Category: Uncategorized

Personal Potential to work in Law Enforcement in an Ethical Manner

What values do you have that would help you be a good public servant in Law Enforcement?

It has been a longstanding dream of mine to be a public servant in law enforcement. I possess various values that would help me become successful in the field. To start with, I am a law-abiding citizen. To enforce the law, one must be law-abiding since it is hypocritical to claim to be a public servant working in law enforcement when you keep breaking the law. Secondly, I am a strong advocate of due process. To be a good law enforcement officer, in any capacity, one must uphold the law to the letter while discharging my duties (Cohen, 2021). Being a law enforcement officer, one might be tempted to use the reasoning “the end justifies the means” as an excuse to defy due process (Monaghan, 2017). My commitment to due process means that I will be able to refrain from such temptations.

Read also Law Enforcement Agencies and their use of Social Media

Thirdly, not only do I like investigation and analysis, but I am also good at both. Thus, as a law enforcement officer, I will thoroughly investigate and analyze facts to connect the dots. As a law enforcement officer, one must have investigative and analytical skills to establish facts (Braswell, McCarthy, & McCarthy, 2017). Lastly, I have a solid moral infrastructure that will help me treat people fairly despite their personalities or unique backgrounds. Having robust ethical principles complement the legal aspect; this allows one to carry out their duties in a legally and morally right fashion. According to Monaghan (2017), to be a public servant working in law enforcement, one must treat all persons fairly and per their civil and legal rights. I firmly believe that these values will help me thrive as a public servant working in law enforcement.

Read also Importance of Mental Health in Law Enforcement and Implementation of Suicide Prevention Programs

What Christian values might support your personal values to ensure that you have the required ethical standards to work in Law Enforcement?

            My solid devotion to Christianity will prove helpful in ensuring that I have the required ethical standards to work in law enforcement. Christian teachings have many teachings that, if properly used, can hone a person’s ethical standards. For instance, Genesis 1:27 teaches that all humans are created equally and in God’s image. Thus, it is crucial to treat a person with the respect and dignity that deserves a human being despite their wrongdoings. Secondly, in his teachings, Jesus taught that one should not be quick to condemn less they face the same treatment from God (John 8:7). This teaching emphasizes the need to seek to understand the behavior of others and treat them with compassion rather than judge and condemn them due to their sins. As a law enforcement officer, one deals with people who have committed various crimes. Notably, to ensure that justice is served fairly, it is imperative to treat suspects or those found guilty with the compassion they deserve. From an ethical perspective, despite their crimes, all humans must be treated in a manner that dignifies them as human beings (Braswell, McCarthy, & McCarthy, 2017).

Thirdly, the Bible in Proverbs 6:16-19, states that “here are six things that the Lord hates, seven that are an abomination to him: haughty eyes, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood, a heart that devises wicked plans, feet that make haste to run to evil, a false witness who breathes out lies, and one who sows discord among brothers.” Notably, the highlighted don’ts can prove significantly useful in helping law enforcement officers uphold moral and ethical standards. Notably, these are just a few Christian teachings that insist that a person must strive to live a virtuous life to gain God’s favor. Thus, my Christian worldview will significantly help me uphold the desired ethical standards of a public servant in law enforcement.

Read also Youth and Law Enforcement Relationships

What will your personal values uniquely bring to the field of Law Enforcement to benefit the field?

            I profoundly believe that my values will not only make me an excellent law enforcement officer but will also help advance the field of law enforcement. The above-discussed personal values will help me solve matters following established rules and principles while treating people fairly. Additionally, my passion for law enforcement coupled with the mentioned strong investigative and analytical skills will allow me to research ways to improve the law enforcement field. Lastly, since it is my ambition to be in a leadership position, as a leader, I will influence others to adopt best practices and values to improve the law enforcement field generally. A single person cannot bring the desired change in an entire field, but they can be the spark that will ignite the fire to achieve the desired reforms. I believe that I am the spark that will ignite the engine that will drive the needed reforms in the law enforcement field.

Affirmative Action, Respect To The Diversity of the Public

Describe affirmative action and provide a short history of the concept.

Affirmative action refers to policy seeking to improve educational or workplace opportunities for underrepresented groups of society. Such a policy considers factors such as a person’s race, color, sex, national origin, and religion (Fereidooni & Massumi, 2017). Thus, affirmative action seeks to level the playing field for the underrepresented groups in society. Affirmative action was introduced in the 1960s as a strategy for overturning systematic historical discrimination against African-Americans as a response to the American Civil Rights Movement. The federal government first introduced affirmative action to remedy the adverse impacts of longstanding discrimination against African-Americans. Notably, while affirmative action was initially devised to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964, over the years, it has increased its scope of target groups by incorporating factors such as disability, gender, age, veterans, et cetera (Fereidooni & Massumi, 2017). In the modern-day, affirmative action aims to increase opportunities for all disadvantaged groups in society.

Read also Evolution of Affirmative Action Over The Last 40+ Years

Explain whether affirmative action, as a public policy, helps to respect the diversity of the public.

