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Trace of Virginia’s Civil Rights Struggle from the Colonial era to Today

The struggle for civil rights in Virginia can be traced through time since the American Indians. When the European settlers encountered the American Indians in the 15th century, colonial warfare erupted. This struggle by the American Indians against the European settlers almost resulted in the extinction of the Powhatan tribe. Later around 1619, Virginia saw the arrival of the first black slaves in Jamestown. It was not until the 1660’s that the Slave Codes were enacted. These codes particularly banned interracial marriages. Black enslaved people were also not allowed to claim ownership of any property or even bear arms; they were also not allowed to travel without permission. The enslaved status of a mother was passed on as an inheritance to her children.

Read also Comparing the Virginia Declaration of Rights, Declaration of Independence and the Bill of Rights

In 1669, the colony of Virginia made a vote to banish any white person who went into marriage with a Black, Native American, or mulatto. Virginia also declared that it was not unlawful to kill an ‘unruly’ enslaved black person. Black people continued with the struggle for their rights, and in 1758 they established The African Baptist Church, the first Black church in North America, on William Byrd plantation. By 1782, the Emancipation Act was accepted, and it increased Virginia’s number of emancipated African Americans by the thousands. Between 1820 and 1860, the Underground Railroad was established to assist enslaved people to escape to their freedom. A memorable revolt against slaveholders was staged in 1831, led by Nat Turner, an enslaved preacher. The struggle for civil rights was further curtailed by the Fugitive Slave Act, which honoured and rewarded individuals who would capture the escaping slaves. However, the emancipation proclamation of 1863 stated that the slaves in rebellious states had to be declared free. The Bureau of Refugees, Freemen and Abandoned Lands were established in 1865. It was intended to assist formerly enslaved people and poor whites. From 1874 to 1975, Virginia focused on laws that gave the mandate for “Separate but equal” status for people of colour.

Read also Challenges that Virginians Encountered during the Early 1600s

The 1950s, 1960’s, 1970s saw one phase of civil rights movements in the more prolonged struggle for black freedom. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was established, and in Virginia, it filed more lawsuits than in any other state. However, the fight towards integration was slowed and experienced challenges. For instance, Virginia’s state-coordinated program of Massive Resistance, where the local white authorities were boosted to obstruct the implementation of court decisions. Virginia, however, boasted of the most substantial group of civil rights and NAACP fighters. As a result, most of the highly significant legal landmarks of the civil rights movement had their origins in Virginia. For Instance, in 1946, Irene Morgan filed the suit that led to desegregated interstate bus travel. Another prominent Virginia case led to the prohibition against segregation even in bus stations, restrooms, and waiting rooms shared by interstate buses.

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One of the five school desegregation lawsuits that were encompassed in the 1954 lawsuit Brown v. Board of Education. This case stemmed from a student demonstration led by Barbara Johns, a teenager at Moton High School, Farmville. Another significant case that influenced the decision to desegregate schools was Green v. School Board of New Kent County in 1968. Southern Juries were also subjected to desegregation due to Johnson v. Virginia in 1963. Laws banning interracial marriages were overturned in over 17 states due to The Loving Case ruled by the Supreme Court. The civil rights movement nevertheless had its setbacks and did not achieve all its objectives. The social system of legally sanctioned segregation and second-class citizenship endured. However, they gave way to a new era of race relations governed by a more equitable set of laws. In the twentieth century, the civil rights movement played a significant role in changing Virginia, just like the war for independence did in the eighteenth century, and the civil war did in the nineteenth century.   

Read also From Protest To Politics. The Future Of The Civil Rights Movement

Ever since the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was passed, significant changes have been witnessed in retrospect to the civil rights struggle. In 1965, schools were still segregated; however, today, blacks, whites, Asians, Indians as well as other nationalities now socialize freely. Courtesy of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, discrimination based on race, colour, sex, religion was barred. Segregation in institutions, public accommodations, and workplaces was also prohibited; the unequal application of the registration requirements was also ended. The impact of this legislation was so powerful that it was even considered as a template for further societal transformation.

Read also The Transformation Of The African American Struggle For Civil And Human Rights Over The 20th Century

According to Oliver Hill, professor of psychology at Virginia State University, the Act’s passing was representative of a crucial direction the U.S society was taking since the civil war. However, although the law was changed to accommodate the change in view about discrimination, the hearts and minds of some people still haven’t changed. Currently, there are issues about discrimination that are yet to be abolished. For instance, women and minorities still experience challenges in picking up state contracts. The criminal justice system has been found to disproportionately provide harsh treatment to minorities; this has been evidenced by the high number of African-Americans in jail.

Read also Civil Rights and Civil Liberties and Related Cases

The impact of the passage of the act cannot be underestimated. The idea of one staying unemployed because of their race or sex has changed since 1963. The ranks of female judges, lawyers, firefighters and police officers were very limited. Today, the number of women makes up almost a third of all lawyers and about 20% of all law enforcement officers. Although discrimination may endure, at least now, there are weapons to fight it. The 1964 Act has had one of the broadest impacts on people’s lives. It was responsible for boosting the 1972′ Title IX, which prohibited sex discrimination in public education and government-assisted programs and led to the boom in women’s athletics.  It was also amended with the 1978 Pregnancy discrimination Act. The path towards the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 was also founded on the civil rights act.

Read also Civil Rights Movement That Has Shaped A Sense Of Social Responsibility In United States Of America

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America’s founding ideals and its enhanced moral authority on the world stage can be tied to the foundations of the civil rights struggle. For example, when one looks at Hanover County in Virginia, the population of black people, there is less than 10%, but its highly regarded school district is led by an African American. Chesterfield County has had more than one African-American superintendent. New problems have come up mirroring the journey of civil rights struggles in America. For example, the opposition to gay rights, abortion rights, and Medicaid expansion to the uninsured. There is a continuing disparity in the gap between the payment for men and women. Black unemployment has reached twice that of whites. Although the civil rights act has been very crucial, it has been unable to provide a solution for every problem.

Read also National Organization for Women – Women’s Civil Rights

In conclusion, the civil rights struggle in Virginia has achieved many significant landmarks. Many of the most crucial civil rights movements in the US originated in Virginian. Today, a more just set of laws related to civil rights have replaced the ones that existed in the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries leading to a new era in race relations. However, inequality is still prevalent not only in Virginia but the entire United States. Therefore, there is still much that can be done to truly achieve equality in Virginia and the rest of the US.

