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Virtual Reality Technology and Revolution in Healthcare

The field of healthcare is undergoing a massive scientific change and revolution as a result of technology. One disruptive technology that is rewriting the delivery of care is virtual reality (VR) technology. VR is the use of computer simulation and modeling technologies that facilitate interaction with three dimensional virtual and sensory environments. VR technology was initially popularized in the 1990s. Since then, scientific research has produced a plethora of studies to present new discoveries and applications in various fields. The health healthcare sector has experienced a huge increase in the application of VR. Uses span from the creation of new life-saving techniques to medical training, patient treatment, surgery, medical marketing, and disease awareness. In essence, VR applications immerse users in computer-generated environments that simulate reality through special integrative devices that communicate with the user. Virtual Reality devices are becoming increasingly available to the average consumer, meaning that sooner or later, patients may also reap the benefits of VR technologies. Examples of VR devices comprise headsets, goggles, bodysuits, and gloves.

            A significant area in healthcare where VR is progressively transforming procedures and workflows is education (Fertleman et al., 2018). Notably, many healthcare operations require the utilization of expensive high tech equipment which may not be available to everyone. VR provides a cheaper alternative by providing simulations that mimic wards and operation rooms. Simulators are an advantageous way of training aspiring surgeons, medical professionals, and assisting nurses. Many healthcare educators have already implemented VR in training. For Example, Stanford University uses a surgery simulator that provides haptic feedback to the user.

Read also Design Concept for Haptic and Thermal Sensorial modalities in Virtual Reality Interactions Evaluation

            Despite its promising benefits, VR technology is plagued by several ethical limitations. Virtual Reality is a new technology, and as such, its implementation presents challenges that impact the user in various proportions. For instance, there is no evidence documenting prospected side effects since no one has utilized VR before in healthcare settings. Researchers have cited the significant concern that the application of VR could lead to the occurrence of unexpected side effects. Some have cited cybersickness as a potential outcome because of incongruous sensory cues that emerge when one uses VR. Incongruous sensory cues denote a conflict between casual, auditory, vestibular, and proprioceptive senses and the user’s expectations based on real-world experiences.

Read also Reflection Essay on the Use of Virtual Reality in Employee Training Programs

The use of VR may pose significant issues to children and elderly populations. Children are highly susceptible to information and can confuse what is real and what is virtual. Studies that have featured children in VR experiments have concluded that children are more likely to believe that virtual characters are real (Segovia & Bailenson, 2009). Additionally, since VR involves full immersion of the user into a virtual environment, elderly people and people with mental issues can have adverse reactions. Traditional moral responsibilities are not applicable in the virtual world since the latter may lack or include aspects that are not synonymous with those of the physical world. It is important to investigate environmental impacts, account social involvement, and other repercussions that Virtual Reality may bring when applied in healthcare settings.

Read also How Patient Education and Technology Impacts the Delivery of Healthcare and Nursing Care

In conclusion, virtual reality technologies offer healthcare communities a vast array of opportunities, but they also present an equal share of challenges that require further assessment and research. The future of VR in healthcare is seemingly boundless and the current range of applications is getting wider by the day.

Cask of Amontillado – Psychoanalytic Analysis

The theory of psychoanalysis is based on the self-honesty in that a person is shaped by their experiences. An individual who is completely honest with themselves is more likely to be aware of their characteristics. The workings of the theory are patent in Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Cask of Amontillado.” The story depicts a character with an extreme obsession to inflict vengeance.

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            The depicted character is Montresor, who is very self-reflective about his desire for revenge. From the onset, the writer does not reveal why Montresor is determined to impose retribution on Fortunato. Instead, the story begins by highlighting Montresor’s plot against Fortunato. One minor hint that the reader contends with is that the Fortunato may have insulted Montresor in some way. This hint discloses Montresor’s insecurity as he is not tolerant of criticism and would prefer to resort to vengeance as the only resolution.

            Within the context of revenge, the audience learns that Montresor retains a bitter hatred toward Fortunato, which fuels his desire to torture and kill. This profound desire for revenge brings out some characteristics of Montresor’s character that he would not seemingly admit in person. Perhaps Montresor’s hate and overdeveloped yearning to revenge was triggered by past events. A certain occurrence may have contributed to his fanaticism towards a mere insult. The author maintains that the nature of Montresor’s “soul” does not give “utterance to a threat.” This shows that he does not withdraw from a threat. Rather, he prefers to retaliate and settle matters his own way.            

