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Translation Research – Pain Management Practices Employed Among Cancer Patients

Translation Research

The highest number of cancer patients experience pain at different points in their illness. Pain may occur directly based on the fundamental oncologic condition, and it might also originate from the therapy anticipated for disease modification. The skill and knowledge required to handle cancer pain has changed to the point in which efficient pain management is regarded by a number as an underlying human right. In this regard, failure to offer effective pain management is regarded to be unethical and poor medicine. Initially, pain management in cancer had been hindered by a number of factors which include lack of enough knowledge regarding several tools accessible to relief pain symptoms and complexity in assessment. However, things have changed with advancement of technology and availability of more information regarding cancer assessment and management (Bharnagar & Gupta, 2015). This paper focuses on employment of anticipated changes in pain management in the ecology department in my health care facility.

Read also Cancer Prevention – Healthy People 2020 Objectives

Current Practice to be changed

The current nursing practice that need to be changed in our healthcare facility is pain management practice employed today among the cancer patient. The nurses employ regulated opioid dosage technique to regulate pain among cancer patients based on the severity of the pain. However, this practice is becoming less effective especially among patients who develop its resistance. As a result, a considerable number of patients are experiencing serious uncontrollable pain. In this regard, the healthcare should consider reviewing this practice. The practice needs to be changed.

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Why the Current Practice Need to be changed

The nurses working in the oncology department of our healthcare facility have been struggling with pain management for a long time. The nurses have been trying to manage different oncology pains using opioid medications based on the severity of the pain. In this case, opioid level of treatment was varied by either reducing or increasing the opioid dosage among cancer patients, based on whether the pain is mild, moderate or severe. This technique is being used to handle even surgical related pain in case the tumor is removed through surgery. However, this technique has been found to be less effective in pain management. About 25% of the patient cannot respond to opioid related pain management intervention. They therefore suffer greatly during their treatment, an aspect that is highly related to high percentage of early death for patients who are resistant to opioid, as compared to other cancer patients. Moreover, most patients are currently developing anxiety due to believe that the excess use of opioid may result to addiction. This has added to the ongoing challenge the nurses are experiencing in pain management in the department. The new challenges include patient’s refusal to take medication for the fear of addiction and later, having no choice due to continues intolerable pain they end up taking it but remain restless due to the fear of addiction. The department also experience insomnia, and cases of constipation for most patients. This condition was related with side effects of using opioid as pain management drug.  The senior nurses in the department now believe that a better pain management strategy is required to improve patient care outcome in the department. It is also evident based on the situation that a more effective and improved pain management technique is needed in the department to enhance care and reduce the level of opioid resistance among the cancer patients in the department.

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Key Stakeholders in the Current Nursing Practice

The key stakeholders in this change include the nurses working in oncology department, patients suffering from cancer, nursing leadership in the department and the entire organizational leadership which is responsible for the overall performance of the healthcare organization. Others include nursing working in informatics department and the hospital administration.

The Main Role of the Key Stakeholders


The patients have a very great role in assisting to establish the effectiveness of a nursing care practice. The assessment normally done to measure the level of pain is highly done through oral interview and observation. True confession and sincere expression from the patient plays a great role in establishing the effectiveness of the nursing practices or the care given to the patients. In this case, they can highly act as agents of change. The expression of dissatisfaction and sincere confession of increase in pain despite of the measure taken acted as the major reason as to why the nursing leadership in the organization considered reviewing the current pain management practice.


Nurses are the other major stakeholders. They are directly involved in caring for the patients and thus, they can easily determine the effectiveness of the intervention provided to the patient. Nurses also play a great role in reporting patients’ dissatisfaction with the current intervention measure to the relevant authority. Nurses also need to put an effort to establish a better intervention measure for this condition. After realizing the problems cancer patients’ experience, nurses in charge should consider developing a research to establish how they can improve the nursing care outcome for cancer patients’ pain management.

Nursing Leadership

The organization leaders play a major role in implementation of change. They can highly enhance change by developing policies, and creating other motivating measures to enhance change in an organization. Leaders will also play a great part in providing for the needed resources to enhance change. Moreover, they are the decision makers and thus, no change can be implemented without their authorization.

Nursing in Informatics Department

Nursing in the informatics department are responsible of providing information to the nursing team and the nursing leaders. In this regard, they will play a major role in using the available technology. This department will assist in conducting an intensive research to establish the available evidence based techniques that can be employed to enhance pain management among cancer patient or general information on evidence based practice on pain management in different situation. This information will be used by nurses in the oncology department and the nursing leaders as well as oncologists in defining the best evidence based practice that can be employed.

Read also Reflection on Nursing Informatics Competencies


Oncologists will also play a great role in contributing in the selection of the best evidence based solution that can be employed to different patients based on the actual cause of their pain. Although most cancer patients experience pain there are different types of pain and thus, some may need a different intervention measures from others. Oncologist will assist in justifying some of the intervention measures obtained from the research and providing their views on their application to different patients.

Read also Should Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants Work Independently of Physicians

Evidence Summary

Pain management among cancer patient is recognized as a challenging task across the globe. Different literatures have recommended different techniques that can be used to control pain among cancer patients evidently. These techniques include both non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical techniques (Naga, 2015). The most employed pharmaceutical technique in cancer patient pain management is WHO analgesic ladder which is said to reduce the level of medical resistance to 10-15% (Bharnagar & Gupta, 2015). This involves administering pain management drugs in three steps or order. The administration involve nonopioids in the first stage, where paracetamol or/and aspirin are used. The second step involve employing mild opioids for instance codeine where necessary and finally, the use of strong opioids that include morphine for severe pain. The literature also recommended the use of other drugs to manage the anxiety for instance adjuvants, and laxatives to reduce the level of constipation (Ripamonti et al., 2011). The research recommended that the reduction of opioid dosage to handle the side effects worsens the situation. In this regard, it is recommended that the dosage should continue as the patient receive other drugs to suppress the side effects symptoms.

Read also The Molecular Basis of Cancer

There is a wide range of non-pharmaceutical techniques employed to control pain among cancer patients these techniques. Among the most sited techniques included radio therapy which reduced the pain for a month by 27%. Others include physical therapy which included walking, bath and bed supports, and position instructions, massage, ice or heat use, nerve stimulation using transcutaneous electrical, reflexology, ultrasonic stimulation, acupressure or acupuncture (Singh & Chaturvedi, 2015).  Others included spiritual care, cognitive behavioral training, active coping training, creating outlets for instance music, and distraction training (Hokka et al, 2014). The research also established that effective assessment and continuous evaluation of the level of pain among patients can highly enhance the level of pain management (Choi et al., 2014)

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Recommended Best Practice

There are a number of proposed pain management techniques among cancer patients. However, the most productive technique is the use of holistic pain management techniques. This involves the use of both pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical techniques to manage the pain. The pharmaceutical technique should strictly follow the recommended WHO analgesic ladder. The non-pharmaceutical measures should be employed based on individual condition. However, the use of spiritual care, nerve stimulation using transcutaneous electrical, reflexology, ultrasonic stimulation, acupressure or acupuncture should be tried among different cancer patients. The nurse should always use what works best for the patient.

Appropriate Practice Change Model

The best model to employ in this case is ACE Star Model of Knowledge Transformation. This model is selected because it provides a simple, but comprehensive technique to translate evidence into practice. The model is employed to obtain all necessary and accessible information regarding a topic in a summary form. Then decisions on point of care are needed which will assist in selecting the best practice. The model contains five major steps which include discovery that involves primary research regarding the topic (Stevens, 2013). The second step is evidence summary of the topic. This involves synthesis of the entire available knowledge. The third stage is translation into action which normally involve integrating expertise and evidence base to extend recommendations. The forth step involve practice integration to obtain the best evidence. The final stage is evaluation where the effectiveness of the new integrated evidence based practice are measured. In this case, the nurses will be involved in intensive research and form a comprehensive integrative review which will provide them with all possible available pain management measures. These measures will be integrated in the current pain management care system based on the expert decision. Their effectiveness will be measured by evaluating the patients’ response to the measures in terms of level of pain and resistance (Stevens, 2013).

Possible Barrier to the Proposed Change

The main possible barrier for the implementation of the proposed change is the need for extra training among nurses on how to employ non-pharmacological measures for pain management among cancer patients. Nurses may require training in using some of the equipment used for this purpose. They may also require some knowledge in physical therapy among other things. This may be expensive to the healthcare or it may require free time for nurses to be trained which could be challenging. The hospital may also require to change its environment to accommodate new measures such as the use of music in the wards or the accommodation of chaplaincy in the hospital for spiritual nurturing an aspect that would require the top management approval and assistance.

