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Implementation of Change in Nursing at Westmount Hospital


Most hospitals suffer due to poor feedback given by patients as they leave. Majority of the feedback is usually focused on poor quality of service offered by nurses. As a result of this, management may end up firing employees frequently as the underlying cause has not been addressed. The Westmount Hospital has been featuring the same trend of firing and hiring for many years, before it finally decided to look deeper into the problem. During the review of the system used by the hospital, many factors that are beyond nurse control were identified, and most of these directly linked to the poor performance of nurses. This paper features a plan of the proposed changes within the organization, how they will be implemented, and the resources that will be required.

Description of Current Problem

The Westmount Hospital is presently being challenged by poor health care delivery to patients mainly because of poor resource allocation. For a long time, nurses have been forced to work under stressful situations due to workforce shortages, and their daily tasks around the hospitals are also difficult due to lack of needed medical equipment. These two factors are the major reasons why patients are endlessly complaining of poor quality of care provided by the nurses available. As a result of workforce shortage, nurses are overwhelmed with having to cover a big number of patients on time. Their rounds are often delayed, with some patients being given little attention (Farquharson et al, 2013). This results into patient frustration, as medications need to be taken on time, just as other medical assessments should be done. The absence of required medical equipment used by nurses also contribute further to the situation. In this hospital, not all nurses are provided with basic equipments. For this reason, a lot of time is wasted when they use old school methods a task that is also tiresome and complicated. For instance, without a stethoscope and blood pressure monitor, a nurse in charge will not be capable of properly analyzing a patient’s condition when doing rounds.

Proposed Solution

To ensure that the Westmount Hospital improves its services to patients, it is important to offer support to the nurses. The main reason why nurses are providing poor quality services is because of work overload, and absence of medical equipment (Kar & Suar, 2014). Therefore, this hospital needs to increase its workforce and also purchase more medical equipment. It should be handled in such a way that a single nurse will only care for 10 patients a day. This will be an improved from the previous case where a single nurse would care for up to 30 patients a day. The fewer the number of patients a nurse is caring for per round, the better the quality of care will be. This will mean being served on time for all patients. Aside from offering medication and checking on the basic factors such as pulse and blood pressure, the nurse can also have time to connect with patients and better communicate with them. This is also a very important role of the nurse, besides the obvious factors. Medical equipment should be available in high numbers so that each nurse on duty will have a complete set of equipment. Offering patient care will, therefore, be easy and time saving.

Literature Review

Over the past decades, many researchers have taken it upon themselves to determine the reasons as to why nurses seem to perform poorly at their tasks. Underlying causes were determined, as it was identified that sometimes nurses do the best they can to ensure patient satisfaction. This meant that some of the reasons for low quality services may have been beyond their control. Farquharson et al (2013) state that nurses who perform poorly commonly complain of occupational stress. Occupational stress generally occurs when an individual is overloaded with tasks to handle at the same time. In nursing, this may happen when there is a workforce shortage, and a single nurse is expected to compensate for other 5 to 10 nurses. When faced with a such a situation, the nurse will commonly start experiencing a deterioration in physical and psychological health due to the trauma being caused to the body and also to the mind (Farquharson et al, 2013). As a result, the individual will start feeling less satisfied with the job, hence will perform poorly or lead to turnover.

Kar & Suar (2014) argue that the performance of a nurse is directly linked to a number of factor such as workload, job complexity and role conflicts. When a nurse is overloaded with tasks in the healthcare facility, the result is emotional exhaustion. The latter paves way for reduced personal accomplishment, a factor that eventually leads to decreased commitment and intentions to turnover. Job complexity may result due to the absence of required medical equipment that make things easier and more effective for nurses. As a result, nurses may be forced to use complicated methods to obtain measurements and carry out other roles that have been assigned to them. Role conflicts, on the other hand, is quite common in situations whereby there is workforce shortage. Hence, nurses may be expected to carry out tasks that they are not supposed to handle in the first place. As a result of such factors, nurses are also affected physically and psychologically, leaving them unfit to offer high quality patient care.

Medical professionals strive day and night to offer error free performance. This standard, however, can be difficult to attain when there are some factors that may limit performance. A research conducted by Valiee, Peyrovi & Nasrabadi (2014) identified five categories of causes of nursing errors when offering health care services. These include individual reasons, work pressure, not giving accurate care, the challenge of a unique caring environment, and also poor coordination among team members. The management is majorly responsible for the prevention of such errors as they can control nurses and their activities. For instance, work pressure may be avoided by ensuring that the organization has enough workforce. This means that each nurse will be given a manageable number of patients to handle, and not too many. Having a big number of patients will lead to working faster and less effectively to get the work done, instead of focusing on individual patient needs.

For many years, the nursing profession has been on the spotlight due to the issues of labor shortages and care quality. According to Wright, Bretthauer & Côt (2006), nurses commonly state unattractive schedules and excessive workloads as the two reasons why they are not content. This is why many countries have already started taking the issue seriously. This is being addressed by having a mandatory nurse-to-patient ratio (Wright, Bretthauer & Côt, 2006). This implementation of such laws shows that workload is indeed affecting the quality of work done by nurses. This is because, once the nurse feels overworked and dissatisfied with the job, he will not be in a position to offer patients the best care that is needed. There are other roles of nurses, such as being there when a patient needs to talk, that will be affected when a nurse is hurriedly moving from one patient to the next. Communication with patients helps the nurse to determine the unique needs of the patient, and thus will be able to implement them.

Malloch (2015) argues that it is important to make accurate determinations of the time required for handling patient care needs and aligning the findings with the appropriate nurse competencies and also the available time. Such an alignment is what will prevent work overload and being forced to work on areas of no competency, thus the quality of patient care and nurse satisfaction will both be improved.

