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The Baring’s Collapse -Lessons Learned Review

Enterprise Risk Management Lessons Learned Review

This will be a “Lessons Learned” Review.   You will perform and prepare a Lessons Learned Review of a major Corporate Scandal due to breakdown or lapse in Risk Management, providing a review of the breakdown in Risk Management: the cause, impact/consequences, actions taken, and most importantly lesson learned to prevent future occurrences.:

  • Description of the Risk Management breakdown – what happened/chronology?
  • What caused the Risk Management breakdown (e.g., control deficiencies, lack of oversight, poor management/supervision, etc.)?  Be specific.
  • Who(m) was to blame?
  • What was the impact/consequences of the breakdown (e.g., financial loss, reputation, regulatory penalties/sanctions)
  • Could the breakdown been prevented or minimized?
  • What actions/remediations (e.g., Company, Government, Public) were taken after the event occurred?
  • What are the “applicable” Lessons Learned? – this is based on your opinions/reflections of the case tying into the respective Lessons Learned.

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The Baring’s Collapse – Lessons Learned Review

Background: Description of Risk Management Breakdown

The Barings Group started a subsidiary in Singapore in order to increase its reach and expand its business horizons. The Singapore subsidiary was known as Barings Futures Singapore (BFS). The Barings Futures Singapore was headed by Nick Leeson. The role of Nick Leeson was to participate in active trading in the country as part of an arbitrage between the Osaka and Singaporean futures exchanges. The operations authorized by the company to be carried out by Nick Leeson were considered low-risk, and thus did not put the company at any uncomfortable position. However, Leeson engaged in unauthorized dealings that involved position taking in Japanese Government Bond and Nikkei futures on Osaka futures exchanges and SIMEX.

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Nick Leeson also exposed the company’s capital to potential unlimited loss by writing exchange-traded alternatives against Nikkei trading indices on the same exchanges that involved Osaka futures and Japanese Government Bond (JGB). Leeson had a structured system that involved taking or buying long positions in Nikkei futures, taking a short volatility position in Nikkei, and taking short positions in Japanese Government Bond futures. As such, Leeson needed Nikkei prices to increase, JGB to decline, and Nikkei’s volatility to remain significantly low. However, Nikkei prices fell sharply and JGB underwent significant losses based on significant reduction in interest rates. By the end of February of 1995, most of the unauthorized investments made by Leeson had experienced significant losses, which subsequently affected the parent company, Barings Group.

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Causes of the Risk Management Breakdown

The risk management breakdown at Barings Group was a result of failures at many levels. Firstly, the bank did not have a distinction between the back offices and the front offices within the Barings Futures Singapore (BFS). This made it possible for Leeson to serve at both offices, and thus had control of both ends of the trading operations. This enabled him to conduct fraudulent operations that were not in the interest of the company. He was able to significantly manipulate transactions and hide the losses made by creating secret accounts which helped to conceal the operations from the parent company. Secondly, there was an ambiguous monitoring system that allowed Leeson to find loopholes for exploitation. The company had a matrix-based reporting channel that made it impossible for the right kind of oversight to be exercised on all managers. As such, it was impossible to notice Leeson’s unauthorized actions on time.

Thirdly, the company did not raise any doubts on the high returns that Leeson registered from the operations they assigned him to carry out. Although it was clear to the company that most of the revenues registered by the company came from Leeson’s operations, the company did not question the possibility of his arbitrage operations not being the only source of such amounts of profits. As such, it is clear that the company neglected its oversight role completely. Fourthly, the company did not effect the audit resolutions recommended by an internal audit review carried out in 1994. The internal audit revealed to the company that BFS had a questionable risk management controls and structure which were not sufficient to guarantee a positive future for the company. Finally, Barings Group did not have any limits that its subsidiaries could adhere to. This opened the space for misuse by such managers as Nick Leeson. Although all these factors facilitated the unauthorized actions carried out by Leeson, it is apparent that the collapse of the bank can be squarely blamed on Nick Leeson.

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Impact

When Leeson discovered that Barings Group was on the verge of a crisis, he decided to run away from the company. He left a note behind with the message “I am Sorry”. His first destination was Maylasia, followed by Thailand, and then to Germany. He was arrested in the airport in Germany and flown to Singapore. He was charged with fraud and sentenced to close to seven years in jail. On the part of the bank, Barings Group was rendered insolvent after it was discovered that it had lost about $1.4 billion through Leeson’s dealings. This necessitated the selling of the bank for a paltry $1. This represented an unprecedented fall from grace for a bank that had existed for 223 years.