Possible Ethical Implication

Nurses are ethically required to be more concerned about their patients’ well-being. Basically, pain is regarded to be unethical and thus, nurses should be able to relief pain among their patients at all time. Opioids is one of the drugs used to manage pain among cancer patients and it is still accommodated in the current change. The ethical issue may rise where the patient believes opioid is a drug which may cause an addiction. In this case, a nurse may require to employ other measures or to go against the patient’s will. This puts nurses into a great dilemma. However, the new changes do not introduce anything that would compromise the ethical principles of nurses and thus, it will be very effectively integrated in the system.

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Confucius and Aristotle on Virtue – Comparative Essay


The philosophical works of Aristotle and Confucius build a great basis on which humans derive virtues to achieve a good life as depicted in The Nicomachean Ethics and The Analects. The paper presents an understanding of the virtuous ethical theories through the approach of studying the Aristotelian and Confucian ethical theories(Aristoteles & Ross, 2007).

This research paper on the various perspectives of Confucius and Aristotle on Virtue presents a tour de force of etymological analysis and comparative philosophy. It provide an excellent platform on which a methodology of mirroring demonstrates the power of comparative philosophy in providing new philosophical insights.

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Comparison of the teachings of Confucius and Aristotle.

When we apply the use of the European criterion which states that good philosophy must provide arguments, there are interesting observations we deduce from the arguments put forth by these two renowned philosophers. Taking the question of human nature, the Confucian tradition offers a fairly sophisticated theoretical discussion with complete arguments. On the other hand, Aristotle’s coverage of virtue is criticized to be not easy to understand(Aristoteles & Ross, 2007). Moreover, Aristotle believes that rationality is what is unique to human nature and this is poorly justified. Generally the Nicomachean Ethics is not a paradigm of logical consistency, definitional clarity, and rigorous argumentation.

Read also Political Projects Of Machiavelli Vs Aristotle – Discussion

Both Confucius and Aristotle reject the Socratic point of view that virtue alone is sufficient for one to have happiness, and as long as they would agree that happiness comes about through the process of self-examination, they wouldn’t favor cross-examination, at least not the sometimes brutal Socratic elenchus. Confucius has deep affection and love for his rich cultural past. For both Confucius and Aristotle, emulating virtuous persons, ritualization and habituation is essential for the good life(Confucius &Soothill, 2009).

On the discussion of the relationship between virtue and highest good, Aristotle believes that the highest good is not a virtue, but rather, it iseudaimonia, the state of having a good soul(Pangle, 2003). When we take an age-old challenge of reconciling this perspective of the middle books of the Nicomachean Ethics and Book X, in which blessedness (makrios) and contemplation (theoria)replaces a eudaimoniaproduced by phronesis.

It is of great significance to note that only the Confucius’ highest good is moral, since there is lack of moral content in pure rational activity (Aristoteles & Ross, 2007). Aristotle believes that human beings at their highest state bask in divine intelligence, while the Confucian sages have perfected the virtue that Heaven has given them.

Both Aristotle and Confucius have a common believe that real friends are for mutual good. Aristotle states in the TheNicomachean Ethicsthat the partners in a perfect friendship love each other for themselves, cherishing each other for their charactersbut not for the incidental benefit that they offer to each other. This would mean that Aristotle was hinting that it is through openness to pleasure but not in our need for what is good which make us come together to cherish one another simply for what he is. In The Analects, Confucius argues that “The gentleman…uses friends in helping him become humane.” Even when he is a company of peers he is bound to finding his teacher amongst them.

When Aristotle asks the reader, “is it only when his life is completed that a man can rightly be called happy?” Then, this shows that it is the virtuous activities which determine our happiness. Therefore, a happy man spends all his time in virtuous conduct and contemplation and this makes him happy throughout his life (Pangle, 2003). On the other hand, Confucius states that the core value would be ren, which translates as humaneness or benevolence. As long as the idea of ren is not explained in the Analects, through the Chinese interpretation it means a relationship between two or more, for instance, relationship between an individual and the society.

The Difference between ancient Chinese culture and ancient Greece Culture

The ancient Chinese culture held with highest esteem that there was nothing comparable to theoriaand the lack of such a distinction between the practical and theoretical aspects constitutes the strongest contrast between Confucian and European thinking.

Read also Contributions of the Chinese Culture to the United States

The comparison brought forth by the Greece and Chinese point of philosophical approach to human lives on a daily basis can be applied to ethics in the modern context, for instance, a diverse workplace. This entails caring about the relationship between the individual and the society (Confucius &Soothill, 2009). This therefore gives emphasis on how we can achieve perfect friendship characterized by deep familiarity, permanence, generosity and frequency of interaction. This ensures that a setting of diverse knowledge, cultures and societal backgrounds, individuals to develop common interests, desires and tastes, even though they don’t need to agree in everything. The individuals need to be virtuous to be good friends and thus such a friend would always desire the good for the other. Therefore, a virtuous friendship is selflessness and a diverse workplace with true friends experiences a culture of wishing what is good for each other’s sake.

Read also Ancient Greek Writers, Philosophers and Scientists


The works of The Analects and The Nicomachean of Confucius and Aristotle respectively invokes a critical aspect of thinking in our minds as human beings. The works show a certain degree of objectivity which must be claimed for the moral insights attained in a virtue ethic if presented as real life options. It is important that we acknowledge the element of universality to a virtue ethic in the form of substantialist claims on human nature-which reduces any virtue ethic to just “notional” curiosity.

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Performance Appraisal – Appraising The Secretaries At Sweetwater State University

Do you think that the experts ‘recommendations will be sufficient to get most of the administrators to fill out the rating forms properly? Why? Why not? What additional actions (if any) do you think will be necessary?

The university has long used forms that link the performance of secretaries to the salary and administrators have learned from the past not to repeat mistakes such as contributing to the already low salaries by rating them. The dilemma arises since the administrators fear secretaries leaving their jobs for greener pastures should they rate them poorly. The recommendations by the experts better place the administrators in a position to administer the forms to the secretaries without averse repercussions from the secretaries when some leave their jobs. The forms will not be linked to the salaries of the secretaries.  Therefore, the administrators will provide a more vivid and clear picture that will lead to the improvement of the performance of the secretaries and the overall efficiency of their operations (Tapamoy, 2008).

Read also Behavior Focused Vs Trait Focused Performance Appraisal

The administrators should consider counselling especially for the low performers, and this would mean mentoring the secretaries and helping them to develop their skills at work. Another additional strategy would be to ensure that the people involved are appraised through the various developmental process and motivated towards working harder especially in providing incentives, offs and bonuses among others. Therefore, the company can slowly introduce a culture that will make the employees self-examine themselves especially according to their work and the quality they produce.

Read also Performance Appraisal Systems

The company can, therefore, come up with a culture that will ensure that the secretaries self-examine themselves especially based on their work output, which will determine whether they will be rewarded, or not according to their work. The secretaries’ salaries will not be affected by disproportionately increasing the pay will affect the attitude of workers towards their jobs and their demotivation (Waseem, 2012). Using the forms should be stopped at all costs or even rating half employees as excellent or good will not help matters since according to the experts there are individual who may be excellent and as such being rated as mediocre may affect their performance negatively and may eventually make some of them opt out to other lucrative offerings.

    Do you think that Vice President Winchester would be better off dropping graphic rating forms, substituting instead one of the other techniques we discussed in this chapter, such as a ranking method? Why?

It will be better for him to drop the rating forms and use the advice from the experts who have had more experience in the company and them being experts shows that they have given counsel thoughtfully. The graphing rating forms are thus an issue that the vice president should consider removing to benefit the work processes in the organization. The drop will prevent disruptions in the functions of workers and the waste of time by secretaries protesting and some eventually leaving the company for good (Tapamoy, 2008).

Read also Forced Ranking Performance Appraisal System Recommendation – Powerpoint Presentation

The vice president should thus consider having the ranking method since it would help develop the workers to have a more sanguine environment for the workers to develop their skills. The workers will not be judged according to their inefficiencies but on how better they can perform and their various areas of interest. As such, the secretaries will not be intimidated in the process that their salaries either will remain the same or lowered. The administration will thus save a lot of money constantly regarding raising the various salaries and wasting time as a result. Dropping off the rating forms will, therefore, prevent the dilemma that the administrators have towards rating the forms and the fear of losing the secretaries. Winchester should, therefore, encourage the method of ranking to ensure competency among the workers and to increase their confidence in achieving more especially through the counselling sessions the appraisal experts have proposed that.