From a psychoanalytic perspective, Montresor’s desire for revenge and anger towards others as a result of trivial matters uncovers certain traits of his personality. It is Montresor’s self-honesty that gives the reader a more profound view of his character and behavior. In the end, his character materializes as quick-tempered, angry, intolerant, narrow-minded, and grumpy.

Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” – A Feminist perspective

The critical theory of feminist criticism explores men’s and women’s social experiences, chores, interests, and politics with the aim of understanding gender inequality. Some of its major underlying concepts include patriarchy, sexual objectification, discrimination, and stereotypes. The theory serves as a critical tool for analyzing stories and literature from a feminists’ viewpoint. This section analyzes Shirley Jackson’s “The Lottery” using the theory of feminist criticism. The story represents an allegorical portrayal of society’s cruel principles and flaws and its impact on people, especially women.

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            The evidence of cruel societal principles in “The Lottery” emerges when the reader encounters the true meaning of the lottery. Rather than present a monetary incentive or award to an anticipated winner, the portrayed village conducts a chilling tradition of stoning a certain person to death. At the same time, the reader becomes aware of the reality of society’s control over women through the imposition of limitations and expectations. The sheer degree of politics involved in the plot exposes that tradition and formality are critical to this society. Indeed, tradition is a custom that binds the actions of everyone in the village. This is clearly evidenced by the black box, which not only dictates the fear of the people but also the authority of those they fear.

Read also Ethical Relativism in The Lottery

            By the use of phrases like “men folk,” the writer sets men apart from the women and communicates the influence of a patriarchal system. A patriarchal system views women as subordinate to men and accords them with specific duties in family and society. All women in Shirley Jackson’s characters are victims of a patriarchal system as they have different behavior from that of men. Moreover, society expects every woman to be the property of a man through marriage.            

In conclusion, the critical theory of feminist criticism offers a unique view of Shirley Jackson’s short story “The Lottery.” It presents her account as an allegorical portrayal of society’s cruel principles and inequality as far as gender is concerned.

Eye Witness Testimony Peer-reviewed Articles Review

Eyewitness memory represents episodic evocation of a dramatic event that someone has witnessed in the past. It is commonly used in the judicial system to provide testimony in legal cases, such as when a witness recounts the details of an incident. The accuracy of eyewitness memory in providing flawless evidence is highly debated in research circles because of the multiple factors involved in an episode of crime. Some scholars have argued that different aspects of extreme events can alter the process of encoding and retrieving information, resulting in distorted memories. This paper reviews two peer-reviewed articles on eye witness testimony with the aim of evaluating the reliability of eye-witness testimony. The malleability of memory contributes significantly to the unreliability of eyewitness testimony, but investigators can increase reliability by using uncontaminated eyewitnesses, using fresh witnesses, and tracking metaphysical aspects of the interviewee

            The first article documents an in-depth scholarly review on the consistency of eyewitness memory, as reported by Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher (2018). The underlying notion is that eyewitness testimony is unreliable and detrimental to the legal system due to its malleability and the incidence of eyewitness misidentifications. To build the foundation of this statement, the authors refer to four decades of research. The primary focus of their literature review is the flexibility of memory. After recounting the discovery of the plasticity of memory, the authors point to real cases where eyewitness memory has proved to be unreliable. Some of the cited incidences include the repressed-memory epidemic of the 1990s, where adult patients in psychotherapy recovered childhood memories of sexual abuse and a panic over day-care sexual abuse in the 1980s. Both cases were later ascribed to the implantation of false memories. While taking these incidences into account, Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher (2018) argue that eyewitness memory is likely to be unreliable, particularly in cases where criminal investigations contaminate the memory of witnesses. Former cases of eyewitness misidentification offer a solid base for their claim. Even so, the article moves beyond the prevailing verdict of the unreliability to evaluate the reliability principles of forensic evidence, as well as eyewitness identification evidence from recognition and eye witness evidence from police interviews. Ultimately, Wixted and his counterparts deduce that eyewitness memory is reliable only when the investigator eliminates trickery from the questioning process, uses witnesses who have not been exposed to distorted information, probes the witness’ memory for the first time only, remains sensitive to the interviewee’s level of confidence, and monitors how the metacognitive aspects of the eyewitness guide their responses. This deduction implies that eye-witness memory is only reliable in the same way that DNA evidence is consistent. Hence, the reliability of eye-witness memories hinges on testing procedures and levels of contamination.

