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FedEx Customer Relations Research Paper

Importance of customer relations

Happy customers equal returning customers

The FedEx customer Relations has built a strong customer relationship to give a lot of thanks to as a result of its growth. Most of its business come from relations. That is, most of their customers come from their current pool of customers.

Read also Internal Vs External Customers

The art of customer relations to the FedEx is an avenue to making customers happy and this comes with lots of benefits that do stretch beyond merely having satisfied patrons. When your customers are happy with the services and the products you provide unto them, they are more likely to refer your product, business or service to their colleagues, friends and family –and this creates a grapevine effect which is invaluable (Goodman, 2009).

Read also Strayer Bus599 – FedEx and UPS Superior Responsiveness – Answered

On the other hand, a robust customer relations management creates brand loyalty thereby improving the business’ reputation. When a business’ customers are satisfied and feel as if their needs are met or virtually, exceeded –they become more likely to speak positively of the business, or possibly review and rate it highly on the online platform.

Handling problems

Most often customers’ inquiries involve some form of complaints that the customer relations representatives ought to handle according to the business’ policies and guidelines. Sometimes, the customer relations representative attempts to solve the problems or at least propose for some solutions. Some among the representatives are authorized to send the customers their replacement products or even reverse erroneous transactions. Some of the representatives function like gatekeepers, that is, acquiring information on the problem then transferring it to someone else for solutions (Basch, 2002). The customer service representatives makes sure that the complains raised by the customers are valid and thus they must do all they can – in the context of their authority –in making sure that the customer is finally satisfied.

Read also Job Description – Customer Service Call Center Supervisor

Customer service issues

Lack of proper training

Inappropriate or lack of proper training on matters pertaining to customer relations upon the officers tasked with the responsibility of tendering the customer services leads to ineffectiveness. An organization that fails to spend time and resources to fully train their customer service personalities most of the times do not meet the expectations of their customers. The business should dedicate resources (money and time) in undertaking reinforcement and training. The customer service agents should fully be informed about the business’ goals, services and products. Training and emphasis should be given to the importance of listening and then responding to their customer’s concerns. When individuals are given the right tools, resources and objectives they perform their tasks appropriately. Of course this costs money, but it costs more if the business decides to ignore it.

Read also Research Proposal on Optimizing Customer Feedback


When the organization’s employees are frustrated or angry they can work to destroy and sabotage the image of the organization. The business should keep open and honest communications with its employees, especially its customer service personnel. Formally and informally review their goals, performance, feelings and objectives to bar potential problems from reaching customers.

Failure to provide correct solutions

A customer get irritated when they feel like that the customer agent haven’t provided him with satisfactory solutions to the problems he presented. Customers feel uneasy dealing with a customer agent who listens to his problem, then shrugs then says that they have to ask another colleague in the organization to intervene and provide the solution.

Current Business Trends in the Courier Industry

The FedEx Corporation, a global courier organization provides delivery services to its customers. The company operates in the courier industry which is highly dynamic and diversified (Collier, 2011). The industry currently face varied business trends which significantly impact on the organization’s customer service relations as identified in this research paper:

Drop-off and collection services

The drop-off and collection points enable customers to send and receive their parcels more conveniently –this is particularly aimed at serving customers who aren’t at home during the working hours to await a collection or delivery (Murley, 2011). This has led to growth of leading drop-off and collection brands like the Collect+ and ParcelShop drop-off service.

Self-service parcel lockers are among the recent innovations in this industry. Parcels are delivered to the automated lockers from which they can be collected by the respective customers 24/7, providing added convenience to those customers who have got no time to wait for deliveries (Cook, 2011). The industry’s suppliers of parcel lockers has rolled from agents like InPost and ByBox to the Amazon rolling out its own Amazon Lockers too.

Technological advancement

Physical mail volume has been in the decreasing end in line with the rise of digital communication. The Royal Mail reported a 6% decrease in the year 2012 of the traditional letter volume. The increased use mobile technology, for instance, smartphones, tablet devices, in combination with a recession-led search for advanced cost-effective methods, have been in continuous move to boost digital communication. OFCOM research deduced that the use of e-mail has increased by 39% in the UK in a period of two years to September 2012 (Murley, 2011). The advancement in the use of social networking platforms and the text messaging increased by 27% and 20% respectively over the same period. This continuing trend is likely to create of impact on the couriers and express document carriers and their customers’ relations platform.

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BUS 499 Capstone Assignment 5 – Boeing Inc

BUS 499 Capstone Assignment 5 Instructions

Select a publicly traded corporation for which you would like to work or are currently working.  Research the corporation on its own Website, the public filings on the Securities and Exchange Commission EDGAR database (, in the University’s online databases, and any other sources you can find. The annual report will often provide insights that can help address some of these questions. Write an eight (8) page paper in which you:

  1. Determine the impact of Boeing Inc’s mission, vision, and primary stakeholders on its overall success.
  2. Analyze the five (5) forces of competition to determine how they impact Boeing Inc.
  3. Create a SWOT analysis for the company to determine its major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.
  4. Based on the SWOT analysis, outline a strategy for Boeing Inc to capitalize on its strengths and opportunities, and minimize its weaknesses and threats.
  5. Discuss the various levels and types of strategies the firm may use to maximize its competitiveness and profitability.
  6. Outline a communications plan the company could use to make the strategies you recommend above known to all stakeholders.
  7. Select two (2) corporate governance mechanisms used by this corporation and evaluate how effective they are at controlling managerial actions.
  8. Evaluate the effectiveness of leadership within this corporation and make at least one (1) recommendation for improvement.
  9. Assess efforts by this corporation to be a responsible (ethical) corporate citizen and determine the impact these efforts (or lack thereof) have on the company’s bottom line. Provide specific examples to support your response.
  10. Use at least five (5) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.

BUS 499 Capstone Assignment Sample Answer – Boeing Inc

In the past few years, the airline industry has been noted to express dynamics in an impressive manner. It is clear that the sector has undergone drastic changes both in terms of demand and supply. This paper explores a US airline company; Boeing, Inc. and in the process, it will determine the impact of the mission, vision, and primary stakeholders on its overall success. It will, among other things, present an analysis of the five (5) forces of competition and determine how they can impact the company. Boeing, Inc. just like any other corporate business operates with the aim of creating profits. Therefore, all levels of management are charged with the basic task of continually developing strategies and finding solutions in order to increase profit on a continuous basis. It is worth noting that Boeing is a US based manufacturer with a huge customer base in more than 150 nations around the world (Szymanski, 2011).

It is prudent for a business to operate under well-structured mission and vision statements in order to be able to realize its objectives. In Boing, Inc., the mission statement is “The International Association of Machinists &Aerospace Workers and the Boeing Company are committed to working in partnership to ensure that innovative/creative solutions are developed and implemented to improve health and safety, employee development, and quality and productivity in the workplace” (Yenne, 2010). This mission statement is significant for defining the sector in which the company operates its business, and, therefore, sets out the purpose that should be followed. It presents, in summary, the activities of the company and the reasons for conducting them.