What performance appraisal system would you develop for the secretaries if you were Rob Winchester? Defend your answer.

The first thing will be to look into the past appraisal of the secretaries and not how they have been working all alone about their workstations. I will read the job descriptions of the secretaries clearly to ensure that I have the correct gauging for their various responsibilities in the company. I would further review the various responsibilities by the goals set by the administrators of the duties of the secretaries.

The next step will be to measure the various competencies the secretary has especially about the use of computer applications, which are most important to a secretary’s functions. Such computer applications as Microsoft access, Excel PowerPoint and Outlook. I would provide a performance rating on regarding executive, medical and legal assistance. The secretary will thus be tested on his proficiency in performance according to the various issues.

The next step will be to look at the various competencies in communication like written and verbal skills, which are important to the normal functioning of a secretary. Further testing will ensure that one knows how the worker deals with issues especial in solving problems and how he or she handles customers (Falcone &Tan, 2013). The past engagements with the customers will help in determining how well versed the customer has solved issues. Such an examination will provide more information on the character of the secretary regarding how she interacts and her mannerisms towards others in the workplace or even her leadership potentials.

The appraisal system will require that the employees come up with goals that they can meet in the short run and that are achievable. Those who do not do well on the appraisal tests will be taken through a process of mentorship where they will be given more time to develop their skills and to improve their performance.

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Projects and Project Management as Vehicles To accomplish Organization’s Strategic Goals

GM591: Strategic Project Selection and Initiation

This focus paper gives an insight of the project management aspect of the successful completion of the Golden Gate Bridge. The GM591: Strategic Project Selection and Initiation portion provides analyses of the project selected on the basis of the coherence in the organizational objectives, strategies, goals and the final project outcome. The paper further highlights on the adequacy of the project procedures, techniques and policies. Other aspects of the project like the selection of the project manager and sponsor are looked into versus the success story of this engineering construction. Moreover, other elements in relation to the planning and performance standards like, cost, risk, time are also scrutinized.

Introduction/ background/ discussion

The 1933 – 1937 construction of the Golden Gate Bridge was an outstanding engineering work in the history of America. The Analysis of the project’s cause and course is one with interesting facts as this focus paper highlights in its findings.For about forty years the idea for a bridge spanning the Golden Gate remained unpursued. The bridge would connect San Francisco to Marin County and facilitate the development of north San Francisco.

Mapping organizational objectives to the project outcomes

The Golden Gate Bridge was objectively built for no other purpose than to serve the automobiles driver. It was built to ease traffic that was being experienced as the ferry system, having been used in San Francisco since 1850 was hugely strained because of the expansion of the automobile ownership throughout the 1920s (Zinkova, 2010).The city dwellers moved to the suburbs, that is, the side of San Francisco Bay as they purchased automobiles. The suburbanites depended on the ferry system to get to the city. The traffic at the ferry terminals was too heavy and this became the objective on which the necessity for building of a bridge across the “Golden Gate.” When the bridge was finally put into use its objective was achieved as no more congestion and the traffic opened up.

Project’s reflection on the organizational strategies.

The project organization did not reflect the organizational strategy in terms of cost. This is because the team and engineers behind this construction budgeted for $30.1 million at the time of the project’s approval. This never came to be the case as the project’s costs turned out to be $36.7 million, thereby resulting to a cost overrun of 22%.

Structurally, the Golden Gate Bridge’s project organization never failed its formulators and implementers. This is evident when the 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake shook San Francisco Bay for about 15 seconds but never cause any significant damage to the bridge. The project’s organization was formulated to meet the organizational strategy of sustaining the winds of up to 96km/hr and strong ocean current sweep(Zinkova, 2010).

Proper selection of project sponsor and project manager.

On the aspect of project manager, Joseph Strauss took the lead of other engineers on this particular project. This selection of the individual to take this position was never a question but the engineer to propel the groundbreaking and the entire construction of the bridge to the later was a courageous step. This is because the underlying factors with respect to the proposal on the Golden Gate Bridge construction was quiet of risk than an open success showing project (Zuehlke, 2010).Strauss had to take the risk as many experts never believed of the possibility of building such a long bridge under such difficult circumstances. For instance, the strong currents and heavy winds on the site of the bridge made construction dangerous.

On the other hand, the selection of project sponsor was a unique one as there was little state or federal money used in the building of the bridge (Barter, 2001). Most of the financing on the project came from the bonds which the Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District sold. Even though the project was being undertaken in the midst of the Great Depression, the voters in the six counties of the district in 1930 approved a $35 million bond issue which required them to put their businesses, homes and farms as collateral.

Adequacy of project procedures, policies and techniques

The Golden Gate Bridge project was successfully completed in time. The incorporation of the risk factors like the tide, fog, earthquake and winds in the framework of the bridge’s construction was a major boost the success of such an engineering work.

The risk and quality of the project with associated planning and performance standards.

That is, the bridge in this location should be able to withstand brutal winds, fog and tide besides being located about 13 km from the epicenter of the most catastrophic earthquake in history. Designing the bridge therefore would put into consideration such risk factors.
The structural behavior of the Golden Gate Bridge is only accurate when there is uniform distribution of load applied along its length. When there is load variations along the roadway this will change the funicular shape of the suspension cables and the bridge itself. The spectrum on the variations in the loading is determined through the loading patterns and also on the ratio between the live and the dead loads of the bridge. When the bridge has a small live load proportionate to the dead load, there is less load variations (Zinkova, 2010). Usually, small variations occur, however, the bridge’s roadway must have the necessary stiffness to function as a continuous element for it to minimize excessive deflections when there is passage of heavy loads along the bridge.
The other risk affecting the suspension bridge is that it is subjected to other loads such as those resulting from earthquakes and wind. The cables have no ability to provide for any lateral stiffness, thus, the roadway is the only structural element to with stand lateral or torsional loads applied on the suspension bridge (Barter, 2001).

How to communicate the project to the organization and the stakeholders

The communication process of the Golden Gate Bridge propelled from the project formulators, the engineers down to the stakeholders. This was done through discussions in meetings and seminars and through written documents on the various aspects of the project (Zuehlke, 2010).


The project management process of the Golden Gate Bridge was a challenging one but finally came out to be successful. The objectives of building the bridge were achieved as the congestion and traffic at the ferry was never a problem. This success led to greater economic growth of the north San Francisco.

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School Safety and Preparedness – Comprehensive Strategic Plan


School Safety and Preparedness – New Jersey

School safety is an area that needs many attentions especially after the recent security threats and happenings that have left many students dead while others have been left injured. Schools are given the mandate of teaching students while at the same time keeping them safe.  The safety and health of learning of 55 million students in both secondary and elementary schools are in the hands of the respective schools. The various safety concerns, therefore, need a well-prepared school to meet the various threats to security and ensure that the students are secured (Hull, 2011).

Planning for emergencies is thus important since it will enable schools to come up with security and preventive strategies that will help reduce the occurrence of various emergencies or incidences at the schools. Most emergencies lead to various persons in the schools responding and taking various actions to help the situation. The emergency responders in schools usually may provide first aid or call for help from the hospitals and other healthcare providers who may be in the schools. The schools may include other partners who include the government agencies to respond to the emergencies that they may face.

There are various responders in the community who help the schools out and partner with it in ensuring safety in the schools. Some of the responders from the community include local security agencies, health care personnel, and fire officials among many others. Various families to keep their children safe from security threats and other hazards like accidents, diseases and natural disasters like floods give the schools. A strategic and collaborative plan dealing with emergencies that involve various community partners in addition to government agencies will help the school meet it security agenda in keeping the children safe.

Planning security procedures with the inclusion of various stakeholders is important in that it ensures that each of the stakeholders has a certain position in the safety and emergencies should there be security threats in the school. The leadership of the school should be greatly involved in the security of the school to provide a haven for the students. The inclusion of the leadership in such security matters ensures that what needs to be done is done without question and without having to pass through many communication channels to reach the leadership of the schools at the county level. Therefore, plans are done at the district level and passed on to various schools in the district. Therefore, the higher officials at the schools and the district level can come together and strategize on various safety and security measures to be carried out in their schools.

The planning process helps the authorities that deal with secondary and elementary school children to prepare a comprehensive plan to deal with safety at the school.  The plan aims to give the school community functional needs and access. The school community encompasses physically challenged individuals, children and those who hail from various races, religions, and those who have a diverse ethnic background.  Settings are considered in planning since students usually go on trips, sporting events where the school should cater for their security.

