alliah Construction will particularly benefit from this new development through an overall reduction in insurance claims and an improved standing among competitors.

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Workplace Safety Training Program Objectives

            The primary objective of initiating this training program is to improve roofing supervisor’s understanding of safety procedures. They will also be expected to display an in-depth comprehension of safety procedures developed by the company as well as best practices outlined by OSHA. This training program is also bound to bolster roofing supervisor’s ability to complete incident reports as required by the administration.

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Safety Skills Gaps of Roofing Supervisors

  1. Roofing supervisor’s failure to inspect, manage and secure implements and supplies at work sites.
  2. Roofing advisors have demonstrated an overall ineptness in discharging their administrative duties, chief among them being the creation of relevant paperwork as noted by the OSHA inspector.
  3. An overall failure by roofing supervisors to enforce safety compliance requirements and regulations. Only a limited number of workers were found to be wearing protective clothing during roofing assignments in addition to an inadequacy in first aid kits.
  4. The provision of brief unclear instructions by roofing supervisors at the worksite which is evident in worker’s inability to explain why a blade guard was missing.

Learning objectives

  1. Successful completion of the training program is bound to improve roofing supervisor’s ability to inspect, manage and secure implements and supplies at work sites to prevent safety hazards.
  2. Roofing supervisors will now be able to perform some of the most important administrative duties by creating safety and incident reports as required by OSHA upon completion of the training program.
  3. Successful completion of the training program will also allow roofing supervisors to implement conformity to safety regulations such as donning safety gear at worksites and the availability of safety kits outlined by the company and OSHA.
  4. It is also through this training that roofing supervisors will now communicate effectively with workers by providing comprehensive and concise instructions. They will also ensure that new employees gain an in-depth understanding of current safety standards.
  5. Successful completion of the train program is bound to improve roofing supervisor’s ability to inspect, manage and secure implements and supplies at work sites to prevent safety hazards.
  6. Roofing supervisors will now be able to perform some of the most important administrative duties by creating safety and incident reports as required by OSHA upon completion of the training program.
  7. Successful completion of the training program will also allow roofing supervisors to implement conformity to safety regulations such as donning safety gear at worksites and the availability of safety kits outlined by the company and OSHA.
  8. It is also through this training that roofing supervisors will now communicate effectively with workers by providing comprehensive and concise instructions. They will also ensure that new employees gain an in-depth understanding of current safety standards.

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Behavior Changes as a Result of Training

  1. Training is bound to result in an increased frequency in the inspection, management and securing of implements at work sites by roofing supervisors. This will be essential in creating a safe working environment for workers during roofing assignments.
  2. Training will also result in regular performance of administrative duties by roofing supervisors. This will include the filling of OSHA incident reports and illness logs as required.
  3.  Training will result in the enforcement of rules and regulations outlined by OSHA and Alliah Construction. A safety checklist will also ensure that roofing supervisors  guarantees the safety of each individual worker by ensuring they always wear protective gear during routine job-related assignments
  4. As a result of the training provided to roofing supervisors, regular meetings will now become the norm before any major roofing assignment to elucidate safety procedures and an exhaustive provision of instructions.

Workplace Safety For Roofing Supervisors Training Program Design

            The program design will rely solely on internal and external mechanisms during composition. Internal mechanisms will be the precinct of the company’s HR Department and will be tasked with reviewing reports compiled by roofing supervisors. A handbook containing the rules and regulations, role-play scenarios, and allocutions will be provided by the HR Department to provide roofing supervisors with a working knowledge of all requirements. The Safety Manager will be tasked with the development of simulations to improve worker’s situational awareness and their ability to make use of protective gear. The external components of the program design will amalgamate training sessions from renowned organizations such as The American Red Cross and administrative agencies such as OSHA.  The aforementioned training programs will be instrumental in the provision of key information related to prevailing safety requirements and regulations such as The American Red Cross in Adult First Aid and CPR. Although both components are invaluable to the organization, I recommend internal components administered by the company’s internal components especially since it is cost effective and easily administered.

Delivery Method

  1. The sharing of key information is an important delivery method which will be utilized during training.  This will be done internally within the company’s headquarters while external components of the training will be conducted is specific training centers belonging to OSHA and the American Red Cross. Handouts, lectures, and discussions will play a major role as delivery methods during this complex process. Conference rooms provide an appropriate class room setting for the implementation of the delivery methods above.
  2. Simulations will also serve as an important delivery method. Simulated safety scenarios will be presented in the company’s simulation arena while The American Red Cross in Adult First Aid and CPR will rely on training models.

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Training Facility

  1. The training classroom at Alliah Construction’s headquarters will serve as an important training facility for the purpose of this imitative. The classroom also doubles as an audiovisual room where presentations can be made using projectors while required to take notes.
  2. The company’s simulation site will be crucial during training since roofing supervisors will now have a unique opportunity to practice their skills during mock safety scenarios.

