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Tools and Resources Available to Healthcare Leaders to Guide Their Efforts Toward Sustainable Operations

There are numerous tools available to health care leaders to help guide their efforts toward sustainable operations. Some of the tools and resources include Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care, Architecture 2030, Greenhouse Gas Reduction Toolkit, and Green Power Partnership. LEED is a tool developed by the US Green Building Council to serve as a national benchmark for the construction, designing, and operation of high-performance green buildings such as hospitals (Coussens & Frumkin, 2007). 

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Green Guide for Health Care was first released in 2003 to fill the market need for green building tools, particularly for health care. The tool integrates enhanced environmental and health practices and principles into the planning, construction, design, operations, and maintenance of health care facilities (Coussens & Frumkin, 2007). Regarding Architecture 2030, it is a resource designed to help buildings reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases. Architecture 2030 partners with new and existing health care facilities to help them set targets to reach net-zero by 2030 (“Tools To Help You Get There – Sustainable Performance Institute”, 2021).

Greenhouse Gas Reduction Toolkit develops resources to help health care organizations track their greenhouse gas emission and set reduction goals. The toolkit is based on the philosophy that solving health care problems starts with setting ambitious goals (“Tools and Resources for Sustainable Communities | US EPA”, 2021). Lastly but equally important, Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program that supports health care organizations in the procurement of green power through offering technical support, expert advice, resources, and tools. Collaborating with Green Power Partnership can help health care facilities reduce transaction costs and carbon footprint (“Greenhouse Gas Reduction Toolkit”, n.d.)

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Servant Leadership in Islam Religion and Confucianism


A prevalent leadership style among effective organizational leaders is servant leadership. Notably, servant leadership is a model underpinned by the philosophy that effective leaders are servants of the people they lead. Servant leaders focus on their followers’ needs and in turn, the followers reciprocate through increased engagement, better performance, and improved teamwork. Servant leadership is often associated with Christianity and the Bible, with Christians citing Jesus as the ultimate example of a servant leader. However, one can argue that it is compatible with most religions and philosophies; it transcends cultures. This paper explores transactional leadership in the Islam religion and the Confucian culture. In both Islam religion and Confucianism, servant leadership has proven conceptually popular.

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Servant Leadership in the Islam Religion

            Within the Islamic worldview, a leader should serve the welfare of his/her followers as a guardian or trustee. According to Gonaim (2016), the ideal leader in the Islamic view is moderate, forgiving, honorable, consultative, honest, humble, abiding by his promises, holds non-materialistic and ascetic values, et cetera. Muslims cite Prophet Mohammad as the ultimate example of a servant leader. Gonaim elucidates that the Prophet’s leadership style was instrumental to the spread of Islam across the world. Prophet Mohammad served as a guardian for his follower’s welfare. His approach to leadership demonstrated genuine concern for the wellbeing of humanity rather than for an egoistic interest. The Prophet believed that three key foundations must underpin leadership: (1) mercy, (2) kindness, and (3) justice. Moreover, he perceived leadership as a process of sharing influence as opposed to an opportunity to exercise power/authority.

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            Muslims strive to model their approach to leadership per Prophet Muhammad’s teachings. Traditionally, Muslims strongly believe that leadership starts with the natural feeling of serving others first and then the conscious choice that inspires one to lead (Gonaim, 2016). Hence, a leader should be a servant first. Gonaim explains that there does not exist an exact list of characteristics that qualify an individual as a servant leader. However, there are fundamental characteristics that are associated with servant leadership. The characteristics include listening, healing, empathy, persuasion, awareness, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, building community, and commitment to the growth of this community. The characteristics define an individual who is committed to building effective relationships and balancing self-interest with common goals.

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Muslims, as demonstrated by Prophet Muhammad’s approach to leadership, place the above-described characteristics at the heart of their leadership philosophy. According to Abdallah et al. (2019), the above-described ten characteristics can be summarized by four key premises. To start with, having the natural feeling to serve first. Prophet Muhammad exhibited a natural desire to help and serve. Abdallah et al. explain that even before prophethood, the Prophet established love and care by sacrificing and serving to ensure the fulfillment of other people’s needs. Secondly, he was committed to facilitating followers’ progression. Despite the meanness, vindictiveness, and cruelty that the Prophet faced, he was persistent in delivering his message aimed at raising a healthy community.

Read also Relationship Between Religion and Philosophy in Islamic Circles

Thirdly, he served people’s highest priority. The Prophet addressed the needs of all the people he interacted with; even those who contradicting views. For instance, the Bedouin, who were known for their profound love of money and harsh language. Lastly, becoming a leader while remaining a servant. It is worth noting that the Prophet was always amongst those he led helping, guiding, and teaching them; he never pursued a high position over the people he led (Gonaim, 2016). Thus, analyzing Prophet Muhammad’s approach to leadership depicts that servant leadership transcends cultures.  

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Servant Leadership in the Confucian Culture

            Servant leadership has also proven conceptually popular in the Asian culture as demonstrated by Confucianism. Notably, Confucian is an ancient Chinese philosophy and belief system, whose focus is personal ethics and morality. In the Confucian culture, concepts such as humanness (ren), appropriateness (yi), conscientiousness (zhong), ritual (li), and mutuality (shu) provide a normative behavioral pattern for leaders. Each aspect contributes a crucial facet to servant leadership. To start with, humanness underlies an individual’s sense of significance and concern for others. Secondly, appropriateness focuses on the interaction between the individual and the context. It, as such, requires both contextual understanding and self-understanding coupled with the capacity to act on self-contextualization.