Homeland security is central to ensuring that the various security agencies coordinate together to come up with a plan to safeguard the city’s schools. Most of the agencies will be given jobs to perform that fit their specialty, and information will be discussed between them to ensure that there are no collisions between them. The plan will follow the procedure of identifying the people who will help in the safeguarding of school security and will include the homeland security with the community development partners (Hocevar et al., 2006).

In the state of New Jersey, the schools should come together under the district authorities to plan and deliberate on increasing their security. The various partners about school safety in the country will include homeland security, schools development authority, governor appointee, Governor Appointee 2, New Jersey’s supervisors and principal’s association representative, representatives of the association of school boards and representatives from the Senate in New Jersey.

Definition of terms

  • Interagency – activities that take place between agencies of different natures like the security and fire departments or different security agencies.
  • Partners – several agencies and community-related agencies that work together to come up with a solution to a certain problem in this case school safety.
  • Collaborative relationship – are relationships forged by different bodies that include government agencies, schools, educational authorities at the district level with an agenda to ensure school safety.
  • Coordination – it involves the act of leading an operation that involves various strategic partners in meeting a certain goal.
  • Team building – involves the activities that bring together various agencies or people to work in harmony towards meeting a certain goal.


The objectives of the strategic plan are as follows

  1. To plan on how to deal with the various threats and hazards and come up with various measures that will help in dealing with the security threats. Therefore various actions are formulated that will help in dealing with any threats should they occur, or when they are occurring or after they occur.
  2. To engage the various partners that are concerned with the security of schools at the both the national and district and come up with concrete strategies that will help them schools deal with the problems at hand.
  3. To find out the various security threats and hazards in the schools and come up with emergency measures that will help mitigate the effects of the security threats in case they happen.

Some of the stakeholders will include homeland security in New Jersey, New Jersey school boards association, Ebola state working group, school security task force, New Jersey domestic security preparedness Taskforce, New Jersey state police, every school district in New Jersey, public health officials and emergency management (Haimes et al., 2008).

New Jersey Homeland Security Department

The New Jersey homeland security department deals with security issues affecting all the people in the states of New Jersey and schools are part of its jurisdictions in maintaining security. Since homeland, security has various that help in dealing with various security threats it brings on board labor and officers that are trained to detect the various security threats and to stop them when they are happening. In collaborating with other players in the community, it will be able to conduct operations more easily since the community will be involved. Some of the challenges will include the agreement between the various partners with the homeland security. Their points of contact will be to investigate and prevent attacks on students and staff wherever they occur. Homeland security has a lot of information on various crimes especially on people who may want to carry out attacks on schools especially when dealing with terrorism.

New Jersey School Boards Association

New Jersey school boards association include the various authority watching over the schools in the various districts. The school boards usually come up with the necessary tools and practices that help in dealing with insecurity or preparedness of security threats in New Jersey schools. Some of the suggestions that the school boards has come up with are security officers at schools, bullet proofing windows, vestibule changes, alert systems, surveillance cameras and door locks to classrooms in the schools. Finance has been the major hurdle for the security task force formed by the schools board association.  Their points of contacts are in dealing with the various problems in schools that may cause security vulnerabilities. Collaborating with other agencies will mean that they will have to make decisions collectively, and thus they should work in agreement to prevent lengthy decision because of a lot of disagreement. 

Domestic Security Preparedness Task Force

The domestic security preparedness task force in New Jersey is an important stakeholder in dealing with counter-terrorism and preparing the state and in this particular case, the schools to be ready for any eventuality since terrorism may take place abruptly (Caruson et al., 2005). Its control by the cabinet and help in setting domestic preparedness and homeland security policies that are used to enhance safety and security in the schools and the people of the state as a whole. In collaborating with others, it will bring on board valuable information on legislation and what is required to deal with terrorism and other security threats in schools. The challenges it may face are a large number of partners involved in the security force.  The points of contacts for DSPTF are in dealing with terrorism activities and helping the homeland security to by enacting policies to increase the efficiency of homeland security.

Ebola State Working Group

Ebola has been a health risk affecting many countries throughout the world. Ebola in schools could present a national disaster since the disease would spread quickly and further dampen the efforts of public health officials should such an outbreak occur. Therefore, for the children to be safe from such a disease, it is important that the Ebola working group was coming in to help the school community understand Ebola and train them on how to prevent it. The points of contacts will be the staff and students. The challenges will be the decline of Ebola, which is no longer a national threat though outbreaks are still being reported in Africa. The schools should thus be prepared to ensure the safety of their students and their health. In collaborating with others, it will have to follow the plans laid down by other partners some of which may prevent it from working effectively at the community level.

Schools Security Task Force

Schools need security personnel who will provide security for the student at staff during the day or at night. The task force will help deal with the various threats and help the staff to notice suspicious behavior, especially that involving students or outsiders. The security officers will benefit greatly from the schools regarding putting their training into practice and remuneration. Some of the challenges are the high number of students that the security personnel will watch over. Lack of enough equipment especially arms may inhibit their work should an attack occur that involves firearms and other weapons.

State police

The state police are integral and crucial in part in any security plan or venture for the peoples of the state. Some state police officers are usually attached to schools to help boost safety and deal with any illegal activities in the school. The state police are instrumental in ensuring safety since they are trained to do so. The challenges involve working in an environment they are not used to since they are dealing with students who need to be treated with caution. In collaborating with others, they may take the role of enforcement and may have to follow the laid down procedures though they might have carried out safety in schools effectively due to their training.

New Jersey Department of Education

The education department is tasked with coming with various solutions to the security problem in schools and does this through the Department’s Office of School, Preparedness, and Emergency Planning (OSPEP) about the welfare, safety, and health of the students. The department ensures that the school sin New Jersey are in a better position to deal with security crises should they occur. The department benefits greatly if the security in schools is ensured and all threats are thwarted. The challenges it faces are the increasing terrorist activities that may eventually target schools and the increase in shooting carried out by students especially on campuses (Borum et al., 2010).

Public Health Officials

Public health officials are an important part of the county’s approach towards dealing with insecurity and the aftermath. The health officials usually ensure that the children in the state are safe from various health hazards. Health officials help in directing help to the schools should a security threat leave them injured and in need of medical attention. Public health officials in collaborating with other community partners and state agencies can increase the scope of their work to the field and not just in the hospitals. Public health officials in partnerships can only deal with health while the rest of the security issues are dealt with the relevant partners. Public health officials benefit when they have less work to do due to fewer injuries because the staff and students have followed the laid down procedures in dealing with security threats.

Emergency Management

Emergency management agencies are an important part of a school’s security. Emergency management prepares the schools for anything associated with security risks. Training and drills are carried out to train the staff and students on how to respond to security threats should they occur. They can be educated on responding to terrorist activities by not panicking but gathering in the designated places without much noise to alert the terrorists who may seek to kill them. The benefits of emergency management are that it helps a school to be well prepared for any security threats and the aftermath of such events (Perry & Lindell, 2003). In collaborating with others, they can advise on how to deal with preparedness and emergencies but have to hear from the various decisions made by the others and follow them. Emergency management benefits when there are fewer emergencies and when schools are more prepared and act according to the training given them.

Methods to Promote Collaboration

Since there are many players involved in, managing school safety at the district level it is important for there to be a plan for coordinating all the players to come together. From collaboration to work well with the several inner agencies and other partners, more opportunities for training and increased focus the strategic planning in the workforce should ensure more participation of collaboration among the various agencies (Gajda, 2004). The various inefficiencies in the workforce can only be addressed by development and training. Such training and education seminars will help the senior leaders see the important of collaborating with other agencies in coming up with solutions to help them foster security in schools. Therefore, the two programs, in this case, are strategic workforce, training, and development.

The collaboration between agencies can further be improved and facilitates realistic expectation, definite rules, and decision-making ventures are adopted.  The different agencies can increase collaboration by sharing ideas, examining joint goals, approaches or plans done by the various agencies do not conflict with others and thus threaten their collaborative efforts. It is, therefore, important to use the various partner’s contribution in increasing their collaboration especially on their different contributions on dealing with innovations and interventions.

The increase of collaborative efforts can happen among workers. The various partnering agencies and other associated and interested parties consist of workers who are to work together to meet the various goals set to achieve school safety. The common ground between the agencies will foster more collaboration as they will not see each other as different and at higher levels but as partners in working towards achieving a common goal, which is school safety. Common ground helps in maintaining and facilitating the working relationships among workers. The department of education in New Jersey provides a crucial leadership role in bringing together all the partners and working with them to achieve school safety in New Jersey. The department of education will, therefore, bring on board all the partners to work on how to protect the various schools and universities in New Jersey.