Through the mission statement, the company, also, pinpoints essential stakeholders such employees, customers and shareholders. Mission statement influences the overall success of the company by enabling employees to understand how relevant their contribution is to the objectives of the company (Yenne, 2010). It should also be clear that, through a mission statement such as that of Boeing, Inc., various stakeholders are approached both directly and indirectly. This then assists them when it comes to making decision of whether or not they can join the company for business.

Besides having a mission statement, a company also requires having a vision statement that can enable it attain its objectives. In Boeing, Inc., the vision statement is “Working together we create a highly skilled, confident, and acknowledgeable workforce in an extremely safe working environment” (Yenne, 2010). This vision statement is essential for specifying the long-term aspirations and objectives of Boeing, Inc. in a clear and concise manner. Its main intention is to motivate and inspire employees of the company so that they can contribute their efforts and drive the company to the direction of success. In addition, the managers at Boeing, Inc. can have a reality check in order to pursue the company’s operational plans and strategic objectives in respect to the vision statement. The primary stakeholders at Boeing, Inc. include customers, shareholders, and employees. Each of these stakeholder categories has a role that impacts the overall success of the company. Customers are essential for promoting the company’s business in order to help it realize its objectives. On the other hand, shareholders are the actual owners of the business. They impact the overall success of the company through influencing finances, operations, governance, control and considerations (Shaw, 2011). Employees at Boeing, Inc. are essential stakeholders are impact the company’s success through their direct contribution in line with the company’s objectives. In general, the mission, vision and stakeholders impact the overall success of the company through motivating employees, informing benchmarks and increasing its marketability.  

Boeing, Inc. like any other corporate organization is affected by the five (5) forces of competition. According to Sheehan (2013), the five forces of competitions are: (1) threat of substitutes; (2) threat of new entrants; (3) Buyers’ bargaining power; (4) suppliers’ bargaining power; and (5) Competitive rivalry. These are Michael Porter’s five competitive forces that influence the strategy of the business. It is upon this five force model that economists consider when it comes to industry analysis.

Threat of substitutes

            According to (Sheehan, 2013), many people from various parts of the globe prefer Boeing aircrafts and, therefore, this is a sure indication that the threat of substitution is mild. This implies that the number of substitutes is limited making it a little hard for customers to find another aircraft manufacturing company that can satisfy their expectations as Boeing. However, considering the current technological development in cars, bullet trains and many others, there is likelihood that the trend may have adverse effects on the business of manufacturing aircrafts in the future.  

Threat of new entrants

In the case of Boeing, Inc., there is low threat of new entrants. This is mainly attributed to huge amounts of funds required as fixed cost in order to join the industry and compete. There are various factors that require consideration before new entrants can join the industry: they include: all-encompassing level of activities and R&D budget, high level technology required, enormous sums of capital required for investment among other factors (Sheehan, 2013). Other factors that limit entry include strong networks of distribution, huge sunk costs that reduce competition, economies of scale requirement and patents.  These factors are significant for creating extreme entry barriers leading to minimal success for new entrants. Nonetheless, there are a few companies that have conducted their operations in regional levels. For instance, China’s aircraft manufacturers do take advantage of the niche market due to the preferential benefit that a specific nation state arranges.            

Buyers’ bargaining power

            According to Sheehan (2013), buyers generally have mild bargaining power. In most cases, buyers can only have high bargaining power if the product is common. There is also high switching cost for the buyer. This is because of long-term contracts and technological factors involved as well as low bargaining power. It is worth noting that purchasing an aircraft is capital intensive investment, and that the buyer and the seller require engaging in a long-term contract, which limits the buyer’s bargaining power. There are also limited buyer choices, most customers cherish Boeing services, and limited information is available to buyers and this limits their ability to negotiate with sellers (Sheehan, 2013). All these factors have a positive impact on Boeing, Inc.     

Supplier’s bargaining power

            In the case of aircraft manufacturing, suppliers usually have low bargaining power. Boeing, Inc., for instance, makes outsourcing arrangements with many suppliers around the world. There are over a hundred companies around the world supplying Boeing, Inc. with aircraft parts. These huge numbers of suppliers limits their bargaining power, and this has positive effects on the aircraft company (Sheehan, 2013).

Competitive rivalry

            According to Sheehan (2013), there is high competitive rivalry. This is because of high barriers preventing exit, undifferentiated strategies and lack of a clear market leader, and slow industry growth are some of the factors that drive competitive rivalry in the aircraft manufacturing industry. This market phenomenon happens as a result of the market being extremely duopoly in the sense that players do realize minimal profit margin in the industry. This is the reason for continuous competitive rivalry between Airbus and Boeing for more industrial share.        

SWOT Analysis for Boeing, Inc.


            One of the greatest strengths of Boeing, Inc. is their ability to meet the huge customer demand by ensuring that they produce their products in different varieties. Having a well-recognized global image is also great strength for the company. It is worth noting that the company can comfortably provide customers with various products and services that include: integrated defense system, commercial airplanes, space and communication, and military and missile system (Magretta & Porter, 2014). Boeing also delights in the quality of the products that they create. So far, it is the best aircraft manufacturing company in the world and this has enabled it to have competitive financial performance. The company has the capacity to manufacture highly advanced aircrafts that are able to satisfy the expectations of customers in the modern society.


            High pension costs have continually become one of the greatest weaknesses of the company. The company’s latest financial report indicates that it has a pension load of more than $75 billion dollars, a figure that is almost higher than the value of the assets of its plan (Magretta & Porter, 2014). The second weakness of the company is the high R&D spending. In 2012; for instance, the company’s R&D expenditures stood at $3.3 dollars, a phenomenon that negative effects on its profit margins. During other times, the company has had problems with execution especially during the implementation of the essential 787 program.


            One of the greatest opportunities for the company is the 787 Dreamliner. On rare occasions in the past few years, this company’s platform has had problems related to delays and even execution (Magretta & Porter, 2014). However, being the first ever fuel efficient, revolutionary long-range jet airliner that utilizes composite materials, it has opportunities of becoming the most profitable program in the coming years. The second opportunity is industry fundamentals. In the recent years, the airline industry has exhibited powerful recovery after the recession financial crisis period that had caused it to crash (Magretta & Porter, 2014). In this regard, opportunities for company include enhanced microeconomic backdrop, stable fuel prices and increasing demand for the products and services.


One of the greatest threats the company continues experiencing is defense spending (Magretta & Porter, 2014). There has been reduction defense spending by the U.S. federal government and this negatively affects results across space and security division, and defense. The problem is that this situation may not reverse in the near future. Increasing competition is also another threat that the company faces. China’s Comac and Canada’s Bombardier Aerospace are the greatest threats to Boeing, Inc.   

