Development of Science, Medicine, and Technology Between 3000 BC and AD 476

Over the course of humanity’s progress, science, medicine and technology emerged as a hallmark of a profound comprehension of the natural world. The inherent thirst for improvement has seen the development of pioneering ideas and technologies which have been manipulated and transformed over the course of time to fulfill a wide range of needs. Science, medicine, and technology have proven instrumental to humanity and with a myriad of far-reaching implications. The formation of communities and societies using scientific, medical, and technological principles is evidence of their ability to shape the course of history while enabling humanity to exercise control over surroundings. Some of the most fundamental transformations in history occurred between 3000 BC and AD 476, through different epochs that relied heavily on science, medicine and technology. Thus, it is fundamental to conduct an in-depth evaluation to trace the development of science, medicine, and technology through time.

            Pioneering developments in science, medicine, and technology were a direct result of human inquisitiveness in an attempt to challenge prevailing notions held during ancient times. For instance, the belief that demons were the primary cause of human ailments was prevalent within the Mesopotamian culture where many resorted to magical enchantments. Supplication and rituals were also common within the Mesopotamian belief system since they were yet to adopt science, medical procedures during treatment, and technology. Ancient Egyptians soon became trailblazers in the medical field.  The Egyptian civilization relied heavily on advances in medicine and even had doctors to address medical concerns raised by its population.

Hesy-Ra is one first physicians recorded in history and served as the chief doctor for King Djoser.  The use of drugs and bandages among Alexandrian doctors became common during this period and served as an indication of advanced medical skills. Knowledge of the human anatomy also increased drastically, with many of physicians now being able to conduct complex surgical procedures.

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            Scientific, medical, and technological innovations between 3000 BC and AD 476 were an indication of a political environment which fostered change.  For instance Greek innovation was supported by leaders within the city-states who viewed them as an indication of monumental developments during the Hellenistic Age.  Alexander the Great was particularly keen on supporting innovation and created an enabling environment for his staff to probe botany, astronomy, and zoology. The aforementioned advances were regarded as being essential to the empire since it was only through such leaps that they would stand out among other ancient nations while using this knowledge as part of their agenda to spread civilization. In the eastern Mediterranean, the Mesopotamian civilization began delving deep into sophisticated technology which allowed them to make accurate astrophysical observations when exploring the exact position of planetary bodies. It was also during this period that a concise determination of the concept of time as developed as a tool to guide many of their religious practices and rites. Consequently, the Ancient Egyptians later adopted much of this knowledge and proceeded to apply it within their framework of science, medicine, and technology.

 The best example of the application of scientific and technological knowledge in the form of astronomy, algebra, and trigonometry was in the construction of the Great Pyramids of Giza.

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              Advancements introduced by science, medicine, and technology were also crucial to settling longstanding debate regarding the nature of reality and its constituents. It was only through such developments that empirical evidence could be deduced in a bid to influence and transform attitudes within society.  During this period, leading scholars such as the Greek mathematician Aristarchus of Samos (c. 310 – c. 230 BCE) developed a novel astronomical hypothesis regarding the nature of the universe.  He was among the first individuals to front the sensational claim that the earth revolved around the sun, with the latter occupying a fixed position in the universes. Similarly, Archimedes of Syracuse (c. 287-c. 212 BC) went on to develop groundbreaking ideas through his principle of hydrostatics6. His ideas later made it possible for him to gain a comprehensive understanding of the world around him, therefore, allowing him to participate in intricate mechanical inventions. The Bible also alludes to the application of science, medicine, and technology during ancient times. Proverbs 17:22 espouses the importance of “good medicine” to improve one’s health and wellbeing. During this period, medicine was regarded as an essential part of treatment routines and with the capability of drastically improving outcomes among patients. Timothy 5:23 refers to a “little wine” as a remedy frequent stomach ailments. It was through a system of trial and error that this advance had been developed as an initial form of treatment. In Mathew 9: 12, Jesus mentions the sick requiring aid from physicians during his regular discourses with the Pharisees.

This is an indication of the prevalence of medical practitioners during this period and an indication of scientific, medical, and technological advances.  Between 3,000 B.C and 476 AD, humanity made a great leap in science, medicine, and technology. The reverberations of the transformations made during this epoch are still felt today and an indication of their usefulness to humanity. It is through this knowledge that the world, as we know it today, was shaped; with such principles remaining at the crux of modern civilization in the future.

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