The plan in conjunction with other partners will take into consideration the various innocent targets who are usually the staff and students. The vulnerability assessment will be carried out to determine the extent of the problem. The staff and students will be trained to deal with the various dangerous situations that may occur at their schools. The school boards will help facilitate that such training is done in all schools. The seminar will be held to education those outside the school especially parents, the fire department, community members, leaders, and the police. This will increase collaborative effort and the involvement of the community in detecting various threats towards schools (Perry & Lindell, 2008).

Personnel at the school will undergo training to develop further their professional skills in handling security matters, especially when dealing with students and staff. The school boards in every district will train the officers according to the requirements of the schools in those districts. Having a developed security personnel will ensure that any security threats are dealt with promptly and without any delay.


It is crucial to come up with quick solutions to help boost security in schools and thus enhance the security of students while they are in school.  The department of education should consider school safety thoroughly as the recent shootings in the school cause the public to lose trust in the security agencies that need to deal with the matter. Therefore, collaboration should be enhanced to create a strategy that will make students and staff safe.

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Technologies in Department of Homeland Security Cyber Security Division

Technologies in Department of Homeland

Department of Homeland Security plays a big role in strengthening the security of America. One of the branches of the Department of Homeland Security is Cyber Security Division. Cyber attackers pose a big threat not only to the United States government, but also to private organizations. As the use of internet technology continues to rise in critical infrastructure sectors, many people aim to gain profit from it through hacking, espionage, and many other tactics. In order to prevent negative impacts that may arise from cyber attacks, the United States needs to enhance the security and resilience of its Internet system. Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security strives to promote cyber security through application of advanced technology (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2015b).

Read also Theoretical and Conceptual Knowledge of the Department of Homeland Security 

The mission of Cyber Security Division is to enhance security and resilience of America’s critical information infrastructure and its Internet systems by fulfilling a number of objectives. First, Cyber Security Division seeks to develop and deliver new technologies and techniques that will enable the Department of Homeland Security and the United States to protect its current and future infrastructure against cyberattacks. Second, Cyber Security Division aims at conducting and supporting technology evolution (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2015b).

Read also Department Of Homeland Security Progress Since Its Inception in 2001

Third, Cyber Security Division leads and coordinates research and development to improve the security systems of the internet in collaboration with both public and private agencies. Generally, Cyber Security Division intends to improve critical vulnerabilities that exist in the cyber security landscape including internet infrastructure security, critical infrastructure resources, national research infrastructure, leap-ahead technologies, cyber security education, identity management, cyber forensics, and software assurance. Cyber Security Division is adequately prepared to fight the next-generation cyber threats such as digital provenance and enterprise-level metrics.

Read also Effectiveness of the Department of Homeland Security Today – Personal View

In order to accomplish its mission, Cyber Security Division applies various forms of modern technology as a way of protecting the United States’ critical infrastructure systems and the Internet from cyberattacks. The three technologies employed by Cyber Security Division include mobile apps archiving technology, Federated Malware Analysis System, and AMICO and ZeroPoint technologies. Cyber Security uses these technologies well and this explains why many cyberattack plans on the United States internet systems are detected before they are executed.

Read also Sec 310 – Impetus of the Department of Homeland Security

The Department of Homeland Security developed mobile apps archiving technology purposely to track copyright violations in mobile apps across various applications available in the mobile app market such as iTune, Google Play, and Amazon. Currently, the Cyber Security Division uses mobile apps archiving technology to secure mobile applications by using it to conduct cyber-crime investigations, infrastructure defense, and forensic techniques. The main advantage of mobile apps archiving technology is its ability to discover approximately 19, 000 apps across Android and Windows app platforms that associated with copyright infringement (Kimery, 2015).

Read also Interagency Relationships In Homeland Security

One major disadvantage of using mobile apps archiving technology in preventing cyber attacks is high cost associated with its implementation. Since the Cyber Security Division began to use mobile apps archiving technology, the rate of e-crime in relation to copyright infringement in the United States has greatly reduced. This is a clear indication that mobile apps archiving technology is used well by the Cyber Security Division (Kimery, 2015).

The purpose of the Federated Malware Analysis System is to counter the strengths of malware attackers. Currently, the Cyber Security Division is using the Federated Malware Analysis System to detect different malware clusters based on how they respond to the environment. The main advantage of the Federated Malware Analysis System is its ability to characterize malware behavior into families or clusters based on their levels of severity. This makes it possible to identify the types of malware that pose the greatest threat to the critical infrastructure and internet systems of the United States (Homeland Security Today, 2015).

Although the Federated Malware Analysis System assists the Cyber Security Division to protect the United State’s infrastructure system from attacks, this technology is very costly to implement and requires highly skilled expertise which is difficult to find. The Department of Homeland Security emphasizes that it will continue to fund projects that aim at improving the functioning of the Federated Malware Analysis System because it has been very effective in countering the strengths of malware attacker. This indicates that the Cyber Security Division is using the Federated Malware Analysis System well.

            The other technology employed by the Cyber Security Division is a combination of two tools namely AMICO and ZeroPoint. The purpose of this technology is to send malware alerts in real time. Currently, the Cyber Security Division is using AMICO and ZeroPoint to group malware on the basis of their ability to execute future attacks, and to inspect data to determine the nature of harm that different malwares can cause. The main advantage of AMICO and ZeroPoint is their ability to stop malware before they do harm to critical information infrastructures of the United States. However, the Department of Homeland Security is concerned that these two technologies are difficult to implement and the Cyber Security Division is required to put in extra efforts to ensure their successful implementation which requires utilization of huge finances. According to Homeland Security Today (2015), Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security is using AMICO and ZeroPoint technologies well to provide malware alerts in real time across different sectors in the United States. 

            Cyber Security Division is still developing new technologies that will assist it to realize its mission in future. One of the technologies that are developed by Cyber Security Division is HONE. This is a cyber-sensor whose purpose is to fix a fundamental flaw in stacks of Internet protocols to provide additional insights for cyber defenders. HONE is of great use to United States government agencies and organizations which are increasingly experiencing a rising number of cyber events in their networks. With the availability of HONE, cyber defenders will be able to characterize communication with maximum accuracy (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2015a).             The other technology that is being developed by Cyber Security Division is a choreographer. A choreographer will assist Cyber Security Division to change server locations in order to disorient network attackers, while at the same time ensuring that these servers provide the required functions to their users. Cyber Security Division recognizes that public servers have become centers of attack by adversaries of various organizations. It is therefore developing a choreographer as an early strategy towards protecting servers of all organizations in the United States (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2015a)

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Terrorist Attacks : September 11 2001 Attacks Essay

The September 11 2001 attacks were committed by 19 militants associated with the al-Qaeda. The militants hijacked airlines and committed suicide attacks on the World Trade Center, and this is recognized as the most deadly attacks that has ever occurred on America. Osama bin Laden participated fully in the September 11th attack, being that he was the leader of al-Qaeda, an Islamic group which held negative beliefs about the United States. Several years before the attack, Osama bin Laden believed that America’s security system was very weak, demonstrated by its pullout from Vietnam in the 1970s (Bergen, 2015).

Read also Domestic Pre-9/11 And Post-9/11 Terrorist Events Research Paper

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was the key planner of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11 2001. Mohammed became an active Muslim at the age of 16, having spent his entire youth in Kuwait. According to Bergen (2015), the plan to attack the World Trade Center on September 11 began in 1996 when Khalid Sheikh Mohammed visited Tora Bora, Afghanistan, where he met Osama bin Laden. According to a report given by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Mohammed came up with a proposal in 1996 for an operation to be launched with the aim of crashing planes into the United States buildings. This means that the plan went on for about five years, with the actual attack taking place in 2001.The operation involved training pilots to hijack planes that would be used to crash the buildings in the United States. As part of the plan, al-Qaeda provided logistical support, money, and personnel to make the attack successful (Bergen, 2015).

Read also Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism from the Perspective of Invasive Species, Biological Threats, and Logic Behind Suicide Terrorism

According to Shane (2015), the money that was used to finance the September 11 attacks into the World Trade Center came from Saudi Arabia. The money was donated by members of the Saudi Arabia’s royal family. This information was revealed by Zacarias Moussaoui, an al-Qaeda member when he presented his testimony at the United States District Court. Three people, Prince Turki al-Faisal, Prince Bandar bin Sultan, and Prince al-Waleed bin Talal are said to be the donors of al-Qaeda in preparation for the September 11 attacks. The funding was used to train pilots, and to support logistical operations (Shane, 2015).