Based on the SWOT analysis, the best strategy for the company, which can help it capitalize on its strengths and opportunities and minimize its weaknesses and threats, is globalization strategy. Considering that there are only a few players in the industry due to huge capital investment and stiff competition, the company requires emphasizing globalization strategy in order to tap into all the available markets (Shaw, 2011). Besides, globalization strategy is effective for optimizing the company’s financial performance on a short-term basis. It should also be clear that there are various strategies that Boeing, Inc. can embrace to maximize its competitiveness and profitability in the industry. The first one is embracing union leadership. The company should have policies that drive the management to work in collaboration with all employees. The second strategy is development and initiation of programs and processes in such a way that the company continuously makes improvement in its manufacturing aspect and guarantee safety for all employees. The following is an outline of the communication plan that Boeing, Inc. can embrace to inform all stakeholder about the above mentioned strategies. The plan may include: employee special events, bulletin board messages, employee annual report, electronic email messages, newsletters, letters sent shareholders through their mail boxes, and annual meetings Sheehan, J. (2013).       

The two corporate governance mechanisms used by Boeing, Inc. are internal mechanism and external mechanism (Sheehan, 2013). Internal mechanism is significant for monitoring activities and progress of the company and has the capacity to take corrective measures in the event that the business loses its track. This mechanism enables corporate officers, managers and employees to coordinate under the leadership of chief executive officer. The second corporate governance mechanism is external mechanism, which entails a set of controls from the federal government, shareholders, financial institutions and trade unions. External mechanism controls managerial activities by imposing regulatory guidelines or union contracts on the organization. In regard to the effectiveness of leadership, Boeing, Inc. has the chief executive officer who is in charge of corporate officers, managers, and employees. There is a board of directors that provides overall oversight to the company and its operations. Corporate officers together with the board are responsive to suppliers, shareholders, customers, public officials, employees and communities (Okoye, 2015). One recommendation, which requires consideration in order to improve the effectiveness of leadership, is that the board requires embracing a Code of Ethical Business Conduct. This will enable directors to note areas that can cause ethical risk and enhance the mechanisms to deal with the situation when it arises. It is worth noting that Boeing, Inc. has adopted measures that can qualify it as a responsible corporate citizen. For instance, adoption of active flow control is the new technology based on the company’s Eco-demonstrator program. This program aims to improve the performance of aviation in respect to the environment through reducing noise, carbon emissions and fuel use.             

In conclusion, Boeing’s mission statement influences its overall success by enabling employees to understand how relevant their contribution is to the objectives of the company. The vision influences the company’s success through motivating and inspiring employees of the company so. that they can contribute their efforts and drive the company to the direction of success. In general, the mission, vision and stakeholders impact the overall success of the company through motivating employees, informing benchmarks and increasing its marketability. The five forces of competition affecting Boeing are: threat of substitutes; threat of new entrants; Buyers’ bargaining power; suppliers’ bargaining power; and Competitive rivalry. Based on the SWOT analysis, the best strategy for the company, which can help it capitalize on its strengths and opportunities and minimize its weaknesses and threats, is globalization strategy. The two corporate governance mechanisms used by Boeing, Inc. are internal mechanism and external mechanism.

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Assessment of Main Character In Things Fall Apart – Okonkwo

Analysis of Okonkwo in Things Fall Apart Novel

“Things fall apart” is a story that tries to recreate the religious, cultural and social life of Igbo between 1950 and the beginning of 1900s. The story’s major character Okonkwo plays a main role in the story.He is projected as a great wrestler, a hardworking man, and a well-known worrier. He is a heroic figure who is continuously at war with others and even his own chi, for the three generations presented in the novel. In the first part, Okonkwo is at war with his father’s legacy of laziness and failure. He is always in fear of failure and as a result, Okonkwo always worked hard to fill his stores with yams.  Okonkwo’s main goal in life was to climb the title ladder in Igbo traditional community ruling system by creating a balance between the community service and personal achievement in life. Nevertheless, Okonkwo chi makes him feel that he is not fated to greatness. However, despite of all, Okonkwo decides to fight against his own chi to overcome it and to achieve his goal. His inflexibility, range, and distress of looking weak like his father overshadowed his honor for his community constituently.

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In this fight, Okonkwo is completely unable to balance between his great masculine energy and desire for life success with his scarce love energy. In this regard, he did a number of things with is masculine energy to annoy the earth goddess Ani. He initially soiled his hands with the blood of Ikemefuna, a boy who was given by a neighboring village after murdering a woman from Umuofia village, to avoid war. Ikemefuna was adopted by Okonkwo for three years and nurtured as his own child. Despite of loving him as his own son, Okonkwo killed Ikemefuna after the Oracle of the Hills and Caves commanded for his death. He refused to take an advice not to take part in Ikemefuna death given to him by the oldest man of the village Ogbuefi Ezeudu, to avoid being seen weak by the villagers and the village elders. As a result, Okonkwo angered the goddess for the first time. He also annoyed the goddess by beating his third wife Ojiugo during the week of peace, directing a shot to his second wife Ekwefi with rusty gun and finally, shooting and killing a son of Ezeudo, a villager during his father’s burial. As a result he was expelled from the village by Ani to his mother’s village. However, despite of his aggression, Okonkwo loved his family for he accompanied his second wife Ekwefi to oracle Agbala with intention of delivering their daughter ogbanje power. This shows that he cared for his family.

In the second part, Okonkwo continues with his determination to accumulate wealth even in exile. He also gains the advantage of acquiring mother nurturing love in his mother’s clan. However, it is during this time that his village is invaded by colonials and a number of things are changed. Most unrecognized individuals in the traditional system convert into Christianity, including Okonkwo’s eldest son Nwoye who he despised and compared with his father. In the third part, Okonkwo goes back to his village and find the changes he cannot bear. The traditional system of ruling which he once thought he would be part of was no more. There was a fight between the tradition and the civilization brought by the colonial. Here Okonkwo played a great role in an attempt to fight to liberate the village from the new forces. This first landed Okonkwo to jail. In the second fight, he realized that there is nothing he could do to stop the changes. However, he could not bear it and thus, he gave up in his fight and decided to commit suicide. Basically, the story “things fall apart” revolves about Okonkwo and his effort to overcome his own chi and his father bad legacy and ends when Okonkwo was unable to attain his live goals and decide to commit suicide.