Possible Prevention

Barings Group could have prevented its collapse by having a robust oversight over its various subsidiaries. The oversight structures adopted by the company were too irregular, which created many opportunities for inefficiency and misuse. For example, Nick Leeson did not have any direct oversight that monitored his various actions in Singapore. The company should have also put in place structures that would help in breaking down revenues that came in from its numerous subsidiaries (Betz, 2018). This would have enabled it to notice irregularities in the revenues reported by Leeson from the Singapore subsidiary. Finally, putting limits on the amounts that each unit operated on would have limited the amounts of money that Leeson put in unauthorized operations. This approach would have acted as damage control and prevent the company from losing the large amounts it did as a result of Leeson’s fraudulent investments.

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Remediation

The collapse of Barings led to many sweeping changes being made in the banking industry in order to prevent future recurrence of such events. The board of the Bank of England recommended that a review of the number of people and skills needed in a bank to provide essential services such as on-site visits and advice on derivatives (Tham, 2020. The collapse of the bank also led to an increase in liaisons between many financial operators and regulatory bodies. Many banks also resolved to have frequent meetings with the board of the Bank of England for discussion of their banks’ internal audits for proper assessments and recommendations.

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Lesson Learned

The case shows that arbitrage should be carried out in the atmosphere of transparency because it carries significant risks. As it involves simultaneous buying and selling of stocks or bonds with the intention of making profits based on price variations, caution should be taken when using it as a business model. The case also illustrates that a huge sum of money should not be invested in such kind of trade because it can lead to significant losses when the market system suddenly collapses. The case also has many lessons for financial institutions in terms of adopting sound structures and exercising robust auditing systems. The accountability channels employed by the bank were not good enough to prevent against fraudulent activities by rogue managers. This created the space exploited by Leeson in carrying out unauthorized activities. Finally, financial institutions should seek to act upon the recommendations provided in their internal audits as soon as possible.

The Capital State Arena – Case Study

The Capital State Arena

The Capital State Arena, located on the Capital State University (CSU) campus, is a new 20,000-seat arena that is a multipurpose building. Mainly for men’s basket-ball, there are also plans to hold commencement there and other university sport-ing events and functions. A theatrical lighting system is obviously needed to offer the flexibility to light these events correctly. As a main component to a top-quality lighting system, a controller or “console” is needed. The console is the brains of any lighting system, whether it has 10 lights or 300 lights.

The new arena will take the place of St. Patrick Arena, which was built in the 1960s. Although there periodically has been renovation to St. Patrick Arena, a the-atrical lighting system has never been implemented.

Need Recognition

There is a need for a lighting console for the new facility. A professional theatrical lighting system was specified by the planning committee. Having the ability to conveniently adjust the lights to accommodate different events and different moods during events is a strong competitive weapon for selling the arena during the off-season. This type of lighting adjustment is driven by a computer-controlled console. The most current technology was specified; the system will be leased out at a rate of $2,000 per day plus operator expenses.

Available Products

The process began when the purchasing department received the requisition. Two suppliers were contacted via telephone: CAE, manufacturer of Leprecon LP-3000, and Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC), manufacturer of ETC Obsession II. A re-view of the trade journal Lighting Dimensions was used to search for other sources. The review uncovered a third possible supplier: Strand, manufacturer of the Strand 520.

A search of the World Wide Web provided additional information on the three console choices. The Web pages also provided dealer network information, a war-ranty repair station list, and specification information for each console.

Console Features

The three consoles had many similar features. The glossy product sheets provided by each manufacturer were used in writing the specification for the console pur-chase. The resident lighting designer from the theater department also was con-sulted on the specifications. In addition to this information, the list below helped in the decision-making process:

  • The console must be user-friendly. Programming should be able to be accom-plished with just a few keystrokes on the console. This will eliminate the need to have a technician on retainer just to program or get the system turned on. he author expresses appreciation to Tami Reinhart and Bill Schwertfoger for their contributions to this case. Names and data have been disguised.
  • The console also should be accessible to the theater department as a teaching aide. When the arena and lighting system are not being used, teaching person-nel should have the opportunity to sign up for hands-on console training.
  • he console should be expandable. With the increased use of moving lights con-trolled through lighting consoles, the console should have a few hundred chan-nels that are unused. With extra control space, touring productions might want the opportunity to rent the “house console” and run their lights in conjunction with the in-house system.
  • Console software should be upgradeable. Since lighting consoles are now computer-driven, upgradeability is a factor. Each of the three consoles is upgradeable.
  • Equipment chosen must be manufactured in the United States, or the dealer must have the ability to get any warranty/repair parts in less than 24 hours. This criterion ensures that the console will be repaired in a timely manner.
  • The console should be purchased from a dealer within a 25-mile radius of the arena. The contract terms should include at least a two-year warranty on all parts and workmanship. The dealership also should accept the responsibility of installing “loaner” equipment if the original system fails and needs service. This is done so that any scheduled event that rents the system can still use the system without a loss of income to the arena.