Implementation Logistics

The proposed change will be integrated into the organization in a specific manner to ensure the maximum benefits are reaped. Due to the urgency of the matter, it is necessary that this changes be implemented as soon as possible. All the required preparations may take around a month, while purchasing the medical equipment may take up to three months. The latter is expected to take longer as the hospital will need to gather enough funds to cater for the expense. Therefore, the changes should be implemented within five months. Integrating these into the current organizational structure and culture will take place is stages. All the proposed changes cannot be implemented at once, as this may create confusion. Therefore, the first change to be implemented will feature introduction of new nurses to compensate for the shortage being experienced.

Since there will be more than five new nurses, the management will need to reconsider its approach on how these staff are handled. The proposed method will be to make use of smaller teams, whereby each one of them will have a leader nurse. This makes it easier to manage new personnel, and also to ensure that they are blending well with other previous nurses. The leader nurse will be responsible of task assignment so as to ensure all nurses get equal work loads. During this stage, the new nurses will be educated on how the organization functions.

The next stage will feature the introduction of medical equipment for all nurses. All nurses do not need to have their own equipment as they work in shifts. However, it is important to ensure that all nurses working in a specific shift will have all the required medical equipment to make their work easier. The human resource department will be responsible for ensuring that there is enough medical equipment for nurses during the shift. Nurses may need to be educated on how to use these equipment to achieve the best results. The management will be responsible for organizing a one month workshop, whereby all nurses will be expected to attended when they are not on duty.

Resources Required for Implementation of Change


As the organization will first need to recruit more workforce, posters will be required to help with the advertisements of job vacancy. These will be posted all over town to ensure a maximum number of people get the message. This is important as it will enable the hospital to choose from many applicants.


These resources will come in handy during the job vacancy advertisement and also during the education process of new nurses. The pamphlets may be designed to feature some of the most important information about the organization such as the organization culture, mission and vision statements.

Power-Point Presentations

These presentations will be essential during workshops as the speaker will need this for demonstrations. During the positioning of individuals into teams, the management may need the power-point presentation to show the staff where each one of them belongs.


These will be needed throughout the implementation process. They will be important when it comes to assessing whether the nurses are noting any changes, and the patients feedbacks may also be collected through the same. New nurses may need questionnaires to help determine their competencies and weak areas that need polishing.


Workforce shortage and lack of enough medical equipment may prevent nurses from carrying out their tasks effectively. This is because individual patients will not be given the amount of attention they need, and the nurse will not be able to identify each patient’s unique needs. This is why this plan is very important. It features an introduction of proposed changes that will ensure these issues facing the Westmount Hospital are addressed right from the roots. The result will be a long term change, compared to what may have been achieved by firing and hiring new nurses.

Business Level and Corporate Level Strategies – Walmart Inc


Wal-Mart is an American multinational retail corporation that was founded in 1962. It basically features a long chain of large discount and warehouse stores. The focus of this corporation is to touch people’s lives by helping to reduce their costs. This paper features an analysis of the business level and corporate level strategies of Wal-Mart Inc.

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Business Level Strategy

This corporation uses a combination of cost leadership and differentiation as its strategy. This means that this corporation provides consumers with a wider variety of products and services, and offers similar or better quality for them. The pricing offered for such goods and services are cheaper compared to what competitors offer. This strategies also feature looking for ways to reduce costs further while maintaining competitive advantage through differentiation (Walmart’s Keys to Successful Supply Chain Management, 2013). Cost leadership, therefore, represents a business-level strategy that is most important for the long term success of this firm. This is because the store chains basically use this strategy to attract consumers and increase sales as a result of new traffic.

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This low cost leadership approach is indeed the best choice for the firm as it ensures that customers will constantly be attracted to their products. It is very rare to find a firm that offers high quality products, similar to what is offered by others, but offers cheaper prices. This approach gives Wal-Mart Inc. an advantage over competitors since consumers have nothing to lose, but rather something to gain. Therefore, the firm will benefit from increased sales. Another reason why this is a good choice is that the organization has an advantage when it comes to creating entry barriers for competitors. The competition will be too stiff already, thus any new entrants will have a hard time surviving. Hence, the firm will manage to keep competition at bay.

Read also Walmart Compensation Philosophy

Corporate-Level Strategy

Wal-Mart has quite a number of corporate-level strategies, such as the single business strategy and public affairs strategy. The public affairs strategy of this firm is important for its long term success in that it creates room for expansion into other sectors, as well as into foreign countries (Dess, 2012). This strategy enables the organization to partner with politicians, who help it to achieve the set goals by offering financial support.

Read also Walmart’s Competitive And Macro Environment

There are many reasons why this is a good choice made by the management of Wal-Mart Inc. By taking the public affairs approach, this organization is forced to focus on customer satisfaction, as well as getting involved in other community activities that will help it gain a good name. Today, people are becoming more conscious and supportive of businesses that help to make the society a better place, rather than those who seek to destroy them. Therefore, people will feel like shopping at Wal-Mart Inc. provides them with an indirect opportunity to also contribute to the positive changes that the organization will later enhance. Aside from that, the company is less likely to be sued by environmentalists and activists who seek to ensure the protection of the environment and human rights (Global Responsibility, 2013). This is because the firm will be focused on productive factors that will ensure gain in the long run.

Read also How Technology is Changing the Face of Business Today – Walmart

Competitor Analysis

Wal-Mart’s major competitor features superstores that offer similar services as they do. For instance, the Target Department store is the greatest competitor, owing to the fact that it is considered the second largest discount retailer in the United States. The business level strategy of this competitor is quite similar to what Wal-Mart Inc. offers. Both stores are focused on gaining competitive advantage through low cost leadership and product differentiation. Target Corporation manages to offer low profit margins for products mainly because it is cutting down on production costs, just as Wal-Mart is doing (Canadian Press, 2013). It is also offering a wide range of high quality products for such a low price. A difference between these two firms is presented through their corporate level strategies. Wal-Mart Inc. has mainly focused on using the public affairs approach to help promote its goods and services, while Target corporation does not use the same approach.