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Safety and First Aid – Reflective Essay

Safety and First Aid Reflective Essay

First aid is defined as help provided to an injured person or a sick individual until full medical assistance is available. It is normally done to prevent worsening of the situation or death. I learnt a number of things from this lesson. One of the most important aspects that I learnt is that first aid is provided based on the kind of medical condition one is experiencing. Therefore, for one to be a good first aider, one must have extensive knowledge of measures to employ to handle different medical conditions. For instance, there are first aid procedures for animal bite, chest pain, injury, choking, chemical burn or chemical splash in the eyes and dislocation among others. I found this a bit challenging especially due to the extensive procedural knowledge that one may require to remember to remain viable in the field. Moreover, there is no chance for mistakes in any first aid procedure; mistakes might result to the death of the casualty or even advancement of the problem. The accuracy involved in first aid practice is also a bit challenging. I even thought that one can only perfect the first aid skills by going around with the first aid procedure notes to confirm the steps. However, maybe, with practice one would be able to master the procedure.

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The second most important aspect that I learnt in the course is that most accidents takes place because we do not put any effort to ensure our safety. Safety is the condition of being safe, the state of being safeguarded over physical harm or accidents. People ought to be taught on how to ensure safety measures in their daily operations. However, most of the times this happens after an accident or a situation has already taken place. Even as first aiders, we can only advise a person on how to remain safe after handling an incident. I agree that this prevent future happenings, but the importance of this subject makes me think that the course should not only be provided in the colleges but in the general society.

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Generally, safety and first aid course is a very important course in the life of a person and the society that will be surrounding the person in the future. This is especially true when one will be bringing up his or her kids. Kids are known to be prone to a number of accidents and sudden illness before they are fully grown. For instance, development of fever or inserting objects in the ears or nose. Knowing how to handle such situations makes me more courageous to face my future as a parent. It also gives me the joy of knowing that I can save someone’s life in critical situation. This course gives me something that I can be proud of in my life. The ability to save a chocking kid, and to prevent excessive bleeding to an individuals involved in a fatal accident among others gives me an opportunity to benefit my society. Although the course seems a bit demanding, it is among the few courses that are directly beneficial to an individual doing the course and the surrounding society. It is a course that almost fits the emergency department in a hospital, a course that eases patient’s pain and gives them a chance of living again.

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Why Clinton’s Health Plan Was Unsuccessful

Clinton’s Health Plan, which was officially referred to as Health Security Act was healthcare reform legislation, which was proposed by President Bill Clinton. It was closely associated Hillary Clinton, the First Lady, who chaired the task force tasked with the responsibility of developing the plan. During his 1992 presidential campaign, Bill Clinton had used healthcare reform as one of the campaign tools. Upon ascending into office, Clinton created a taskforce in to develop a plan on how to undertake healthcare reform. However, the processes of the taskforce were controversial. They attracted litigation from various parties. The primary goal of the taskforce was to devise a plan that would ensure there is provision of universal healthcare to Americans, which would act as the major achievement of Clinton’s first term in office. One of the major features of the plan was to ensure that all employers provide health insurance to their employees.

Read also Clinton Health Care Reform Plan

However, the plan was faced opposition from various parties who included conservatives, libertarians, and various players in the health insurance industry. To elicit public support against the plan, the health insurance industry created an ad – ‘Harry and Louise’ – that was very effective. The plan also faced resistance from Democrats, the President’s party. Democrats offered various plans as an alternative to Clinton’s plan. Democrats created a compromise plan, which ultimately failed in 1994. However, Democrats ultimately reformed healthcare through the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act ‘Obamacare’, after decades of failure. This paper will discuss the features of Clinton’s Health Plan and why it ultimately failed.

Formulation of the Plan

The Clinton healthcare plan was unveiled on October 27, 1993. It was referred to as the Health Security Act. Hillary Clinton and Ira Magaziner, a presidential aide were the major people that helped in the development of the plan. They based the plan on ‘managed competition’ a concept that was considered a combination of open market forces and government regulation. The architects of the plan hoped that there would be competition among doctors and hospitals for business, which would be based on price and quality of services they can offer.

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Universal coverage was one of the major components of the plan that ultimately led to its failure. The component would have necessitated all American citizens to purchase healthcare insurance cover. It would also have necessitated all businesses regardless of their size to purchase to provide health insurance to their employees. This would have increased the financial burden of Americans. Therefore, they viewed it as an additional tax burden. The bill was significantly different from the Canadian style single-payer system, in which the government is the sole payer of healthcare insurance. However, various parties still claimed that the bill was socialist oriented (Garson & Engelhard, 2007).

Recession also posed a major challenge to the bill. During Clinton’s first term in office, the U.S. economy was facing various economic problems. During recession, any significant government spending is highly scrutinized. Therefore, recession increased resistance to the bill as the passage of the bill would increase government spending. On the other hand, the opposition to the bill was well financed by the insurance and pharmaceutical industry. They run the ‘Harry and Louise’ ad, which successfully increased public support on opposition against the bill.

Failure to Explain the Bill Efficiently

The complexity of the bill and public fear and confusion was one of the major factors that led to the ultimate failure of the bill. Despite the fact that the bill covered more than 1,300 pages, the taskforce did not explain the bill to the public efficiently. They relied on moral rhetoric to gain support of the bill among the public who were generally confused. Hillary Clinton acknowledged the fact that the bill was highly misunderstood. She believed that the results of the bill would enable it to gain public support. Public misunderstanding was due to lack of one voice in the Clinton administration on the costs and regulations of the bill. Failure of the Clinton administration to explain the policies brought about by the bill provided opponents of the bill with a chance to define the health reform in their own terms. The Harry and Louise’ ad, which was an antireform ad portrayed the bill as an attack on an individual’s right of choice.

Lack of clear explanation of the bill made accuracy of information or debate on the bill become irrelevant. Misunderstanding of the bill had significant negative impact on the public. It made various parties to oppose the bill despite the fact that they could not explain the reasons for their position. A clear explanation of the bill may have made the parties support the bill (Shi & Singh, 2009).

Arrogance of the Clintons

Lack of humility and outreach among the Clintons led to the ultimate failure of the bill. They decided to shape the bill according to their own perceptions. They even failed to disclose the names of people who played a critical role in the formulation of the bill. In fact, the formulation of the bill was a closed-door affair. Despite the fact that Hillary’s taskforce called various people to seek their opinion, they did not use it.

Problems with the implementation of the reform plans emerged when the reform plans were still sketchy. On may 5, 1993, when the healthcare reform was at an early stage, Ira Magaziner provided a sketch of the blueprint of the health reform in a speech to Families USA. Magazine claimed that the reform may provide a minimum benefits package and care guidelines for all U.S. citizens but give the states the responsibility of determining how they would meet the national standards. The speech highlighted the secret nature of the elements of the plan. On May 3, 1993, Hillary Clinton also hosted approximately 52 Democrat and Republican senators in an effort to show that the Clinton administration was willing to consult with Republicans in the formation of the plan. However, during the meeting, Magaziner sketched the proposals of the plan again. This compromised the transparency and the efforts of the Clinton administration to include Republicans in the formation of the plan. Clinton and Magaziner did not provide additional details of the plan when asked to do so a month later. This highlighted the secrecy of the plan. If the Clinton administration wanted to include the Republicans, they should have provided more details of the plan. This would have enabled the Republicans to provide proposals on how to change certain elements. This would have created a compromise between them and the Democrats. However, the Clinton administration thought that there plan was perfect. Therefore, it was not open for debate (McKenzie, Pinger & Kotecki, 2011).