The Trial of Anne Hutchinson, Heretical Teacher or Guardian of Religious History

Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643) was one of the earliest influential Puritan female spiritual leaders in the United States. American feminists. This stems from her role as a spiritual leader in the Massachusetts Bay colony, whereby she challenged male authority. She also indirectly challenged gender roles by preaching to both women and men. Due to her role in challenging the male-dominated religious leaders of the time in the Massachusetts Bay colony, Hutchison is considered one of the earliest feminists in America. In 1637, Hutchison was accused of being a heretical teacher, where she was found guilty and banished from the colony. It is worth noting that the main reason that Hutchison was tried is her constant challenge of gender roles and not religious heresy, as she was a guardian of religious history who dared question Puritan teachings.

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Like many women of her era, Hutchison had no formal education. However, she was an avid thinker and reader. She was trained as a midwife but had a deep love for religious teachings, whereby she was inspired by Reverend John Cotton, a vicar at the Lincolnshire parish. After she migrated to Boston in 1634, where she worked as a midwife, Hutchison developed strong ties to local women. Subsequently, she began holding meetings with these women in her home to discuss the teachings of Reverend Cotton’s summons. With time, the meetings gradually shifted to critiques of the Puritan beliefs, especially regarding the Covenant of Works. Specifically, Hutchison critiqued the role of good works and adherence to religious law in salvation. Hutchison insisted that the only salvation is by God’s grace (the Covenant of Grace). She also disputed the Puritan belief about good works being a sign of God’s grace. Eventually, her meetings became popular with males, including prominent men.

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Hutchison developed the religious philosophy that underpinned her American preaching. She believed that any person could attain heaven as long as they worshipped God directly; thus, creating a personal connection with God. She also preached that behavior did not determine whether someone went to heaven since God forgives those who sincerely repent their sins. Notably, all these viewpoints were in direct violation of Puritan doctrine. As Hutchison expanded on her ideas, people increasingly flocked to listen to her. By 1336, she held two meetings per week with as many as eighty people attending each session. This included both men and women as well as prominent figures such as Henry Vane, who was the governor of Massachusetts. However, after a year of preaching, Hutchinson started receiving negative attention from the Puritan leadership. The Puritan beliefs held that preaching was reserved for men. They also regarded Hutchison’s ideas as dangerous as they promoted dissension in the colony.

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Hutchison’s popularity significantly bothered religious leaders. Notably, during those times, the Puritan leadership was the true authority in the theocratic Bay colony. In 1637, Hutchison was tried for religious heresy. However, it is worth noting that the real issue was not her “heretic” teachings but rather her defiance of gender roles. The religious leaders perceived her as a threat because she presumed authority over men in her preaching. Notably, this was in the era when men ruled, and women remained silent and submissive to men’s ruling. When Hutchison asserted her right to preach, the Puritan leadership was resentful that she dared to overstep her position in society as a woman. They feared that she would inspire other women to become rebellious. In the trial, it was stated that Hutchison had instead been a husband than a wife, a preacher than a midwife, and a magistrate than a subject. This statement shows that the Puritan leadership had an issue with her position in the society more than they had with the content of her preaching.

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            In her trial, Hutchison told the court that she had received a direct revelation from God that she could interpret the scriptures. This claim sealed her fate as the ministers who were against her preaching used the assertion to prove their accusations of Hutchinson being heretic. Hutchison might have said that in an attempt to assert her rights to interpret the scriptures and preach, it was a miscalculated move. She provided the court with the arsenal it needed to excommunicate and banish her from the Bay colony. Nonetheless, this is not to say that what Hutchison preached was a heretic. She challenged Puritan beliefs that seemed contrary to what the Bible taught. For instance, she preached that heaven was attainable to everyone as long as they developed a personal relationship with God. Indeed, this is integral to the New Testament’s teaching. The New Testament emphasizes that God is forgiving and that heaven is attainable to everyone who believes in God and acts in accordance with His teachings. Therefore, in conclusion, Anne Hutchison was a guardian of religious history and not a heretic teacher as the Puritan leadership portrayed her.

Compulsory COVID-19 Vaccinations and Effectiveness of Immunizations

Vaccinations are a modern medicine success story for protection again some of the most devastating infectious diseases. More recently, certain infectious diseases like the measles, mumps, whooping cough, and COVID-19 have seen a resurgence in North America. In Ontario, immunizations are required for health care workers. France has recently announced that eight vaccines will be mandatory for students attending public school by 2018. For this assignment you will need to discuss the effectiveness of immunizations and discuss the significance of implementing mandatory COVID-19 vaccinations across Canada and the United States.

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A Case for Compulsory COVID-19 Vaccinations

Over the past two years, events globally have largely been shaped by the sudden emergence and spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) commonly referred to as COVID-19. This highly-infectious respiratory virus soon proved to be one of the most challenging and most disruptive events ever witnessed globally within the 21st century. Although the virus posed a considerable risk among the elderly and individuals with a low immunity profile, the virus was also responsible for the loss of livelihoods and hindered free movement owing to travel restrictions imposed as a consequence of strict lock-down mandates recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).Yet, critics this policy regarded this policy as more of a knee-jerk reaction that mostly. failed to present viable solutions to address the aforementioned challenge. Given that pharmaceutical companies such as Moderna and Pfizer were finally able to roll-out COVID-19 vaccinations (Moderna (COVID-18 mRNA) and Pfizer-BioNTech) in record time, stipulating compulsory vaccination may be a step in the right direction and may even help in the prevention and management of the disease.

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Compulsory COVID-19 Vaccinations As a Form of Community Disease Prevention

The formal adoption of legislation stipulating the terms of compulsory vaccination among the general population for highly-infectious diseases such as COVID-19 is a step in the right direction given it represents community disease prevention. This reality has often resulted in the pervasive use and application of phrases such as “herd immunity” as a term embodying the significance of community disease prevention (Baker, 2020). Such efforts are a step in the right direction since vaccinations will serve the preemptive role of safeguarding some of the most vulnerable members of society from contracting such diseases or succumbing to them in the long run. Although it is expected that a cross-section of society may view this as an infringement upon their personal and individual rights, it is important to always champion for the welfare of the majority and should always take precedence in a scenario. Moreover, such initiatives also play a crucial role in improving the awareness of individual members of society regarding their role in disease prevention.