The main purpose of the activities that were conducted during the planning phase was to attack the United States in order to bring about regime change across the Middle East. Operatives took flight lessons in the United States and suicide operatives from countries within the Middle East were recruited. Part of the plan took place in Hamburg, Germany. Coordination by plot leaders from the United States, the Middle East, and Germany ensured that there were adequately trained pilots who could carry out the attack as planned (Bergen, 2015).

Read also Improving Emergency Management from Disasters – Hurricanes Sandy And Katrina And 9/11

The September 11 2001 attacks were committed by 19 militants associated with the al-Qaeda. The militants hijacked airlines and committed suicide attacks on the World Trade Center, and this is recognized as the most deadly attacks that has ever occurred on America. Osama bin Laden participated fully in the September 11th attack, being that he was the leader of al-Qaeda, an Islamic group which held negative beliefs about the United States. Several years before the attack, Osama bin Laden believed that America’s security system was very weak, demonstrated by its pullout from Vietnam in the 1970s (Bergen, 2015).

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was the key planner of the World Trade Center attacks on September 11 2001. Mohammed became an active Muslim at the age of 16, having spent his entire youth in Kuwait. According to Bergen (2015), the plan to attack the World Trade Center on September 11 began in 1996 when Khalid Sheikh Mohammed visited Tora Bora, Afghanistan, where he met Osama bin Laden. According to a report given by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Mohammed came up with a proposal in 1996 for an operation to be launched with the aim of crashing planes into the United States buildings. This means that the plan went on for about five years, with the actual attack taking place in 2001.The operation involved training pilots to hijack planes that would be used to crash the buildings in the United States. As part of the plan, al-Qaeda provided logistical support, money, and personnel to make the attack successful (Bergen, 2015).

According to Shane (2015), the money that was used to finance the September 11 attacks into the World Trade Center came from Saudi Arabia. The money was donated by members of the Saudi Arabia’s royal family. This information was revealed by Zacarias Moussaoui, an al-Qaeda member when he presented his testimony at the United States District Court. Three people, Prince Turki al-Faisal, Prince Bandar bin Sultan, and Prince al-Waleed bin Talal are said to be the donors of al-Qaeda in preparation for the September 11 attacks. The funding was used to train pilots, and to support logistical operations (Shane, 2015).

Read also Terrorist Attack Analysis- The San Bernardino Terror Attack 

The main purpose of the activities that were conducted during the planning phase was to attack the United States in order to bring about regime change across the Middle East. Operatives took flight lessons in the United States and suicide operatives from countries within the Middle East were recruited. Part of the plan took place in Hamburg, Germany. Coordination by plot leaders from the United States, the Middle East, and Germany ensured that there were adequately trained pilots who could carry out the attack as planned (Bergen, 2015).

Read also Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper

Bombing is a tactic that Islamic countries used to attack their enemies. Since the end of World War II, terrorists have come up with new innovations that they use to attack and create fear among their enemies. For instance, suicide bombing was used during the Algerian struggle of the 1950s. The use of suicide bombing in Algeria in the 1950s was influenced by the desire for political change (Jenkins, 2011). The suicide bombs were typically placed in vehicles, human body, or in animals, and were directed against embassies and hotels. This is because human beings, animals, and vehicles could move from one place to another, in hotels and in public places where large groups of people were located. Other potential targets for suicide bomb were military camps, economic installations, and senior government officials. These people and places were the potential targets for suicide bombers because they are the source of national security and economic strength (Jenkins, 2011).

Females were largely used in the suicide bombings in Algeria in the 1950s. Just like law enforcement agencies, terrorists do the work of investigating their potential enemies before attacking them. There are several reasons why suicide bombing is such an effective tactic to spread fear. According to the United States Army, many groups employ suicide bombing because such attacks are capable of causing extensive damage and large casualties. In addition, suicide bombing plans rarely fail because the success of suicide mission is always guaranteed even after the bomber has left the area of operation (Ronczkowski, 2006).

Read also Real Irish Republican Army -Terrorist Organization Research Paper

Moreover, suicide attacks result into large psychological impacts on the attacked groups because it renders the public helpless. Several groups prefer suicide bombing to other forms of terrorist attacks because suicide attacks are relatively cheap and easy to carry out. Furthermore, many people, especially Muslims, are always willing to finance suicide attack giving those who want to use the mission an easy time to plan the attacks. According to Ronczkowski (2006), suicide attacks are often less complicated and will require very little knowledge to implement. Normally, suicide bombers are concerned about their security as they continue to carry out the attacks. Suicide bombing is recognized as one of the terrorist attacks which present minimal security risks to the groups performing it. It is important to note that terrorist are normally impressed if their operations and covered in the media. For this reason, they are always happy to use suicide bombing because media coverage in such attacks is always guaranteed (Ronczkowski, 2006).

Read also Aum Shinrikyo on the Transportation System in Japan – Terrorists Group Activity Analysis

Apart from bombing, kidnapping and assassinations are some of the methods that terrorists use to attack their enemies. Terrorists normally use kidnapping and assassinations to establish bargaining positions in those countries or groups that they wish to attack. Kidnapping and assassinations are very difficult tasks to accomplish, but, if terrorists succeed, they can generate huge sums of money, make their jailed comrades to be released from jail, and gain publicity for a prolonged period of time (Jenkins, 2011). As terrorists can kidnap any person irrespective of his or her title in a country, assassinations are normally targeted toward prominent people in authority. This compels the authorities to comply with the demands of the attackers, which eventually attracts and holds media attention. When terrorists kidnap or assassinate members of a given country, their target is always the audience and the nation, but not necessarily the kidnapped and assassinated individuals (Jenkins, 2011).

Read also Comparing Homeland Security Research Products Since the attacks of 9/11/2001

Extremely unique outcomes can result from the kidnappings and assassination of key political or social figures. For instance, when a key political figure is assassinated by terrorists, it can result into huge financial losses for a country because the assassinated person may be forced to reveal important information about the country’s finances. In addition, huge finances can be lost if the government is requested to pay ransom in order to the assassinated person to be released. Terrorists can also obtain private security information of a country by kidnapping and assassinating a key political or social figure. This information can be used by terrorists to plan an extremely severe attack on a particular country. A good example is the assassination of German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer which enabled terrorist to obtain private security information about Germany ju

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Arts Lesson Plan – Process Approach to Writing

Name: Lesson Title &Subject(s): process approach to writing

Topic or Unit of Study: Writing expository paragraph

Grade/Level: fifth grade

Step- by-step Instruction:

The students will be taught on how they can plan for the work that they intend to put into writing. One of way of achieving that goal is to first gather ideas and note them down in short forms. Additionally, the students will be taught on how best they will be able to revise their work once they are done with the writing part before making a presentation of what they have composed. Once the revision part is done, what follows is an editing session where mistakes that were done on the written material are corrected. Once the teacher will be done with the mentioned steps, students will be allowed to have their own independent brainstorming sessions.

Read also Comprehensive Lesson Plan for Second Grade Students on Hand-Eye Coordination 

Summarizing text:

There will also be a need for the students to be able to learn on summarization of the texts that they have written by themselves. The importance of summarization is to help the students become concise so that they make their points clear without using several or repetitive words. The ability to write good summaries will be learnt gradually through constant written essays that will be presented in class.

Collaborative writing:

Students will be allowed to have a collaborative session of writing so that they learn on the importance of working in groups. Students will have the chance to brainstorm on the topics of their choice which then will be executed through the teacher’s guidance. The first face of the exercise will involve a collaborative planning on the chosen topic, and then followed by the writing process that will also be done in groups. Once that is completed, the group members will have the opportunity to edit their work before finally making revisions on the areas they feel have mistakes.

Student’s achievement standards

The students should be able to show their abilities of making writing plans before embarking on the writing process. Planning will involve a step by step procedure on how the students target to attain whatever plans they have made in their drafts. Once the plan is laid down correctly, the students are expected to complete the rest of the exercise with utmost ease.

Read also Evolution Of Teaching Profession In American History

Lesson Goals:

At the end of the lesson, the students will be expected to have the knowledge of what is entailed when it comes to writing of persuasive essays. Moreover, the students should be able to know how to create a summary of the information they have read or intend to write so that they only give concise information.

Lesson Objective(s):

As a teacher, the objective will be to facilitate the writing process of the students and just a little bit of giving direct instructions when need be. Moreover, the teacher will give the students considerable freedom so that they have ample time to make their personal compositions.      


Instructional Materials:

The teacher will have the chance to use textbooks that will act as guidance for the entire learning process. Apart from that, relevant materials from the internet will also be used to facilitate the learning process for better understanding.