The imperial attitude of the Clintons and the lack of involvement of congress in the formation of the bill led to its ultimate collapse. Ira Magaziner who played a key role in the formation of the bill alienated members of  Congress in the formation of the bill since he was too sure of himself. This is despite the fact that the bill was very long and highly complex. The secrecy of the Clinton administration and the aloofness of Magaziner made various parties have the perception that the bill was not open for debate or compromise. Therefore, it was not open for debate. However, nothing could be further from the truth. In any democracy, various parties of the political divide must debate a bill exhaustively prior to its passing. After the failure of the bill, Hillary Clinton claimed that the bill was simply a starting point in the debate on healthcare reform. However, it is a fact that the Clinton administration compromised very little or they compromised when it was already too late. The inflexibility of the administration made them lose the momentum of the reform agenda. It also made them lose the support of moderates and a united support of their base (Shi & Singh, 2009).

Failure to Maintain Focus on the Plan

Hillary Clinton was the face of Clinton’s healthcare reform. He traversed the country seeking the support of the bill and led the fight for the support of the bill in Washington, DC. She strived to portray herself as not one of the players in the legislative process. Instead, she strived to portray herself as a campaigner of the bill against the wicked insurance industry. She emphasized the notion that the bill portrayed that universal coverage was the right thing that every American – and the not the smart ones – should do.

The approach changed the debate from that of policy to one that focused on a certain character. Failure of Hillary Clinton to listen to the opinions of insurance and pharmaceutical industries led to the ultimate collapse of the bill. This is due to fact that the cooperation of the pharmaceutical and insurance industries was critical in passing the bill. Instead, Clinton renounced the industries as villains. Using character attacks to garner support for the bill instead of using policy rebuttals created fear among various parties that passage of the bill would have negative impact on business and the economy in general McKenzie, Pinger & Kotecki, 2011).

Reform opponents countered the strategy use by Hillary Clinton to garner support for the bill by demonizing her. Their efforts were successful as the bill was not passed. After the failure of the bill, instead of admitting their mistakes, the Clinton administration claimed that corruption and power of the insurance industry had successfully blocked a bill that would have benefited Americans. On the other hand, opponents of the bill highlighted the Whitewater scandal and claimed that Hillary Clinton sought personal gratification as she had bet against healthcare stock in effort to undermine her credibility. Focusing on the players instead of the plan created distractions to the reform debate. This led to the crippling of the reform debate. Focus on the players instead of the plan led to the polarization of the debate on healthcare reform. It shifted the terms of the arguments to morals instead of merits of the healthcare reform. This made the side the side which had a better marketing campaign – the opponents of the debate – to win.

Libertarianism and Compulsion

Clinton’s healthcare reform would have led to managed competition. This made Republicans face a complex political challenge. If they accepted the implementation of the health reform, there had to be an alternative reputable financing vehicle. They could not accept the Democrat strategy of a plan that would be funded by the employer. This is due to the fact that the healthcare plan would have placed the burden of funding the health reform on business owners. The business owners provided a major constituency to the Republican Party. In fact, during the 1980s, Republicans fought all legislations that increased costs on employers. This included increase in minimum wage and mandated employee leave. They claimed that these measures were disguised tax increases. Therefore, they claimed that the health reform employer mandate was a payroll tax, which would be collected and controlled by the federal government (Longest, 2010).

Read also Determinism, Compatibilism, and Libertarianism


Democrats have fought for healthcare reform for decades. They ultimately manage to reform the healthcare industry with the passing of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. In so doing, President Obama managed to achieve what Clinton, one of the most popular Democratic presidents, could not achieve. Clinton’s health plan highlights the politics involved in passing any piece of legislation. This necessitates an administration to use efficient strategies to ensure that a piece of legislation is passed. Clinton’s administration did not provide a good explanation of the plan. In addition, they did not involve other major stakeholder in the formulation of the plan. The arrogance of the Clintons also played a critical role in the ultimate failure of the plan.

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Improving Healthcare delivery and Performance


The provision of healthcare services, that is, the treatment, diagnosis and prevention of illness, injury, disease and other mental and physical impairments among people is entrenched within a complex context. The healthcare service system is an industry of dynamism and diversity in equal measures to primarily provide efficient healthcare services to the patients (Spitzer, 2007). The healthcare system face challenges which exemplify the complexity and breadth of this particular discipline, in which anything which would have effect on the health or happiness of the patients and also their family members potentially fall within this realm.

This paper analyzes the performance indicator of the healthcare facility, The Eden Medical Center-Castro Valley in California and its increase in value of health care services and delivery. Their process in attaining the best practices towards meeting its set goals in consistence with the clients’ satisfaction due to improved healthcare services within the facility is further scrutinized in this paper.

Single-loop and Double-loop learning Model

The model give a description of the two ways that people learn from experiences. The Chrys Argyris model support global networking and teamwork, group development, and intellectual learning. Single-loop learning entails connecting a strategy for action with a result (Brockbank & McGill, 2006). For instance, in a case where the action taken yields results which are different from the expected results, through single-loop learning, the results will be observed, feedback automatically taken and a different approach is given a try.

This cyclical process of making application of the new strategies towards achieving a desired or an expected outcome can occur numerous number of times with or without success. Exhausting possible strategies would push us to the re-evaluation of the insight governing variables that dictates every course of action we take. Reframing and re-evaluating the goals, beliefs and values is a very complex system of information processing and it entails a highly sophisticated way of engaging with the experience-a process called double-loop learning. An advantage of the double-loop learning is the necessity it provides for the organization and its members towards effective management of problems as a result of rapidly changing and uncertain circumstances.

Healthcare delivery and performance

The healthcare service providers make initiatives to ensure the standards on the healthcare services and quality are kept at par always, through policy reforms, re-organization, credentialing and accreditation, and also measures to standardize the care processes. However, at the realm of healthcare lean the interactions between clinicians and the individual patients. Therefore ensuring improvement in the communication and relationships, enhancement of the individual decision-making in an evidence-based decision support and facilitation of the patients’ involvement and being responsible for their own care are vital elements for safer and better healthcare services (Omachonu, 2008).

The evaluation of the people’s process within the healthcare systems ensures individuals in need of healthcare receive services of high-quality from the service providers (Lighter, 2011). A good supervision ensures that there is increased competence and satisfaction of providers thereby improving the performance of the facility, consequently increasing satisfaction and well-being of the clients.