Read also Bus499 – WalMart External and Internal Environments

In the long term, Wal-Mart Inc. is likely to become more successful than Target corporation due to the application of public affairs. Today, people are looking for a personal reason to become loyal to a company. Helping improve the society is far more attractive than basically decorating the store to impress customers. Most individuals will feel obligated to promote Wal-Mart Inc. so the environment and members of the society can also benefit in the end.

Read Also Walmart Market Segmentation and Targeting

In a slow cycle market, Wal-Mart Inc. will still be more likely to succeed due to the issue of customer loyalty, and barriers to entry. This, however, will not be the case in a fast cycle market. This is because the company may be forced to constantly alter its strategy to maintain its competitive advantage.

There are various levels and types of strategies. The levels include corporate, business unit, and departmental. The corporate level is concerned with growth strategies, stability strategies, and retrenchment strategies. Business level strategies include Porter’s generic strategies. Lastly, departmental level includes strategies to coordinate the operations needed for designing, manufacturing, delivering, and supporting a product or service.

Read also Cross Cultural Perspectives -Cultural Issue Affecting Walmart


Wal-Mart has managed to be at the top of its industry mainly because of its well thought business and corporate level strategies. It has found a way of offering quality products at cheaper prices, but still maintains its profit margin due to product differentiation and the use of public affairs to lure new customers.

Read also The Regulatory Environment Analysis – Walmart Stores With Regard To PCAOB

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Organizational Structure And Organizational Functions at Dell Company

Organizational Structure of Dell Company

The core company being analyzed in this paper is Dell Company. Dell Company was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell. Dell Corporation has a functional organizational structure. Functional organizational structure helps different functional components and departments at Dell Company to share ideas to promote strength of the organization (Usman, 2012). At the top most postion of the structure is the Chief Excutive Officer, Michael Dell. There are several directors serving under the Chief Executive Officer.

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The Chief Executive Officer at Dell Company oversees the activities of variuos departments including the Public Group department, Finance department, Marketing department, Dell Sevices department, Enterprise Group department, Small and Medium Group department, Strategy department, department, Legal department and Human Resources department. Since Dell is an international company, these heads of all departments work together to ensure that operations in all stores worldwide are operating smoothly (Kraemer and Dedrick, 2002). Figure 1 shows the organizational structure if Dell Company. Examples of companies with fuctional organizational structures are Apple Inc shown in figure 2 and TBS Managed Services shown in figure 3.

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Organizational functions


Finance department plays a very significant role in defining the organizational structure of Dell Inc. Being a global company, Dell feels that its success depends on how well its finances are managed in all its stores. For this reason, the company has structured its organization to have the Chief Finance Officer report directly to the Chief Executive Officer. This way, the company ensures that all financial information that reaches the Chief Executive Officer does not pass through so many people in order to avoid manipulation. In view of the importance of the finance department to Dell Company, the company feels that this department is the most important when listed with other functions such as marketing, operations and human resources (Hernaus, Aleksic and Klindzic, 2013).

Read also Dell’s Supply Chain


Since its inception in 1984, Dell Company has been growing at a rapid rate. Growing business marketing will therefore help Dell Company to retain old customers and even attract new ones for its innovative products. For this reason, the company has structured its organizational to have the Head of Marketing Department report directly to the Chief Executive Officer (Hernaus, Aleksic and Klindzic, 2013).

Read also Effectiveness of Dell’s Current Turnaround Strategies


Effective flow of operations is critical for Dell Company as it helps the company to make products available at the right time to consumers. This explains why Dell Company has structured its organization to have Head of Operations Department (Strategy in this case), report directly to the Chief Executive Officer. This helps the company to ensure availability of all the necessary raw materials at all times (Hernaus, Aleksic and Klindzic, 2013).

Read also Dell In China – Direct Business Model – Sample Paper

Human Resources

Human Resources has been ranked as the least important because Dell Company feels that issues concerning employees should be addressed after ensuring that all other departments in the organization are in the right order. This results into easy flow of work as employees will be able to perform their duties without hitches. Since flow of operations depend on the availability and of Human Resources, Dell Company has made Head of Human Resources Department to report directly to the Chief Executive Officer (Hernaus, Aleksic and Klindzic, 2013).

Read also 6 Things To Focus On When Creating A Human Resources Department for an Organization

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New Product Development and the Product Life Cycle – Lumia 532 Dual SIM


This paper analyzes the new smart phone, Lumia 532 Dual SIM, development and its product life cycle. This new smart phone from the Nokia Company before hitting its journey through the four product life cycle stages has to be developed first. The huge part of the company’s manufacturing process is the development of the new product to suit the various divergent market demands and preference.

The rapid advancement in new technologies, the constant change in customer attributes and needs, and the gradual rise in competition calls for Nokia Company to adopt New Product Development (NPD), to be a critical necessity and an inevitable business practice.

Read also Developing a Marketing Strategy for Coca Cola Company’s New Product

Product life cycle stages


The introduction becomes the most challenging stage of the product life cycle to a business as it is expensive to launch a new product into the market. The market size for the new product is still small resulting to lower sales but it is expected to increase gradually. There is also high cost of product advertisement, consumer testing, and research and development due to the competitiveness of the telecommunication sector.

Read also Creating a New Product Using Product Positioning And Marketing It

Growth stage

This stage experiences strong sales growth accompanied with high profits as a result of benefits associated with economies of scale in production, as well as greater profit margins.