Identification of Student Prerequisite Skills Needed for Lesson:

Students at this stage will be expected to be fluent in reading and writing. Additionally, they will be given short sentences to comprehend and interpret the meanings so as to gauge their understanding abilities

Guided Practice:

Since the teacher will only be present to give guidance to the students, the rest of the work will be done by the students themselves. Any one or any group that will be stuck in the course of their work or in doubt will have the permission to make consultations from the teacher for further clarifications.

 Read also Duties And Responsibilities Of Teachers And Teaching Assistants In Youth Centers And Childhood Development

 Closing Procedure

At the end of the lesson, the teacher will guide the students in doing a recoup of the day’s lesson so that the students can further understand what the lesson was all about. That will also act as preparation process to prepare the students for the forthcoming lessons.

Differentiated Instruction:

None of the students is disabled or has a hearing problem at the moment. Every member of the class will be treated equally and therefore English language will be used throughout the lesson. All the fast and slow learners will be presented with equal opportunities.

Student Assessment/Rubrics:

At the end of the lesson, the teacher will ask random questions to the students in order to gauge whether the concept has been understood by the students or not. Moreover, a short quiz will be conducted and supervised by the teacher. The quiz will be done independently, after which the teacher will mark the quiz questions at a later time.

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Truck Full of Cartons of Pellets Engulfed in Flames – Incident Action Plan

Prepare an Incident Action Plan for the Scenario below


As the newly appointed safety manager at a large plastics manufacturing company, you are called to the loading dock to find that a large truck, full of cartons of pellets used in the manufacturing process, is engulfed in flames. The truck slid on ice in the parking area and crashed into empty trailers. A call to the city emergency services indicated that they will be delayed indefinitely due to roads made impassible by the ice storm. The Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the pellets indicates that burning releases toxic smoke. Note that larger companies are likely to have their own emergency response teams equipped and trained to handle the most likely hazards found at the site.

Incident Action Plan – Truck Full of Cartons of Pellets Engulfed in Flames


The main mission of the Incident Action Plan Unit (IAP) is to reduce the loss of property and life and protect the employees and visitors from all associated hazards. The plan certifies that all efforts of all teams involved are synchronized accurately and coordinated to realize the best outcome. This action plan documents a stepwise platform for synchronizing operations at all incident sub-level and ensuring that incident processes focus on the incident goals (Molino, 2006). The incident action plan developed is an iterative and disciplined process that necessitates a planning and collaborative sessions that nurture partnerships while tactically focusing incident operation.

Thesis statement:

Proper planning, robust command center, synchronized operation, coordinate logistics system, and a collaborative administration are critical components to the effectiveness and success of an incident action plan process.

The incident action plan is envisioned to promote the company’s effectiveness in incident operations and management by standardizing the process of incident action (Molino, 2006).  It highlights the incident exercise planning process, describes the incident implementation process, defines the responsibilities and roles of different teams, and institutes standards for incident action planning in events of an emergencies.

Incident Action Planning Process

The incident action plan process started with the coordination the Incident Command Systems to obtain the required output of the process. With major focus based on ensuring that all partners engaged in the incident exercise realize unity of purpose through the established coordinated processes. Through the incident action plan the company safety manager communicates their expectations and provide indistinct guidance to the incident management team (Molino, 2006).

Situation Understanding

The first action is focusing on trying to understand the situation within the loading dock and establishing initial main concern.  At this point in time information is gathered on the level of severity and damage already afflicted, the main causes, recording what is going on, analyzing the whole situation, and relaying the information as regards the scale, complexity, scope, and impacts of the incident (Molino, 2006).

Obtaining Situation Awareness

This requires the performance of the following items simultaneously:

Once on the site, a review and analysis of all occurrences that may have influenced incident-level operations including the burning toxic smoke and the availability of ice storm on site was launched. A re-examination of other potential effects of the incident including incidences like suffocation, fire accidents, and further property destruction are comprehensively examined.

In attempting to adjust, modify and contain further fire explosions and possible spread, real-time information is provided to the public while also assessing the effectiveness of the measures already put in place. This is based on a feasible performance metrics. A briefings session that is supported by spot reports, situation reports is provided to the personnel and victims. The main objective of the briefing session is to help improve the realization of the incident main objectives by defusing tension already built on site on the number of casualties and the state of the rescue process (Klinoff, 2012).

Objectives of the Incident Plan

The main objective of the plan include:

  1. Ensure clear and safe egress and ingress emergency routes to loading dock
  2. Evacuate all persons from the loading dock and surrounding buildings immediately
  3. Account for all personnel known to be on site
  4. Establish four (two mobile, one fixed and one mobile) disaster recovery units at the dock
  5. Guarantees safety of all deployed workers and survivors
  6. Identify urgent need requirements and provide sustaining support for victims
  7. Ensure first aid provision to survivors and safe evacuation process
  8. Assess site state and execute a control and rescue plan
  9. Maintains incident communication plan and ensures communication interoperability

Developing Plan

At this level all strategy, specific resources, support requirements, and reserves are determined for implementation while carefully choosing tactics and strategies of the operational period. Prior to the official Planning Process Meetings, every member of the Genera and Command Staff are assigned to take charge of certain information gathering and support the suggested plan. An ad hoc team is immediately established to assist with the incident planning process (Molino, 2006).

Preparing and Disseminating the Plan

The stage where planning preparation is formatted appropriately, and the level of complexity of the loading dock incident determined. For the primary response, the format is a properly prepared for a verbal briefing framework. For incidents anticipated to last for multiple operational durations, the plan and strategy are established in writing based on some pre-agreed upon procedure evidence.

Executing, Evaluating, and Revising the Plan

The process of planning encompasses the necessities and resources to implement and evaluate planned activities and ratifying the accuracy of the information deployed in planning for succeeding operational durations (Molino, 2006). The General Staff compares actual progress with planned progress. In instances where deviations are noted and new set of information are established, adjustments in the prior step of the process are activated to further modify the current plan and aid in improving  the planning for the other iterative operational processes.

Primary Roles and Assignment

The incident command will comprise of the Incident Commander and different levels of command, sub-commands and divisions. The various command and subcommand staff have been assigned responsibilities and roles for most of the critical activities that are not part of general functional elements (Dornan, 2007). In this incident action plan, three primary positions are identified which include: Safety Manager, Public Information Officer, and Liaison Officer.

Safety Manager

Charged with advising the Incident Command on issues concerning operational safety and monitoring incident operations. The Safety Officer is accountable for developing the Incident Safety Plan, the set of procedures and systems essential for continuous assessment. Coordinates multiagency safety exertions, incident employee’s safety, hazardous environment, and the implementation of processes to promote emergency (Klinoff, 2012). The Safety Officer has the authority to prevent or stop any unsafe actions of incident operations. The Officer will also ensure the management and coordination of the safety functions and harmonizes issues crosswise jurisdictions with the private sector.

Public Information Officer

The Public Information Officer’s main role is to relay information to both external and internal stakeholders (Coombs, 2012). He handles interfacing with the media, public, and other organizations with incident-related information needs. The public Information Officer assembles accessible, accurate, and wholesome information on the incident’s cause, current situation, and magnitude. He may also implement critical information monitoring role that include instituting robust measures for rumor control. Assistant officers may be assigned role but in this case only one Public Information Officer will be allowed to take full control of the loading dock incident (Dornan, 2007). In instances where multiple commands levels are established, the designated Public Information Officer will oversee the Joint Information Centre to assure public information consistency.

Liaison Officer

This person is the Incident Commands’ point of connection between the representatives of other agencies and entities to offering input on the establishment of policies, resource availability, and other incident-related issues. This Liaison Officer ensures the existence of an integrated command structure and collaborating organizations. Various representatives of different organizations acting on this loading dock incident must have the power to speak for their organizations and agencies on all issues, through instituted proper channels and in consultations with their agency leadership (Dornan, 2007).

Step by Step Planning

As the Safety Manager in charge of the operation, the following stepwise actions preceding the Initial Planning Meeting are executed:

  • Evaluation of the ensuing situation and deciding on whether the current process is satisfactory for the rest of the operational duration.
  • Informing the Command Chief of any suggested modifications to the current plan, as deemed necessary.
  • Instituting a planning cycle for the dock loading incident
  • Take part in the Strategy Meeting, if relevant, to review the strategies developed by the Operations Section Command Chief.
  • Limiting Planning Meeting to the following attendees in consultation with the Chief Commander:
    • Incident Commander
    • General Staff members
    • Situation Unit Leader
    • Command Staff members
    • Liaison Officer
    • Public information Officer
    • Technical Specialist
  • Identify the time and location for the Planning Meeting
  • Ensure availability of all the statutory planning forms and planning boards.
  • Alert the needed staff about the planned meeting and their tasks
  • Ascertain that the prevailing situation together with the resources available will be adequate for the meeting.
  • Obtain an assessment of resource availability for consumption in planning for subsequent operational periods.
  • Acquire the essential legal, agency policy, or fiscal constraints for the consumption in the Planning Meeting.