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Thirdly, ritual provides a set of ground rules that underlie the desired manner of behaving in relationships with other individuals. Fourthly, conscientiousness describes the degree and depth of an individual’s level of sincerity in demonstrating humanness. Lastly, mutuality consists of a person’s efforts to be authentic (Yang, Fu, Beveridge, & Qu, 2020). The five concepts underlie the Confucian’s perspective of servant leadership as discussed below.

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            The core element of servant leadership is serving others. This can be fully illustrated by the concept of humanness in the Confucian culture. A leader helps the followers to embrace a common goal and work together towards actualizing the said goal (Schenck & Waddey, 2017). According to Schenck and Waddey, many virtues that define a servant-leader such as love, tolerance, honesty, deference, forgiveness, filial obedience, loyalty, reciprocity, trustworthiness, courage, et cetera are an expression of humanness. Humanness provides the cultural basis for the attributes of servant leadership. Moreover, humanness and appropriateness in the Confucian culture have a significantly strong collective orientation as they advocate for self-sacrifice for the benefit of others and self-restraint in the pursuit of an individual’s self-interests. Confucianism, therefore, advocates for a leader who embraces selfless and sacrificial roles geared towards making a positive difference in the lives of the followers. Humanness and appropriateness translate to being clearly aware of the surroundings and doing appropriate things according to the proper situation; this implies the wisdom of a servant leader Yang, Fu, Beveridge, & Qu, 2020). Therefore, the dominant Chinese culture, Confucianism, advocates for servant leadership.

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Similarities and Differences between Servant Leadership Philosophies and values in Islam and Confucianism

Islam and Confucianism advocate for servant leadership. Both insist that leaders should focus on serving others first. Additionally, they are both underpinned by concepts such as stewardship, conceptualization, listening, building community, commitment to growth et cetera. The teachings of Prophet Muhammad emphasize leaders should focus on serving their followers as opposed to viewing leadership as an opportunity to demonstrate authority or serve personal interests. Similarly, Confucius insisted that leaders practice humanness, appropriateness, conscientiousness, ritual, and mutuality. The practices are essential to establishing servant leadership.

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The only difference between Islam and Confucianism’s approach to servant leadership is their perspective. Whereas Islam takes a religious approach, Confucianism takes an ethical/morality perspective. Nonetheless, the fundamentals are the same and both agree that the most effective leaders are servants of the people they lead. Both Confucianism and Islam concur that a leader should primarily focus on the well-being and growth of the people and community that they lead. A servant leader must share power and put the needs of others first; consequently, this helps the followers develop and perform optimally.

Read also Concept of Servant Leadership and The Difference Between Servant Leadership and Transformational Leadership


To sum up, servant leadership is a leadership approach that transcends cultures. Often, servant leadership is associated with Christianity and the Bible, but analysis of leadership styles demonstrated in other religions and cultures demonstrate that it transcends cultures. The Islam religion and the Confucian culture are good examples that demonstrate how deep-rooted servant leadership is. The teachings and life of Prophet Muhammad as narrated in the Quran demonstrate that the Muslim religion favors servant leadership. Similarly, the Confucius teachings advocate for leaders to be servants first. It is only by serving others first that one can effectively lead them to the desired level of success. Therefore, despite Confucianism taking an ethical/morality approach to leadership and Islam adopting a religious perspective, they both agree that servant leadership is an effective approach for leading teams, organizations, and communities.

Why Lack of Well-defined and Enforceable Property Rights is Detrimental to the Smooth Functioning of a Market System

Definition of Property Rights

Property rights refer to the establishment of who has the legal and intellectual authority to use what assets and resources. As well as intangible resources, the owners of these assets and resources may also include persons and corporations. The rights of private persons to collect, delegate, sell, rent, or hold their property can be determined by individuals in a variety of countries, including developed ones like the United States and the United Kingdom (Lahsen & Piper, 2019). Property rights are essential in the financial sector since they form the basis for all market activities. The quality of resource use has an impact on a community’s property rights.

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Why Lack of Well-defined and Enforceable Property Rights is Detrimental to the Smooth Functioning of a Market System

The smooth running of a market system is threatened if property rights are not clearly established and enforced. Uncertainty over property rights can lead to a market failure, according to Lahsen and Piper (2019). There may be unanticipated consequences for third parties that are not reflected in the transaction values when there is market failure in this scenario (Lin & Wu, 2021). There is no way to make efficient use of resources without private property rights. People or groups can take advantage of the lack of private ownership when property rights are absent. This can have a variety of negative consequences. Because a song cannot be enclosed, other people can “steal” the melody and lyrics such a song. Music tracks can be easily copied utilizing current technologies without costing money. Again, the price mechanism fails to accurately price readily stolen things, as shown by the free rider conundrum (Lin & Wu, 2021). The end result of this is to encourage the demise of a market.

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According to Wu & Tang (2016), a market system’s ability to function smoothly is jeopardized by a lack of clearly defined and consistently enforced property rights, which increases the likelihood that scarce resources would be misused. When people believe that someone else will pick up their trash or clean up the water, or no one will ask them about anything even if they misused some properties – the moral hazard increases in the market. When one party’s actions alter to the detriment of another after a financial transaction, there is a risk of moral hazard. Adverse selection and moral hazards are consequences of economic imbalances produced by unequal information. Market collapse is possible as a result of any of these faults in the economy (Wu & Tang, 2016).

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Lack of property rights is also linked to resource overuse, such as deforestation, overfishing, and gridlock. Overuse can also deplete other natural resources, such as fish stocks and the environment. Because so much of the environment cannot be protected through the creation of property rights, it is a limited resource that can be squandered at will. The market suffers as a result of the depletion of these resources, which contribute to fiscal revenue, income, and the elimination of poverty. Employment in natural resource-related businesses is common in low-income areas. Due to the inherent worth of natural resources, they must be managed sustainably through the use of property rights. According to Wu & Tang, (2016) the smooth running of a market system is threatened if property rights are not clearly established and enforced. Inadequate property rights are linked to urban squalor and are a severe barrier to economic growth (Wu & Tang, 2016).