Negotiations

Although Strand was the low bidder, the purchasing team ranked the Strand 520 as the best value. The theater department ranked the ETC as the best value based on the ease of use and service. The LP-3000 was ranked last by both the purchas-ing team and the users.

The Decision

The purchasing agent knew that the differences in opinion between the university purchasing team and the ultimate users posed a complicated purchasing decision. He realized that his decision on the purchase would involve both qualitative and quantitative trade-offs. One nagging thought in the back of his mind was that no matter which console/vendor he chose, he might never know the impact on either of the disagreeing parties.

Recommending Actions as a Purchasing Agent for CSU Regarding the Purchase of the Theatrical Lighting System

The decision by Capital State University to acquire a theatrical lighting system is well-informed. The lighting system will be crucial for the success of its Capital State Arena. The arena promises to be a big attraction for the university. Additionally, as a 20,000 seater stadium that is to be used for basketball and commencement speeches, there is need for proper lighting to give the events the proper atmosphere that is required. A theatrical lighting system depends on a robust console that helps in controlling the system based on the needs of a given event. As a purchasing agent for Capital State University, I would advise the university accordingly on the best console to acquire based on the options provided. A thorough analysis of all the factors shows that the console provided by Electronic Theatre Controls (ETC) is the best option for the arena.

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Although Strand emerged from the bidding process as the best priced, the theatre department ranked ETC Obsession II console by Electronic Theatre Controls as the best option for the arena. Their justification for this high ranking of the ETC console is that the console is easy to use and its servicing is also easy. According to the recognized needs of the arena, a lighting system that is easy to use was desired. This is in regards to accommodating different types of events, as well as different moods in the arena at different stages of an event. These features provided by the lighting system would give the stadium an unmatched competitive advantage over its rivals. As such, investing in a robust console that is recommended by the theatre department is the best choice. According to the specifications of the console to be purchased, it was desired that a console with significant user-friendliness should be purchased. As the theatre department recommends the ETC Obsession II console, it is an indication that it meets the requirement of being easy to program at all times. This feature makes it unnecessary for the theatre department to hire a full-time technician to operate the console, as such, helping to save on cost of running the lighting system.

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The ETC Obsession II console also meets the requirements of being made in the United States, as well as being upgradable. As a manufacturer based in Wisconsin, Electronic Theatre Controls fully qualifies to provide the needed console to Capital State University. As a manufacturer in the United States, it is advantageous because the company can provide the much needed servicing at all times. One of the main challenges that arise out of the use of technological devises is the need for regular servicing. A console can easily be damaged by electrical surges, or can experience mechanical damages due to poor handling (Onishi, 2018). It is, therefore, crucial that essential repairs and maintenance services can be accessed efficiently. This advantage illustrates why the university demands that the supplier must be based in the country. The upgradability of ETC Obsession II also proves that it is what the arena just needs. Technology tends to evolve too fast. As such, it is important to consider the future needs of the organization before acquiring a given technology. Considering that the arena will be in use for a long time, the university needs a console that can also be used for an extended period of time. Upgradability ensures that the console can be easily and cheaply upgraded when the need arises. This property will ensure that future upgrades in terms of speed and versatility can be achieved without the need of investing in a new console.

The Electronic Theatre Control is a leader in the market, and its equipment can be trusted. The data provided shows that the company had made $19,000,000 in sales, and commanded about 60 percent of the market. For a company to have this level of command, it shows that the company produces consoles that consumers trust. The share of the market that the company has also illustrates that it is easy to obtain servicing with a lot of ease because the company likely has many dealers (Aobdia & Shroff, 2018). Once the university buys the console from ETC, it will be easy for the university to also use it for its teaching purposes as stipulated in the console features section. In conclusion, there is a strong basis for recommending ETC Obsession II console for the university’s needs. The console is a modern technology that can help in controlling the elaborate lighting system that the university wants to acquire for its arena. As the console is made in the United States, it meets the needs of the university. The console is also upgradable, which means that the university does not need to buy any other console in the near future. The console will only need to be upgraded in case new software comes out. The location of the manufacturer in the United States also means that the console can be serviced whenever necessary. Therefore, the ETC Obsession II presents the best option, and the university should buy it.

