Joe’s Unethical Behavior as a Counsellor and ACA Code of Ethics Violations

Joe and Jill Case Study on Code of Ethics Violations

Joe, a thirty-five-year-old, male mental health counselor, received a client referral, thirty-five-year-old Jill,
from a community counseling clinic. He began providing counseling services to her. Jill’s complaint was that she was unsatisfied with her current job as a bank teller and was experiencing mild anxiety and depression. Joe had been providing services to Jill for three weeks when she disclosed that she was confused about her sexuality because she experienced sexual attraction toward some women. Joe immediately responded to Jill with wide eyes and a shocked look. He told Jill that he was a traditional Catholic, who felt that this type of feeling was immoral and wrong. He informed her that she should avoid thinking about this and pray for forgiveness. He also told her that he felt uncomfortable talking about the issue any further. Jill continued to talk to Joe about dealing with her family issues.

Read also Ethical Issues in Multicultural Counseling

Joe had recently read about a new technique and immediately became excited about trying it. He explained to her that he had read an article in a magazine about a new technique called rebirthing. The new technique was being used in Europe to help people change their views about their relationships with their family. Joe said, “It is supposed to be really effective in almost wiping out your memory of your family; it is like hypnosis.” “I would really like to try it on you today, what do you think?” Jill declined his offer and continued to talk about her family. Joe thought to himself that even though Jill said no, he was still going to try to hypnotize her as they talked because he thought she could benefit from the technique.
Jill disclosed that she was raised in a traditional Asian American home with many cultural influences and
culture-specific rules and behavior. Jill was struggling with balancing her individualism and her cultural
heritage. Joe explained to her that because he was living and working in a rural community, mostly
consisting of people of East European descent, he could not relate to Jill’s culture and the issues with which she was struggling. He apologized and explained that he was not required to study these cultural issues because of his geographical location.

Read also Article Analysis : Counsellor Practices and Student Perspectives

Jill moved on to talk about her depression. She began talking about feeling lonely and how it contributed to her depression. During a counseling session several months later, she revealed that she was attracted to
Joe and would like a closer, intimate relationship with him. Joe, aware that he was also attracted to Jill,
talked about his feelings toward her but explained that engaging in a relationship outside the established
counseling relationship was unethical. He informed her that because of the mutual feelings of attraction, the counseling relationship would be ineffective and that he would refer her to another counselor for continued services. Jill agreed, and they terminated the counseling relationship. Later, she contacted him to continue counseling and to discuss the referral. Joe agreed to meet her that evening at a restaurant and bring her the referral information. That night they began an intimate sexual relationship.

Read also Analyzing Unethical Behavior In Criminal Justice – The United States v. Jerry M. Bell, Darryl M. Forrest, and Dustin Sillings

Joe never got around to providing the referral for Jill even though he was aware of her ongoing state of
depression and anxiety. Joe stopped seeing Jill after a month of intimate sexual encounters. Joe enjoyed
the relationship but felt guilty due to the unethical nature of the relationship. Because of his continued
concern about Jill’s depression, Joe considered going to his current clinical supervisor to discuss the case
but decided against it. This was because he and his supervisor were good friends and he suspected his
supervisor would be hurt by knowing the real reason he had been cancelling get-togethers.

Read also Ways of Dealing With Unethical Behavior

Joe decided to call Jill’s boss at the bank to check on her and see how she was doing. He called her boss
and explained that he had been counseling her for anxiety and depression and wanted to check if she was
feeling fine. Her boss informed Joe that Jill had quit her job and was in the county hospital undergoing
treatment for severe depression. Joe quickly hung up and decided not to call or visit the bank again. After
thinking it over, Joe decided that general counseling might not be for him. He decided to begin marriage
and family therapy. He ordered some business cards and advertised in the yellow pages. He thought, “After all, I am a mental health counselor, and it can’t be hard to counsel a couple. You don’t need anything special. I already have one degree, and that’s enough!”