As a public policy, affirmative action significantly helps in respecting the diversity of the public. By increasing educational and employment opportunities for the underrepresented groups in society, affirmative action helps promote diversity. Affirmative action through the concept of equal opportunity allows for the inclusion of people from all backgrounds; as a result, promoting diversity in society (Premdas, 2016). Over the years, affirmative action has played its role plausibly. It has transformed the educational and workforce outlook by combating racial, ethnic, age, and sexual prejudices, consequently promoting diversity. Since affirmative action addresses diversity from the education phase of life, it allows individuals who secure employment opportunities through the policy to be qualified and well-competent for the positions (Fereidooni & Massumi, 2017). Whereas affirmative action does not focus on promoting the paradigm shift towards diversity, it is a positive step towards inclusion through helping provide opportunities for the underrepresented. Thus, affirmative action helps to respect the diversity of the public.

Read also Influence of Minorities on the Political Process and the Impact of Affirmative Action

Explain whether affirmative action is meeting the alleged positive goals that it is designed to address.

             Affirmative action is considerably meeting the positive goals that it was devised to address. Affirmative action was initiated as the remedy to the adverse consequences of longstanding discrimination against the underrepresented. The underrepresented during the late 20th century included people from minority ethnic backgrounds and women. Although the minority-White unemployment gap still exists, it has significantly decreased (Fereidooni & Massumi, 2017). Racial, ethnic, and gender prejudices have considerably reduced in schools and workplaces, as evident through modern-day society’s inclusion level.

Read also What Would Happen If Affirmative Action Did Not Exist?

Regarding opportunities for women, unlike the 1960s, there are more employed women than unemployed ones today. Additionally, women have almost equal opportunities as men, as evident in schools and workplaces. Through its various policies, procedures, and programs, affirmative action has leveled the playing field for all persons regardless of their background. Today the advantages of affirmative action are beyond education and employment to include other social benefits hence has considerably reversed societal loss (Fereidooni & Massumi, 2017). Thus, although affirmative action has not fully achieved the goals it was designed to address, it has made tremendous strides towards achieving them.

Read also Time to Scrap Affirmative Action

Discuss the shortfalls that exist in affirmative action.

Despite its achievements, affirmative action has several shortfalls. To start with, it promotes reverse discrimination. Policies that use quotas that provide an advantage to the underrepresented can cause discrimination over others who had better qualifications and competence, hence promotes reverse discrimination. Secondly, affirmative action reinforces stereotypes. Affirmative action is founded that women and minorities are inferior to the and, as a result, promotes superior attitude from the majority groups (Gururaj et al., 2021). A policy that seeks to eliminate discrimination must come from a pure equality perspective.

Thirdly, affirmative action lessens accountability standards for the underrepresented groups. Equality should be about giving every person an equal chance. Contrarily, affirmative action favors some people or groups due to their backgrounds and, as a result, changes accountability standards. Lastly, affirmative action diminishes the achievements that women and minority groups obtain. When a person secures a position or success due to affirmative action, their achievement is likely to be viewed as a result of the policy and not their competency (Gururaj et al., 2021). Nonetheless, affirmative action has made considerable strides in the positive direction.

Does Affirmative Action in the workplace assist with the creation of positive interpersonal relationships in the workforce? What strategies could be implemented to foster a positive environment?

            Affirmative action creates positive interpersonal relationships in the workplace through five key aspects. Firstly, it allows for the creation of a diverse workforce. Secondly, it facilitates the establishment of an equitable and accessible workplace. Thirdly, it helps in the creation of a workplace that is free from any form of discrimination. Fourthly, it allows for establishing an inclusive workplace that values all employees regardless of their unique backgrounds. Lastly, it facilitates a level playing field for all employees to succeed (“What Are Diversity, Equal Employment Opportunity, and Affirmative Action? | People & Culture”, 2021). Collectively, these components create a work environment that fosters positive interpersonal relationships due to the workplace culture they undergird.

Separation of Roles in Justice System, Ethics and Morality and Police Interrogation

Why do we separate the roles within the justice system? Explain the importance of having a separation of authority, roles, and responsibilities in the Justice system.

Separating the authorities of the various players within the justice system serves the purpose of protecting individual liberty. Having separation of authority, roles, and responsibilities in the justice system protects individual liberty by requiring multiple, diverse actors to agree that an individual is guilty before being convicted of a crime. The various key players within the justice system include law enforcement, prosecution, defence counsel, judiciary, probation, institutional corrections, and parole. Notably, Separation of authority helps prevent concentration of unchecked power on one or some players. As a result, it provides checks and balances that prevent abuse of power (Mayeux, 2018). The justice system’s effectiveness in protecting individual liberty is directly related to the adequate balancing of authority, roles, and responsibilities of all the players within the system.

Read also Comparison of Criminal Justice Systems – United States, Canada and Saudi Arabia

Read also The Roles and Responsibilities of Prosecutor, Lawyer, and Judge

Why is criminal investigation interrogation handled mostly by the police rather than the judiciary or corrections?

            Interrogations are handled mainly by police rather than the judiciary or corrections because the separation of authority informs the distinction in roles and responsibilities. The judiciary’s role is to punish the guilty and vindicate the innocent, while that of corrections is to correct the behaviour of those found guilty of crimes. It is the role of police to build a solid case before presenting it in a court of law, hence why they handle criminal investigation interrogation (Mayeux, 2018).

Read also Effects of Technology on Criminal Investigations

Another reason that police and not judiciary or corrections mainly hold interrogations is that the process is, in most part, outside the governance of law. There are well established and elaborate safeguards on law enforcement interrogatory powers. However, police training and competence allow them to work successfully within the set limits. The safeguards allows police officers to interrogate suspects in a civilized and non-coercive fashion. However, the police officer(s) conducting the interrogation must inform the suspect of his rights to remain silent. The police must also inform the suspect of their right to have legal counsel present during the interrogation (Braswell, McCarthy, & McCarthy, 2017).