            In the second article, Dahl et al. (2018) present a real-world analysis of eyewitness testimony in a police shooting with the aim of investigating manifestations of temporal and spatial distortions. The fundamental assertion is that eyewitness statements are used regularly in the criminal justice system, and thus, there is a pressing need to assess the reliability of their testimony. Dahl’s analysis involves 13 witnesses, among whom are nine civilians and four police officers. The police had been sent to find a man who had attacked and stabbed two people when the situation escalated into a shooting. According to the findings, witness testimonies differed when it came to specific aspects of the crime. For instance, although eyewitness information regarding the assailant’s movement and armament were consistent, responses relating to the exact shot that sent the assailant to the ground were unreliable. Additionally, eyewitness accounts omitted key legal details from narrations. This hints that eyewitness memory is reliable when general themes are under consideration as opposed to when precise details are in perspective.

            The findings of both articles are barely consistent with the Lockean Memory Theory, which maintains that the self is inherently connected to consciousness or memory. According to the theory, the self with which a person identifies persists and extends to memory. Hence, if one can remember an experience, then it is likely that they lived through that experience. This is partly true when we bring the findings of the articles into view. In essence, the study by Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher (2018) indicates that eyewitness memory is reliable when certain conditions are met. Two of the conditions address the level of manipulation that the investigator imposes on the witness. First, the investigator is instructed to circumvent the use of trickery. Perhaps this is because it causes a disconnection between the identity and consciousness of the witness. Second, the investigator is advised to refrain from using witnesses who have consumed contaminated information. In any case, Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher (2018) assert that the investigator is responsible for controlling the reliability of testimony. On the other hand, Dahl et al. (2018) reveal that eyewitness memory is distorted significantly when it comes to minute details of an event. Although inconsistent with Lockean Memory Theory, this conclusion corresponds with that of Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher (2018), who argue that contamination of memory may occur in the within and after an event.            

In conclusion, Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher (2018) and Dahl et al. (2018) acknowledge that eyewitness memory is unreliable in legal contexts. However, Wixted, Mickes, & Fisher (2018) notes that unreliability is only observed when certain conditions are not met. The malleability of memory contributes greatly to the unreliability of eyewitness testimony. However, investigators can increase reliability by using uncontaminated eyewitnesses, using fresh witnesses, and tracking metaphysical aspects of the interviewee.

Wassmiah Case Leadership Style Analysis

Wassmiah Case

Wassmiah is a leader in a local hospital and works well in the environment. The hospital’s environment is characterized by well-defined individual roles where each employee knows what is expected of him or her. Employee conflicts are minimized as everyone understands his or her responsibility, and the coordination of all activities leads to goal attainment. There is no duplication of work. Wassmiah encourages people to perform well and rewards positive behavior to boost productivity. Most goals Wassmiah sets are short-term, making them easier to fulfill, less intimidating to achieve, and as a result, employees are interested in obtaining the various rewards. When a problem arises, Wassmiah directs the employees in what to do and is quick to point out if the employee does not deliver results. However, Wassmiah suspects that employees are not working when there is no supervision.

What style of leadership is most likely described in this case and why have you reached that conclusion? What are the advantages of this type of leadership and what examples from the case support your position? What are the disadvantages of this type of leadership and what examples from the case support your position? What are the implications for employee motivation with this type of leadership? What other styles of leadership might be complementary to that described in the case and why?

Read also Leadership Critique – Transformational And Transactional Leadership

Transactional Leadership Model in Wassmiah Case

The approach to leadership that fits the description provided in Wassmiah’s case is the transactional leadership model. One characteristic of this style is the emphasis on extrinsic motivation. The given case describes Wassmiah as a leader who rewards employees with incentives to foster positive behavior. She also encourages employees to perform well while supervising them closely. Another aspect that sets her apart as a transactional leader is conformity to order and structure. Wassmiah maintains a formal workflow to direct self-motivated people in a structured workplace. Essentially, transactional leadership concentrates on the existing structure of the business, success measurements, and reward system. The role of a transactional leader revolves around exercising authority and supervising the workers to facilitate performance targets, both on individual and group levels. This essay attempts to demonstrate that Wassmiah’s leadership attributes lean towards a transactional approach. A transactional leadership style holds a strong emphasis on organization, supervision, and performance.

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            One of the most distinctive traits of a transactional leader involves the use of rewards and punishments to obtain compliance. Transactional leaders are extrinsic motivators, and unlike their transformational counterparts, they are not concerned about the wellbeing of their followers (Dartey-Baah, 2015). An ordinary transactional leader espouses and utilizes the structure, culture, and goals of the current organization. This is clearly evident in the scenario of WassMiah who uses the firm’s reward system to motivate employees towards achieving short-term goals. Wassmiah is directive and action-oriented. She regularly wants her followers to work within the existing system. Although she constantly negotiates with her followers, the goals remain within a structured model of work where every employee is expected to comply or lose their rewards. As a transactional leader, Wassmiah thinks “inside the box” when seeking solutions to problems.