A Compulsory COVID-19 Vaccinations Mandate will Reduce Mortality Rates

The integration of vaccination mandates into the mainstream is typically in the best interest of the public and meant to improve the quality of life and mortality among the general population. Failure to do so may result in a highly vulnerable society unable to weather the shock of hard-hitting health events such as the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, societies which decide to embrace compulsory vaccination mandates are also projected to experience rapid growth and development. This is evident in Austria, Venice, Italy, and Malaysia which were among the first countries to embrace mandatory COVID-19 vaccination for its population (Kass, 2021). In time, compulsory vaccination mandates are bound to create a sturdy population which cannot be threatened by preventable diseases and infections known to debilitate and decimate global population. Vaccines should always be treated as an innovative solution to possible health challenges in today’s fast-paced world and serves as an ingenious solution to boosting our immunity while preventing a whole host of infectious and highly contagious diseases.

Compulsory COVID-19 Vaccination Mandates are Efficient and  Adhere to Principles of Bioethics

It is important to note that compulsory vaccination mandates reinforce the ethical nature of this particular practice as an efficient means of disease prevention. Members of the public are bound to soon become fully aware of the ethical responsibility they bear by getting vaccinated; eventually resulting in the protection of vulnerable members of society. Moreover, it serves as one of the best indications of the public’s trust in the Federal Government, especially in relation to have the public’s best interests at heart (Larkin, 2021). This would have been especially the case during the recent COVID-19 pandemic since such actions would have been interpreted as altruism and standing by ethical values upholding the overall good of society. It is also worth noting that compulsory vaccination mandates also adhere key tenets of the practice of bioethics and are specifically meant to result in the protection of society at large. The introduction of vaccine mandates should, therefore, always be accompanied by the knowledge that any risk posed is considerably less than that posed by the disease in question hence the need for nationwide adoption.

Compulsory COVID-19 Vaccination Mandates Represent a Low-Cost Community Disease Prevention Strategy

Over the past two years, Federal healthcare agencies have systematically engaged in public awareness campaigns to improve the public’s knowledge of COVID-19 vaccination and other associated benefits. Healthcare policymakers from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) have recently spearheaded public awareness campaigns to improve public awareness about the overall efficiency of vaccination as a low-cost and highly effective community disease prevention strategy. This strategy also serves as a crucial tool against vaccine hesitancy while also building the public’s confidence in federal and state agencies in charge of matters public health. Apart from being a low-cost community disease prevention strategy, mandatory vaccination also has a higher cost to benefit ratio as compared to other available alternatives (Baker, 2020). Vaccination is typically viewed as the most practical option to adopt when attempting to restore normalcy in society after addressing the negative impacts of the pandemic. It is cheaper than the restrictive lock-downs imposed globally or other alternatives such as the mask mandates and the compulsory sterilization of surfaces likely to harbor the virus.


Recent healthcare challenges, such as the emergence and spread of the COVID-19 virus, has prompted various key policymakers from the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) to clamor for the implementation and adoption of compulsory vaccination mandates. This move may, eventually, have one of the most impacting public health initiatives in the United States. Compulsory vaccination mandates should be taken into account and implemented given it is a core tenet of community disease prevention, improves the quality of life and mortality, and also based on medical bioethics. Its adoption would, therefore, mark the beginning of new dawn in public health where the public play an active role in safeguarding and protecting others through vaccination.

How Race and Ethnicity have Shaped Society over the Years


Race is described as grouping of human beings based on their physical or biological traits shared amongst them for example skin complexion or the facial features and it’s linked to biology whereas ethnicity refers to the state of belonging to a social group that has a common national, religious or cultural tradition. The terms race and ethnicity have been severally used interchangeably to mean one and the same thing although the two terms differ in meaning. While one can deny their ethical group, they cannot deny their race (Hall, S.1986). Some people might be identified to be in the same race for example white their ethnicity might fall on different groups like Irish or Japanese. And the significance we give to these things is a choice that humans/societies make consciously and unconsciously, over time.

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Another example on race is on how people with blue hair or red hair (biological characteristic) are not said to be in the same race as with the people with green eyes or black hair. In this sense the skin color is of major effect on ones race as compared to their eye or hair color. Year in year out race and ethnicity have been used to classify people into groups that the society terms they fit best and this process of putting them in groups is called social stratification which is a social concept (Van den Berghe et al, 1978). In this study race and ethnicity will be critically analyzed and their impacts in the society evaluated .The study will explore how race and ethnicity has shaped society over the years to the modern day.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is the process by which society groups its people according to socioeconomic factors like their social status, wealth, ethnicity, gender and occupation. According to conflict theory which was purported by Karl Marx, social stratification exists as a results of the have-nots in the society being looked down and constantly discriminated. Race and ethnicity have been used to group people in the society since the 16th century and according to W.E.B Du Bois this grouping was a result of colonization for the people’s identity be known by the superior race that is the whites.

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Race and Ethnicity

Race was first introduced in 1450-1500 derived from a French word “race” which means lineage or breed. In the 1700 when colonization was spreading and Africans were being traded as slaves in the European the word race was altered to mean place of origin of a person thus sorting people by skin color. This led to philosophers and anthropologists in the 18-19 centuries to state and even claim that a person’s race determined their social caste in the society. The blacks were considered to be inferior as they were slaves and the whites believed that their complexion gave them superiority over the other races. The whites believed that their skin complexion and their facial appearances meant they were more human, intelligent, moral and capable more than the rest of the other skin colors. Unlike race, ethnicity dates back to around 1765-75 the word being derived from Latin word “ethnos” which means nation/people. The earliest use of ethnic in English was as a noun for a “heathen” or “pagan.” At that time, ethnic was also used colloquially to refer to those who originated from nations that weren’t Christian or Jewish. It wasn’t until the early 1900s that ethnicity was used to refer to social groups of a common ancestry and shared culture. But by the mid-1960s, the adjective ethnic, in white mainstream culture, did develop xenophobic connotations: ethnic came to mean “foreign, or un-American.”