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A Research Paper on Virtual Private Network (VPN)

What is Virtual Private Network (VPN)

Virtual Private Network (VPN) represent a novel technology developed with the sole aim of providing users with private and secure communication over the internet. They are frequently utilized by users who typically wish to privately access certain online services and websites often restricted in their location. VPNs have also been used to encrypt data transmitted across public networks or during instances where individuals actively attempt to bypass geo-restrictions set up by specific streaming services. At the very core of VPNs is the integration of security mechanisms bolstered by the use of encrypted tunnelling systems that connect an individual’s device to the internet (Siraj & Aslam, 2020).

The tunnels in question establish the VPN connection required at any given point in time and are operated by third-party providers who forward the traffic to a final destination. It is worth noting that the encryption that takes place during this process prevents unauthorized access thus protecting users from third parties such as government agencies and hackers. Today, VPNs are often utilized in the promotion of personal privacy and corporate security within a commercial setting. This is achieved by masking individual IP addresses while also encrypting internet traffic to ensure that third parties are completely unable to track their online activities, especially through internet service providers (ISPs). Moreover, VPN use provides companies with secure remote access that allows them to track company resources while also being connected to the internal network. This is crucial for companies with employees who work remotely while actively preventing unauthorized access from malicious actors such as hackers.

Virtual Private Network Operation and Significance in Network Security

VPNs function by providing much-needed private network connections, particularly over public network infrastructure. User data is often encrypted and routed within a private network to function as an online security resource and is often valuable in maintaining internet security. VPN servers also play a fundamental role as the sole intermediary between users’ devices and the internet, before decrypting key information and forwarding it to the final destination. VPN servers rely on a series of encryption points to ensure that the information shared is safe and cannot be accessed by third parties; According to Tahir & Kalia (2020), the most common protocols used by VPNs include Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS).

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These protocols are all similar in action and actively attempt to maintain a high level of digital security while maintaining the best speeds based solely on device compatibility. This is significant as a way of maintaining a high level of privacy and confidentiality for users and preventing the transmission of private information across data networks. It also allows secure remote access and the access of files from a different location, which goes a long way in maintaining network security. VPNS are also popular today for the protection they offer against immediate cyber threats while also allowing users to bypass censorship imposed in the form of geo-restrictions.

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Virtual Private Network Technology and Virtual Private Network Protocols

VPN technology is designed to provide private and secure access to networks through a series of encrypted connections from users’ devices to remote servers. This, therefore, plays a crucial role in the protection of individual and private data by protecting online activity while also allowing users to bypass any form of censorship imposed. According to Abdul-Malik & Mohamed (2021), PPTP, L2TP/IPSec, OpenVPN, SL/TLS VPN, IKEv2/IPSec, SSTP, SoftEther VPN, GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) VPN, and MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) VPN are the most common types of VPN technology in use today.

The emerging use of Remote Access VPN has also played an important role in allowing individuals and companies to securely access networks from a different geographical locations. The Site-to-Site VPN types are also an interesting development credited for allowing users to access multiple networks when connecting to the internet. This is particularly critical for companies with premises in multiple locations, which now makes it possible for them to use and share resources efficiently. SSL VPNSSL VPNs have been known to require the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol to guarantee users of a secure connection when using various web-based applications. On the other hand, the SSL VPN uses Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) for encryption which then guarantees privacy in the information shared between networks. The Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) protocol is commonly used by the MPLS VPN-type and also functions by connecting two or more networks such as branch offices in remote locations.

The Importance of Virtual Private Network Technology

Virtual Private Network technology plays an essential role in guaranteeing user privacy, securing data transmission, enabling access to restricted content, bypassing censorship, and in ensuring company employees can access corporate resources. VPNs protect privacy and confidentiality by encrypting all data transmitted through networks thus preventing unauthorized access to private and sensitive information. It also protects users’ privacy by masking their IP addresses, making it increasingly difficult for government agencies, advertisers, or hackers to intercept private data. According to Sharma & Srivastava (2021).

VPNs also secure data transmission over a network by blocking vulnerable interceptions likely to lead to the theft of private data. Network encryption ensures that individuals can now access public Wi-Fi networks without the fear of losing private data to hackers. Moreover, VPNs allow individuals to access restricted content over the internet. Internet restrictions are the most common forms of censorship used today and are often a manifestation of government regulations on publicly-available content. VPNs help bypass these restrictions; making it possible for individuals to access much-needed online services anywhere in the world. VPN use also creates a scenario where individuals can maintain anonymity online bypassing censorship. This feature promotes the concept of unrestricted internet access to all regardless of location or barriers imposed by third-parties.

VPN Software and Vulnerabilities

Commercial VPN service, open-source VPN service, and built-in VPN clients in operating systems are the main variations of VPN is used today. Commercial VPN service software is normally provided by third-party services providers offering network encryption services to clients. They rely on high-speed servers for their day-to-day operations which then make it possible for them to access multiple locations globally. They are service-based subscriptions and the services and duration provided are solely based on the subscription selected (Kim & Kim (2021).

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On the other hand, open-source VPN software is free; with code made available for modification and improvement. They rely squarely on donations for development by a community of the willing who also provide customer support.  According to Chen & Gu (2021), built-in VPN clients in operating systems, such as those found in Linux, Windows, or MacOS provide VPN services without the need for additional software. VPN protocols offered herein range from PPTP to the more complex L2TP/IPsec. The most common vulnerabilities associated with VPN software include DNS leaks, IP address leaks, VPN logging problems, and existing vulnerabilities in VPN protocols. However, most services offered are user-friendly, offer a great deal of operational transparency, and secure clients from third-party intrusions.


Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology has become an indispensable tool for internet users seeking improved online security and privacy. VPNs use encryption and tunnelling protocols to provide secure access to private networks over the internet. They are available in different forms, including commercial VPN services, open-source VPN software, and built-in VPN clients in operating systems. VPN software offers numerous benefits, including enhanced network security, improved online privacy, access to restricted content, and increased productivity and flexibility. By encrypting internet traffic, VPNs prevent data interception and protect sensitive information, making them an effective tool for safeguarding online activities.

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Despite their benefits, VPNs also have vulnerabilities, which include security breaches, weak encryption, and DNS leaks. It is, therefore, essential to choose a reliable VPN service provider or software, ensure strong encryption, and perform regular security checks to prevent security breaches. The importance of Virtual Private Networks for network security cannot be overstated. In today’s world, cyber-attacks are on the rise, and cybercriminals are constantly developing new and sophisticated methods to exploit vulnerabilities in networks. VPN technology plays a crucial role in ensuring network security and online privacy. VPNs offer numerous benefits, including enhanced security, improved privacy, access to restricted content, and increased productivity and flexibility. However, it is essential to choose a reliable Virtual Private Network service provider or software, ensure strong encryption, and perform regular security checks to prevent security breaches. The importance of VPNs for network security cannot be overstated, and businesses and individuals should consider incorporating them into their online activities to enhance their security and privacy.

Why Corporate Boards of Directors link top Managers’ Compensation to Corporations’ Stock Prices

Since corporate value is tied to stock price, corporate boards of directors usually link executive compensation to that price. Making stock options a significant part of executive compensation became their preferred approach of aligning managers’ interests with those of shareholders (Kotnik et al. 2018). Chief executive officers (CEOs) and other high-ranking executives had built up sizable equity and option positions by the mid-1990s. CEO pay rose in tandem with the stock market. This does not mean, however, that a company’s performance is linked to its CEO’s pay, because even when the market is booming, stock options reward both excellent and poor performance equally.

For incentive compensation to work, corporate boards must adopt the appropriate measures and performance levels, as shown by Kotnik et al. (2018). Executives who are held accountable for the entire company should, in principle, be compensated with stock options as a performance incentive. The share price, after all, determines the value of a stock option because it contributes so heavily to overall shareholder returns. Despite some managers’ claims to the contrary, the evidence does not support their position. Shareholders expect boards to reward management for outperforming the company’s peers or broad market indices in terms of returns. Using this metric, institutional investors can tell which companies are doing well and which are not.

The Securities and Exchange Commission requires companies to publish in their annual executive compensation statement the total return to shareholders relative to their peers or the market as a whole to aid investors in monitoring executive salary. In spite of the fact that many boards of directors and CEOs publicly stress the importance of increasing shareholder returns, current stock option systems reward both average and exceptional performance alike (Kotnik et al. 2018). Thus, corporate boards of directors may link the compensation of senior executives to the stock price of the company in order to improve the performance of the company in the stock market hence making stakeholders and investors happy.

When a company commits fraud, it is acting unethically or dishonestly in some way (Goldberg et al. 2016). Most of the time, corporate fraud is committed to benefit a certain person or business. These schemes go beyond the specified responsibilities of an employee and are notable for their complexity and financial impact on the firm, other employees and third parties. Employer compensation that follows stock price fluctuations can lead to three types of corporate fraud, all of which benefit the company’s executives. The pay of business CEOs often depends on the financial performance of their companies. Consequently, they have a direct interest in portraying the financial situation of the company in a positive light in order to exceed previously set performance goals and increase their own pay scales. Second, it is a very straightforward process. The Financial Accounting Rules Board (FASB), which establishes GAAP standards, allows for wide interpretation of accounting provisions and methodologies. For better or worse, GAAP standards provide management a lot of latitude in presenting the company’s financial health. The third reason is that the intimate relationship between the independent auditor and the business client will obscure financial manipulation. In corporate auditing, the major firms of accounting are joined by a slew of smaller regional firms. According to Nigam et al. (2018), these companies are paid by the very companies they audit, despite representing themselves as independent auditors. This may cause auditors to depart from accounting laws in order to depict the company’s financial health in a favorable light to the client (Goldberg et al. 2016).

Differences between National Income, Personal Income, and Disposable Personal Income

The national income of a country is calculated by valuing its output at its whole value in a given year, which includes all commodities and services produced. A country’s economic worth is determined by its national revenue and assets, which are identical with the price of the items and services produced in the country, referred to as national output. Economic metrics such as national income and disposable income are critical measures of economic prosperity (Capelli & Vaggi, 2016).

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It is critical to distinguish between national income and disposable income because national income refers to the overall investment of a nation’s output produced, which encompasses all commodities and services in a given year, whereas disposable income refers to the net income obtainable to a house or entity after income taxes are deducted. Because they are so dissimilar, it is critical to establish a clear distinction between the two concepts.

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Disposable income is the amount of net income accessible to an entity for using, investing, and conserving after income taxes are deducted from the amount generated. Taxable income is calculated by deducting income taxes from gross income. Food, shelter, transportation, healthcare, and recreation are provided for by individuals and households while simultaneously setting aside a portion of their income for savings. In addition, they participate in investment operations in order to generate profits. When the disposable income of all families or individuals is added together, a country or region’s national disposable income can be calculated using this method. Due to the absolute nature of this metric, it cannot be applied in comparing disposable income between countries, as it is a single figure. The “disposable income per capita” of a country is computed by adding up its entire people’ incomes, minus taxes, and then dividing the sum by the country’s population.