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            Another trait that makes Wassmiah a transactional leader is her passiveness. Rather than using inspiration and personal appeal, she adopts behaviors that help establish the criteria for maintaining the status quo and rewarding followers (Afshari & Gibson, 2016). This approach is advantageous in that it is very practical and result-oriented. The practicality relates to the use of powerful motivators and clear order to drive performance. External rewards such as tangible perks can serve as significant motivators for employees and may drive performance in the short term. Indeed, Wassmiah assimilates short-term goals that can be easily attained with a rewards system. With regard to rewards, two factors of leadership that emerge in Wassmiah’s case are a contingent reward and management-by-exception (Northouse, 2018, p.171). The former offers rewards to employees for their effort and performance while the latter attempts to maintain the status quo and intervene when employees are not attaining their job goals. Moreover, Wassmiah’s transparency in the workplace sets clear expectations for the employees so that they are constantly aware of their roles and rules of authority. Her workforce is always informed when it comes to questions of organizational structure and leadership.

            The benefits of transactional leadership are dependent on the context (Masa’deh, Obeidat, & Tarhini, 2016). Hence some benefits may not be realized in select situations. In Wassmiah’s case, benefits emerge when short-term goals are used, and workers have clearly defined roles, rewards, and penalties. Her style encourages productivity and offers an easy structure that is easy to understand. However, it limits the creativity of the workers, eliminates individuality from the production process, ignores empathy, and places more value on efficiency. Since a transactional leader is rigid and unyielding, she does not bend the rules to accommodate flexibility. This limits innovation owing to the fact that employees are expected to focus on assigned tasks. Even in situations where creativity applies, it is strongly regulated by company policies. Violation of policies normally leads to loss of reward and termination of workers. For this reason, a transactional leadership style is not applicable in flexible environments.

            One major drawback of transactional leadership is the use of extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic rewards do not last in the long-term because they are short-term incentives (Deichmann & Stam, 2015). By constantly receiving extrinsic motivation, employees quickly become oriented to short-term rewards than the value of the work and long-term goals. Employees who become extensively attached to short-term incentives are likely to become exhausted and eventually quit their roles. Additionally, employees who are subjected to a rewards and punishment system may focus more on rewards than the goals of the company. Those who do not value the rewards may exhibit low performance, especially when not under supervision. The overall attitude of a workplace that utilizes a transactional approach to leadership can give the workforce the impression that is being paid to work in a specific fashion. The transactional nature of the rewards could also drive down their value in the eyes of employees. Some leadership styles that may complement a transactional leadership style include autocratic leadership, which uses authority to achieve results and efficiency, and bureaucratic leadership style, which expects followers to abide by rules and procedures.  

In conclusion, the approach to leadership that fits the description provided in Wassmiah’s case is the transactional leadership model since she emphasizes organization, supervision, and performance. Traits that make her a transactional leader are the use of a rewards system, conformity to the status quo, and exercise of authority and direction with the intent of driving performance.

Google Pixel 4L – Modalities and Interaction Principles

A modality represents a single sensory input or output channel between a human and a computer. Modern digital devices use various modalities to offer interaction to their users. For instance, a computer utilizes a mouse, keyboard, and the General user Interface to facilitate interaction with humans. More advanced devices use unique input modalities such as sounds, gestures, sounds, and eye gaze. This paper analyzes the modalities and interaction principles of a screen-based physical product. The product of choice is a smartphone, specifically the Google Pixel 4L, which was released in the last quarter of 2019. The phone presents multiple modalities of interaction, including audio, vision, and touch. 

            At the outset, the Pixel 4L contains multiple modalities to accord the user with as much interaction as possible. The primary interaction between the device and its users is via touch. The touch mobility is executed via the phone’s touchscreen. Hence, according to the principles of design the following apply:

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The screen  serves as both an input and output device and layered directly atop an electronic visual display of the phone’s information processing system. Hence, the phone relies on a blend of touch and visual modalities to deliver its users’ services. The touch aspect allows the user to enter commands and instruct the device to perform a specified function. The user gives input by touching the screen’s surface at the point where the link to the service or application is displayed. Touch inputs are specifically entered through simple or multiple input gestures by touching the screen with one or more fingers. The Pixel 4L allows users to use voice commands. For voice commands, the phone has a microphone that collects acoustic data and feeds to the appropriate application. For instance, when the user wants to initiate communication with another user through telecommunication protocols, they must start the ‘phone call’ application and dial the ID of the device to be called using the touchscreen interface and then respond through the microphone. Therefore, the microphone acts as a data collection device.