United Way Worldwide Vs Center for Digital Inclusion – Comparison of a Large vs. Small Nonprofits

 A comparison study of a Large vs. Small nonprofits

A look forward the future can be a valuable way to understand the present and plan for the health, growth, and development of the organization. In this comparison, explore the future of Large vs. Small nonprofits, making predictions about their landscape and best approaches to ensure their success. Consider economic (corona virus), social, and political factors and the nature of nonprofits as you develop your predictions for the future of Large vs. Small nonprofits.

United Way Worldwide Vs Center for Digital Inclusion

Non-profit organizations, commonly known as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), play an integral role in society. They help to bridge the gap between people and the government by filling the gaps that the government cannot fully fill. Different communities have different needs that call for an elaborate analysis in order to establish the best ways of meeting them. The needs that various NGOs usually seek to address include education, health, environmental conservation, gender equality, and civil education, among others. A comparison of United Way Worldwide (UWW) and Center for Digital Inclusion (CDI) shows that the two non-profit organizations can implement different measures to have a secure future.

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United Way Worldwide

United Way Worldwide (UWW) is a global non-profit organization that focuses on the mobilization and distribution of funds for supporting community social programs. The organization serves as an umbrella entity for many small organizations in the United States. It is headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia. Through its partnership with various charitable outfits focused on community issues, the organization has been able to achieve measurable positive impacts in various communities in the country. The organization and its partners work together with government agencies, schools, financial institutions, voluntary associations, and community development corporations. The organization has three main areas of attention, which are health, income, and education (Fortune & Worldwide, 2013). The company uses a model that illustrates that the organization’s desire to operate in a manner that is a complete departure from how non-profitable organizations usually operate. As the largest non-governmental organization based on private donations, the organization focuses on providing permanent solutions to society’s problems.

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The organization employs robust techniques to ensure that it stays afloat at all times. The partnerships that it gets into are adequately scrutinized to ensure that they have the potential to contribute to the realization of its goals. Most of the donations that the organization gets are usually from payroll deductions. This type of funding is one of the most sustainable because most people sign-up to fund the organization on a renewable monthly basis. This is demonstrated by the non-profit’s ability to register record revenues of about $3.3 billion in 2019. In its operations, UWW is often called to make tough decisions based on the dynamic nature of the environment under which all NGOs work. There is always a need to balance current needs of the communities, as well as to focus on the future progress of the organization.

Center for Digital Inclusion

The Center for Digital Inclusion (CDI) is an organization that focuses on promotion of entrepreneurship and the elimination of poverty in the community. The non-profit tackles these issues through the use of technology. The organization collaborates with local partners to develop community centers in areas of averagely low income. These areas range from prisons, rural areas, areas where indigenous communities are the majority, psychiatric facilities, and remote hospitals, among others. The organization considers the dissemination of information and the widespread deployment of technology is at the center of fighting of poverty. According to CDI, digital inclusion refers to the measures taken to ensure that all members of the community, including the most vulnerable, have adequate access to information and information technology. CDI has come up with 5 areas of focus that are integral in helping it to achieve its goals. These are access to digital literacy, mobile applications and internet-based content meant to encourage self-sufficiency in terms of collaboration and participation, increasing access to affordable broadband internet, providing quality technical support, and provision of internet-enabled gadgets that are responsive to the needs of the users (Irish, 2018).

The centers created by CDI vary from one community to another. This is because most of these centers are usually independently run and self-sustainable. The students enrolled in these centers are usually tasked with identifying the most common challenges that faces the local community. This approach enables them to create the most effective work plans that can be used to address the issues. These issues could be violence, sexual abuse, crime, lack of schools, or hospitals. The students can then employ their skills to run advocacy programs and awareness programs to bring the issues to the limelight. As such, the main tool used by CDI is informational empowerment of the community.

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Future Predictions for UWW and CDI

The taxation policies are going to inform the pattern of contributions that people are going to make. Both United Way Worldwide and Center for Digital Inclusion are affected by political policies that are made at the national level, as well as those made at the local level (Mayer, 2018). Political activity will change the pattern of giving towards organizations that operate at the government level. As tax deductions inform the way individuals contribute, tax reform on reduction of individual taxes will increase people’s contribution to non-profit organizations. This means that the two organizations stand to benefit. As political instabilities continue to be witnessed in most parts of the United States and Europe, the organizations’ need to contribute more in community engagement will increase.