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Employment, commercial operations, and other revenue-generating activities are all examples of how people work hard to make a livelihood in this society. While the distinction between personal income and personal disposable income may appear inconsequential, economists use it to evaluate the functioning of an economy.

 Generally speaking, personal income refers to the total of an individual’s earnings from various sources during a set period of time. This includes profits from investments, salaries, dividends, bonuses, pensions, social security, and other sources. Individuals also earn money through various means such as profit sharing from commercial operations, rental income from property ownership, and dividends from assets. This figure, which is sometimes referred to as gross income, is derived before taxes are deducted. According to Capelli and Vaggi (2016), personal income has a substantial impact on consumer consumption, which is the engine that propels the economy. The value of the dollar tends to fall during economic downturns and rise during expansions. Aside from that, economic success in a country or region is associated with an increase in personal income for the citizens of that country or region. This is the amount of money or revenue that an individual has left over after paying all of his or her taxes. This also corresponds to money that consumers can use to purchase needs and put aside for the future. Therefore, personal used to closely monitor the economic performance of a country’s economy.

Effects of Unexpected Inflation and Declining Inflation to Borrowers and Lenders

The unexpected rise in inflation causes wealth to be redistributed in a random manner between groups such as borrowers and lenders. I would rather be a borrower during an unanticipated period of rising inflation since this period allows borrowers to repay lenders with money that is worth less than it was when the money was borrowed, which is beneficial to both borrowers and lenders. As Tinoco et al. (2018) point out, when inflation results in higher prices, there is a stronger demand for borrowing, which leads to higher interest rates charged by lenders. Individuals who borrow or lend money typically consider the rate of inflation when making their decisions. It is certain that the amount of interest paid or collected will exceed expectations if inflation continues to outpace predictions. Lenders suffer as a result of unexpected inflation since the money they receive as repayment has less purchasing power than the money they loaned out in the first place.

Due to unforeseen inflation, borrowers benefit from their loans because the money they repay is worth less than the money they borrowed in the first place. For example, if salaries rise in lockstep with inflation and the borrower was already in debt before the inflation, the inflation will be beneficial to the borrower and the lender. This is due to the fact that the borrower’s debt stays unchanged, but they now have additional money in their paycheck to utilize to pay it down. If the borrower utilizes the additional funds to pay off their debt early, the lender will charge less interest as a result of the early repayment. When a business takes out a loan, the money it obtains today will be returned with money produced later on in the business’s life. Inflation, by definition, is the process by which the value of a currency decreases over time. To put it another way, currency is currently more valuable than it will be in the future. Consequently, inflation allows borrowers to repay lenders with money that is less valuable than it was when the money was originally borrowed (Tinoco et al. 2018).

Inflation can be advantageous to lenders in a variety of ways, the most notable of which being the ability to provide new credit. As a start, increased costs lead to more people seeking loans to acquire large-ticket items, particularly if their salaries have remained stagnant. As a result, new customers for lending institutions are created. In addition, the increased pricing of those items results in a higher rate of interest for the lending institution. During an unexpected period of falling inflation, I would like to be a lender rather than a borrower because when inflation is lower than expected (or even negative), the consequence is the polar opposite of unexpected inflation: lenders benefit while borrowers suffer. As a result, I wish to take advantage of the current situation.

In the event of an unanticipated disinflation or deflation, the money lenders receive back has greater purchasing power than the money they put out initially (Klinefelter et al. 2020). Those who borrow money suffer the most from deflation because they are compelled to pay it back with money that is worth more than what they borrowed it for in the first place. The vast majority of inflation-targeting policies are intended to keep inflation low and predictable as long as possible. Inflation that is too close to zero increases the likelihood of deflation. Deflation is tremendously harmful to an economy, and it is frequently associated with severe recessions and depressions, as well as other economic problems. Instead of talking about deflation, when policymakers talk about “lowering inflation,” they are referring to slowing the rate of inflation (also known as disinflation).

A Reaction Paper on the Film Miss Representation

The Film Miss Representation By Jennifer Siebel

The documentary “Miss Representation” (2011) investigates how limiting images of women and girls in the American media affect the personality and emotional wellbeing of girls and women while also contributing to the devaluation of females as a whole in modern culture. Women in America are underrepresented in influential positions for a variety of reasons, according to the documentary. Almost no week goes by without a new scandal involving a woman making headlines. Sometimes female celebrities do something heinous.

The film Miss Representation By Jennifer Siebel

However, it is more common for famous ladies to be accused of inappropriate attire, controversial statements, or dirty looks (3PercentConference, 2013). Such accusations have a negative reputation in the media. However, such news piques the interest of a large number of people. There is no doubt that the issue of women’s public perception is a hot topic. “Miss Representation” is one of the documentaries that address this and female-related other problems, just like the textbook “Social Psychology” mentions that sexism surrounded by ambivalence and double standards are significantly affecting modern society. Similarly, the documentary takes an unusual stance on sexism, gender, women’s representation, and other topics.

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Jennifer Siebel Newsom is the writer, director, and producer of this impressive and thought-provoking film. Siebel gives the reader a lot to think about processes about societal perspectives. The documentary’s theme states, “You can’t become what you can’t perceive.” This phrase sums up the film’s message. It says that a role model is vital for a person’s growth. Our inherent qualities seem to mirror those we see in another individual. Second, it highlights the media’s lack of positive role models. To improve ourselves, we need to pursue out positive examples. The film’s central sociological theme is the media portrayal of women. The media’s portrayal of female abilities influences women’s lives. Women rely on societal norms to excel. According to the film, the media can reinforce or weaken stereotypes surrounding society. In this film, women of varying ages and walks of life are interviewed. Interviewees include adolescent girls and respected women such as Nancy Pelosi and Katie Kurik discusses their personal experiences.