The Google Pixel L comes with other sensors for enhancing interaction in addition to the microphone, touchscreen display, speaker, and microphone. They include a gyroscope, accelerometer, proximity sensor, compass, barometer, and camera. The gyroscope works hand in hand with the accelerometer to detect the orientation of the phone. The gyroscope adds dimension to the data that the accelerometer supplies by tracking twist or rotation. The proximity sensor, on the other hand, detects how close on an object is to the device. It is very convenient in cases where the user is holding up the phone next to the ear during a voice call. By detecting how far or close the user is to the phone, the information processing system can switch off the touchscreen to avoid accidental touch. The digital compass works by tracking orientation in relation to the earth’s magnetic field. Digital compasses like the one installed in the Google Pixel 4L have a magnetometer on board to track direction. The barometer assists the location tracking chip to deliver altitude data. At the same time, the camera is designed to record visual data and gestures.


The screen has an “ON” state and  an “OFF state. In the “on” state, the screen displays the current state of device, including current application links, battery state, and notifications. The state of the phone can be accessed through the device’s settings or by pressing the volume and power buttons on the side.


The feedback is delivered through the display of appropriate messages or execution of the specified commands. Feedback is also delivered through haptic feedback and audio through the phone’s speaker. The touch modality for the Pixel 4L is combined with a haptic response system to provide multimodal capabilities. Like other smartphones, the Pixel 4L utilizes an eccentric mass motor to send vibrotactile feedback from the information processing system.  Basically, the device provides vibratory feedback when the user taps a button on the touchscreen. Haptics enhances the user’s experience by delivering simulated tactic feedback and are devised to react immediately to partly counter latency of the display system. Haptics is best known to reinforce interaction between the user and the device, leading to more immersive experiences on the side of the users. Research from the University of Glasgow shows that the combination of the touchscreen and haptics helps users reduce errors, increase input speed, and reduce their cognitive load (Brasel & Gips, 2014). Hence, the inclusion of haptics in the Google Pixel 4L is meant to enhance the interface with the user. Since haptics interacts with the sense of touch, they are closely related to the ‘touch’ aspect. Haptic feedback is advantageous in that it can give stimuli to visually impaired users, especially in situations necessitating navigation. Various vibration stimuli can be used depending on the instance in question. Most of the vibrotactile information transmitted encompasses basic information such as alerts.

Apart from visual and tactile modalities, the Pixel 4L incorporates audio feedback to enable the use of voice commands and retraction of feedback through audio means.The phone’s speaker transmits audio data that is perceptible to the user. A common application in the Pixel 4L that relies on audio modality is the Google Assistant’ voice robot.’ The application records voice commands from the user and provides real-time feedback. Indeed, the user can navigate the internet and read articles without using the screen at all. The integration algorithm of the Google Assistant is powerful enough to process voice inputs and integrate them throughout the interaction session. Audio feedback also entangles voice recognition protocols, which can be used to lock or unlock the phone. Natural modalities of interaction involving speech depend on recognition-based technologies that are characteristically error-prone. For instance, speech recognition is sensitive to audio signal quality, vocabulary size, and variability of voice parameters.


The user interface of the Pixel 4L’s touchscreen has multiple buttons and functions displayed depending on the particular application being used. For the interaction to be significant, the user must accurately select targets and avoid selecting adjacent targets. For instance, when selecting the internet browser, the user must purposely use their finger to point and touch the internet browser icon. Otherwise, they may end up selecting the neighboring icons of other applications. Volume, power, the screen, and camera also act as signifiers of the phone’s multiple computing functions when the device is in its off state.


Most applications have the primary content displayed at the center of the screen and secondary content at the top and bottom edges of the screen. This is most likely because mobile phone users commonly focus their attention on the center of the screen. By placing primary content in the center of the screen, the designers of the Google Pixel 4L also took the ease of use as the center of the screen is usually simpler to touch and manipulate with the thumb finger. It is common for smartphone users to hold the phone with the weaker fingers and manipulate content with the thumb. The display area of the screen is 98.0 cm2. This is sufficient for the touch modality and significantly more extensive than what other similar products offer.


The Google Pixel 4L comes with a relatively small screen and has a battery limit that means users are only able to interact with the device for limited sessions. additionally, only a single application is vieable at a time. sometimes, connectivity to other devices and netowrks is variable depending on hardware limitations and network variables.