Read also The Importance of Forensic Evidence in Criminal Investigation

Explain how morality and ethics affect Police interrogation practices.

            Interrogations are built on information collected by all possible sources. The interrogators strive to gather and verify the information by techniques and approaches with the most significant probability of obtaining reliable and valid facts. Given the need to convict criminals, interrogators might find themselves tempted to use unethical means to obtain evidence. However, despite the urging need to convict criminals, it is imperative to undergird interrogation on ethical and moral standards. Interrogation morality and ethics balance the rights of interrogators and those of suspects. Morality and ethics help police understand that it is morally wrong to use unethical means to pursue morally right ends (Braswell, McCarthy, & McCarthy, 2017).

Read also Corruption in Los Angeles Police Department – Ethics and Morality in Criminal Justice System

Notably, ethical behavior in the course of interrogation is based on knowing the distinction between morality and legality. An interrogator is solely responsible for the interrogation techniques applied; their conscience serves as the benchmark. Despite how unsavory personality of the accused or their alleged offense, an interrogator must adhere to ethical standards. Without a solid moral underpinning, interrogators might find themselves inclined to use unethical approaches or techniques to extract information from suspects (Baggini, 2019). Thus, morality and ethics significantly affect police interrogation practices by allowing interrogators to operate under the principle of due process undergirded by morality, and ethics is more important than a conviction.

Read also Ethics and Morality in Correction System and Care of Inmates

Explain how a police ethics code informs Police interrogation practices.

            Two principles of the police code of ethics inform police interrogation practices. First, the principle regarding the use of force. The principle dictates that a police officer should not use unnecessary force while discharging his/her duty. Police officers should use force only when persuasion, negotiation, discussion, or greatest restrain have proved ineffective. An interrogation should incorporate discussion and persuasion; hence, using violent techniques such as interrogatory torture is not necessary. Thus, the police ethics code can help police avoid using interrogatory torture. Notably, torture is not only a counterproductive method of gathering information as it provides suspects profound reason to lie but is also unethical (Baggini, 2019). Therefore, the police code of ethics informs interrogators not to use force when interrogating suspects.        

Read also Tidewater Police Department Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy    

Second, the principle of integrity. The principle asserts that an officer will not engage in actions that do not uphold integrity. A police officer with integrity cannot use manipulation, deception, and coercion to gather information during an interrogation process. When interrogators use manipulation and play tricks on suspects, sincere truth-finding is lost; hence the process becomes unethical. By relying on the police ethics code, interrogators can extract information using a legally and morally right approach such as rapport-based interrogation. The approach provides suspects with a significant deal of autonomy and does not violate their individual rights. An interrogator who upholds the principle of integrity does not use threatening, psychologically coercive, demeaning, or minimizing behavior to gather information during interrogation since they understand that such techniques defy their integrity (Baggini, 2019). Thus, the police code of ethics prevents interrogators from using unethical methods and techniques during interrogation.

Ethics and Morality in Correction System and Care of Inmates

Responsibilities of the Correction System

The correction system helps keep society safe by incarcerating individuals who have committed crimes. Notably, the correction system serves many functions to provide care for inmates. Some of these responsibilities include providing control, custody, and rehabilitation to individuals convicted of criminal offenses. The responsibility of control entails housing inmates in an environment that is secure and one that meets their individual health needs. Correctional facilities must ensure that they protect inmates’ safety and promote a healthy environment (Clear, Reisig, & Cole, 2018).

Read also Final Paper ECE303 – Issues Regarding Corrections System

The custodial function involves creating programs that meet the needs of inmates. Inmates are classified as either belonging to maximum, medium, or minimum security facilities. Once in the facility, the inmate is assigned to a unit that comprises a unit manager, correctional counselor, a case manager, and someone from the psychology, education, and work departments. The said unit team is responsible for developing a program that meets the custodial needs of an inmate. Lastly, the correction system offers rehabilitation; notably, this is the central focus of the system. Rehabilitation includes a wide range of programs such as educational, substance abuse, and mental health services geared to help individuals reform hence desist from crime (Clear, Reisig, & Cole, 2018). Thus, the responsibilities of the correction system entail much more than just punishing individuals who have committed crimes.

Read also Corruption Practices of Police and Correctional Systems

Read also Court Proceedings And Correctional System In USA

How Morality And Ethics Affects How Care Is Provided To Inmates In The Correction System.

Morality and ethics significantly affect how care is provided to inmates in the correction system. Most of the moral and ethical principles used by the correction system are adopted from the American Correctional Association (ACA) (Braswell, McCarthy, & McCarthy, 2017). The code of ethics helps correctional officers respect the individual rights of inmates and refrain from using any form of discrimination. Morality and ethics influence the conduct of correctional officers so that they treat every professional situation with concern for the involved inmate’s welfare with no intent of personal gain (“Code of Ethics”, n.d.).

Read also Inmates Rights and Special Circumstances Research Paper

Moreover, morality and ethics allow correctional officers to refrain from allowing their personal interest impairing their ability to be objective when discharging their duties. Furthermore, the code of conduct dictates that correctional officers should never use their positions to secure personal advantages or privileges. Lastly, morality and ethics help correction systems treat inmates with respect and work towards contributing to a system that is safe, healthy, and free of any form of harassment (“Code of Ethics”, n.d.). Despite the crime committed by inmates to earn their sentences, they are still human beings and, as such, must be accorded respect and dignity. Morality and ethics allow the correction system to treat the inmates with respect and dignity in accordance with the civil and legal rights of all persons.