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The world economy has experienced damaging effects due to the current coronavirus pandemic. Most of the countries are in the world are now under lockdowns in the rush to curb the spread of covid-19. The spread of the virus has made it difficult for most economies to operate normally (Fernandes, 2020). As such, most people in developing countries and those in rural areas face unprecedented times due to reduction in access to basic needs. The role of UWW and CDI will be integral going forward as the two organizations have an interest in basic needs that affect vulnerable communities. CDI will need to devise ways through which it can increase access to information and empowerment of affected populations.

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A focus on social issues will be integral in the futures of both organizations. CDI will focus on improving its plans for solving social issues such as violent crimes and sexual abuse. There has been an increase in family-based violence during the coronavirus pandemic due to people’s prolonged stay at home (Usher et al., 2020). As such, CDI will need to focus on building capacity in different communities to handle these kinds of violence. UWW will also need to expand its investment in education programs. Many children from poor families cannot access education through digital platforms. As such, the organization will be forced to initiate more community programs to help the affected to catch up with the rest.

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Recommendations

It is important for non-profit organizations to create effective ways of solving community issues in a manner that is immediately useful to the communities at hand. Based on the serious and far-reaching effects that coronavirus pandemic has had. Many communities have been affected in many ways. Although governments are putting in place measures to contain the effects, it is crucial for non-profit organizations such as UWW and CDI to find ways of making a contribution now, and in the future. UWW should focus on finding alternative ways of increasing its revenues in order to support more organizations. The need for support from non-profit organizations will increase, and thus UWW will need to be prepared. CDI should also build more capacity to address social and education issues in order to mitigate most of the problems that affect concerned communities.

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Why Entrepreneurial Organizations Seek Opportunities for Innovation

Innovation is the step of putting new ideas into practice in order to come up with unique products in the market. Many companies seek the opportunities for innovation because it has clear advantages in the market. Companies that focus on innovation have a high chance of succeeding. Four of the most important reasons why entrepreneurial organizations seek opportunities for innovation are explained below.

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Increase Competitive Advantage

Innovation helps to increase a company’s competitive advantage. This is especially the case in an environment where many businesses are dealing in the same type of products. Innovating new products, or coming with new ways on how an existing product can be made more efficient and cost-friendly can be the best way to stand out in the market (Nambisan et al., 2019). Being associated with new innovations can increase a company’s standing in the market, and make it more competitive. New innovations make it easy to increase revenues and increase on productivity in the firm. Competitive advantage makes it possible for a company to dominate the market. Entrepreneurial companies focus on innovations to be able to differentiate themselves from their rivals.

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Help the Business to Grow

Innovation contributes significantly to the growth of a business entity. Innovation is not only necessary for large firms, but also for startups. Small businesses seek opportunities for innovation because it provides them with an opportunity to expand their reach. Innovation makes it possible to increase the number of goods that a business deals in, and thus caters for the needs of many different buyers. Another method of growing in the market is buying increasing the value of an existing product. This can be achieved through innovation. Although many companies exploit different methods to grow and expand in the market, embracing innovation and seeking innovation opportunities is one of the surest ways of achieving growth.

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Meet the Needs of Customers

Innovation makes it possible to meet the needs of customers. The needs of customers are always changing. Innovation provides entrepreneurial organizations with an opportunity to meet customers’ immediate and long-term needs. As the needs of customers keep shifting, it is the duty of the organization to realize read the patterns and innovate products that will respond to the new needs (Mahmoud et al., 2019). The ability to be highly responsive makes it possible for a company to be relevant at all times. New innovations also help to excite customers and motivate them to remain loyalty to the business. The best way to meet the diverse needs of customers is by embracing the spirit of innovation.

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Attract the Best Employees

Innovative companies are the most attractive working destinations for innovative and talented people. An atmosphere that encourages innovation excites many highly qualified employees. Innovative employees desire a work environment that is interested with new ideas, and readily invests in actually new ideas in the business. As such, entrepreneurial organizations seek opportunities for innovation in order to remain attractive to the best employees in the market. These employees usually perform a background check of a company before applying for any opportunity. In such a case, a company’s history of valuing innovations serves as a significant appeal. 

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Opportunities for innovation give a company the opportunity to be unique in the market. It ensures that a company becomes highly attractive to innovative and talented employees. Innovation also makes it possible for a company to meet the needs of customers. Other important advantages are that innovation helps a company to grow and increase its competitiveness in the market. These reasons explain why businesses focus on innovation.