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The social constructionist approach by the social scientist highlighted that race lacked biological support as it was the main factor resulting in political inequality to the races considered inferior ( W.E.B. Du Bois ). The social scientists approach shared the views that race should be stopped so as to stop inequality among people and that race is but a belief pf people in everyday life and this causes social effects in in life. Historically, determining differences between groups was important in everyday life example in assigning identity to people based on kinship. However, the idea of racialization came to classify groups of people for the purpose of political separation or domination e.g. non-European were racialized as non-white people while African groups in slave trade, Africans in South Africa, and Roma groups were socially excluded in Europe based on their race (Jiwani Y et al., 2011).

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In the first decades of the 20th century anthropologists and psychologists and sociologists debated the topic of inequality and they succeeded in educating their friend’s scientists to shun away from racism and instead offer equal chances and rights to people regardless of their skin color. With time anthropologists joined them to support that racism is just an idea and argued to get rid of racism as it’s a myth. A debate arose which consisted of two teams, splitters who argued that races existed against Lumpers who argued that races do not exist. This debate took three decades before they settled on the fact that neither the biological or genetic race exists. Scientists then tried to establish a way to classify people in groups without using their physical appearance of facial characteristics. “The import of these debates has been to show that ideas of race are time and space specific” quoted Holloway in the year 2005.

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Science took a milestone affecting races when scientists in the 18th and 19th century scientists developed systems for intelligence and criminality by measuring the skull and calculating the size of the brain. People found to have deformity like a smaller brain were said to later tend to be criminals, so urged Professor Lombroso. These kinds of scientific advancements and processes equated physicality with morality and with superiority since certain physical features were seen to make individuals ‘more’ or ‘less’ moral and civilized, and worked to justify the inferiority of some races and the superiority of others. This kind of work was often used to justify slavery. This kind of classification and dehumanization is now predominantly regarded scientific racism.

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With this information available, the Nazis led by Hitler in the road to “racial purity” took it upon themselves to kill these disabled people, homosexuals and Jews. Influenced by the racial science advantment, the Nazis measured pupils noses and skull so as to see if they fir the Aryan race physical features then the children were killed (Pulido L. 2017).

With the discrimination that the “inferior races” go through, the media adds salt to the injury by publicly discriminating and bullying them on the social platforms. An example of this is when a black climate activist Vanessa Nkate was cropped out of a picture she took with white colleagues and when a gypsy woman’s wedding was featured in a magazine with a gruesome title that read, “My big fat gypsy wedding…” and her photos and weight criticized (Harrison & F. V.1995).This results to double consciousness which Du Bois described it as the state of our identity being based on how people perceive us and peoples relationship to other groups in the society. Double consciousness affected the people that had two ethnicity group example the black Americans. In such a situation no matter the percentage of the black ancestry one was always considered a black person and the state identified them as black. This was the “one-drop” rule.

Racialization identifies as the way particular racial or ethnic identities become ascribed to particular groups in terms of their skin color or their way of life although most times, these groups don’t necessarily identify themselves in this way. If we take race and ethnicity as a social construct, a key concern for sociologists then becomes the process of ‘racialization’ (Fulcher and Scott, 2011). A good example of this is the Chinatown in London which started as a business for several immigrants of different ethnicity but they all started to sell the Chinese cuisine and the town has since then grown to bra major tourist destination area.


This study shows that race is a politics play and a contentious issues that the whites have been using over the years to make the blacks feel inferior and deny them their rights although the issue of racialization remains in the modern day. It can also be noted that race interacts with ethnicity, class and gender.

The black people with support from a few people that don’t believe in races have joined to fight against discrimation as a result of race which has birthed several movements to fight against racism to the black community. It’s important to note than on ethnicity and identity, two ethnic groups can share some ideologies or opinions and this should not make any of the ethnics any less authentic.

The Consequences of the Quest For Truth in Ashini, Le vrai monde and Bousille et Les justes


Truth can play many roles in one’s life. There are two types of truth in literature: Absolute truth and worldly truth. The absolute truth comprises of ideal teachings for example not all that glitters is gold while the worldly truth comprises of facts that we live by in this world. Every protagonist in a story has challenges to face and a truth to tell or live up to. This study will focus on three novels and the consequences of the quest for truth for each of the protagonists. The novels are : Ashini, Le vrai monde and Bousille et Les justes.

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The Quest For Truth By Ashini, Claude and Bousille

In the book Bousille et les justes, Bousille witnesses his cousin Aime murder a man which makes him the key witness  for that case. Aimé’s family conspires to make him lie  in court. The family succeeds in making Bousille lie but since he’s very religious and views lying as a grave sin, he commits suicide. In his quest for truth and to tell it to the court he loses his life. The role of truth in Bousille  et les justes is to create  and break social bonds depending on if a character chooses to tell the truth or lie.

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Ashini, a descendant of the great Abenaki race, a comer from the south, a researcher of great forest ( Ashini, page 22) is the protagonist in the book Ashini. Its in this book that the effects of civilization are portrayed whereby the people that produce the land and resources to enable it are left with the bare minimum. The whites visited Ashini with the offer to build better houses for them and create jobs and thus needed his help to convince his people to agree to modernization. The forest was cleared and big houses were built. However, the whites created territories to restrict the Abedinaki from going in. This reveals the truth in the western man not being able to appreciate the difference among the people and offer equality to everyone regardless of the race. “Ils ne sa- vent pas ce qu’ils donnent en échange, parce que personne ne leur a dit et qu’il n’est point de mots dans la langue des Blancs pour décrire une richesse dont ils ignorent même le cours (Ashini,page 124).” . In the quest to save his people and give to them a free country and the tradition of their ancestors, Ashini becomes the intermediate between his people and the gods which later leads to him committing suicide which the whites rule as an insane act. Ashini’s death changes nothing for the course of his people just as he shouted in vain to the great north at the Great White Chief who did not even respect his death or receive his message instead saw it as an act of an insane man. Ashini’s journey in finding the truth on how to save his people leads him to him committing suicide because it’s when he crosses to the impossible border and emerges on the light where he now possessed all the knowledge and could know the secret thoughts. Ashini finally finds the truth he has been in search of and on top of that he rejoins with his dead family and everyone he has ever known that has died. The pursuit of this truth which took years of him wandering in the country and ends up in his death for him to get it. This shows his inability to help his few remaining people as there is no way to help them now as he’s dead and his race would soon be erased from existence.

