Causes, Course, and Consequences of the Civil War and Reconstruction

The Civil War was brought about by the differences between those who supported slavery and those who were averse to it.  The intermediary cause of the war was the conflict that colored the sharing of land resources between Northerners on one hand and Southerners on the other. As well, the war began as a result of President Lincoln’s election. Southerners viewed him being utterly opposed to forced labor.

From 1861 to 1862, the North made considerable effort to conquer the South in vain. In 1863, the North decisively defeated the South at the Vicksburg port along with Gettysburg. With that win, the North controlled the port, which was a critical waterway to the South. The Sherman Battle led to the spilt of Georgia into two. When Atlanta fell in 1864, Lincoln was sure of being re-elected. Ultimately, the South was decisively defeated by the North. Notably, the latter had a larger population than the former, more industrial productivity than the former and better infrastructure than the former. Those elements enabled the latter to fight the former successfully regardless of its then famed military expertise as well as tradition (Mayer, 1998; Mountjoy, 2009).

The consequences of the war include that the industrialists in the North became the leading American elite group while the farmers in the South lost marked power and wealth. Owing to the war, the union became markedly solid. USA had not reborn by the close of 1877. In 1877 and in the following years, the South remained an impoverished backwater region that dependent on agriculture. The North continued to dominate the South.

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