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Impartiality – Leadership Trait that can assist in Managing Conflict

Conflict refers to a concept that describes differences of opinion or disagreement between people and any issues experienced due to these differences. It is the natural outcome of the interaction between individuals with varying desires, traits, needs, and values. When a conflict happens, it needs to be resolved to make it possible for people to effectively together or as a team. There are different approaches to conflict resolution. Different individuals adopt different approaches based on what they consider best to address the kind of conflict they are experiencing. However, despite the adopted approach, there are various characteristics or skills that a leader should have to be able to manage the conflict effectively. Some of these characteristics include neutrality, empathy, impartiality, awareness, stewardship, conceptualization, foresight, and persuasion among others.  Among them, the key leadership trait that assists in managing conflict is the impartiality (Jit, Sharma & Kawatram, 2).

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An impartial leader is a leader who does not favor any side or any involved parties. This is a neutral leader who listens to all accounts before deliberation. An impartial leader holds many other positive conflict management traits that eventually yield to a better outcome. This includes the ability to listen carefully as each group presents its account, need to gather all possible information that can support different accounts, and considering them before making deliberation, and active listening.  An impartial leader also tries to understand all the accounts with all involved and to discuss them deeply to every party’s satisfaction.  This makes it possible to manage and resolve conflicts in a manner that is more acceptable by all involved parties and hence creating satisfaction in the final deliberation of the issue (Jit, Sharma & Kawatram, 2).

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Methods for Motivating Employees and Improving Behaviors within the Workplace

Motivation according to Rozman, Treven, and Cancer (4) energizes behaviors, offers direction to behaviors and underscores persistence tendency. Motivation thus plays an important role in influencing workers’ behaviors, implying that the organization must find the best strategies to motivate its workers. Motivation can be achieved by creating a favorable working environment. A favorable working environment is characterized by respect for all despite the level of diversity in the workforce. This means there is no discrimination, stereotyping, bullying, or any other form of harassment based on discriminative aspects (Rozman, Treven, and Cancer, 4).

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Other methods of motivation include the provision of competitive compensation. This includes offering salaries slightly above the market price, incentives for good performance, and prerequisites where possible. The organization can also motivate its workers by having a favorable workers management system that is characterized by talent management and workers’ development. This is mostly done through workers’ training, mentoring, and coaching, as well as internal promotion and salary increase based on individual workers’ performance. An organization should conduct workers’ appraisal frequently and give feedback on workers’ performance.

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To remain motivated, the organization should establish a constant feedback program to assist workers to work on their weaknesses to improve performance. Workers should encourage to take challenging tasks that will enable them to invest in research and development for personal growth. Incentives should be offered to encourage this. For interested parties, the company should offer them enough free time to work on discoveries, ideas, and innovations. This will give workers a chance to grow and to remain focused on their careers (Kumar and Kumar, 3). Workers’ behavior and motivation can also be influenced by the alignment between individual academic and professional qualifications and the assigned working position. Workers whose qualifications are aligned to their job description tend to be highly motivated and willing to try more challenging tasks than those whose qualification does not align with their job description.

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This means to ensure that workers remain motivated an organization needs to hire the right people for the job; the most qualified, based on the job description. To influence on workers’ behavior, the organization should adopt an organization culture that dictates the organization’s norms and practices. Workers’ behaviors can also be influenced by the organization policy that dictates rules and regulations to be followed in an organization as well as consequences on not following them. Organization policies should also guide on how to report and resolve disputes, to avoid serious conflict likely to impact workers’ relations. This will help in managing people’s behaviors by limiting their extent due to defined consequences (Ukandu and Ukpere, 5).

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Communication Audit – A Strategy to Improve Communication

Discuss a tool or strategy a leader can adopt for improving communication within the organization.

Communication refers to the information transmitting process and mutual understanding between two or more people. Communication is the exchange or creation of understanding, thoughts, emotions, and ideas between receivers and senders. It is highly important in maintaining and building relationships in the workplace. It is therefore important to enhance communication in an organization using an effective tool or strategy.

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One of the best strategies that a leader can employ to improve communication within an organization is communication audits. Communication audit involves the analysis and measurement of the organization’s communication system to develop a basis for diagnosing the communication practice quality. Communication auditing entails the evaluation of existing communication practices to establish the steps needed for improvement. The auditing will involve the adoption of a communication assessment tool that comprises five main components that include social contact, central leadership, information comprehensibility, timing and quality, influence created in any communication, and a barrier to communication improvement (Christensen, 1).