Claude writes a play about his family but they don’t  like it as he uses the play to tell the audience  facts about his family; a play Claude doesn’t take part in but instead writes lines for each and ever character, his family. rt. Claude wishes to let his  family know the truth about  his perception of them  a gesture his mother doesn’t like. The act of him writing this play can be seen as a coward attempt to tell the world about his family without him opening up about his feelings. In his play he makes known of the night he caught his father about to rape his sister and hit him. Claude believes he is writing this play being a protector to his sister at the same time calling out his fathers but he p

Ashini, Bousille and Claude were all courageous and tried to stand up for what they believe in but it was a battle they could not have won. Bousille et les juste and Ashini novels are “books of blood” as they entail bloodshed . Although Claude wrote the play courageously to portray the issues in his family, he was powered by jealously towards the relationship between his father and his sister as over the years his father grew distant to him and closer to his sister. The deaths of Bousille and Ashani are useless and cannot in any way change the present or future in the world. What’s in common in all these books is the importance to speak out even if it’s too late and  even beyond the grave.


From this study its evident that any path from the truth cost the protagonists life in one way or another. The protagonists take the same measure when they can no longer keep living with the lie or the world that is as the result from them holding on the truth. Ashani, and Bousille  commit suicide for different reasons but it’s all an effect of not speaking up. Claude wrote a play as a way to represent his ideas, thoughts and desires into the characters at the same time to tell his family the truth. They all lack courage to stand up to their truths and defend it instead of taking it to the grave.  The actions they take to a certain their truths are hopeless and can in any way change the world  for the better. In conclusion, truth is given weight in all these books as it means a lot in the society and individuality.

Coordinating Business Strategies and Operational Needs in Business

Recently, new innovations and transformations in the global business arena have created a fast-paced business environment which now requires managers to be acutely resourceful and proactive to make headway. This recent development might very well explain the pervasive application of time-tested organizational strategies such as Porter’s Five Forces Model primarily designed to aid managers to align set business strategies with the prevailing operational needs at a specific point in time. The rationale behind the application of this particular framework is often to promote inter-organizational and intra-organizational cooperation while also aspiring to improve an organization’s capacity for identifying its own potential strengths and weaknesses.

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I thus contend that proper coordination of business strategies and operational needs is a valuable and much-needed step towards organizational growth and development and a prime reason why it is quite fundamental to discuss some of the most efficient business coordination available today.

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Creating Competitive Advantage within a Given Business Sector

One of the key initial strategies for managers to adopt in the pursuit of coordinating business strategies with actual operational needs is to first ensure their core defining objective is to create a degree of competitive advantage for the company. This process would normally entail maintaining team fully aware of their roles and responsibilities while also proving capable and competent enough to aligning personal goals with organizational objectives. Managers should, therefore, consistently strive to compete with potential rivals in their sector as one of the most reliable strategies to securing a substantial and lucrative market share (Griffin, 2013). Nevertheless, they must strive to consistently operate within the confines of the law; observing key industry regulations and best practices as a fulfillment of obligations associated with business ethics.

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Identify Potential Challengers and New Entrants in the Market

Managers can also coordinate set business strategies with operational needs in business by adhering to an operational framework where potential entrants are immediately identified and strategies adopted to counter their influence. Major fast-food franchises, such as McDonalds and Dominos, have mastered the art of identifying new potential entrants in the market as an important step towards the threat posed to their dominance (Greve, 2017). It is only after identifying any new entrants and their influence in the market that they are able to proceed with their business strategies especially since they are now able to gauge the breadth of their operational needs. However, a sizable portion of dominant companies and organizations benefit from the very fact that the potential growth of new entrants in a given market is ordinarily hindered and challenged by the prevailing state of a regulatory environment.

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Identifying Reliable Suppliers and Maintaining a Loyal Clientele

While attempting to determine the practicality of operational needs as they relate to business strategies, managers should always remain poised to identifying reliable suppliers in the market while maintaining their customer base. Reliable suppliers are an invaluable asset for any given organization primarily due to their ability to fulfill major labor requirements and proceeding further to fulfill raw material requirements. Besides, supplier are also a valuable asset for major companies functioning as industrial hubs. They are tasked with managing company infrastructure, sanitation, providing catering services, and providing key amenities in their role as service providers. Before aligning operational needs with business strategies, businesses must also remain cognizant of the power and importance of customers in the success. For instance, the flag carrier WestJet recently attributed its $10.3 billion annual profit the presence of a loyal customer base contented with services on offer (Davenport, 2021). This, eventually, shapes the response of industry leaders; especially when attempting to implement customer-friendly initiatives.

Awareness of Threats to an Organization’s Position

Prior to implementing economically-sound business frameworks and coordinating them with business strategies and operational needs, business managers should always remain cognizant of potential threats to their position. One of the main threats to the existing dominance and hegemony of a business within any given sector is the presence of substitute products within their sphere of influence. These products are typically lower in price and often present a much-needed alternative for any given target market. Gephart & Saylors (2020), noted that the emergence of cheaper substitute modes of transportation, such as steamers, electric trains, and Eco-friendly electric cars, pose a major threat to the commercial airline industry simply because what they offer is a “likable” alternative. Such threats are best addressed by always relying on shrewd leadership based on a functional organizational framework with a clear figurehead and elaborate departmentalization within the existing organizational structure.


In conclusion, attaining organizational success is a methodical process which often calls on managers to develop sound business strategies before proceeding to align them with a set of organizational needs. Attaining this objective may partly rely on how well an organization is able to implement key strategies such as those espoused by Porter’s Five Forces Model. Yet, some of the most important steps to consider include focusing on creating competitive advantage, identifying new entrants in the market, identifying reliable suppliers and a loyal clientele, and being aware of possible threats to an organization’s dominance.

What Role Did Race Play In The U.S. War With Mexico?