Read also Management of Juvenile Detention Centers In United States

Principles Of Organization Psychology That Could Be Implemented Into The Corrections System To Better Support Employees’ Ethical Standards While Still Maintaining The Public Interest.

            The correction system could implement principles of organizational psychology to better support employees’ ethical standards while at the same time maintaining the public interest. The organizational psychology principles can help the correction system identify ideal candidates, maintain an ideal workplace environment, and establish recruitment strategies that promote a high level of ethical standards. According to Spector (2021), organizational psychology principles for organizations to identify qualities and competencies necessary to attract the suitable personality types or candidates they seek. Hence, the principles can help the correction system select suitable people who can uphold the desired ethical standards while still maintaining the public interest.

Read also CJ503 – How Poor Attitudes among Correctional Staff in a State Prison Might Affect other Aspects of that Prison

Additionally, organizational psychology principles can help the correction system in training and development to hone employees’ ethical standards. The principles can help the correction system pinpoint employees’ training needs. Identifying the needs serves as a guideline for delivering the necessary training in a beneficial fashion (Spector, 2021). Moreover, organizational psychology principles can help the correction system create a workplace culture that will improve employee compliance with desired ethical standards. Spector elucidates that organizational psychological principles help an organization determine the elements necessary to improve workplace culture. An organizational culture rooted in robust ethical and moral undergirding influences employees to become relatively more ethical. Lastly, the principles of organizational psychology can help the correction system in its recruitment strategies. When interviewing new employees, correctional facilities can utilize organizational psychology principles to gain needed information regarding their moral campus.

Read also Ways of Dealing With Unethical Behavior

Read also Analyzing Unethical Behavior In Criminal Justice – The United States v. Jerry M. Bell, Darryl M. Forrest, and Dustin Sillings

According to Spector (2021), organizational psychology principles can help an organization formulate the right questions to assess the candidates’ competencies. Additionally, the principles of organizational psychology help organizations determine the type of programs necessary to attract suitable employees who are compatible with the needs of the workplace (Spector, 2021). Thus, organizational psychology principles can help the correction system determine what aspects it needs to improve to attract employees who uphold high ethical standards.

The Nature of the “Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc” Fallacy

The post hoc fallacy is founded on the false idea that since event A preceded event B, then event A must-have triggered event B. The fallacy assumes that an earlier event must have caused the later event. The Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc fallacy starts with a simple observation of two events happening in sequence. Consequently, it seems to be good retroductive thinking since the temporal ordering of this form is just the form of concomitance that may propose a causal link.

Read also R Edward Freeman’s Argument Against Separation Fallacy And How Milton Friedman Would Respond

Nevertheless, it is also probable that the temporal ordering is only a coincidence, or due to some further fundamental factors, like unrelated phenomena happening in temporal sequence always. The huge majority of events taking place in a single moment are unassociated with the events that follow. Therefore, temporal ordering alone is a deprived guide to causal associations (Arnauld & Nicole, 1996).

Read also Strawman, Black and White, No True Scotsman – Fallacies

A good example is that the rooster always crows before the sunrise, thus the sunrise is caused by the crowing rooster. This kind of reasoning can be regarded to be logically fallacious since the fact that an event A took place earlier does not certainly mean that it caused the subsequent event; B. It is important to note that events that happen in succession might be causally associated though they might also be completely discrete, despite happening in a sequence. The Post Hoc misconception imitates good retroductive perceptive by noting an honest association, though it errs in centering on a concomitance that is very ordinary as to be meaningless, except if accompanied by other suggestive particulars and a common-sense comprehending of how cause and effect operate (Arnauld & Nicole, 1996).

Is it Possible to Think Without Using Language?

There is a possibility of thinking without using language. Language is a way of generating meaningful linguistic utterances and extracting meaning from linguistic utterances when conversing with others. Language is used to express thoughts, however, thought is independent of language. Language is not necessary for thoughts to manifest. This can be demonstrated by the fact that animals experience a rich mental life that entails thoughts of different forms though no natural language.

Read also Applying Critical Thinking in the Workplace Environment

According to Asoulin (2016), literature on experimental zoology and experimental psychology show that insects and birds, species that humans shared an ancestor last many hundred million years ago, make multifaceted calculations to learn the time of the day certain events that include daily feedings take place, they learn the estimated duration of such occurrences and can compute internals between them. Additionally, they can evaluate rate and number, and they can generate a cognitive map of their surroundings to calculate their present location by integrating their velocity based on time. Complex thought processes vary across the animal world from higher primates that contain various impressive cognitive abilities to bees that navigate by calculating the local solar ephemeris (Asoulin, 2016).

Read also Absolutism and Enlightenment Thinking

This indicates that language is not needed to think. The primary way that a person may enact so-called languageless thinking is by using sensory organs. For instance, seeing things can easily help one relate events and conclude without using any language. Touching things create mental processing that does not require a language. Also smelling and tasting things. Mental processes take place from what is recorded by sensory organs and even without a language one gets to process thoughts.