Maturity stage

At this stage the product has an established grounding on which the manufacturer therefore maintain the market share they have built up. Investing in marketing at this stage becomes very critical as this stage is marked with great competition edge (Wells & Adler, 2000). The search for a competitive advantage is inevitable as consideration is taken into the products modifications or improvements within the production process.

Read also Change Management at Nokia Inc

Decline stage

Finally, the market share of the product shrinks. The shrinking could be due to market saturation; all customers have purchased the product, or may the consumers tend to switch to different kinds of products.

Marketing tactics and strategies


The research by Ball & Mississippi State University, (2013) showed that the use of prominent and renowned personalities in linking them with the product gives the particular a great platform of influence as the inherent social followers and fans of the personality are likely to give the product a try.

Event driven

The organization of promotional platforms and invitation of influential people to be part of the event participants, like corporate function, dinner or hosting an online event becomes crucial to the marketing intern as this is meant to drive attendance, impress clients and motivate workforce.

An approach to product branding

The approach towards branding the new product that I would use is the;

Co-branding technique

This calls for the marketer to seek partner with another firm. Following Swan & Zou’s (2012) work, the firm to partner with should have an established brand and thus it is hoped that such partnership would be more powerful than a single brand.

Ways to convey the advantages of the company’s products

Use of a website

Nowadays marketing entails use of the website platform in order to reach a worldwide arena. Conveying the advantages of the company’s products through website becomes cheap and convenient (Burton, Parker & Lawley, 2012).

Use of print media

According to Spoelstra (2014), making advertisements over local print media is another convenient platform of conveying a product information to the general public and thus widen the market share through information reach to various people.

International Crime Witness Report – Paris, France

Assignment Instructions 

Imagine you are traveling abroad in your chosen country when you witness a local national committing a violent assault. The criminal is arrested and charged by the police. Upon returning to the United States, a professor in one of your criminal justice classes asks you to complete a written report on your experience.

Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Determine the pertinent demographic, social, political, and economic factors about your chosen country.
  2. Examine the manner in which your chosen country’s criminal code would likely view the crime you witnessed. Provide a rationale for the response.
  3. Choose two (2) individual rights that the United States grants criminal suspects, such as search and seizure, right to counsel, etc., and analyze the country’s perspective on each right. Provide support for the analysis.
  4. Investigate the manner in which the police in your chosen country would likely treat the defendant. Provide justification for the response.
  5. Classify the fundamental similarities and differences between the police culture in your chosen country compared to the United States.

International Violent Assault Witness Report – Paris, France

During the Christmas holiday, I was lucky to take a trip to Paris, France. My stay was not all enjoyable, as one night I witnessed a local national committing violent assault. I was mesmerized by jewelry in a store, and I walked in to have a closer look. A few minutes later, a masked individual came in with a gun and violently assaulted the store keeper, leaving him at the brink of death. Fortunately, I remained hidden and was able to call the local police who arrived within a short period. The assaulter was arrested and charged by the police. This paper features an analysis of the violent crime, and compares how France handles such cases to the United States.

Read also Assault, Battery, And Crimes Against Persons

Pertinent Factors About France

            Considering all Western nations, France is the one that is majorly plagued by immigrations. The number of Muslims moving to this country is high, and this is threatening the European identity of this country. This is majorly because, due to the constantly increasing numbers, Muslims feel like they have power to impose their ways on French people. Currently, the Muslim population has hit five million, a number that has also encouraged the instances of crime in the country (Von Drehle et al., 2015). Previously, France was a peaceful country but now it is faced with all sorts of crime, including gender based crimes.

Read also Solutions to Sexual Assault

Due to this increased Muslim population, France faces a threat of increased violent crime due to rising levels of inequality. For example, Muslims may feel like they are being blamed for the rising crime rates of France, and that they are not being considered in the making of policies and passing of laws (Salem, 2013). As a result, hatred may be stirred due to jealousy, and in the end violent crime may occur.

Read also Index Crimes Comparison – Evaluating Rates of Homicide, Robbery and Rape in United States, Canada and Germany for 2012

Monetary poverty in France, a factor that has been maintained at a stable position for some time, is also another possible trigger of violent crime. This usually affects around one or two in ten households. In this country, poverty is multifaceted into three parts: low monetary resources, budget balancing problems and also poor living conditions (Von Drehle et al., 2015). Households that are suffering from all three forms usually feature individuals who managed to attain low education levels, and are thus unemployed.

Read also A Theoretical Perspective of Crime – Homicide

How France’s Criminal Code would likely View the Violent Assault

Judging from the present situation in France, its criminal code would likely view this form of violent assault as religion based. Considering most of the violent crimes that have been taking place, it is possible that what is actually happening in France is a religion based war. This is because the individuals who are attacked are always considered to be Jewish, while the attackers Islamists (Salem, 2013). This has been the trend ever since tension started rising in this country due to the steep increase of Muslims in the country. It may have easily been a coincidence, but the attacker later claimed to be linked to Islam militants, while the store owner was Jewish. The population disturbance in France is truly causing a great effect on the crime rates of the country. A previously peaceful country is now at war.

Read also Root Causes of Specific Crimes that Occurs in Low-Income Neighborhoods

Individual Rights Granted to Criminals

In the United States, Criminals are granted certain rights such as the search and seizure, and also right to counsel. The Fourth Amendment to the U.S Constitution resulted to a limit of police power to arrest people and carry out unreasonable searches and seizures (Fourth Amendment, 2014). This is usually viewed as ignoring the individual’s right to privacy, which is why without probable cause that is supported by oath and affirmation, the police shall not be given any Warrants. When there is probable cause, the warrant specifies the place to be searched, and which types of things can be seized. In France, the search and seizure laws do not necessarily protect the privacy rights of individuals. As a matter of fact, the police have been given extensive powers when a crime is underway or has just been committed (Slobogin, 2012). Otherwise, they may need court authorization to carry out the process. This means that criminals are not protected, but only those whose actual position is yet to be determined.