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These women are famous for many reasons, but not just their gender. They were all “victims” of journalists’ whims at one point. The media shapes celebrities’ public image. This is uncontrollable, and therefore, women must cooperate with the idea imposed by others. Siebel presents that this will be an excellent episode on gender inequality in the US. Several experts give alarming details about women’s roles. They describe the media’s cultural, political, and economic portrayals, but they cannot tame it as they are powerless.

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After arguing how often media affects our daily lives, the film demonstrates a few staggering statistics about women and adolescents. For example, “Around 65% of American women and girls have an eating disorder,” even if one has biases or skepticism, the documentary holds that they should not have such a negative mindset. Cosmetic surgery procedures on children aged 18 and under more than tripled from 1997 to 2007. This is awful for the teenagers and children being shaped by the “perfect” cultural view of people who are not average or reachable. They are horrifying, and we must do something.

We now live in an insular society where popular media has a powerful influence on cultural norms. We are constantly told that a woman’s value and power are defined by her ability to bear children, beauty as defined by whoever is in power, and sexuality – if it is not fascinating, she is not irrespective of her effectiveness. According to the World Economic Forum, the film notes that the United States is the 33rd highest-income country in terms of the number of women in national legislatures. There does not appear to be anyone else who is bothered by these statistics. According to the film, women constitute 17% of the top 250 domestic bestselling auteurs, writers, videographers and editors, and executive producers.

The film demonstrates that during a meeting of AAUW, a well-known woman’s empowerment organization, media abuse, gender inequality, and sexism were all issues that needed to be addressed. I think “Miss Representation” is a noteworthy movie. It is uplifting and motivating for change implementation. After seeing the film, many people have wanted to do something about it. One positive movement that has risen after people watched this film is #RepresentHer and #DisruptTheNarrative. This has improved the online environment that there is deception in virtual reality.

“Miss Representation” has inspired numerous representation projects. It is a non-profit that uses celebrities to promote the film’s messages. The film’s themes are emphasized in the social psychology textbook we have been using in class.

In conclusion, “Miss Representation” is worth watching. It tackles some hot topics bedeviling modern society. The media’s rhetoric, on the other hand, has the potential to manipulate culture. Everyone has subjective opinions that spread through various channels. Misrepresentation of women in the media has caused severe issues that concern women’s social and professional lives. Significant progress has been made courtesy of this film. But the film notes that everyone must contribute to the cumulative empowerment of women figures in society. When it comes to proper representation, both men and women must speak up. The other and more significant underlying message of the film, in my opinion, was to influence those who want to be the change should stand up and execute the exact change. The movie emphasizes that we are in a unique position to stop reinforcing bad and lazy habits of simply accepting whatever is thrown at us as we live in a stimulating society. We can all be interested in our communities and entertainment. The movie encourages us to invest in causes and entertainment that empower all ages, not simply burying our heads and hoping for the best. The movie teaches the world that we need to change the phrase “that’s always been” and come new approaches that acknowledge the power of women in society regardless of their beauty, race, religion, and background. We should appreciate everyone’s personality.

A Comparison Between Biopsychosocial Model and Biomedical Model

Differentiate Between Biopsychosocial Model vs. Biomedical Model

The biomedical model refers to an illnesses conceptualization framework where, prognosis, causes, treatment, and diagnosis are solely viewed based on physical and biological factors. The model pays negligible attention to the attributes of environmental, psychological, social, and spiritual diseases. The model is mostly used in clinical practices in that it is used in systematically handling health concerns in individuals who are ill. The model directs physicians’ decision-making, assessment, critical thinking, diagnosis, and treatment to guarantee the best patient outcomes (Mazzotta, 2016). The biomedical model requires that disease be handled with an entity independent of social behavior. It also demands that behavioral aberrations be described based on disordered somatic processes including neurophysiological or biochemical (Wade & Halligan, 2017). The biomedical model according to Wade and Halligan (2017) puts forth a perception that a person who feels sick though with normal laboratory results is healthy and an individual feeling well but with abnormal laboratory results is unhealthy. It is, therefore, unable to explain this kind of human health or disease discrepancy.

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On the contrary, the biopsychosocial model measures the comparative contribution of biological, psychological, and social factors in patient-hood status. It assists a healthcare giver to better understand the role of different factors responsible for disease development and offers patients extra comprehensive preventive information, including how they can adjust their lifestyle to improve their quality of life. The biopsychosocial model helps in addressing aspects of health ignored by the biomedical model. It put into consideration the modern age diseases such as cancers and coronary heart disease that are related to established social and psychological elements to their causation. Psychological factors that include perceived life control and high self-esteem have been attributed to various health-promoting behaviors such as a balanced diet, exercise, avoiding smoking, and avoiding excess alcohol. It also considers social factors such as lack of social participation, loneliness, unemployment effect, and their relation to poor health outcomes. The bio-psychosocial model directs the medical wisdom availability for the benefit of every patient individually resulting in enhanced satisfaction and improved treatment plan adherence. However, unlike the biomedical model, the biopsychosocial model is said to be expensive and time-consuming to apply (Syed, Syed & Bhardwaj, 2020).   