In conclusion, Google Pixel 4L is a multimodal device that relies on many modalities to enable interaction and functionality.

Martin Luther King Jr’s I Have A Dream – Speech Criticism

Martin Luther King, Jr’s I Have a Dream speech has retained approval across time and space in the past half a decade. Delivered in 1963 before a crowd of 250,000 people, the speech referred to the founding fathers of the American constitution, the bible, and universal themes that cut across societies to depict the struggles of African Americans (History). His address has earned many descriptions, including a work of poetry, a political treatise, and an improvised sermon.

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            The structure of King’s speech was sincere and straightforward like that of Ronald Regan. This seems to be a critical aid to the memorability of their statements. Another notable feature that gave King’s speech its unique profile is the soring rhetoric of demanding justice and promoting an integrated society. He was keen to use a rhetoric with which all American citizens were familiar. His reference to the Declaration of independence was primarily instrumental in helping the audience understand the social and political upheavals of the time.

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King used a mix of ethos, pathos, and logos in an attempt to convince the American nation that all people were created equal. Though the reality in America did not seem to reflect his statement at the time, he expressed his confidence in a future that could do so. He successfully portrayed an idealized American dream and the seething nightmare of racial injustice. His speech calls for action with a sequence of cleverly crafted phrases such as “now is the time.” The most essential part of his speech carried the premise “I have a dream.” The phrase was frequently repeated to drive the essence of the address to the minds of the audience.

Ronald Reagan’s Space Shuttle Challenger Speech – Speech Criticism

Ronald Reagan is known to be one of the best masterful communicators of his time. His skill was remarkably tested in the situation that ensued after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. At that time, Americans were desperate to hear from him, and his insight and comfort were highly sought. Reagan delivered the speech behind his oval office. Overall, the structure of the speech was quite straightforward and short, perhaps because it was being delivered to a broad and diverse audience. It had short paragraphs and sentences that were easily comprehensible.

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            In terms of rhetoric, Reagan used precisely the right amount of ethos, pathos, and logos to appeal to all audience segments. The death of seven crew members was at the heart of his emotional response. He responded with a frank and a calm attitude without dwelling on the tribulations. Instead, he celebrated the lives of those who died. Your loved ones were daring and brave, and they had that special grace, that special spirit that says, “Give me a challenge, and I’ll meet it with joy.” (Ronald Reagan Foundation, 13). Reagan’s use of pathos was gently accompanied by a degree of ethos and logos.         

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            Conversations about sorrowful events can be difficult. However, Reagan maintained a sense of confidence and steadfastness, coupled with steadfastness. With a strategic balance on solidity and tenderness, his speech restored the psyche of American citizens with a strong and nourishing massage. His use of tone was compassionate and comforting. Words such as “faith”, “brave,” and “daring” are apparent throughout his discourse.   

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In conclusion, Ronald Reagan showcased his masterful skills in communication during the emotionally tense Space Shuttle Challenger tragedy. The rhetoric, structure, tone, and writing style of his speech matched well with the needs of the audience.

Response Essay to Naomi Riley’s Article “It’s a terrible idea to allow cellphones in schools”

Cell phones have become a central facet of life to such a high degree that it is difficult and even unnerving to think about their total deletion from our existence. The reality of this seemingly far-fetched notion rings true when one considers the controversial nature of the ‘smartphone’ in the hands of an adolescent. On the one hand, a cell phone functions as a channel of connection with friends and family. Since we live in a world where virtually everyone utilizes a phone, it is tough and outwardly impossible to maintain connection with loved ones without a mobile phone. Moreover, cell phones act as facilitators of autonomy development among adolescents in the contemporary setting. It is through cellular phones that most teenagers manage their interests and social contacts. On the other hand, cell phones are many-sided in that they offer a multi-layered set of services to the user, such as internet-surfing, gaming, and media recording. This makes it hard for parents and educators to regulate them through policing. In her article “It’s a terrible idea to allow cellphones in schools,” Riley submits her stance on regulation of cell phones in schools. She presents a strong claim against their use in educational settings by citing concerns of time wastage, distraction, and obstruction from critical academic tasks. This essay is a direct response to her claims. Although most adolescents share intimate connections with their parents through cellphones, Riley’s concerns are compelling and strikingly insightful especially when one considers the degree of complexity that defines modern-day cell phones.