The increased value/ performance standards

The Eden Medical Center shows an increased value in level of quality service provision in a number of ways as this paper highlights on only two of these performance indicators: The first element that the facility has given the process of obtaining feedback, that is, suggestions and comments from the community and the clients a vital source of pursuing any other new policy to the best interest of its clients (Upton, Graber & New York University, 2003). Secondly, the facility has built the capacity of the process of supervision in communicating and setting standards, building teams, monitoring performance in accordance with the standards and hastening of the communication skills.

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Sociology : Human Freedom Research Paper

Throughout history, human freedom has been one of the most challenging inspirations of people. People have fought for political freedom, slaves fought for their freedom, and women fought for equality. However, it is difficult to provide a concise definition of human freedom. In simple terms, freedom refers to the ability to do whatever one needs at any time. However, an individual’s freedom may be harmful to other people. This raises the question as to why one should be allowed to act in a way that violates the freedom of others. Therefore, freedom is a very abstract idea that it is difficult to define it accurately and precisely. Therefore, it is impossible for one to be completely free. An individual’s freedom may be another person’s restriction. Freedom of expression is one of the major fundamental rights of any contemporary society. It is not simply a privilege. From a sociological perspective freedom of speech is as a result of individualization due to the division and specialization of labor (Melkonian, 2012).

Freedom of speech is one of the fundamental freedoms of any modern society. Modern societies have high level of individuation and decreased shared ideas. Emile Durkheim is one of the scholars that has studied the concept of freedom extensively. Freedom of speech is vital in consensus building. Durkheim highlighted classical concepts that relate to the division of labor. He claims that division of labor increases individuation and reduction in shared beliefs. This increases the social need for freedom of expression. Reduction in shared beliefs make it difficult for economic, political, and social decisions to be made without freedom of expression. Durkheim’s theory focuses on the role of division of labor on freedom of expression. Jurgen Habermas builds on Durkheim’s theory to develop a contemporary theory on freedom of expression. He claims that the need for consensus building is one of the major factors that influence freedom of expression. Combining the concepts of freedom of the two scholars helps in the formulation of a model of freedom of speech that is not influenced by the prevailing legal or philosophical theories (Melkonian, 2012).

Durkheim’s classical theories are still relevant in the contemporary world. Durkheim predicted that increase in the division of labor would increase civil remedies instead criminal remedies for similar types of offenses. This is due to the fact that criminal laws are generally violations of community values. On the other hand, private remedies mainly focused on violations that injured an individual instead of the community. Increase in division of labor reduced commonly held beliefs. This increased the treatment of public crimes as private crimes. In the contemporary world, there has been a significant decrease in criminal defamation and a significant increase in private defamation remedies (Warburton, 2009).

Freedom of expression in the internet age is one of the most debated topics in the contemporary world. The theoretical foundations of freedom of expression in the internet age are mainly focused on legal and philosophical analysis. However, traditional theories on freedom of speech cannot explain modern concepts of freedom of speech sufficiently. This is due to the fact that they are unable to explain freedom of speech beyond the individual. Application of sociology theory would help in explaining freedom of speech in the 21st century. Freedom of speech is vital in any society. Lack of an expansive freedom of expression would make it impossible for a society to function effectively. In the context of sociological theory, freedom of expression is not simply an individual privilege it is a right that every individual should have. Freedom of expression is a cause and consequence of the social systems of a society. It is caused by individualization, which results from the specialization and division of labor. Despite the fact that sociology may not help in providing a conclusive explanation of the virtues of freedom of speech, it shows that freedom of speech is vital for the efficient functioning of any society. As society becomes a group of autonomous individuals that perform specific roles, it is vital for a communication mechanism to be in existence. Otherwise, the society would not function effectively.  Freedom of expression is critical for the efficient functioning of any democracy. Presidential elections highlight the freedom of expression. Presidential aspirants may communicate differing views to woo voters. Totalitarian regimes such as North Korea do not have freedom of speech. Evolution of the freedom of expression has led to the reduction in criminal libel laws in modern societies such as the U.K. and U.S. The shift of modern societies from their agrarian past to industrial societies has made the societies replace criminal libel with tort of civil libel as the most efficient remedy that would help in balancing speech (Melkonian, 2012).

Any modern society should have freedom of expression. This is due to the fact that people in modern societies are autonomous. Freedom of expression facilitates consensus building. As such, freedom of expression is critical in individualistic societies. Most modern societies are individualistic according to the Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory.

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How I See Myself Fitting into the Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing Recommendations

Assignment Instructions

In a reflection of 450-600 words, explain how you see yourself fitting into the following IOM Future of Nursing recommendations:

  • Recommendation 4: Increase the proportion of nurses with a baccalaureate degree to 80% by 2020.
  • Recommendation 5: Double the number of nurses with a doctorate by 2020.
  • Recommendation 6: Ensure that nurses engage in lifelong learning.

Identify your options in the job market based on your educational level.

  • How will increasing your level of education affect how you compete in the current job market?
  • How will increasing your level of education affect your role in the future of nursing?

While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

How I see Myself Fitting into the Institute of Medicine Future of Nursing Recommendations – Sample Paper

The recommendations given by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), are geared to help achieve certain milestones. According to Clavelle(2012), the institute focuses on a future that will enable the nurses to practice according to their training and education and to the full extent of these. The institute also focuses on pushing the nurses to achieve higher levels of training and education. They target to achieve this through the availing of a reliable and better education system which will advocate for unified academic progression. The institute recommends that nurses be full members practicing together with physicians (Clavelle, 2012). The institute recommendations also target to have better information and data collection mechanisms that will enable them plan in advance. I foresee these recommendations affecting me in different ways.

Read also Reflection Paper – Fitting Into IOM Future of Nursing Recommendations

One of IOM recommendation is to remove barriers in the scope-of-practice (Cipriano, 2011). These changes will definitely affect the future of nursing. With the removal of such, those nurses that have advanced their practice will be able to apply their skills in full. This also means that there will be better opportunities for those with higher education. This recommendation also serves as an encouragement to nurses to advance their practice. In the future, if I advance my education as a nurse, I will be able to get better opportunities that will recognize my advancement and also allow me to practice. This means better remunerations too.

Read also Application of the Nursing Process to Deliver Culturally Competent Care – Immunization in Developing Countries

Another fundamental recommendation by the IOM is to have nurses at the fore front in the development of improvement efforts (Cipriano, 2011). The institute recommends that nurses be allowed to participate together with other physicians in the diffusion of successful practices. This effort will allow nurses to participate in the improvement and redesign of health systems and practice environments. As a nurse, this will create opportunities to be able to learn from other professionals in the healthcare industry as I participate in major redesigning of the systems in place. The availability of a nurse in this process will allow the concerned parties to have another view point other than theirs on matters concerning these systems.