Read also My Ideal Educational System Based on Classical Thinking

Moreover, the human brain is divided into different parts with a unique function. Some regions play roles in representing the internal states of others including feelings, preferences, and thoughts. The right temporoparietal junction region of the brain is said to be situated in the non-language dominant hemisphere which is a proposition that the language system is possibly not critical for the theory of mind reasoning (Fedorenko & Varley, 2017). Fedorenko and Varley’s (2017) analysis also shows music and arithmetic processing in brains is highly independent of language. 

Read also Neurotransmission Process and Its Effect To The Brain

American British Colony, A loyalist in the American Revolution

Loyalists during the American Revolution

For this particular task, I will describe my experience in the American British colony as a loyalist during the American Revolution. This was an important and crucial time in the United States which later represented a turning point for the colony. As a loyalist, I was fully aware of the great upheaval that awaited us as the original 13 colonies struggled to break free from British Dominion to create their own autonomous state. I remained loyal to the British crown due to the many business dealings my family had with the Brits and had personally seen the beneficial perks of commerce during the second half of the 17th century. Most loyalists maintained their allegiance to the King of England due to safety given that they would typically be assured of protection from the British army (McDonnell, 2016). This created allies among foes and ensured that they were mostly protected from retaliation from Patriot forces especially considering that many of them resided in areas considered to be hotbeds of revolutionary activities.

Read also American Revolution War

 Loyalty to the crown also assured us of legal protection based on elaborate statutes of the British legal system which guaranteed us of property rights during this time of clear turmoil. The British crown, therefore, represented a state of stability which was not readily available with the Patriot forces. Loyalists would also be assured of clear and definite access to resources from the British crown and existing government. This meant that we could readily depend on the authorities for support and financial assistance during times of need. High levels of support from the authorities also meant that we could continue supporting our way of life and make ends meet during a particularly tumultuous time. My family was also assured of career opportunities in colonial America given that we were a landowners and the fact that loyalty also meant that we could maintain our social status while striving for social mobility and success.

Read also Book Review – The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution

War Diary of a British Loyalist in the American Revolution

September 6, 1774- May 5, 1775

Dear diary,

My name is Richard Jefferson, a resident of region of New York. I come from a wealthy merchant family that has traded in these docks for the past century or so. Our entire family has chosen to remain loyal to the British crown since it is the only viable way of safeguarding our business interests in the area. Moreover, we are also aware of the risk this poses to our entire family and business enterprise hence the need for British protection. We have had a long stint of as a successful merchant family and would like to remain loyal to the British crown. However, talk of revolution in the 13 colonies is getting louder by the day and is greatly troubling our family given our position as loyalists. Our entire family does not agree with the rebel’s stance and demands for independence since this threatens peace and stability in the entire region. The conflict may soon escalate; placing our family in grave danger.

Read also Why the British lost the American Revolution

July 20, 1776 – February 1, 1777

Dear diary,

A group of rebels have today signed a document they la belled the official Declaration of Independence. This now means that we are officially at war with the British forces. The entire family is terrified and worries for their safety since rebel activities have greatly intensified and now present the threat of violence to both the British army and loyalist landowners. My heart breaks for my dear country. It is now torn apart by strife and will now have to brace itself for a long period of protracted conflict ahead. We are currently surrounded by numerous loyalists but have chosen to feign neutrality to avoid attacks from Patriots aware of our position. The family’s shipping business has suffered greatly from this current state of affairs and I am not really sure whether it will even survive the forthcoming turmoil.

Read also The Origin and Fallout of French, American, and Haitian Revolutions

Read also HS250 – Origin and Fallout of the French, American, and Haitian Revolutions

October 1777- January 10, 1781

Dear diary,

The rebels have quickly gained momentum across the entire swathe of the 13 colonies and are swiftly overrunning army bases. They seem motivated and are headed by a certain General George Washington. This general seems poised and grounded, which poses a great threat to the British forces. He has had time to refine and hone his guerrilla tactics and would stop at nothing to take over the entire country. We worry that his infectious charisma will soon turn many loyalists into patriots; which now risks to also expose us to our adversaries. The rebels seem to be growing stronger by the day and have threatened physical violence on any settler who will consciously remain loyal to the British crown. We have lost numerous friends due to the division currently experienced in the country as many pick and choose sides in this uncertain war.

 October 1781- March 1, 1783

The war has now raged on for years and has cost the country thousands of lives. General Washington has steadily gained ground and has promised to offer amnesty to any loyalist who chooses to renounce their allegiance to the British crown. However, my instinct tells me that this is a trick and that we may be executed if we boldly asserted our position in this war. Yesterday, the news around town was that the rebels were now advancing in the direction of New York and may soon overrun the city. The writing is now on the wall and it is now very clear that the rebels are likely to win the war hence my worry for my personal safety and that of family. The popular rumors now going around town is that the patriots are planning to confiscate any property owned by the loyalists and would then proceed to persecute them.

Between March 10, 1783 – September 3, 1783

Dear diary,

The writing is now on the wall. The war has been lost and the British are now retreating. Yet, the rebels have extended an olive branch to the vanquished red coats and have called for a total and unconditional surrender. I know this is not an armistice, since the Red Coats were largely unsuccessful in nearly all of their campaigns in the Eastern and Southern frontiers of the territory. Representatives from both sides have met and signed the Treaty of Paris which currently signifies the official end of the war. The rebels have now been granted their independence and now plan to administer over the 13 colonies as autonomous self-governing regions. Our family has lost its properties during our escape to the territory of Canada where we reside now. I am saddened by this new development and I am not sure whether I will ever go back to the country I used to call home.