The right to counsel in the United States also differs from that of France. Criminal suspects in the United States are entitled to enjoy assistance of counsel, despite the nature of his or her offense (Sixth Amendment, 2014). This is what is stated in the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution. This clause covers five distinct rights including; the freedom to chose counsel, right to an appointed counsel when the criminal suspect cannot afford one, right to a conflict-free counsel, right to rightful representation by the chosen counsel, and also the right to represent oneself pro se. In France, the defendant is only entitled to counsel when being judged on severe crimes.

Considering these criminal rights, the Police in France will most likely consider searching the apartment of the defendant and seizing various items since the crime has just happened. This is justifiable as the criminal will not be protected against privacy invasion. Next, the police will be forced to ensure the presence of counsel as the crime is a severe one. This is because the law in France states that it is compulsory for a defendant to have counsel when the crime is severe.


            The France police cultures are similar to that of the U.S in that they both are focused on ensuring the safety of the community. They both are guided by the constitutions of the countries. A big difference, however, is that the police culture of the U.S seems better than that of France in terms of respecting individual rights. Without counsel, it is possible that many people have been wrongfully judged in France, compared to the U.S. It is important to ensure that all rights are respected despite the situation of the individual. It is also important to stick on facts, rather than make assumptions regarding the present issues facing a country.

Power Struggles in Healthcare Facilities


The mention of the word power ignites much of our mind. This could speak positive or negative of power. The healthcare facilities just like any other organization experience power struggles in terms of pursuit of leadership and positions’ elevation. The social milieu of very complex and large healthcare facilities is characterized as highly interdependent, highly diverse, and greatly rich in opportunities to result into generation of power struggles. The basis of these power struggles within the health systems range from a number of reasons:

Reasons That Cause Power Struggles in Healthcare Facilities

High levels of diversity and interdependence

The healthcare facilities are environments of high levels of diversity in the differences in the organization’s members with respect to the values, goals, assumptions, perceptions and outcomes. The interdependence comes in that the multiple actors have power over each other as a result of job-related connections.According to Kotter (2001), these high degree of diversity and interdependence establish the stage for power struggles, power based development, and also the use of influence to create power dynamics. The existence of a greater degree of interdependence within the healthcare workplace, makes unilateral action to be rarely possible. Every decision of any importance within the system, a number of people will block, retard, or sabotage the action since they have power over the situation.

Authority imposition

In a set-up where people get together in groups, some level of power will be exerted. Individuals would want to carve out a nichein which they would exert influence, so that they can earn rewards and thus advance their career. The fact that not everyone in the healthcare system would have the opportunity of power and control, this makes conflict inevitable. The existence of human status hierarchies and also related status in pursuit of greater level of influence within the healthcare facility automatically results into power struggles among different individuals. In such situations where everybody wants to get ahead, the aspects of power struggles is no different in the context of healthcare systems (Rosabeth, 2011).

Alleviation of power imbalances

The healthcare facilities workforce depicts a model of leader power and level of influence suggested in a complex social environment of struggle, confrontation, hostility, battle and manipulation. Towards attempts to alleviate the power imbalances within the healthcare organizations calls for the achievement of the organization’s effectiveness and brilliance through leader excellence. The argument by John et al., (2009), depicts that leadership excellence becomes the effectiveness in acquisition and exercise of power by the leader to result into positive power dynamics which impact on the organization’s performance over the long-run. This poses challenge on the leaders to constantly exercise power to yield organization excellence. This entails technical competence which demands varied context on management of social reality, necessitating power skills which has the ability to mobilize diverse individuals who are linked through interdependence and a common need to enable pulling together to achieve crucial purposes despite the various countervailing forces operating against such synergy.

Importance of preventing power abuse

The objective of the healthcare system is effective service delivery and ensuring efficiency within the parameters of operations with respect to cost-benefit analysis (Gary, 2011). The regulation power limits among individuals would result into less supremacy struggles within the healthcare facility to ensure the objectives of the organization are attained as set.

Negotiation approaches to eradicate power abuse

Stipulation of authority limits

The organization should ensure that the specific details entailing an individual’s limits of control and authority are explicitly stipulated to ensure that there isn’t conflict of interest among its workforce. When the leaders are strictly given authority to some limits, they become subject of watch to what extent and to which magnitude they proclaim their powers (Cohen, 2003, p.311).

Specifying a common unit of authority

Distinguishing the level at which an individual is answerable to creates a framework in which one would only take directives and commands from a central and common unit to avoid unnecessary imposition of any other leader who is out to exercise limitless control.

Coping With Challenging Behavior Associated With Specific Needs

An individual can be said to have a challenging behavior if their conduct pose a risk to them and/or those near them or reduces their quality of life. This kind of behavior includes self-harm, aggression, disruptiveness and destructiveness. Individuals with communicating problems and more so those with health conditions that affect the brain such as dementia and learning disabilities are more likely to portray challenging behavior.  If challenging behavior results to the patient’s desired outcome, it is lackey to persist.

Read also Different Concepts Of Challenging Behaviour Explained


The main objectives for strategies for coping with challenging behavior associated with specific needs is to offer care givers hands-on tactics to help them identify, evaluate, understand, counteract and manage challenging behavior while avoiding or minimizing patient’s distress (Ageing, Disability & Home Care, 2009). The strategies also help ensure that the patient receives high quality care and that care is provided within a safe setting.