The Mexican American war was chiefly determined by the thought of “Manifest Destiny”; the conviction that the United States had a God-provided right to dwell in and enlighten the whole world. As elevating number of Americans wandered in search of land towards the west, the reality that the majority of those lands had occupants living in them got overlooked. As a substitute, the approach and conviction that autonomous English-speaking America would do better work with the land than the Native American reigned. The president Polk shared and guided the dream of manifest destiny, and offered to purchase much of the southwest territory of the Mexico. However, the refusal of the offer by the Mexican government and the unbending of the Polk to populate the area resulted in tension in the two nations. As a result it is clear that the racism was the major cause of the war as other factors follow.

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The Mexican- American War of 1846 to 1848 marked the initial U.S. armed disagreement mainly fought on the alien land (Bauer, p5). The war resulted after the Unite States refused to include Mexico in the union principally because northern political intentions were in opposition to the accumulation of a new slave state. In addition the Mexican administration was also cheering boundary raids and forewarning that any effort at seizure would direct to war. It rutted a politically alienated and militarily ill-equipped Mexico in opposition to the expansionist-minded government of the United States. Moreover, the was headed by the president James Polk, who supposed that the Unite State had a “manifest Destiny” to extend from corner to corner continent to the Pacific Ocean. He handed over the War Message to Congress before declaring the war with Mexico. It was a boulder battle that along the Rio Grade that initiated the fighting that left Unite States with a series of triumphs. On the other hand by the time the war ended, Mexico had lost around one-third of its land counting almost all what is present California, Nevada, New Mexico and Arizona.

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Causes of the Mexican American War were numerous and complex, but one thing is basic. Texas and America were strong-minded to unite, and Mexico was in the same way strong-minded to put off that from (Bill, p6). It is probable that Mexico could have been conveyed to make out Texas liberty and finally even their capture by the United States (Barker, et al., p 33). However, the promptness and swiftness of American deed together with the Mexican endeavors to prevent the capture of Texas by the United States brought the war. As a result, it was the declination of Mexican to recognize Texas independence and the yearning of Texans for statehood with American longing for the westward extension set the stage for the war.

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After the war was declared in May 13, 1846, The U.S. forces attacked Mexican territory on two major fronts. A United States war cavalry was sent by the United States war department under the headship of Stephen to attack the Mexico. However, this was done principally to because of fear that Britain might attempt to grab the area. Later, two more forces one under Taylor and another one under Wool got ordered to attack the Mexico in the far south.

Read also Mexican-American War Overall Occurrences

As the war advanced, race essentially conflicted with the Manifest destiny. However, this was because a numerous number of race-conscious Americans who supposed in racial pre-eminence got anxious in their country obtaining land of Mexican which was densely populated.  As a result, the excessive racism of numerous Americans confirmed to be a chief aspect that prohibited taking of Central America and Mexico. The concept of Mexicans’ mixed-race inheritance and the danger of ethnic mixing amid Anglo-Saxons and Hispanics was almost certainly the main hurtful view of the Mexican-American War (John, 112). It is due to this that most Americans were not supporting the America Mexico war.

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During the war the Texas recognized the institution of slavery that was captured in Mexico at the time of war. Due to the issue of slavery the war got supported widely by the southern states and at the same time got opposition from the northern states as indicated in the Frederick Douglass article on the war with Mexico of January 21, 1848.  Consequently, separation developed largely from anticipation how the United States expansion would influence the issue of slavery.  As a result, numerous northern abolitionists pointed the war as a trial by the slave-owners to extend slavery and guarantee their sustained manipulate in the central government. It is due to this that David Wilmot came with a provision Wilmot Proviso, August 8, 1846 that declared that no slavery that should ever exist in the land captured.

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The aftermath of the war favored the United States since they are the ones who won, and acquired a massive piece of land.  The war resulted in the lost of power of President Santa Anna in Mexico. The U.S. general Taylor utilized his celebrity as a war hero to succeed the presidency in 1848. A factual satire is that the push of Polk to the war resulted in the victory of Taylor in the White House. Additionally, the war left the relation of amid the American and Mexican been tense for many years with a number of military guiding the borders. In the upcoming civil war, for the American the war provided them with a training ground for the armies who would lead the Southern and Northern armies.

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The main goal of the United States president Polk was an extension of the American territory to the Pacific Coast (Sam & James, 114). The American Mexican war led to his destiny of expansion, though to him it did not meet his goal. Although the war was extremely contentious in the United States element like anti-slavery and anti-imperialists highly opposed as indicated on the Walt Whitman article of War with Mexico on May 11, 1846. High financial cost and heavy casualties of the U.S. forces got pointed out by the critics of the war to oppose the war. Moreover, the war elevated the slavery issue in the United Stated, resulting in powerful discussions that resulted in the bloody civil war. On the other hand, in Mexico the war in the middle of political confusion this elevated into anarchy in the time of war. The military overcome and loss of land was catastrophic blow, making Mexico to go into “a period of assessment as its leaders hunted to recognize and address the motives that had resulted to such a catastrophe”. The change of the United States-Mexico border left a number of Mexican inhabitants alienated from their state government. The transfer of border for the Indians who had by no means acknowledged Mexican or American rule meant disagreement with a new external power.

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The defeat of Mexican soldiers and fall of the city of Mexico made the Mexican government to surrender and to initiate peace concessions with the United States (Ohrt, P 57-71). Due to high lost of life in the war, the United States took a treaty in the house of the senate. However, the treaty passed on due to the increased division among the southern and northern Americans. In addition, the Summon of the Mexican war on June 1846 prohibiting the division of slave and acquisition of land through blood by Theodore Parker also elevated the influence of the senate.  However, the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo made the war to officially come to an end in February 2, 1848. The treaty added the American territory with another 525,000 square miles of land from Mexico (Singletary, p127). In addition, Mexico gave up the entire alleges to Texas and recognized the Rio Grande as the boundary of American southern. The United State in return paid $15 million to the Mexico and decided to resolve all alleges of U.S. citizens against Mexicans.

However, the fight back of possession of the land in stolen territories did not conclude at the end of the war. Even though the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo recognized the legality of the Mexican and Spanish, the land-hungry and brutal whites ended up in the extensive domination that sparked mass expels and repatriation. After the war in 1848, the send away of the Mexican citizen from the Texas intensified. However, this even brought even more need for more land to settle. It is clear that the war brought more racism in the two nations that it was before.