Read also After the Revolution : Profiles of Early American Culture – Book Review

Life after the American Revolution War

The American Revolutionary war had numerous implications for all parties residing in North America. According to Purcell (2015), loyalists who remained in the new independent faced a great deal of social ostracism, lost property, faced the ever mounting threat of persecution by the rebels. They were particularly viewed as traitors who sided with the enemy and were thus completely shunned from mainstream society. Most loyalists lost close friends and acquaintances, in addition to having to grapple with the loss of important business connections leading to social isolation. Some were forcibly removed from their lands in New Jersey and New York and were forced to move to new barren lands where they would now live the rest of their lives as refugees. Their properties were also seized by the authorities which stifled  their sources of income and livelihood while constantly facing the threat of imprisonment and execution.

Nebraska Democratic Party – Political Structure at the State Level

Case Study: The Democratic Party in Nebraska

Over the past decade, the Democratic Party has been steadily gaining a foothold in the State of Nebraska. This state has traditionally been a stronghold of the Republican Party, which is why many believe it represents a significant change in party dynamics. However, political pundits such as Allen Johnson attribute this recent paradigm shift to American liberalism which is often regarded as the fundamental defining principle of the Democratic Party. The people of Nebraska may, therefore, have become fully aware of the changing times and chosen to abandon conservatism for a progressive democratic ideology fitting the changing times. Today, the party is known for championing social programs, racial equity, consumer protection, and relevant emerging issues such as equal opportunity for all (“Avoiding a two-party system: The liberal Democratic Party versus Duverger’s law,” 2018). The Democratic Party in party in Nebraska has also been a trailblazer in finding a lasting solution to the problem of undocumented immigrants while embracing a multilateral approach in broader geopolitics and fiscal policy.

Read also The purpose and strategy of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

 The party currently embraces progressive and revolutionary policy measures such as progressive taxation as a solution to financial inequality in the United States. This is meant to reduce the overall wealth gap in the country by creating a fiscal system why the wealthy are taxed more; with this money going to critical areas of government spending. Moreover, the Democratic Party in Nebraska is now regarded as a leader in clamoring for the introduction of efficient social services while also addressing relevant social justice issues. The overall reduction in inequalities is said to lead to a ripple effect where the work force now becomes more productive and can easily rise to the top and become top earners. In the past five years, the party has also actively addressed the issue of minimum age in the United States as one of the ways of promoting a fair wage cap for all citizens thus promoting equality.

Read also The Development of the Two Party System in the US

 Structure of the Democratic Party in Nebraska

The Democratic Party within the State of Nebraska is organized in a series of hierarchical levels of governance, each with a specified duty and function. Each of these levels coordinate and work closely with each other to ensure that set party objectives are readily achieved and the individuals in question are aware of their roles. This type of structure is also meant to promote active cooperation between all parties involved to eventually ensure the values of the Democratic Party always take precedence in state politics during and after the electioneering period. One of the primary objectives of this type of structure is also to ensure that members can actively participate in the decision-making process and have a voice in the effective implementation of its mission. Within the State of Nebraska, the party is characterized by the active presence of committees at the grassroots level whose primary goal is to engage existing members while actively participating in the recruitment process (Nebraska Democratic Party, 2023). These committees are also at the forefront of endorsing potential candidates planning to run for state office and designing the implementation of their campaign manifestos and strategies.

Read also How the Historical Regional Differences Affected the Development of Political Structures in the United States

 The structure of the Democratic Party in Nebraska also covers a series of legislative districts within the area and are tasked with holding regular engagement meetings with party members residing in each district. On the other hand, a state-central committee can be found at the party’s state level and is designed to implement the party’s core objectives at this particular level. This would also entail the introduction of statewide campaign strategies, party agenda, and all-important operations involving the democratic party. Moreover, the Nebraska Democratic Party Minority Caucus, Democratic Party Women’s Caucus, and the Democratic Party Labor Caucus also plays an instrumental role as part of the party’s overall organization (Jones, 2006). They promote the respective goals of each of the aforementioned divisions while ensuring that they also work to promote the overall objectives of the organization.

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Legal Documentation and Choosing of State Officers

The Democratic Party in Nebraska is guided by a 34-page document title The Nebraska Democratic Party Constitution & Bylaws. Its traditional role is to support the party within the state by charging. It promotes the actual interests of the party at a constituency and state level to guarantee the regular implementation of party politics. This legal documentation has also created provisions for the creation of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) which is the main body tasked with overseeing all operation associated with the organization (Nebraska Democratic Party, 2023). It works in tandem with the secretariat of the Democratic Party to ensure national level are drafted and implemented at the right time to foster efficient and immediate transitions during the campaign period. This also creates a level of consistency within the party to promote effective engagement of members while ensuring that the party carries out its mandate. Over the years, this legal document has been widely regarded as the glue that holds the Democratic Party in Nebraska given its influence in nearly all spheres of party operations.

The Nebraska Democratic Party Constitution & Bylaws also guides the process involved in the actual selection of state officers. It contains a provision for the creation of a State Central Committee to be headed by a handpicked chair with the appropriate credentials. The Chair is then tasked with approving all responsibilities undertaken by party members while actively drafting new party policy measures for further appraisal and implementation. The SCC also comprises of selected heads expected to effectively head individual Legislative Districts within the party’s sphere of influence (Nebraska Democratic Party, 2023). It also provides an elaborate blueprint for the conduct of party politics for election officials and individuals who would ordinarily control every single section of party politics. The June caucus is particularly set apart for the selection of election and the subsequent management of constituency-based caucuses. They, therefore, do the party’s bidding at a local level and are responsible for supporting relevant activities at a local level through regular correspondence with rural voters.