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The auditing strategy can result in the adoption of more advanced strategies that focus on resolving the identified deficiencies or problems in the existing communication system. For instance, in the identification of poor social contact between workers and leaders, the leader can consider adopting a communication system with more diverse communication channels that offer direct communication between workers and senior leaders without need to go through other intermediates. This can include using emails, internally integrated voice calls, open communication forums with leaders, and social media among others.

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Lack of workers’ social contacts can be resolved by developing organization professional network or workers discussion forums among other means. To address poor central leadership communication can result in the establishment of more physical or videoconference meetings between leaders, sharing private mobile phone numbers among leaders for free communication at any time among others. Communication auditing strategy acts as the first step into the integration of other new strategies and tools to enhance internal communication in an organization, as a way of enhancing the organization’s internal communication even further (Christensen, 1).

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Logistics from a Manufacturer’s Perspective

Introduction

Logistical issues are at the center of the operations of a manufacturing firm. As a producer, it is integral to ensure that logistics are well taken care of for the sake of proper supply chain management. Logistics addresses issues related to the acquisition of raw products, manufacturing of intended goods, and the shipment to the target market. Global logistics affect the manner in which a manufacturing firm undertakes distribution networks. Such factors as global market forces and supply chain management play a crucial part in a manufacturing firm’s operations.

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Logistical Risks

There are several logistical risks for manufacturers to consider while running their business. One of the main risks in logistics is the disruption of distribution patterns (Ju et al., 2017). In a situation where a crucial distributor moves their services to a different location, this can have severe impacts on the cost of distribution of products. A sudden change in international or local laws is another significant risk that a manufacturer faces. This is especially the case if the regulations affect logistics of the company. Economic fluctuations in different countries can also impact on the distribution of products, which may force a company to run into losses while evaluating alternative markets. Another serious risk that a manufacturer faces is a potential breeches of technological systems by hackers, which may lead to breeching of essential company secrets, especially critical information of logistics.

Global Market Forces

Global market forces have a significant impact on how manufacturers evaluate their logistics options. Global market forces are the factors that interfere with demand and supply at a global scale. These factors could include political, social, and economic forces. Due to wide dissemination of information, it is possible to harness customers from far and wide. Global market forces are usually created by international competitors (Kovács & Kot, 2016). A manufacturer should study where there is demand for their products in order to make the best decisions in terms of logistics. Distribution of products should be targeted at areas where demand is high in order to propel productivity. While considering logistics services, global transporters such as shipping companies also provide a good alternative for manufacturers that wish to export their products to distant areas.

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Development Chain

Product development is an essential part of a manufacturer’s job. Product development passes through five critical stages. These are idea stage, screening stage, development of concept, development of the product, and commercialization of the product (Schniederjans et al., 2018). Product development also encompasses a study of specific needs in the market, and studying the competitive advantage in the market. Logistics play a central role in product development because many factors should be considered. These factors include considering the source of raw materials for the product, the suppliers available, as well as how to distribute the products to the identified market. It also ensures that the manufacturer is conversant with all the laws pertaining to the distribution of the product. Putting all these considerations in place ensures that new products have an increased chance of succeeding in the market.

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Supply Chain

Supply chain management is the backbone of a successful manufacturing venture. It involves the planning for efficient acquisition of raw materials, best manufacturing processes, efficient storage facilities, transportation to the market, as well as facilitating recall and the return of faulty products from the market. The four crucial elements of supply chain are operations, integration, purchasing, and distribution (Hugos, 2018). These four elements are interdependent and ensure that there is seamless functioning of a manufacturing unit. As logistics try to maximize each step of the production and distribution process, supply chain management ensures that there is optimization from the beginning to the end of the production, and shipment to the market or the customers. Investment of technologies for increasing efficiency should be centered in both logistical processes, as well as in the supply chain management to ensure profitability of the manufacturing firm.

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Logistical Strategies

Logistical strategies help in the coordination of plans and policies between different parties in a supply chain. These strategies are defines as goals and attitudes that are adopted by a manufacturer in order to develop efficiency. One of the strategies that a manufacturer should have is to use volume to leverage on prices (Fernie & Sparks, 2018). Having the capacity to produce large quantities of products for a long period of time can serve as a bargain while hiring distribution services. As the distributor is assured of long-term commitment, they are likely to offer friendly distribution services to a manufacturer. There should also be regular risk assessment to ensure that all areas of risk are well evaluated and addressed. A manufacturer should hire managers to make important decisions on logistics to ensure that inefficiencies are reduced. Another important strategy is the utilization of technology at all areas, such as using social media to update clients.