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Postpartum Depression, Risk Factors, Symptoms, and Treatment

Definition of Postpartum Depression

Postpartum depression is a mood disorder highlighted by episodes of major depression within the first four to six weeks of childbirth. 

The term postpartum is the period following child delivery. Depression, in this context, is defined as a psychological disorder diagnosed with signs of sadness, despair, and loneliness. Other common symptoms of depression may include self-solation, mood swings, lack of sleep or irregular sleep patterns, guilt, and in extreme cases, suicidal tendencies.

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A positive diagnosis is confirmed if the patient exhibits at least five of the many associated symptoms that are constant within two weeks or more.

What are the Symptoms of Postpartum Depression

  • Insomnia or hypersomnia (inability to stay awake during daytime despite having adequate sleep time at night)
  • Guilt; Mothers with Postpartum depression may develop guilt. This symptom is often associated with an inability to form a bond with the newborn baby.
  • Fatigue; Mothers with Postpartum depression may face bouts of unexplainable fatigue.
  • Extreme sadness and random crying episodes
  • Lack of concentration and interest during most of the day, a symptom observed with mothers who can’t finish tasks they could easily manage before childbirth.

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  • Irregular appetite
  • Irritability; patients with PPD may lash out and easily form anger unnecessarily
  • Anxiety; Mostly observed in new mothers. Anxiety may manifest when performing tasks new to them. This symptom should not be singled out while diagnosing. It is usual among new parents.
  • Suicidal tendencies; In extreme cases of PPD, the mother may experience episodes of suicidal thoughts and, in some cases, exhibit acts of self-harm. This symptom is rare and usually explained by its accompanying risk factors.

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What are the Risk Factors (Causes) of Postpartum Depression

Medical practitioners often group risk factors into three categories: Obstetric, psychological, and social/lifestyle.

  • Obstetric risk factors:

Obstetrics is things relating to pregnancy and childbirth. Prolonged periods of labor pain during delivery, emergency cesarean sections, and complications during pregnancy are risk factors for PPD. These occurrences may be traumatic for the parents and can eventually lead to postpartum depression.

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  • Psychological risk factors:

This factor is usually associated with other psychological occurrences such as a history of sexual and domestic abuse, an unwanted pregnancy, a history of depression and stress, disappointment with the sex of the baby, or maybe if the baby has physical disabilities. New parents may be overwhelmed by the experiences that come with childbirth. Difficulty while trying to latch or extreme pain during breastfeeding may negatively affect a new mother’s psychology.

  • Lifestyle and social factors:

A newborn baby usually comes with lifestyle changes for parents. Pregnancies tend to affect previous routines observed by parents. The processes involved in adapting to these changes can be a risk factor for PPD. An identified example of social factors is negative comments by society on how new mothers carry out their rearing activities. Another example of a social risk factor is a case where a child is rejected by a spouse, their family, or society, with an example of an LGBTQ couple trying to raise a family.

A lot of PPD cases go undiagnosed and undocumented. Most of them also go untreated. Recent medical studies show one in seven women in the United States suffers from PPD. Due to stigma and varying severity of the mood disorder, the majority of these women opt to self-diagnose. Many with a positive diagnosis of PPD forego treatment seeking treatment options. 

The term “baby blues” is used for cases of postpartum depression with little signs and PPD that only lasts for a short period (symptoms gradually dissipating after 2-3 weeks).

Postpartum depression is not as easy to diagnose despite the symptoms being easy to identify. The reason is that diagnosis parameter are still under research. In most extreme cases, nurses can diagnose PPD early on, sometimes even before childbirth. Such cases are often where a mother exhibits signs of depression during pregnancy. For cases of PPD developed after childbirth, it may prove hard to identify.

Do Men Experience Postpartum Depression?

Men can also develop Postpartum Depression. Risk factors that may affect women may also apply to men. Also, for couples where a woman is experiencing PPD, a man is often at risk of developing postpartum depression. Most men may find it hard to deal with some of the symptoms exhibited by the woman. For example, in a situation where symptoms include irritability and agitation due to PPD, the man may develop similar symptoms.

Can Postpartum Depression be Treated?

Postpartum depression is still being researched and is currently treated by psychiatrists that treat depression. Current trends show a considerable number of psychiatrists specializing in the disorder. Diagnosis parameters are still under study and established. 

Women sharing their experiences during pregnancies on social media platforms has been a crucial factor contributing to the demand for research. Women and couples with Postpartum Depression symptoms are encouraged to seek medical counsel from their doctors to determine the best treatment modes. Left untreated, severe Postpartum Depression could lead to prolonged periods of depression which could be risk factors for other health conditions for both parents and the baby.

How Federal Healthcare Policies Impact Consumer Costs

Health insurance plans are increasingly developing higher deductibles and narrower networks in response to federal policy and service requirements. The expansion in health insurance coverage due to policies such as the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has significantly increased the number of insured Americans. However, although the policies have expanded access to health care, they have also made it such that consumers have to pay more out-of-pocket. Access to health insurance is insufficient if patients cannot utilize their benefits or afford to purchase coverage due to high out-of-pocket costs, high deductibles, and limited networks. This paper identifies and evaluates the impacts of federal health care policies on consumer costs.

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impacts of federal health care policies on consumer costs.

             Affordable Care Act has transformed health insurance by changing the size of the provider network. Although narrow networks existed even before the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, they have increasingly grown as a result of the policy. Consumer protection measures such as the prohibition of medical underwritings have it challenging for insurers to rely on conventional strategies to keep their costs low (Morrisey, Rivlin, Nathan, & Hall, 2017). Insurance coverage plans that have narrow networks can benefit consumers by lowering premiums. Additionally, negotiations between insurers and health care providers on network participation encourage more efficient delivery of care (Polsky, Cidav, & Swanson, 2016).

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However, on the downside, narrow networks also pose a significant risk to consumers. The more a network gets more limited, the more it jeopardizes consumers’ ability to obtain needed medical care on time. Additionally, narrower networks also lead to increased out-of-pocket costs by turning away sicker patients (Gillen et al., 2018). Thus, as health plan networks continue to grow narrow, they increasingly continue to limit access to in-network providers, especially for patients with more health needs.