Training Facilitator

  1. The HR Manager at the company and trainers approved by external components of the training design should facilitate safety training to roofing supervisors with regard to the information sharing design. The HR Manager is an ideal choice, especially since their unique perch allows them to have a firm understanding of the company’s safety regulations and procedures. Trainers approved by external components of the training design are experts in the own right and will be instrumental in the preparation of presentations.
  2. The company’s Safety Manager will be responsible for coordinating hands-on simulations. The Safety Manager is an authority in best practices outlined in the company’s policies and procedures and an expert in the use of protective gear within the workplace environment. They will be tasked with the creation of safety scenarios to prepare roofing supervisors to similar setups in the future.

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Pilot Test Process

            A pilot test is an initial rehearsal for the actual training and is particularly important in the evaluation of a program’s efficacy. Preliminary participants will undergo training, before eventually being required to provide feedback. It is through this feedback that adjustments will eventually be made with the aim of perfecting the training program.

            The pilot test’s scope includes safety standards and regulations outlined by the company. Furthermore, it includes administrative duties such as filling safety and incident reports which are the prerogative of the roofing supervisor. Only major points will be delivered during the simulation due to time constraints and the length of the training.

            The main participants within this test pilot program will be senior executives, roofing managers, representatives from the HR Department and a trainer approved by OSHA. They will be present in training facilities with the aim of ensuring that relevant materials are covered.

            Structured questions will be used to gather invaluable feedback to be used for the purpose of the test pilot program. Authentic feedback is expected from participants after coving sequencing, the value of training material, and simulation scenarios.

            The test process is expected to take between four to six days after conclusion of the program as an ideal timeframe. Participants will be required to present their notes during this period to ensure they are accorded sufficient time to formulate appropriate feedback. The comparison of notes will allow brainstorming to permit the provision of valuable information.

            Before rolling out the training program to supervisors, feedback will be important in the identification of appropriate changes to the training content, flow material, tone and innovation used. Any anomalies identified during this process will be corrected before creating the training program.

Internal Communication Strategy

In this particular circumstance, the training program will be compulsory for all roofing supervisors working for Alliah Corporation. The essential nature of this training warrants clear communication to all participants, which is particularly important when aiming for success through this initiative.  Thus, a high-priority electronic mail will be sent to all roofing managers and roofing supervisors who report to them informing them of the forthcoming training program.  It is noteworthy to acknowledge that weekly regional meetings also provide an ideal environment for the dissemination of crucial information relating to the training program and its practicality. The aforementioned high-priority electronic mail and the spread of information during weekly regional meetings will play a major role in addressing the usefulness of the training program. Furthermore, the intolerable nature of the significant rise in on-site accidents will also be discussed at length, in addition to numerous operational infractions identified during the most recent OSHA inspection. Roofing supervisors will then be informed of scheduled training dates a fortnight after the announcement through electronic mail. As an incentive geared towards encouraging participation in the training program, a daylong paid leave will be offered to all roofing supervisors.

Training Evaluation

Learning ObjectiveEvaluation Method
Successful completion of the train program is bound to improve roofing supervisor’s ability to inspect, manage and secure implements and supplies at work sites to prevent safety hazards.Roofing managers will intermittently visit the job sites a fortnight after training to review their ability to inspect, manage and secure implements and supplies. Feedback from customers will also guide the assessment process when seeking to determine whether changes were implemented.
Roofing supervisors will now be able to perform some of the most important administrative duties by creating safety and incident reports as required by OSHA upon completion of the training program.The filling of mock OSHA Form 301and Occupational Illness and Injuries log a week after training. Roofing supervisor will also ensure appropriate paperwork is filled during job site inspections.
Successful completion of the training program will also allow roofing supervisors to implement conformity to safety regulations such as donning safety gear at worksites and the availability of safety kits outlined by the company and OSHA.The use of a written test will serve an important role in gauging roofing supervisor’s understanding of safety rules and regulations as outlined by OSHA. The attainment of a passing grade will deem roofing supervisors eligible for the second stage; a review of work crews one week after training to ensure protective clothing is always worn.
It is also through this training that roofing supervisors will now communicate effectively with workers by providing comprehensive and concise instructions. They will also ensure that new employees gain an in-depth understanding of current safety standards.The holding of pre-work meetings one week after the successful completion the company’s training program. This will ensure relevant undertakings and safety procedures are appraised to guarantee a proper understanding.

Training Evaluation: Training Transfer

  1. The enforcement of the mandatory wearing of protective gear within the workplace environment, presence of fully stocked first aid kits, proper disposal of debris are manifestations of supervisor behavior proving that training transfer has occurred.
  2. Holding pre-work meetings and annual performance appraisal by roofing supervisors will also serve as proof training transfer has occurred.

Application of Watson’s Theory of Caring in Prevention of Pressure Ulcers


Prevention of bed sores is one of the main issues that health facilities deal with when taking care of bedridden patients. Nurses play an integral role in the care of these patients. Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring is an important theory that helps in the creation of a good environment in the care of all patients. The concepts of this theory are also essential in the prevention of bedsores among bedridden patients.