Read also Worldview and Nursing Process Personal Statement

The recommendation by the IOM to have support for those nurses that have completed their pre-licensure with their residency programs (Clavelle, 2012)will definitely have a positive effect on my future. This recommendation means that there will be support for residency programs. It will definitely affect me as it is expected to run across the board. This coupled together with the recommendation to have the number of nurses with baccalaureate degree increased, means more opportunities and support for furthering education. Under this recommendation, I foresee the studying process being easy as the recommendation advocates for the reimbursement of tuition fees to the nurses.

Read also Impact of the IOM Report on the Future of Nursing

Things couldn’t get better than having a recommendation by the IOM that nurses should be involved in the leading of change in the advancement of health (Aiken, 2011). This recommendation will help better the life of the practicing nurses.I see myself assuming a leadership position in a major healthcare facility as we plan for change in healthcare practice that will better the sector. This will not only create opportunities for interaction with other healthcare professional but also to learn more.

Read also The Impact Of Reforming The U.S. Health Care System On The Future Of Nursing

All the recommendations made by the IOM are geared towards making the practicing life of a nurse better, challenging, and one that will progressively impact positively in their life as well as the facilities where they practice. The opportunities created by these recommendations will serve as a challenge to nurses to further their studies and participate in policy making and general running of the healthcare industry.

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Assignment 1: Employment-At-Will Doctrine

As a manager and supervisor of an accounting department, discuss the following issues related to the employment-at-will doctrine and liability of an employer based on actions and responses to the employee’s behavior and actions. Jennifer, a recent graduate, has recently been hired by your accounting firm out of college. Upon being hired, she engages in a number of different behaviors that need your attention. For each category of behavior, describe what steps you would take to address the situation.

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

1. Describe what steps you would take to address the following scenario involving skills, competence, and abilities:

  • The employee seems to be unable to learn the computer applications that are basic to her job responsibilities, but, consistently “tells” her boss that she is “a good worker and a genius” and that he does not “appreciate her”. Even after a few months of training and support, she is unable to use the computer tools to be productive and efficient in completing the required tasks.

2. Describe what steps you would take to address the following scenario involving management, behavior, and performance:

  • The employee tends to burst into a rage when criticized and is frequently late to work as noticed by her boss and other staff members. When her boss attempts to address her behavioral issues and the company late policy, the employee’s response is that she “ knows her rights and what to do” if she is wrongfully discharged. She also says she took a business law class in undergrad that taught her “everything she needs to know about exceptions to the employment-at-will doctrine and wrongful discharge in violation of public policy”.

3. Describe what steps you would take to address the following scenario involving labor and laws:

  • The employee takes a day off from work, without management consent, for her religious holiday observance that falls on a day that is during “ tax season”. The day off occurred during an incredibly busy period for the company during which the employer had notified all employees they were not allowed to take off without prior management approval. Also, there is no labor union for accountants. However, she begins talking to her co-workers during lunch breaks and sometimes during regular work hours, encouraging them to organize and form a union to “protect ourselves”.

4. Describe what steps you would take to address the following scenario involving policies and procedures:

  • The employee’s supervisor consistently asks her out on dates; the employee initially refuses to go out on a date with her supervisor. The employee later discusses the issue with her girlfriend who encourages her to accept his offers. During her new employee orientation, the employee was informed of the company policy which prevented employees from dating their supervisor and was given an employee handbook with the written policy. The employee and her supervisor later begin having a consensual relationship.

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Benefits of Healthcare Information Technology


Changes in the healthcare industry have necessitated healthcare facilities to implement cost-cutting measures by improving the efficiency of their operations. Declining reimbursements is one of the major factors that have led to the changes. Failure to implement cost-cutting measures poses a significant threat to the financial viability of healthcare organizations. Most healthcare organizations rely on information technology to improve the efficiency of their operations. IT also improves the competitiveness of the healthcare organizations. However, IT is a significant financial investment. Therefore, failure of IT to improve the performance of a healthcare organization may increase the rate of its decline. Due to the above factors, it is vital to determine the payoff of healthcare information technology. There is a raging debate on the payoff of the healthcare information technology. The debate is referred to as the ‘IT productivity paradox.’ It is vital for research to measure to the impact of IT on organizational performance. The success of IT implementation is dependent on the environmental factors within an organization. These include quality indicators and financial indicators. This research would strive to determine the impact of IT on the performance of a healthcare organization using the nature and extent of the process redesign initiatives. The research would strive to analyze literature on effectiveness of IT and process redesign (Boutros & Purdie, 2013).

During the 1970s, productivity declined compared to the previous two decades. This is despite the fact that the decline occurred when organizations started making significant investments in IT. There was a similar pattern of decline in productivity during the 1980s and early 1990s. During this period the output of workers declined by more than 10%. This trend discouraged organizations from deploying IT within their processes. However, there are studies that show that investment in IT actually increase the productivity of organizations. Investment in IT is one of the major factors that fuels GDP growth of modern economies.

At the firm level, investment in IT improves the productivity. It helps in improving the efficiency of the organization. This reduces wastage within the organization. Ultimately, it helps in improving the profitability of the organizations. This makes contemporary organizations be eager to implement IT in its processes. Business process reengineering also helps in improving the productivity and efficiency of organizations. It helps in determining processes that have wastage. Therefore, it is vital for organizations to combine business process reengineering with IT investment. IT investment should support the business process investment. Combining investment in IT and business process reengineering leads to a significant improvement in the efficiency and financial viability of organizations. This is regardless of the industry of operation of the organizations (Boutros & Purdie, 2013).

The research hypothesizes that organizations, which have environments where there is significant investment in technology and business process reengineering initiatives have improved performance. Therefore, the null hypothesis is that significant investment in technology and business process reengineering do not improve the performance of an organization. The research would test the fit between technology and business process reengineering using various variables for technology and business process reengineering.

Research Design

The research collected data of 4 hospitals that are in the health system for a period of 36 months that had implemented a decision support system (DDS) to help in evaluating their contracts. DDS helps in estimating the costs of expected services in comparison to the results of the services. It also helps in identifying areas that a hospital should cut costs and the operational improvements that a hospital should undertake to improve its financial viability. Time series data from a cross-sectional set of hospital would help in determining the impact of IT on profitability and quality.

Decision Support Systems (DDS)

Decision support system (DDS) is a computer system whose major function is to improve the productivity and effectiveness of managers. It has models that can help in evaluating the policies and alternatives of an organization. Therefore, it enables hospital managers to gain insights into the operations of the hospital and consider alternatives. This helps the managers in the development of business strategies. DDS is critical in operational decision making, managerial decision making, and strategic decision making. Operation decision making involves resource allocation and decisions that strive to improve operations at the patient care level of the hospital. On the other hand, managerial decision making involves cost containment, profitability of the department, and integration of the services of the department with those of other departments within the hospital. Finally strategic decision making involves contracting decisions, decision on whether the hospital should merge or acquire other hospitals, and pricing decisions (Sauter, 2011).