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Summary

In conclusion, logistics are at the center of profitability of a manufacturing firm. A manufacturer should consider a number of factors in order to increase efficiency. Some of these factors include global market forces, supply chains, development chain, logistical risks, and logistical strategies. An elaborate understanding of these factors makes it possible to succeed in the market.

Moving From Infancy to Childhood

Maternal Child Health

Toddlers have some very unique behavioral characteristics as they move from infancy to childhood. This paper identifies these behavioral changes, challenges that parents may face with these characteristics including temperament and nutritional barriers and provides education on what type of nutrition assessments are there, hygiene, activity and sleep.

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Moving From Infancy to Childhood

The transition from infancy to childhood is characterized by distinctive behavioral changes in toddlers. It is during this period that temperament becomes evident and a major determinant of their response to the immediate surroundings. A toddler can either be an easy, difficult, or slow to warm child (McKinney et al., 2017).  It is also noteworthy to acknowledge that temperament can also be shaped by persons within a toddler’s surroundings. Parents, therefore, need to be cognizant of this fact since this transitory stage represents a critical stage in development with far-reaching consequences in the formation of individual personalities. The changes in behavior linked to a toddler’s temperament can be shaped by parents through the adoption of structured routines bolstered by consistency.

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According to Perry et al. (2015), the transient phase from infancy to childhood is commonly characterized by changes in behavior, chief among them being a negative reaction to systematic routines, frequent crying, and slowness in adapting to change (p.34). Furthermore, it is also fundamental for parents to remain aware of challenges which may be faced during this period in relation to nutritional barriers. The adoption of healthy eating habits, therefore, becomes essential in the promotion of wellbeing among toddlers. It is wise for parents to note the development of taste preferences in toddlers with the intention of tweaking bad habits which may be detrimental to healthy development.

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The 24-30 oz. consumption of milk should be maintained during a toddler’s transition from infancy to childhood while supplementing it with a balanced diet. Parents should be keen on avoiding foods with saturated fats and excess sugar while also making certain that a regular mealtime schedule is maintained. Regular baths are also central to health promotion which should be coupled brushing and flossing after every meal. Push-pull toys, pitching balls, and puzzles are also essential in developing the much-needed activity required on a daily basis. Such activities should also be followed closely by 11-12 hours of regular sleep while also being ready to correct behavior related to resistance to bedtime.

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Intermediate Appellate Court and High Appellate Court

Appellate courts are generally mandated to hear petitions of error from the lower trial courts. In most states, the intermediate appellate courts were established for the purpose of relieving the workload of the highest courts in the states. The intermediate courts were meant to serve as avenues where litigants would have adverse decisions from trial courts reviewed. Intermediate Appellate Courts (IACs) primarily offer the appeal of right and most of them are obligated to hear cases that are filed in the court (States Courts of Appeal, 2012). Considering that IACs listen to virtually all the filed cases, these courts are usually overloaded with work. Hence, they are often referred to as the ‘workhorses’ of the appellate justice system (States Courts of Appeal, 2012).

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The role of the Intermediate Appellate Courts has changed over time due to the rising appellate filings as well as the expansion of their jurisdiction through state constitutional amendments and statutory enactments (States Courts of Appeal, 2012). Most of the highest courts in states have primary jurisdiction but they do not have the required resources to review all the decisions that have errors. Therefore, Intermediate Appellate Courts deals with issues of first impression while clarifying and developing the existing law (States Courts of Appeal, 2012). Even though the Intermediate Appellate Courts continue to serve their traditional role of correcting errors, the role of these courts has evolved to that of defining and developing the law.     

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High Appellate Courts are also referred to as state supreme courts. These courts represent the highest judicial representation in a given state. On matters that pertain to state law, the decision of the high appellate courts is considered to be final and binding in both the federal and state courts. However, the decisions made by high appellate courts can be appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States only if the case involves a federal law. The intermediate appellate courts act as the intermediary between the lower courts and the state supreme courts. State supreme courts usually have no choice but to take into consideration the will of the people (Devins & Mansker, 2010).

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In some states, justices in the state supreme courts usually stand for reelection and voters can overturn the decisions of these courts by amending the state constitution through the initiative process (Devins & Mansker, 2010). In certain instances, state supreme courts interpret the state constitutions in order to protect themselves from the condition set by the Supreme Court of the United States (Devins & Mansker, 2010). The high appellate courts have been regarded by some as being prone to political influence when compared to the federal courts.

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