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 Content from the Party’s Official Website

The official website for the Nebraska Democratic Party contains a treasure trove of comprehensive information about the party. It starts by identifying officials tasked with drafting policy measures for the party and those now responsible for the execution of objectives within the party. It also lists federal officers, aspirants running for select elective posts, voting centers, and specific grassroots fellow programs associated with the Democratic Party in Nebraska. It also houses a wealth of information about this chapter’s specific goals and values with the sole aim of engaging both members and visitors planning to officially join the party. Furthermore, the party is clear and concise while also providing an elaborate history and mission of the entire organization. The information provided is easy-to-understand and designed to promote maximum engagement with visitors while also providing relevant and detailed resources such as the party’s financial expenditure in a bid to promote transparency and accountability.

Types of Audit Evidence and Audit Analytical Procedures

List seven Major Types of Evidence and Provide a Procedural Example of Each

Physical Examination

It involves auditors of physical verification of the existence of different assets. Auditors can utilize a physical examination to verify the condition or state of an asset. Auditors collect this form of evidence themselves with the main source of evidence being fixed assets.

Documentary Evidence

Documentation is an essential part of an audit. It needs auditors to collect documents about various audit aspects that might be external and internal. The audit evidence source is also essential in the documentation. Auditors can employ different techniques that include tracing or vouching with documentation as audit procedures part.

Oral Evidence

In the audit process, auditors might come across different items where they require to comprehend the design audit process. This is mostly done through inquiries. Auditors can enquire from client’s management about different aspects of their processes or operations to get audit evidence. Nevertheless, inquiries might not be considered a strong kind of evidence.

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Re-performane is the auditor’s process of reperforming different internal controls processes to look for deficiencies. Reperformance audit evidence includes reperforming account or bank payables or receivables reconciliations to assess the internal control in the client place. Auditors can also establish reperformance to determine the client’s control risk.


In this case, auditors observe different client processes or operational aspects. It can assist auditors to get the client’s processes to view and assess their deficiencies. Observation varies from the physical examination as it centers on processes instead of physical assets.

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Analytical Procedures

Analytical procedures involve carrying out different financial statements analyses to identify any discrepancies or trends. Auditors conduct their computations to conduct analytical procedures. Also, analytical procedures can assist in getting a general perspective of change in the financial year.


This involves circularization to third-party that mostly include receivables, accounts payables, and banks. Auditors confirm recorded closing balance through conformation in the financial statements for specific parties (, 2018).

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How Analytical Procedures are useful Throughout the Audit

Importance of Analytical Procedures in The risk assessment stage of the audit.

The analytical procedure is utilized to help the auditor in planning the extent, timing, and nature of other auditing procedures. As a substantive test to get evidential matter regarding specific assertions associated with transactions classes or account balances. Analytical procedures assist the auditors to get a comprehension of the client’s business and might direct the attention of the auditor to possible issues and areas needing special investigation.

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Importance of Analytical Procedures in The substantive procedures stage of the audit.

The substantive procedure is anticipated to generate evidence that an auditor assembles to enhance the assertion that are no material misstatements about the accuracy, validity, and completeness of the entity’s financial records. Analytical procedures are utilized as substantive procedures when the auditor regards that the application of analytical procedure can be more efficient or effective compared to tests of details in lowering the material misstatements risk at the assertion level to an adequately low level.

Importance of Analytical Procedures in Near the end of the audit.

Analytical procedures are conducted as a general financial statements review at the end of the audit to determine if they are consistent with the auditor’s comprehension of the entity. Final analytical procedures are not carried out to get extra substantive assurance.

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 List the five sources of information that are available to the auditors in developing expectations for analytical procedures.

  • Comparable financial data from past periods
  • Industrial averages
  • Relationship among fundamentals of financial information in a period
  • Forecasts or budget
  • Relevant nonfictional information for instance numerous operating costs of a trucking business should be related closely to the number of miles driven

List and describe four techniques that may be used by the auditors in developing expectations for analytical procedures.

  • Trend Analysis that entails the review of the changes in an account balance over time.
  • Ratio analysis entails the relationship comparison between two or more financial statement accounts, or account balances comparison to nonfinancial data. The two primary approaches are cross-sectional analysis and horizontal analysis.
  • Regression analysis entails the application of statistical models to measure auditors’ expectations regarding financial statement ratios or amounts.
  • The reasonableness test is the same as regression such that anticipation is developed, but applies other approaches to generate the estimate (Ang, 2014).
  • When analytical procedures disclose unexpected changes in financial relationships relative to prior years, the auditors consider the possible reasons for the changes. Give several possible reasons for the following significant changes in relationships:

 The rate of inventory turnover (ratio of cost of goods sold to average inventory) has declined from the prior year’s rate.

A decline in the rate of inventory turnover implies that the company is holding its inventory longer than it used to in the past. This could be due to an increase in the cost of goods sold compared to before, the competition is higher than it was in the past, there are more preferable substitutes products in the market, there could be a decline in quality or preference, poor marketing strategies, or decline in people purchasing power in the targeted market.

The number of days’ sales in accounts receivable has increased over the prior year.