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            One logical claim brought forth by Riley to protest the approval of smartphones in schools is their deleterious effects on education. Riley asserts that the authorization of cell phones will only heighten the incapacity of kids to attain good grades. Her assertion is consistent with a larger part of studies documenting the influence of smartphone use on academic performance. Excessive cellphone use has been cited as a negative predictor of academic performance in a variety of educational environments spanning from middle school to college (Mendoza 52). The underlying notion is that students who engage in ‘electronic’ activities spend less time attending to academic activities. Some adolescents may even forego academic duties at the expense of their school obligations, whether in or out of school. Moreover, cell phones tend to inhibit the ability of students to comprehend and synthesize new information presented in class. Phone use in class impairs students’ comprehension and performance in a number of ways. Riley mentions diversion of attention and distraction as key means by which students’ level of awareness is inhibited. In essence, adolescents have a tendency to use cell phones for communicating with friends, playing games, and sharing media, all of which are now part of social media sites. Today, social media use is so pervasive among teenagers that students often check their phones multiple times per day. They are likely to not only check notifications but also engage in habitual smartphone use in a bid to retain social ties with their friends. The immediate consequences of checking notifications and texting in school are the time lost when using the device as well as the extra time needed to regain focus on educational duties. Phone-induced distractions can escalate to stress and frustration.

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            The capacity of modern cell phones in multi-tasking further adds to the problem of regulation. Riley notes that even if schools introduce policies to regulate phones within the school premises, as well as in class, students can still sidestep the rules, thanks to the multiple features of a phone. This claim is particularly genuine considering the computing capabilities of prevailing smartphone technologies, which allow the user to multi-task and even conceal activity. Multi-tasking cancels out the choice of involving the teacher in supervision, meaning instructors cannot fully monitor what is happening the students’ devices. What is more, the tremendous computing capacity of smartphones could get exploited to cheat in quizzes and exams through the utilization of the internet and applications. That the smartphone helps the student to enter a virtual world exposes them to cyber vices such as cybercrime and cyber bullying which Riley quotes in her article.

            Beyond the multiple features of a smartphone that keep adolescents distracted, the level of development emerges as a problematic issue. Adolescents are generally at a critical stage of the development of their lives. At their teenage years, they are typically engrossed in social development wherein they refine their sense of self and relationships with others. Indeed, it is at the adolescent stage that kids start to form romantic relationships, social behaviors, and identities (Blair, Bethany, and Anne Fletcher 156). The danger with cell phone use in this stage is that students strive to meet online strangers, especially from the opposite sex, at the cost of real relationships in the real-world, and especially in school. While it is easier for students to feel connected to the world through smartphone-induced relationships, smartphones can act negatively on important relationships such as those related to family, since connections through the phone are only virtual.

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            Although cell phones are distracting and damaging in academic contexts, it is irrational to ignore how deeply embedded technology has become in human life. Mobile phones offer adolescents with a new way of activating social interaction and maintaining ties with peers (Blair, Bethany, and Anne Fletcher 156). The many modes of communication, including texts, video calls, voice calls, and instant messaging, make it easier for youngsters to communicate across time and space. Communication and social connectedness among adolescents is an essential part of development. Teenagers who fail to form social bonds with peers can suffer mental issues and experience unhealthy social relations in adult life. Therefore, smartphones facilitate social attachment, which is an imperative part of social development. Be that as it may, social connections induced through cell phones still lack many aspects of relationships in the real-world. For instance, texting and instant messaging do not portray real emotional responses.  

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In conclusion, Riley’s article presents a strong claim against the authorization of cell phones in educational settings. She mentions concerns of time wastage, distraction, and obstruction from critical academic tasks. This essay agrees with her claims by noting that although most adolescents share intimate connections with their parents through cellphones, these devices can distract them from academic activities and contribute to low grades, above and beyond, create a challenging task of monitoring and controlling their use. Riley’s concerns are compelling and strikingly insightful, especially when one considers the degree of complexity that defines modern-day cell phones.

Edward Theodore Gein and Factors that led to his Criminal Behavior

Edward Theodore Gein was an American serial criminal who gained celebrity status in the 1950s due to his atrocious and horrifying crimes of murder and mutilation. Besides admitting to have killed two women within his hometown of Plainfield, Wisconsin, Gein exhumed corpses from local graveyards and created trophies and keepsakes from human bones and skin (Blanco, 2020). His activities were unknown to authorities until 1957 when the missing status of one of his victims impelled a search around his home. The police not only found the body of the missing person but also a collection of body parts belonging to other victims in Gein’s shed. On account of his acts, Gein was initially confined in a mental health institution, but was later tried in 1968 and sentenced to life imprisonment in a mental facility. Gein may not exemplify the characteristics of typical serial killer because of his few murders. Nevertheless, his real-life case is a demonstration of the psychological and behavioral leanings of a serial criminal. Were it not for getting discovered, Gein would have most likely continued with his deadly actions. This essay delves into the biological, situational, environmental, and developmental factors that led to his criminal behavior.