Planning Meeting

The Planning Meeting is to be chaired by the Section Command Chief. Intended to assist with successive developments (Klinoff, 2012). The meeting will have the following critical sessions:

  • A briefing session on the resources, incident potential and situation.
  • Reviewing established objectives considering the total incident situation, the establishment of the key strategies, constraints stated on already accomplished goals, and contingency consideration.
  • Operation lines plotted on a map in the meeting, branches and boundaries of operation established, and group assignments identified. Cross-functional groups need assessment is also completed here.
  • Tactics for different created divisions specified. The Chief Commander to integrate and establish the explicit work task to be performed for the ensuing operational duration. Strategies are specified within the set restrictions and established strategies with all the tasks recorded on the Operational Planning Worksheet.
  • The resources necessary for the accomplishment of the different assignments are determined here. All resource needs recorded on the Operational Worksheet. It is worth noting that resources in future will be considered based on the resource requirement for an assignment accomplishment.
  • Specific reporting locations and operations facilities are identified in collaboration with the Logistics and Planning Officers. Specific reporting time for special resources assignments are indicated at this point.
  • Resource order development. Resource need to be assessed against Operational Planning Worksheet and a fresh resource order generated and submitted for approval.
  • Considered also in the meeting are communication, traffic plan demands and medical requirements. Critical to this operation noted include demobilization checkout, investigative plan, evidence recovery plan, site security plan, evacuation plan and decontamination plan all which are discussed and addressed in the Planning Meeting (Dornan, 2007).

Strategy Used

Integrated and coordinated Incident Teams are deployed to rescue and search assets and remnants from the crush and loading dock. The rescue team is to work in a cohesive operation under the tactical control of the Municipal Fire Service (Klinoff, 2012).

Well-equipped mobile, mix and fixed disaster recovery centers have been established on the site to enable 360 degrees access to the dock victims and survivors at the following strategic locations:

  • Northern Dock B exit
  • Southern Dock C entrance
  • Loading Dock G main gate
  • Central Block A entrance

Health and Safety Plan

Health and safety of personnel engaged and survivors are critical to the Incident Action Process and therefore care and safety precaution is of great significance to the success of the exercise (Dornan, 2007). The Chief Commanding Officer will determine the reporting procedure for all accidents or injury on the loading dock. This will include staff and timelines to be alerted of the host unit.

The following health and safety plan has been put in place to un-check safety lapses:

  • Access to the site is only permitted to authorized personnel with valid authorization badges.
  • The scene is initially secured, responders and victims protected from further injury.
  • The Command channel is cleared for critical “Emergency Traffic” access only and for non-critical-emergency, the communications team is informed for normal communication.
  • A standby medical personnel and designated Overhead is stationed for rapid urgent response.
  • An effective communication desk is established to communicate and initiate Action plan response.
  • Affected staff are removed from the fire-line, while making certain appropriate medical attention is provided
  • Fire shelters, respirators and personal protective equipment must be worn at all time by the personnel fighting the fire.

Communication Plan

Established communications committee has prepared and reviewed the basic communication protocol and gadgets that is used during the operations (Coombs, 2012). The committee established will operate on an ad hoc basis and has been assigned roles to account for during the incident action plan implementation. The team is headed by the Information Officer.

Table 1: Communication management plan

Basic Means of Communication





Mobile 1



Command & internal Communication

Primary &Backup Communications

Mobile 2



Level 1 Communications

Incident Communications

Low Band Radio



Internal Messaging

Incident Communications

High Band Radio




Emergency response & Communications

High Band Radio



Command and Personnel Primary Communication

Incident Communications


System for Public Warning

G4S Services

Public alert warning Using Commercial G4S

Dock warning using digital alert system



Public Telephone Network


Public Works to the General Personnel

Incident Map

Docks B, C & G, and Block A are disaster recovery units created to provide immediate medical services to the victims and survivors.  The West Main Street are cut-off by the ice storm therefore is inaccessible. We advise motorist and emergency crew to avoid the West Main Street Road and instead access the dock from Guilmette Avenue or West River Street.

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FedEx Customer Relations Research Paper

Importance of customer relations

Happy customers equal returning customers

The FedEx customer Relations has built a strong customer relationship to give a lot of thanks to as a result of its growth. Most of its business come from relations. That is, most of their customers come from their current pool of customers.

Read also Internal Vs External Customers

The art of customer relations to the FedEx is an avenue to making customers happy and this comes with lots of benefits that do stretch beyond merely having satisfied patrons. When your customers are happy with the services and the products you provide unto them, they are more likely to refer your product, business or service to their colleagues, friends and family –and this creates a grapevine effect which is invaluable (Goodman, 2009).

Read also Strayer Bus599 – FedEx and UPS Superior Responsiveness – Answered

On the other hand, a robust customer relations management creates brand loyalty thereby improving the business’ reputation. When a business’ customers are satisfied and feel as if their needs are met or virtually, exceeded –they become more likely to speak positively of the business, or possibly review and rate it highly on the online platform.

Handling problems

Most often customers’ inquiries involve some form of complaints that the customer relations representatives ought to handle according to the business’ policies and guidelines. Sometimes, the customer relations representative attempts to solve the problems or at least propose for some solutions. Some among the representatives are authorized to send the customers their replacement products or even reverse erroneous transactions. Some of the representatives function like gatekeepers, that is, acquiring information on the problem then transferring it to someone else for solutions (Basch, 2002). The customer service representatives makes sure that the complains raised by the customers are valid and thus they must do all they can – in the context of their authority –in making sure that the customer is finally satisfied.

Read also Job Description – Customer Service Call Center Supervisor

Customer service issues

Lack of proper training

Inappropriate or lack of proper training on matters pertaining to customer relations upon the officers tasked with the responsibility of tendering the customer services leads to ineffectiveness. An organization that fails to spend time and resources to fully train their customer service personalities most of the times do not meet the expectations of their customers. The business should dedicate resources (money and time) in undertaking reinforcement and training. The customer service agents should fully be informed about the business’ goals, services and products. Training and emphasis should be given to the importance of listening and then responding to their customer’s concerns. When individuals are given the right tools, resources and objectives they perform their tasks appropriately. Of course this costs money, but it costs more if the business decides to ignore it.

Read also Research Proposal on Optimizing Customer Feedback


When the organization’s employees are frustrated or angry they can work to destroy and sabotage the image of the organization. The business should keep open and honest communications with its employees, especially its customer service personnel. Formally and informally review their goals, performance, feelings and objectives to bar potential problems from reaching customers.

Failure to provide correct solutions

A customer get irritated when they feel like that the customer agent haven’t provided him with satisfactory solutions to the problems he presented. Customers feel uneasy dealing with a customer agent who listens to his problem, then shrugs then says that they have to ask another colleague in the organization to intervene and provide the solution.

Current Business Trends in the Courier Industry

The FedEx Corporation, a global courier organization provides delivery services to its customers. The company operates in the courier industry which is highly dynamic and diversified (Collier, 2011). The industry currently face varied business trends which significantly impact on the organization’s customer service relations as identified in this research paper:

Drop-off and collection services

The drop-off and collection points enable customers to send and receive their parcels more conveniently –this is particularly aimed at serving customers who aren’t at home during the working hours to await a collection or delivery (Murley, 2011). This has led to growth of leading drop-off and collection brands like the Collect+ and ParcelShop drop-off service.

Self-service parcel lockers are among the recent innovations in this industry. Parcels are delivered to the automated lockers from which they can be collected by the respective customers 24/7, providing added convenience to those customers who have got no time to wait for deliveries (Cook, 2011). The industry’s suppliers of parcel lockers has rolled from agents like InPost and ByBox to the Amazon rolling out its own Amazon Lockers too.

Technological advancement

Physical mail volume has been in the decreasing end in line with the rise of digital communication. The Royal Mail reported a 6% decrease in the year 2012 of the traditional letter volume. The increased use mobile technology, for instance, smartphones, tablet devices, in combination with a recession-led search for advanced cost-effective methods, have been in continuous move to boost digital communication. OFCOM research deduced that the use of e-mail has increased by 39% in the UK in a period of two years to September 2012 (Murley, 2011). The advancement in the use of social networking platforms and the text messaging increased by 27% and 20% respectively over the same period. This continuing trend is likely to create of impact on the couriers and express document carriers and their customers’ relations platform.

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