Read also Impact of Challenging Behaviour on Health and Social Care Organizations

Physical intervention

Physical intervention such as restricting the patient with arm-binds or helmets should only be employed as a last option. When used, it must be done under clear guidelines and in conjunction with other ways of assistant the patient overcome their behavior. Use of physical intervention must be recorded and reviewed on regular basis with an objective of eradicating their use (Ageing, Disability & Home Care, 2009).

Clear guidelines

Staff, patients, parents/care givers and any other stakeholders should come together and develop a statement of what comprises satisfactory and undesirable behavior. All stakeholders should discuss issues of conduct and jurisdiction in the framework of rights and obligations regularly.

Training in physical aspect of behavior management

Anyone in physical contact with the person with challenging behavior should be given relevant guidance and training (Ageing, Disability & Home Care, 2009). If none is given, the care giver should request for training in physical aspects of behavior management, to assist them care for their patient with more confidence and avoid physical injuries to themselves or the receiver of care.

Medication Emergency Support

Medication should be administered only if there is a well-defined reason for its use such as an existing health condition such as epilepsy. Emergency support for individuals with challenging behavior should be accessible at any time, day and night.

Government Policy

Government policy states that individuals with learning disabilities, such as challenging behavior have the similar rights with every other citizen. They and their care givers are eligible for opportunities that everybody else expects in life. People with challenging behavior should be given the chance to make their own decisions; they should be embraced in the society; and should be given the opportunity to live independently by offering them the sustenance they may need. They also have the right to voice out their views and concerns and they ought to be supported to do so.

Comprehensive Behavior assessment

Comprehensive behavior assessment involves considering all aspects of an individual, their capabilities, their proficiencies, their shortcomings, their lineage, their likes and dislikes, their wellbeing, among other things (, 2015)

. Risk assessment is focuses on evaluating the probability and magnitudes of challenging behavior and instigating suitable procedures to prevent, moderate or regulate those risks. Protective considerations, such as collaboration among stakeholders and services should also be stressed to help evaluate and manage the behavior effectively.

Behavior Support Plan

Behavior plan is aimed at helping the caregiver to understand the patient and help them support him/her to develop a positive method of working through their challenges (, 2015).

The challenging behavior happens for a reason hence addressing the cause is the only way to prevent the persistence of that behavior effectively. For a support plan to be successful at realizing positive patient transformation, it should be created based on the patient’s positive response.

Partnership Working

Working in partnership with all the stakeholders and external helps ensure that the patient gets all the support they may require.

When dealing with individuals with challenging behavior, it is imperative that the caregiver sets realistic and practical goals that will help increase the patient’s quality of life and decrease the effect their behavior has on themselves and those around them.


Ageing, Disability & Home Care, (2009). Behavior Support: Policy and Practice Manual. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Jan. 2015]., (2015). What is challenging behavior? – Disability charity Scope UK. [online] Available at: [Accessed 29 Jan. 2015].

New Health Benefits Associated with Hempseed Oil

This article is majorly focused on the health benefits of Hemp, which is also a derivative of marijuana. For millennia, this product has been used in various industries such as textiles, food and medicine (McNamee, 2014). Unfortunately, this product was banned in North America back in 1930s when other similar cannabis varieties were illegalized. This happened due to the presence of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their content. This compound is the one responsible for inducing the “high” feeling in users. After conducting research on hempseed oil, researchers noted that this product could potentially improve good health due to the presence of linolenic acids, sterols and aliphatic alcohols (McNamee, 2014). Therefore, it can present coronary heart disease, lower cholesterol and reduce risk of heart attack, and also prevent cancer.

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This article relates to the course in that Biology studies various plant species, and tries to analyze the content to note their effects and whether or not they are suitable for human consumption and use. The Biology covering plants is what has enabled researchers to learn so much. Not only about medicinal plants, but also about other spices used in homes.

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As the article suggests, one of the linolenic acids present in this hempseed oil has been noted to be an omega-3 fatty acid. Biology is a course that deeply discusses fatty acids and their importance in the human body. An omega-3 fatty acid is a kind of healthy fat present in the bloodstream, that plays a major role in dissolve some of the unhealthy body fat. Therefore, with a lower amount of these unhealthy fat, the individual is not prone to some of the most common heart diseases (Ellsworth, Clark, Gray & Johnson, 2013). Sterols, on the other hand, are basically steroid alcohol. These are usually used in lowering cholesterol levels in the body, thus the individual is not prone to heart attack due to the presence of a big layer on the heart. The aliphatic alcohols, also contained in hempseed oil is a product that is well known to lower cholesterol and play a role in reducing the aggregation of platelets.

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This course, therefore, provides basic knowledge which enable students to understand deeply the issue in the article. For instance, fatty acids are present in various types, and can be contained in varying things. However, due to that knowledge that it can be contained in seeds as well and the information on its functions in the human body, students can see why this article is of great importance.

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This article caught my attention mainly because presently, human beings are suffering from various medical conditions in a higher degree than what was present in the past (Ellsworth, Clark, Gray & Johnson, 2013). This means that measures need to be taken to ensure the rise does not remain constant, but that it can be minimized. The potential of the hempseed oil in improving human health is critical. The scientific knowledge about this topic affects me directly in that I now know the types of food that I should be consuming to maintain and improve my health in a low risk zone.

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Judging by the importance of this issue, the private sector should be given the responsibility of researching further on this topic. It contains proof that this could be the change the health sector needs. Therefore, it should be handled in the shortest time possible with no distractions.

How a Bill Becomes a Law in the State of Indiana

Healthcare costs continue to rise making it difficult for many employees to receive the kind of care they need. Many employers have now shifted health care costs to their workers. According to Parrott (2014), health care providers are worried that many employees are relinquishing necessary care because they cannot afford it. A similar problem is experienced by employees who are on employment-based healthcare system. The United States Department of Labor (2001) points out that approximately 66 per cent of the United States population is covered by the employment-based medical plans, yet many poor people are unable to pay for the employment-based coverage. The nurse can play a very important role in helping employees obtain the necessary health care needs through a legislative process (Maryland and Gonzalez, 2012).