Factors of Biopsychosocial Model and Biomedical Model

The biopsychosocial model is an interdisciplinary model that focuses on different factors including biological, psychological, and social, and how they influence people’s health. The biological factor focuses on aspects such as physical health including cells, tissues, organs and organs system, nervous system, drugs effects, and genetic vulnerabilities. The psychological factors focus person’s experience and behaviors and how they influence individual self-esteem, mental health, coping skills, social skills, family relationship, perception of self, and how an individual perceives the world.  Other psychological factors include self-efficacy, anxiety, anger, depression, catastrophic thinking, perceived control, and hyper-vigilance. The social factor focuses on individual relations with others including family members, peers, community, and individual culture. It also considers family circumstances.

Other social factors include social support, operant, socioeconomic status, social learning, and skepticism (Farre & Rapley, 2017; Taukeni, 2020). The biomedical model on the other hand only focuses on the biological aspect of health and drugs interaction. It focuses on the alteration of biological aspects of the body including organs and organs systems, skeletal system, nerve system, cells, or any other physical aspects whose condition can be assessed in the laboratory and tangible results obtained. It also centers on the interaction of the body and drugs during treatment. Biomedical focuses more on medical treatment or administration of drugs or any other medical procedure meant to treat an illness caused by a pathogen or change of physical or biological body condition. The main biological factors include genetics, physiology, tissue health, and neurochemistry (Farre & Rapley, 2017).

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The Role of Biological, Psychological, and Social Factors as it Relates to Health and Illness

Biological factors include gender, genetic influences, nutrition, hormone levels, and brain chemistry. In most cases, the alteration of the normal states of these factors can easily result in some illnesses. The interaction between biological factors and pathogen causes the alterations of these factors of their related system, which result in a disease or illness. Ensuring normal operation of all physical and biological body system result to good health (Syed, Syed & Bhardwaj, 2020). Psychological factors such as stress are likely to alter the hormonal balance in the body resulting in a physical manifestation of a disease.

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Also, some behaviors such as drinking excessively to avoid a stressful life situation can result in other unintended health issues such as liver cancer. One can also develop a coping mechanism from past bad experiences that is likely to impact their health. For instance, curbing stress by eating can easily result in beige eating and the development of obesity, which translates to other diseases such as hypertension or diabetes type II. Social factors such as adopting a behavior such as smoking to fit in a peer group can result in health issues related to smoking such as the eventual development of lung cancer. Other social behaviors such as forming a football club with peers can promote a positive lifestyle which results in improved health.

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Current Leading Causes of Death for both Biopsychosocial Model and Biomedical Model

The biomedical model has demonstrated great success in addressing biological issues. In the early 20th century, the leading causes of deaths in this category included diarrhea, tuberculosis, influenza, and pneumonia. The disease germ theory as defined by the model fundamentally reduced these infectious diseases as the primary death cause.  Today, the main cause of death in this model in the United States include viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, Covid-19, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and influenza. However, the magnitude of biomedical model-related deaths is much lower compared to the biopsychosocial model. Lifestyle-related diseases or non-communicable chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. The leading causes of death in this category include heart disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, strokes, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and suicide (Ahmad & Anderson, 2021).

How can Lifestyle or Healthful Behaviors Reduce Illness?

By incorporating healthy behavior in daily living, one can prevent various health conditions that include obesity, and blood pressure that raises the individual risk of developing the most serious and chronic diseases that include diabetes type II, cancer, and heart coronary disease among others. Ensuring a healthy diet and exercising reduces the chances of developing obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes type II and coronary heart diseases. Healthy living also enhances mental wellbeing.

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Physical exercise is regarded as a form of enhancing effective blood flow in different parts of the body. This helps in fighting stress and other mental health issues. Regular physical exercise is also said to assist in managing, delaying, or preventing chronic health issues. Observing a healthy lifestyle by avoiding smoking and excessive use of alcohol helps in preventing cancer and other health conditions. It also ensures sobriety and good mental health. A healthy diet nourishes the body, giving it the ability to improve the immune system and to ensure a healthy body. This generally helps in reducing diseases and ensuring healthy living (, 2021).

How the Fall of Afghanistan Impact the World – GVT 425

The Fall of Afghanistan

On 15th August 2021, the Taliban militia group completed its shockingly rapid takeover of Afghanistan by capturing Kabul. Notably, this came few weeks after the U.S. withdrew its troops from Afghanistan following the Agreement for Bringing Peace to Afghanistan, also known as the Doha Agreement, signed by the U.S. government and the Taliban. The agreement entailed a timeline for the withdrawal of all foreign military forces from Afghanistan. In return, the Taliban promised not to use the Afghanistan soil by any individual or group in a manner that threatens the security of the U.S. and its allies (Cambridge University Press, 2020).

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The fall of the Afghan government and the return of the Taliban to power after 20 years has left many countries, especially neighboring nations, scrambling to unravel how they will adjust to the shifting geopolitical outlook. This research paper seeks to examine how the recent fall of Afghanistan is affecting and will the world. Besides changing the geopolitical landscape, the fall of Afghanistan will impact international relations and influence nations to re-evaluate their geopolitical strategies.

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How the Fall of Afghanistan Impacts International Relations

            The significant short-term impact of the Taliban takeover is in the geopolitical flux. The world has to figure out how to adjust to the emerging Taliban regime in Afghanistan. The neighboring nations are concerned about political instability. They are also worried about the probable refugee inflows that will accompany the instability. Afghanistan has seen many citizens try to leave the country as they fear that the Taliban will establish a repressive government. Moreover, the world is concerned that Afghanistan will become a haven for terrorist activities (Tanya & Coleman, 2021). The Taliban promised to form an inclusive and non-repressive government. However, judging from the interim government formed by the Taliban group, they are not willing to honor their promises. The new cabinet contains no women, opposition members, or individuals from minority ethnic or religious groups (Aydıntaşbaş et al., 2021). This indicates that the Taliban-led government is most likely to relapse to its old ways characterized by terrorism. Thus, the neighboring nations are right to be concerned about the possibility of increased terrorism following the Taliban takeover.