An increase in accounts receivable days implies that customers are taking longer than before to pay their bills. This might be a warning that customers are not satisfied with the service or product of the company, or the company is making sales to less credit-worthy customers or a longer payment period is being offered by salespersons. It is also a clear indication of low efficiency in credit collection in the company.

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, Tax Reform Changes and Impact on Individual Taxpayers

Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act was signed on December 22, 2017, and produced some of the most significant impacts on tax law in over 30 years. This research covers the tax reform changes brought about by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and, analyzes the impact these changes have on individual taxpayers and identifies related tax planning strategies.


Write a 3–5 page paper in which you:

  • Summarize the purpose of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and explain the main objective(s) for its implementation.
  • Examine three significant changes brought forth by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act and discuss at least two advantages and/or disadvantages of each.
  • Analyze the impact that each of the three significant changes has on the taxpayer as an individual and a family.
  • Recommend tax planning strategies to maximize tax savings based on the three significant changes identified. Provide a rationale.

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The Purpose of the Tax Cuts and Job Act

The Tax Cuts and Job Act was developed based on the idea that lower corporate and business tax rates, guardrails over international profit shifting, and novel domestic investment incentives would increase investment, make employees more productive, and eventually raise wages and output. The Act’s main purpose was to lower marginal effective tax rates (MERTs) on novel investment and lower the MERTs differences across asset forms, organizational forms, and financing methods. The main objective of this purpose is that it would encourage investment in the country. The Act would substantially reduce the cost of capital and marginal tax rates, which would result in an increase of the GDP by 3.9% in the long-term, increase wages by 3.1% and increase full-time equivalent jobs by 9750000. The Act anticipated reforming both corporate income taxes and individual income tax, shifting the United States to a business taxation territorial system. The Act also focused on reducing individuals’ tax burden by increasing tax standard refunds, reducing the tax blanket rates, and increasing the number of refunds from child dependents (Tax Foundation, 3).

Significant Changes Brought Forth by the Tax Cuts and Job Act

The Tax Cuts and Job Act employed several changes. One of the changes was increasing the child tax credit to $2000 for children below 17 years, with a partial refund of $1400. Other dependent were offered $500 non-refundable credit. The main advantage of this is that it will offer considerable relief to parents investing their money in taking care of their children. This will increase the amount of money available for parents to cater to their children’s needs. The main disadvantage is that the process of acquiring these deductions may be tedious as they require one to even have the child’s social security number (, 1).

The Act raised the individuals’ standard deductions to $12000 for single filers from $6350, from $9350 to $18000 for heads of household, and from $12700 to $24000 for a married couple filing jointly. It also reduced taxation percentage in every tax blanket. The main advantage of this change is that it increased the amount families can save from taxes. This means an increase in the amount that can be dedicated to household management and wellbeing. The main disadvantage is that the change will increase deductions claims, reducing the total tax revenue. This will general reduce the money at the government’s disposal to manage its expenses (, 1).

There were also changes in itemized deductions. Medical expenses exceeding 7.5% of adjusted gross income were deductible for all taxpayers rather than just those aged 65 and above. It also suspended various miscellaneous itemized deductions including home office expenses, regulatory and licensing fees, moving expenses deductions, laboratory breakage fees, business bad debts, union dues, and work clothes that are not appropriate for everyday use. Passing medical deductions to all will help in reducing medical costs for all and not just a few. Eliminating all other miscellaneous deductions will help in increasing government revenue by reducing the amount of money it has to give back to taxpayers (, 1).

Impact of Each of the Three Significant Changes has on the Taxpayer as an Individual and a Family

The increase in child credit and refunds will help in reducing parents’ spending on their children. This will help in improving the general family welfare, especially children depending on their parents for total care. An increase in the amount of deduction for all the three groups of taxpayers will reduce the total amount of tax that people pay, also a reduction of tax rate reduces the amount families or individuals have to give up on taxes, increasing the available money for the families. This means improved family purchasing power and general happiness in families. Deducting medical expenses exceeding 7.5% of adjusted gross income for all means that no citizen experiences excess medical cost and that they all enjoy benefits of deductions when it exceeds the stated percentage. The elimination of other deductions will increase individuals and business costs from bad debts or business-related purchases, reducing the total earnings. This will reduce the amount available for the family. It will also make individuals more cautious and reluctant from purchasing business items with personal earnings or covering business expenses with personal incomes (Gale, 2).

Recommendation of Tax Planning Strategies to maximize tax savings based on the Three Significant Changes Identified

One can maximize tax savings from the first change by ensuring all child dependent and non-child dependent are documents, and all needed documents are filed to ensure effective processing of deductions. This includes proving their age and their social security number among other requirements. This will ensure all refunds are offered without hitches.  To maximize tax savings from the second change, one should always be subtracting total standard deductions based on the right category to save as much as possible while filing for the tax, irrespective of the group. Considering standard tax deductions will help in selecting the right tax class. One should ensure he or she computes taxes using the right tax class to ensure maximum saving as provided by the new law. From the third option, one should always ensure to calculate the medical expenses properly to subtract the amount exceeding 7.5% of the adjusted gross income where necessary. This will help to save some money when the medical expenses are too high. Also, one should minimize or completely stop using personal money to cater to work-related expenses. Individuals should avoid purchasing office items with personal cash or paying for other expenses that should be incurred by organizations other than individuals. This will reduce tax liabilities, as money spent on business expenses cannot be recovered as per the current Act provision. These measures will help in maximizing tax savings.

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