Read also Ways In Which Information Systems Are Transforming Business

Hospital that took part in the study relied heavily on DDS in analysis of data and identification of areas for business process reengineering. DDS of the hospitals is designed to store financial, clinical, quality outcomes of all patients admitted in the hospital. It was also designed to store the duration of stay of the patients. DDS analyzes the data to determine best practices. It enables the hospital to measure its performance in comparison to the performance of other healthcare organizations (Sauter, 2011).

Data Analysis

Dependent Variables

Measures of profitability and quality

The research used revenues as a measure of the profitability of the hospitals that took part in the study. This is despite the fact that traditional measures of profitability deduct costs from the revenues. However, in a healthcare setting this is difficult due to various reasons. This includes the fact that most healthcare organizations do not have accurate cost accounting systems. The healthcare organizations mainly use a constant ratio of costs to charges (RCC) to find out the costs of services they offer. In addition, in a healthcare setting costs are affected by the different contractual agreements between hospitals and other parties. Hospitals may offer discounts to healthcare insurance providers or offer free charity care (Berger, 2008).

To prevent bias due to the varying length of stay of patients, the research used net revenue per day and the net revenue per admission as the measures of revenue of the hospitals. The revenues of the hospitals were multiplied by a certain constant to protect the confidentiality of the financial information of the healthcare facilities.

Customer satisfaction and mortality rates were the major measures of quality of the hospitals. Customer satisfaction was measured by determining the percentage of customers who tick the top box, which signified they were highly satisfied with the services, during the period duration of the research. On the other hand, mortality rates refer to the number of people who dies within 30 days of undergoing an operative procedure within the hospital divided by the number of operative procedures that the hospitals conducted during the period of the study.

Independent Variables

Technology Investment

The researchers collected monthly costs related to IT capital, labor and support for all the hospitals that were part of the study. In the research IT labor included all the costs associated with salaries, wages and other expenses involved in the management and supervision of DDS. IT support referred to consulting fees, programming of the DDS, software support, and maintenance of the DDS. IT capital referred to the costs of procuring DDS software and its associated modules.

Statistical Analysis

A chi square test of independence was used to analyze the data from the research. Chi square test is generally used to determine whether certain data sets follow certain patterns. The chi square test of independence is the most common chi square test. It classifies the variables into a two-way contingency table. The table contains the variables in a combination of row and column categories for easy analysis. The chi square test determines if there is a relationship (dependence) between the variable in the columns and rows (Geher & Hall, 2014). Below is the data of the study arranged in a two way contingency table:

H1 H2 H3 H4 Total
revenue per day 500 750 900 950 3100
revenue per admission 6 8 10 12 36
customer satisfaction 30 50 80 100 260
mortality rates 10 8 5 3 26
IT capital 10 20 30 40 100
IT labor 10 15 20 28 73
IT support 6 8 10 12 36

For the purpose of conducting a chi test of independence only the revenue per day and IT capital were considered. Therefore, the results of the study are listed below:

H1 H2 H3 H4 Total
Revenue per day 500 (494.06) 750 (745.94) 900 (900.94) 950 (959.06) 3100
IT capital 10 (15.94) 20 (24.06) 30 (29.06) 40 (30.94) 100
Total 510 770 930 990 3200

The Chi square of the above table would be

((500-494.06)2/494.06) + ((750-745.94)2/745.94) +……..((40-30.94)2/30.94) = 5.76

The value of chi square is small. Therefore, there is no major difference between observed and expected results. From the above table, the degree of freedom is (number of rows -1) (number of columns -1). Therefore, in this case degree of freedom is:

(4-1) x (6-1) = 3 x 5 = 15

The degree of freedom is 15

From the table testing the alpha level of 0.05 makes the critical chi square would be less than the calculated chi square. Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis of the study.

Results and Discussion

Below are the results of the study.

H1 H2 H3 H4 Total
revenue per day 500 750 900 950 3100
revenue per admission 6 8 10 12 36
customer satisfaction 30 50 80 100 260
mortality rates 10 8 5 3 26
IT capital 10 20 30 40 100
IT labor 10 15 20 28 73
IT support 6 8 10 12 36

From the above results, it is clear that technology investment had a significant effect on the quality and profitability of hospitals. Increased investment in technology reduced the mortality rates of the hospitals. Hospital 4 (H4) had the highest technology investment. In addition, the labor investment of the hospitals had a significant effect on the revenue per day of the hospitals. Investment in IT capital had an effect on the patient revenue per day and the revenue per patient of the hospitals that took part in the study. However, there IT support activities did not affect the profitability of the hospitals.

IT labor investment had a significant on the mortality rates of the hospitals. However, IT support investments did not have a significant effect on the mortality of patients. From the research, business process reengineering had a significant effect on the patient mortality and patient satisfaction. Business process reengineering had a significant effect on the financial performance of the hospitals.

Significance of investing in IT

The results of the study show that investing in IT has a significance effect on the profitability of organizations. It improved the financial viability of organizations. The study showed that investment in IT does not improve the financial performance of organizations immediately after its implementation. Organizations started seeing the benefits of investing in IT after 3 or more months. The research determined that the link between IT and profitability is stronger when one considers the customer or patient’s profitability. However, the research found varying support for investment in IT and support services. IT investment in consulting and other relevant support services did not have a significant effect on the profitability of the hospitals. IT investment had a significant effect on the quality within organizations. Therefore, the research proved the hypothesis as true.

Significance of business process reengineering

Business process reengineering initiatives attract heated discussions and controversy within organizations. The research showed that business process reengineering initiatives reduced mortality and increased patient satisfaction within the hospitals. However, organization cannot experience the benefits of business process reengineering immediately. Organizations experience the benefits a few months after undertaking business process reengineering. However, business process reengineering alone does not improve the financial viability of an organization (Boutros & Purdie, 2013).

Significance of business process reengineering with IT investment

Business process reengineering leads to significant changes in the processes of an organization. Modifications in the processes may make it face stiff resistance from the employees of an organization. This is due to the fact that it leads to significant changes in the roles of employees of an organization. Therefore, it is vital for business process reengineering to have management support. The combined effect of business process reengineering and IT investment improves the profitability of organizations. In fact, IT support and business process reengineering have the strongest impact on the profitability of organizations. However, business process reengineering and IT labor investment do not have a significant effect on the profitability of organizations. IT capital and business process reengineering affect the profitability of organizations especially if IT is used as an enabler of the business process reengineering of the organization. This is due to the fact that they improve the efficiency of the patient care.


The research highlighted the importance of IT investment in the profitability of organizations. IT investment and business process reengineering improve the efficiency of organizations. Improved efficiency reduces the operational costs and wastage, which in turn lead to an increase in the financial viability of organizations. The research proved the hypothesis was true. Testing the alpha level of 0.005 showed that the critical chi square was less than the calculated chi square. Therefore, the research rejected the null hypothesis.

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