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            It is worth noting that the Taliban takeover will impact different nations differently. For instance, in the past decades, Pakistan has held significant leverage and influence over the Taliban group. According to Threlkeld and Easterly (2021), Pakistan is one of the few nations that recognized the Taliban as a legitimate government when they were last in power two decades ago. Based on this longstanding relation, whereas Pakistan may be on high alert over potential violence on its borders, it is likely to continue working with the Taliban-formed government. Additionally, Pakistan is likely to view the fall of the Afghanistan government as a positive outcome since the takeover can prove to be a significant setback for India, Pakistan’s arch-rival (Threlkeld & Easterly, 2021). Thus, the Taliban takeover can have a positive impact on Afghanistan-Pakistan relations.

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            On the other hand, whereas India has had a stable relationship with the Afghanistan government, the Taliban takeover may prove detrimental to India-Afghanistan relations.  For the past two decades, India has been providing Afghanistan with development assistance to improve its relationship with the country. However, judging from history, the Taliban has been an anti-India organization (Chaudhuri & Shende, 2020). According to Harpviken (2021), when the Taliban was last in power, India made several diplomatic attempts to improve its relationship with the group, but the Taliban shuttered the efforts. The Taliban takeover is likely to fuel the India-Pakistan feud as Pakistan may use the opportunity to attack India. Thus, the Taliban takeover is likely to fuel the India-Pakistan conflict.

            The Taliban takeover is also likely to benefit China. Notably, while countries such as India and the U.S. have been rushing to evacuate their citizens and diplomats from Afghanistan, China has decided to keep its Kabul embassy open. Through its foreign ministry’s spokesperson, the Chinese government said that it expects a smooth transition of power. Given the current relationship between China and the U.S., China holds a strong position for cultivating diplomatic relations with Taliban led government. China will mainly seek cooperation to create a secure environment for advancing its infrastructure projects (Hass, 2021). Therefore, the Taliban takeover is likely to improve the China-Afghanistan relationship.

            Other countries such as the U.S., Russia, France, the UK, Germany, and Italy, among other world nations, may fail to recognize the Taliban group as the legitimate authority in Afghanistan. Many countries have a good reason to be concerned that the return of the Taliban to power threatens global security. Considering that the group comprises individuals with radical views regarding issues such as religion, human rights, and gender equality (Tanya & Coleman, 2021). If the group is unwilling to change its position on these issues, instability is likely to be experienced in many countries, especially Europe. However, if the Taliban is committed to embracing foreign policy emphasizing inclusion, neutrality, and non-interference, then global powers will, in time, form diplomatic relations with Afghanistan. However, world powers are likely to avoid any relations with Afghanistan in the short term and may even implement sanctions to prevent instability and curb insecurity (Tanya & Coleman, 2021). Thus, in the long run, the type of relationship between Afghanistan and other world nations will depend on how the group will run the government.

Impact of the Afghanistan Fall on Geopolitical Crises Management Strategies

The dramatic end of the Afghanistan peace mission will inevitably raise the question regarding whether military interventions are viable in the modern world. After two years of military intervention, the U.S. did not seem to make any worthwhile progress. The U.S. and its allies spent many years and massive resources on the mission through training the Afghanistan armed forces and deploying soldiers in its peacekeeping mission. The main goals of the intervention were restoring peace in Afghanistan and establishing a democratic government that would ensure the nation never falls in the hands of extremist groups such as the Taliban. However, the Taliban retook power less than a month after the U.S. withdrew its troops (Aydıntaşbaş et al., 2021). Thus, the dramatic fall of the Afghanistan government will raise the question about the future of military interventions and subsequently inform geopolitical crises management strategies.

In years to come, the withdrawal of the U.S. troops from Afghanistan and the Taliban takeover will become part of an objective process of strategic reprioritization. In the past centuries, nations have considered the U.S. the greatest nation on earth; as a result, they often include it as a crucial organizing principle in their foreign policy. The world is likely to view the withdrawal of U.S. troops and the failed mission as evidence of its unreliability and decline. The tarnished reputation coupled with the recent rise of China to power can influence nations to reprioritize their foreign policy’s key organizing principle (CITE). Aydıntaşbaş et al. (2021) insist that the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan and the Taliban swift takeover have set in motion events that will most likely dominate foreign policy agendas for months or even years to come. According to Roule (2021), the turn of events has left the U.S. reputation deeply bruised or perhaps scarred. Many of the U.S. allies are frustrated and concerned about the decision. Notably, this may influence foreign policy strategic direction.


To sum up, the decision by the U.S. to withdraw its troops from Afghanistan has proved calamitous as it was shortly followed by a swift power takeover by the Taliban. Notably, the fall of the Afghanistan government has the potential to change the geopolitical landscape, impact international relations, and influence nations to re-evaluate their geopolitical strategies. Regarding the geopolitical landscape, countries neighboring Afghanistan are currently scrambling to figure out how they will strategically adjust to the shifting geopolitical outlook following the establishment of a Taliban-led government. It is also worth noting that the Taliban takeover is likely to have varying impacts on international relations. Countries such as India and U.S. will experience dwindled relations with Afghanistan, while others such as Pakistan and China may benefit from the fall of the Afghanistan government. Concerning nations re-evaluating their geopolitical strategies, the swift Taliban takeover will spark the inevitable question regarding the viability of military interventions as crisis management strategies. The turn of events will also lead to the world questioning the reliability and credibility of the U.S. This may influence nations to rethink the strategic direction of their foreign policy.

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