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Use of Special Mattresses

Patients with reduced mobility usually face unique challenges in the hospital set up. Conditions that may lead to reduced mobility in patients include severe traumatic head injuries, traumatic hip joint dislocation, terminal cancer, spinal injuries, and extreme old age, among others. Patients with reduced mobility are forced to be bedridden for extended periods of time, which exposes them to increased risk of developing others serious conditions. These conditions include development of muscle contractures and bed sores. Bed sores are particularly of significant concern because they are difficult to manage. Bed sores, also commonly known as pressure ulcers, always develop on bony prominences that the patient lies on for long periods. They causes by compromised blood supply to the areas that are compressed when the pressure lies on them. The wounds that develop are also difficult to manage because the reduced supply of blood to the affected areas compromise the rate of healing. These pressure ulcers contribute to significant morbidity and mortality for many patients who are bedridden.

One of the best ways of prevention of pressure sores is through institution of regular checking of the patients, as well as the use of alternating pressure mattresses. Frequent checking of the patients helps to address any complaints that patients may have on time. The use of alternating pressure mattresses helps to reduce on the counter-pressure that is applied on the patient by the surface they are lying on (Nixon et al., 2019). These special mattresses have special chambers that are alternatively filled with pressured air to help in alternating areas where the patient has maximum contact and pressure with the mattress. As such, the help to prevent specific areas being under pressure for a long time. These measures help to reduce the risk of development of pressure ulcers.

Nursing Concept in Watson’s Theory of Caring

Nursing is one of the main concepts that Jean Watson advances in her theory of nursing care. This concept is defined as the concept that is concerned with preventing illness, promoting health, and caring for those who are sick in an attempt to restore health (Rosa et al., 2020). Nurses play a critical role in taking care of all kinds of patients in healthcare facilities. Caring for the sick is the utmost duty that nurses should take. Patients usually go to healthcare facilities to look for quality care that can rehabilitate their health.

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As such, it is the duty of a nurse to carry out the task of caring for patients with the highest level of attention. Promotion of health involves coordinating with patients so that they are at the center of their own healthcare. This involves patient education in various areas of health in order to improve their status of health (Rosa et al., 2020). In the case of bedridden patients, the role of nursing is central in the prevention and care of the patients. There is need for the concept of nursing to be fully integrated in the care for patients who have limited mobility. This approach would ensure that they face reduced risk of developing pressure sores.

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Prevention of Bed Sores by Implementing Frequent Turning of Patients

Although the use of special mattresses play a crucial part in the prevention of pressure sores, it is important to look for other ways through which the approach can be improved. As the nurses are at the center of patient care, more options that focus on the roles of nurses should be implemented. One of these measures involves the employment of frequent turning of the patients in order to prevent them from sleeping in one position for long periods (Andersen, 2019). Frequent turning has been praised as one of the most important measures in the prevention of pressure sores. Applying this method has more advantages to the patient beyond prevention of pressure ulcers. One of these advantages is that it helps to give the patient an opportunity to rest. Bedridden patients experience a lot of exhaustion from lying in a single position for a long time. Patients who are turned frequently have a reduced risk of having bed sores, which helps to reduce their hospital stay, as well as reduce readmissions into centers of care. The Watson carative factor that is highly applicable in this case is that of the promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning experience for the nurses. This approach helps to reinforce the need to embrace a number of techniques to aid in patient care.

Using the Concepts of Nursing and Teaching-Learning Experience

The concept of nursing, as well as the engagement in interpersonal teaching-learning experience among nurses is critical in management of bedridden patients. The two concepts need to be applied in a manner that is measurable in order to assess their effectiveness in the clinical set up. Nursing helps to ensure that patients receive the best care in hospital. The role of the nurse in the care of the bedridden patient, as well as in the promotion of health and prevention of worsening of the patient’s condition is paramount. The role of the nurse should be harnessed to the full benefit of the patient. The concept of teaching-learning is crucial in the enhancement of the skills and expertise of the nurse. The nurse should be taught on the latest and most effective approaches in the management of the patients. This involves teaching nurses on the need to prevent bed sores, as well as how to prevent them. In turn, the nurses should communicate this information to patients in order for them to appreciate all the interventions applied in their care. The benefits of this approach can be assessed through the demonstration of reduced incidences of development of bed sores among patients. The two concepts should be applied simultaneously for the best results.

Read also Article Critique – A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effects Of Nursing Care Based On Watson’s Theory Of Human Caring On Distress, Self-Efficacy And Adjustment In Infertile Women


Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring is a central theory that has a huge application in the management of all patients. Pressure sores usually develop in bedridden patients who are forced to lie in the bed for a long period of time. Prevention of these ulcers helps in the prevention of increased morbidity and mortality. Watson’s concepts such as nursing an teaching-learning experience play an important role in empowering nurses to take care of all patients who are at risk of contracting bed sores.