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            High deductibles are designed to curtail medical spending. In an effort to keep their costs low in response to federal policies and service requirements, insurance firms are increasingly developing high deductibles in the hope that they will influence consumers to make good decisions regarding when they need medical care and when they do not. Thus, the main advantage of high deductible health plans is that they reduce the cost of care (Perez, 2017).

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However, they pose a risk to consumers in that most Americans do not have the medical expertise to distinguish between high and low-value care. To aggravate the issue, high-deductible plans do not discriminate between purchasing decisions. The average consumer does not often know what is wasteful and what is not, and, as a result, people in high-deductible plans tend to reduce their use of all types of medical care (Rabin, Jetty, Petterson, & Froehlich, 2020). When patients cut back on care indiscriminately, it leads to reduced access to health care.

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            In conclusion, federal care policies are impacting consumer costs in two ways. Firstly, by narrowing networks, which have the positive impact of lowering premiums. However, narrowing networks also minimizes access to healthcare by making it such that consumers have to rely on out-of-pocket to access high-cost medical services. Secondly, by leading to high deductibles, which have the benefit of influencing consumers to make better spending decisions. However, on the downside, high deductibles generally cause decreased access to health care. Aggregately, the negative impacts of high deductibles insurance policies and narrow networks outweigh the benefits as they place a higher financial burden on patients.

Benefits of Joining Drug Information Association

Networking Through Health Care Associations – The Drug Information Association

The Drug Information Association (DIA) is a global organization whose aim is to bring health care product development professionals together in a trusted, neutral platform to share insights and drive action in health care product development as well as life cycle management. Moreover, it fosters innovation geared towards improving health and wellbeing globally. Drug Information Association’s members join forces to collaborate, problem-solve, and discuss challenges facing life sciences in a complex and interconnected realm. The primary goal of the DIA is to ensure that the collaboration results in improving policies, regulation, research and development, science, and ultimately enhanced patient outcomes globally (“Drug Information Association”, 2021).

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Benefits of Joining Drug Information Association and Attending Meeting, Convention, or Conference in Person

            DIA members include an unparalleled network of professionals in life science and other health care fields from 80 countries. They also include professionals convening from academic institutions, research and development, regulatory, patient groups, payers, medical affairs, clinical development, and commercial areas, and more. Finally, active change-makers in life sciences are eager to discuss contemporary issues and pave a path for the future (“DIA Membership”, 2021).

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There are many benefits of joining DIA. They include relational building opportunities. DIA members engage at over 60 interdisciplinary and topic-specific conferences that are held annually across the globe. The conferences provide an opportunity for members to connect with global influencers as well as discover new ways to deliver impactful change (“DIA Membership”, 2021). Thus, DIA serves as a networking platform for its members.

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Secondly, Drug Information Association members benefit from knowledge and insights. When one joins DIA, they get access to cutting-edge thinking across the organization’s vast array of publications. Some of the publications include the Global Forum, the Daily eNewsletter, the DIA Podcast Channel, the Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science (TIRS), and the White Papers. These publications allow members to introduce new knowledge that keeps them on the cutting-edge of healthcare conversations (“DIA Membership”, 2021). The knowledge and insight allow members to hone their competence in their respective fields.

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Thirdly, DIA members benefit from the collaborative connections provided by the organization. Drug Information Association members have unlimited access to over 6000 collaborators across more than 20 topic-specific DIA communities. Members can find answers to real-time questions, request feedback on work, access interactive webinars, and nurture collaborative relations. Some of the topic-specific communities include Emerging Professionals & Students Community, Regulatory Affairs Community, Document & Records Management Community, and Clinical Trial Disclosure Community (“DIA Membership”, 2021).

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Fourthly, DIA benefits its members with skills development. The organization utilizes a blended curriculum, online learning programs, DIA’s learning platform, and customized group offerings. DIA also delivers best-in-class education to members looking to advance their careers by honing their skills (“DIA Membership”, 2021). Thus, DIA helps its members advance their career development goals through its best-in-class learning programs.

Lastly, Drug Information Association opens doors for its members to new pathways towards leadership growth. Notably, DIA members do not just participate; they also actively engage, act, and motivate. This includes volunteering for one of the many opportunities that showcase an individual’s professional leadership while giving back to the healthcare community. One can also write and submit articles to see their work peer-reviewed and published. Additionally, members can demonstrate their expertise through thought-provoking presentations and speaking engagements (“DIA Membership”, 2021).

The advantage of attending DIA’s meetings, conventions, or conferences in person is the increased opportunity to expand one’s network to include global peers. By attending the meetings, conventions, or conferences in person, one is able to connect with global influencers as well as uncover new ways to deliver impactful change in healthcare. According to Nigar (2021), face-to-face communication allows for better relationship building and, therefore, is the best when networking.

How Drug Information Association Membership Contribute to Job Responsibility and Professional Development

Drug Information Association membership contributes to job responsibility and professional development by providing invaluable forums that facilitate the exchange of vital information and discuss current issues related to the field of healthcare. By joining Drug Information Association, one can improve their job responsibility and professional development the organization’s best-in-class learning, which is designed to help professionals advance their career development goals. The organization also provides its members with customized learning experiences geared towards professional development (“DIA Membership”, 2021). Additionally, DIA membership contributes to job responsibility by helping professionals expand their network to include global peers who support one another in real-time. Moreover, the collaborative connections facilitated by Drug Information Association allow members to find answers to real-time questions and request feedback on work hence improving job responsibility (“Collaborations That Ignite Change”, 2021).

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How to Effectively Network Within the Pharmacy Industry

There are many ways to effectively network within the pharmacy industry. They include using social media such as LinkedIn. According to Nigar (2021), LinkedIn provides one of the greatest means for professionals to network and market themselves effectively. One can also use Facebook and Twitter to connect and exchange ideas with other professionals in the pharmacy industry as well as nurture meaningful and mutually beneficial relationships. Another way to effectively network is by attending pharmacy conferences. Most of these conferences have a scheduled meet and greet reception which offers a great platform to network. Joining organizations such as the Drug Information Association also provides an excellent networking opportunity. Membership enables networking by providing a platform whereby one can engage with other professionals and scholars in the pharmacy industry across the globe (Egly & Kaakeh, 2018).

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