This problem can be solved a great deal if employers begin to meet employee health insurance costs instead of leaving the entire burden to employees. The best proposal for the existing organizational problem is that, ‘Employers must meet health insurance costs for all their employees.’ When this proposal is changed into law, employee health care costs will be shifted legally to the employer. This will enable all workers to receive the kind of health care they need irrespective of how little their basic salary may be. As Maryland and Gonzalez (2012) state, nurses can use patient problems to impact public policy, and they must provide accurate information in order to achieve the desired outcome. Through a legislative process, the above mentioned proposal can be changed into law for the benefit of current and future employees.

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In order to turn this proposal into law, it will have to be communicated to a member of staff who also feels that the issue can be addressed through a legislative process (Maryland and Gonzalez, 2012). The legal counsel will work together with the staff member in order to develop a bill that will be voted for or against. After a bill will have been developed with the assistance of a legal counsel, the staff member will have to seek for support from his colleagues before the bill is introduced for debate.

According to Maryland and Gonzalez (2012), introduction of a bill only occurs after the proposed piece of legislation has secured some support. Nurses are very impulsive when it comes to introduction of a new bill (Maryland and Gonzalez, 2012). The nurse will have to get a sponsor who will persuade his or her colleagues to support the bill by appending their signatures. Since the elected sponsor and his or her colleagues forming part of the committee are not health care providers, the nurse’s level of commitment and experience will determine whether the bill will be introduced or not (Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2010).

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If the bill obtains significant support at this stage, it will go to a full House for consideration. The advantages of the bill will be examined by members of the House who will then debate and vote. If more than half of the House members vote in favor of the bill, it will be sent to the Senate for further debate and approval (The U.S. Constitution Online, 2010). Otherwise, the bill will either be abandoned or sent back to the committee for further amendments. In the Senate, the merits of the bill will be examined, after which members will debate and vote. The bill will be allowed to move to the next level if more than half of the Senate members vote in its favor. The voting process, in the House and in the Senate, is very simple and can either be done manually or electronically (The U.S. Constitution Online, 2010).

If the bill is successfully approved by both the House and the Senate, it will be taken to the Governor. The bill will become law if the Governor accepts to sign it (The U.S. Constitution Online, 2010). However, the Governor may reject the bill and send it back to the House and Senate committees. The two houses may decide to override the Governor’s veto and this will only occur if two thirds of votes are established. The House and the Senate committees may also decide to make necessary changes on the bill to enable the Governor to sign it into law, or support the Governor’s idea to reject the bill. Suppose the legislature overrides the Governor’s signature, the Governor will be compelled to sign the bill into law (The U.S. Constitution Online, 2010). Basically, all employers will be legally obliged to meet health insurance costs for all their employees. Eventually, employee health care costs will now be shifted their employers and workers will now be able to receive the kind of care they need.

In conclusion, it is clear that nurses are very good advocates for their patients or clients, both in the community and in organizations. This paper has adequately demonstrated how a nurse can engage in a legislative process to impact health care costs for workers. For nurses to obtain significant support of their proposed legislation from their sponsors, members of the House and the Senate members, they must be sure that the issue being addressed will bring numerous advantages to the community or the group in question.

Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities

You have just been hired as an Information Security Engineer for a video game development company. The organization network structure is identified in the below network diagram and specifically contains:

1) 2 – Firewalls5) 2 – Windows Server 2012 Active Directory Domain Controllers (DC)
2) 1 – Web / FTP server6) 3 – File servers
3) 1 – Microsoft Exchange Email server7) 1 – Wireless access point (WAP)
4) 1 – Network Intrusion Detection System (NIDS)8) 100 – Desktop / Laptop computers
 9) VoIP telephone system

The CIO has seen reports of malicious activity being on the rise and has become extremely concerned with the protection of the intellectual property and highly sensitive data maintained by your organization. As one of your first tasks with the organization, the CIO requested you identify and draft a report identifying potential malicious attacks, threats, and vulnerabilities specific to your organization. Further, the CIO would like you to briefly explain each item and the potential impact it could have on the organization.

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Analyze three (3) specific potential malicious attacks and / or threats that could be carried out against the network and organization.
  2. Explain in detail the potential impact of the three (3) selected malicious attacks.
  3. Propose the security controls that you would consider implementing in order to protect against the selected potential malicious attacks.
  4. Analyze three (3) potential concerns for data loss and data theft that may exist in the documented network.
  5. Explicate the potential impact of the three (3) selected concerns for data loss and data theft.
  6. Propose the security controls that you would consider implementing in order to protect against the selected concerns for data loss and data theft.
  7. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment (no more than 2-3 years old) from material outside the textbook. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Identifying Potential Malicious Attacks, Threats, and Vulnerabilities Specific to A Video Game Development Company

Using user accounts and privileges illegally, modifying data stored by the company, using the company data for financial gain or industrial espionage, and damaging the systems of the company by running corrupted code are some of the potential malicious attacks that may be carried out on the video development company. People with malicious intentions may perform activities that prevent authorized users from performing their activities. This would deplete the resources and bandwidth of the network, which would jeopardize the activities of the company.

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People with malicious intentions may initiate the attacks from different locations. Therefore, the network attacks can be classified into two different categories. These include external and internal network attacks. People with malicious intentions who attack the network externally may carry out the attacks with or without help from employees or contractors of the company. People who carry out the attacks may be experienced individuals or inexperienced attackers. They may also be a group of experienced attackers. Experienced attackers usually have defined plans and technological tools that enable them to carry out the attacks.