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            In order to fully comprehend the conditional aspects that may have influenced Gein’s behavior, it is essential to explore the context of his upbringing and social life. Gein was born in La Crosse County to George and Augusta, both of whom were Wisconsin natives (Blanco, 2020). He was the younger brother to Henry George Gein. Although the marriage between his parents was quite unhealthy, the family was bound together by religious beliefs. Augusta had a deep hatred towards her husband and an extreme custom of preventing his sons from gaining influence from outsider. This custom was manifested more patently when she bought a farm in the outskirts of Plainsfield to safeguard her children from harm. Augusta restricted the movement of her sons to the farm and limited their beliefs (Blanco, 2020).

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As a fervent Lutheran, she occasionally preached to her children about the innate immorality of the world, the sin of drinking, and the idea that women were instruments of evil and prostitution. At school, Gein was a target of bullies on account of his effeminate demeanor, and since he was not allowed to make friends, he would exhibit socially awkward behaviors. Gein’s frequent attempts to please her mother were meant with coldness and disapproval. The deaths of family members turned the situation from bad to worse. After the death of his father in 1940, Gein and his brother began to work at odd jobs, such as baby sitting. Soon, his brother died under mysterious circumstances while his mother passed on after a series of strokes. It was after the bereavement of all his family that Gein began to read death cult magazines and adventure tales.

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            The backdrop of Gein’s childhood events provides an apparent picture of the situational factors that eventually led to his shadowy habits. One of the most significant factors that constrained Gein is her mother’s strict ethical and social limitations as well as her aggressiveness towards her sons. These limitations acted negatively on Gein’s social and mental development (Mitchell & Aamodt, 2005). Social, interaction, intimacy and a sense of belonging are necessary needs for human social and mental development. It is by interacting with others that children are acquire a frame of reference for developing their social identities. Relationships are particularly essential in childhood during the development of identity and lifetime trajectories of behavioral and emotional behavior (Matthews et al., 2015). By restraining Gein’s social connection and behaviors, Augusta was controlling his thoughts, feelings and behavioral influences. The absence of social relationships and interactions may have disadvantaged Gein’s development since all he could experience was the harmful and aggressive attitudes of his mother (Cohen, Brown, & Smailes, 2001). The lack of a frame of reference for his identity is manifested by his effeminate nature. It seems that Gein used her mother’s character as a model of reference because of the absence of any other role models in his life. This was compounded by the fact that Gein’s father did not add value to Augusta’s parenting habits. Rather, he was an alcoholic who served as bad example in all of Augusta’s counsels.

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Apart from social restrictions and poor role models, Gein was subjected to intimidation not only by his mother but by the very peers who were supposed to be his friends. The constant bullying he received from school may have made Gein more insecure and on guard. Even if he was not being actively bullied all the time, he was aware it could start anytime. This made his feel isolated, unaccepted, withdrawn, and possibly angry. The resulting stress may have further acted on Gein’s neurological development. High levels of stress have been proven to activate the stress system and promote over-secretion of hormones, resulting in strange behavior, such Gein’s occasional laughter’s in the classroom (McEwen & Karatsoreos, 2015). Victims of bullying may experience long-term mental effects accompanied by social pain and feeling of rejection. The mental effects of Gein were clearly evident in his average academic performance and odd behavioral mannerisms.

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Since Gein was mostly confined to his mother’s environment, the relationship of attachment he gained with her was unusual and psychologically damaging. He regarded her a saint just as she had referred herself indirectly during her regular religious teachings. Augusta continually brainwashed Gein and his brother with the notion that all women were evil except herself. It is likely that Gein developed a saintly perception of his mother to cope with the psychological abuse. The bond that he developed through his childhood later controlled him for the rest of his lifetime. The home became a shrine where he mutilated bodies and corpses. Gein was so attached to her mother that he was confused as to whether his personality ended and where her mother’s began. His actions showed that he only relate to himself through his mother’s character. Hence, once she was gone, he attempted to revive himself by collecting parts of dead bodies.

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In conclusion, the situational, developmental, environmental, and biological factors context of Gein’s childhood are what steered him towards his criminal behaviors. The environmental and social restriction he underwent under the abuse of his mother led him to develop a strange personality. This was worsened by the absence of a reliable father figure and the imposition of harsh and aggressive treatment towards him. Short-term effects of her emotional and mental torture materialized in poor academic performance and discordance with peers.