The technological tools can detects flaws in the security of the network and exploit them to the advantage of the attackers. Experienced attackers usually scan and gather information on the network they aspire the attack. They scrutinize the firewall logs of the network to determine security flaws that would allow them to access the network. Therefore, users should undertake a critical evaluation of the existing firewall logs to detect any external attack or threat of external attack. Installing an Intrusion Detection System would also help in identifying the threats to external attack that the system faces (Williams, 2013).

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Structured and unstructured attacks are the two major types of external threats. A malicious individual, group or organization may undertake the external attacks. Parties that pose structured external threats usually have premeditated thoughts on the damages or losses they intend to cause a network or organization. Some of the motives of structured external threats include greed, terrorism, or politics. Parties that engage in structured external attacks are usually highly skilled in the network design. They also know how to avoid the Intrusion Detection System and other security measures of the network. They also have hacking tools that enable them to intrude into a network. Their level of expertise enables them to develop new techniques by modifying the existing network hacking tools. In some instances an authorized user may provide the attacker with access into the system. Inexperienced attackers pose unstructured external threats to a network or organization. Inexperienced attackers are referred to as script kiddies. They do not have the necessary skilled to create threats on a network autonomously. They usually try to seek fame by striving to crash websites or other targets on the internet. Internal threats usually originate from within the organization. They originate from employees or contractors who are dissatisfied with the organization. They usually have some form of access to the network. An organization may prevent internal and external attacks using an Intrusion Detection System that is configured to detect both internal and external attacks (Kim & Solomon, 2013).

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Loss of productivity is one of the major impacts of malicious attack to a network. Less of productivity would have a direct impact on the financial performance of an organization. Therefore, it is vital for the management of an organization to acknowledge the potential financial costs of a malicious attack on its network. This would enable the managers make decisions on the amount of money they should invest to prevent the malicious attack. However, most organizations do not know how the measure the decline in productivity due to malicious attack. The management may use various tools to measure the decline in productivity or delays in processing orders from customers. Malicious attack would also lead to immediate economic impact on an organization. Some of the direct economic impact on an organization includes damage to the systems of the organization. Repair or replacement of the systems requires human intervention. In addition, malicious attack leads to leads to disruptions in the operations of an organization and delays in carrying out various transactions that are vital in the business. There are various short-term and long-term economic costs associated with malicious attack. Loss of business or contracts with other organizations is one of the major short-term economic costs of malicious attack. Tarnishing of the reputation of the organization is also one of the short-term economic costs of malicious attack. Decline in market valuation and decline in investor confidence are some of the long-term economic impacts of malicious attack (Witte et al., 2012).

The video game development company may implement three types of control to prevent its network from potential malicious attack. It may use physical controls, technical controls, and administrative or process controls. Physical control involves controlling physical access to the network. The company should ensure that it allows only authorized employees to have physical access to the network. Technology-based controls refers to the implementation of technological tools that would control the logical access to the sensitive data of the company. An organization may implement various technology-based tools. Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is one of the technology-based controls that the company may implement. Administrative and process controls refer to the implementation of policies and procedures that would guide users on the actions and restrictions that they should follow when handling sensitive company data. The above controls may be preventive, detective or corrective. Preventive controls reduce the likelihood of malicious attack on the system. They also reduce the likelihood of unintentional or intentional breach of sensitive company data. On the other hand, detective controls help in detecting and reporting attempted malicious attack on the system. They help in identifying suspicious activities whenever they occur. Finally, corrective controls help in responding to suspicious activity and terminating any of the activities. This helps in reducing the impact of the attacks (Kim & Solomon, 2013).

The operating systems, applications and technologies of the company face certain security threats that would result in data loss or theft. However, the company may implement various technical controls to reduce the potential risks and help in the recovery of vital information if there is a breach in the system. Currently, the major threat targets its employees. Employees are some of the most important assets of the company. However, it is very hard to ensure the security of the employees. The threats that the company is exposed to can be classified into three categories. These include browser attacks, watering-hole attacks, and phishing and social network attacks. Organizations are prone to browser attacks regardless of the type of platform they use to support the system. This is due to the fact that the browser is one of the common applications in all platforms. Emails or messages may contain links from malicious websites. The websites may be so similar to legitimate websites, which makes it difficult to distinguish them. People with malicious intentions may also include content in a certain page and lure users to the webpage. Users would then visit the page and download malware to the system. Downloading the malware makes the system become vulnerable to attacks. These types of attacks are referred to as watering hole attacks. In most instances, prefer convenience and simplicity instead of security, which may make usage of the system be complex. This makes the users become victims of phishing schemes. People with malicious intentions usually purport to send information from banks, popular social networks, or insurance companies to unsuspecting users. They then redirect the users to sites that require them to enter their details. This enables people with malicious intentions to access the user’s accounts since people usually use similar passwords for different accounts (Witte et al., 2012).

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Loss or theft of data would lead to the tarnishing of the image of the company. Customers would not like to be associated with a company that comprises their data.  Tarnishing of the reputation of the company would have short-term and long-term financial impacts on the company. Loss or theft of data may halt the smooth operations of the company. The company may lose sensitive data that is necessary in the development of new video games. Loss or theft of data may make the company lose its competitive edge if rivals access sensitive data on the company (Sambath & Zhu, 2012). Reengineering several factors of the topology of the system would help in improving the security measures of the system. Redesigning the firewall pair to ensure that there is more granular control of the network traffic that should reach the public is one of the measures that would help in preventing data loss and theft. Modifying the IDS and the addition of more device to monitor the internal network traffic would also help in preventing data loss and theft. Implementing encryption protocols with highly secure algorithms would also help in preventing data loss and data theft (Kim & Solomon, 2013).

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