Summary and Analysis of Joe the Counselor’s Questionable Behavior

The case study above provides a detailed overview of a general counselor’s interaction with one of their clients and the manner in which events unfolded from the initial meeting. Joe (the general counselor) has just started providing counseling services to a female client identified as Jill who currently works at a local bank as a teller. She is disillusioned by her current job posting and also reveals she frequently experiences mild anxiety and depression. Although general counselors are typically expected to observe a strict code of ethics governing their behavior in the contemporary clinical environment, Joe displays a series of questionable unethical and unprofessional behavior patterns. Jill begins to formally confide in Joe three weeks after the official start of the counseling session. During this period, she discloses private and personal issues about her sexual attraction to women with the hope of gaining important insight on how to address this new development. However, Joe is immediately dismissive and critical of her sexual disposition and immediately responds in shock. He continues to point out that he is a staunch traditional Catholic and regarded such feelings as immoral and utterly wrong. Joe halts any further discussion on this matter and concludes the session by urging Jill to avoid such thoughts and pray for forgiveness. Another questionable pattern of behavior was in Joe’s attempt to recommend a new therapy technique referred to as “re-birthing”after reading about it from a magazine article.

Joe would later proceed to elaborate that the “re-birth” technique is a form of hypnosis capable of transforming a patient’s worldview and any inherent biases regarding its safety and applicability while ultimately improving their interpersonal and familial relationship. Jill is skeptical about this suggestion and declines the counselor’s request for integrating the counseling session with the re-birthing technique. Nevertheless, Joe still contemplates applying this technique and hatches a scheme to secretly hypnotize his client as he rationalized that this would be in the client’s best interest. Jill later reveals that she was starting to feel physically attracted to Joe and suggested that they get closer and start an intimate relationship. Surprisingly, Joe was also attracted to Jill and openly discussed his attraction to her but states that it is unethical for him as a general counselor to engage in intimate relationships with his clients outside a clinical setting. Joe soon terminates the counseling sessions and promises to subsequently refer her to another counselor as he believed that counseling sessions held under such circumstances would ultimately prove to be inefficient. He later engages in a month-long passionate relation with Jill; full of unbridled romance and an intimate sexual relationships. Joe then ends the relationship after feeling guilty and aware of the unethical nature of this particular arrangement while also failing to Jill to a new general counselor. While discreetly checking up Jill at her workplace, Joe is promptly informed that Jill had since quit her job and was being treated for severe depression at a local county hospital.

The Counselor ACA Code of Ethics Violations

The American Counseling Association (ACA) Code of Ethics sets an obligatory standard for all members to adhere to when providing guidance in an individual capacity as a professional counselor. It also identifies some of the most crucial ethical considerations typically relevant to professional counselors with the express aim of introducing a degree of clarity and perspective to all relevant parties. The ACA Code of Ethics, therefore, plays the critical role of ensuring that members are fully aware of their ethical responsibilities and obligations to their clients at all times (Kocet, 2016). Moreover, the code serves as an extension of the commission’s role to science and education as it attempts to guarantee the broad inclusion of ethics in counseling. In the above-mentioned case scenario, Joe was expected to maintain a professional relationship with his patient as per ACA standards given that it has typically resulted in a wide range of potential benefits for both parties. General counselors who follow this specification to the letter typically enjoy success while providing the aforementioned services to a diverse client base. Patients are, eventually, able to tune in to the guidance provided, which ultimately improves their outcome while allowing them to achieve set mental health and wellness goals. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that Joe failed to achieve the treatment goals set for Jill mainly due to the fact that his pattern of behavior was in clear violation of the ACA Code of Ethics. He seems quite unaware of its provisions and some of the main stipulations embodying its application given that he contiguously flouted a sizable cross-section of universally agreed ethical standards.

Read also Code of Ethics Example

Read also Code of Ethics – Salus Inc

Joe begins his counseling session by dismissing Jill and seemingly displaying a degree of hostility and criticism when the client reveals personal information about her sexual orientation. He makes it immediately clear to the client that he is not quite ready to listen to her talking about her attraction to women. Joe claims to be a staunch Catholic and continues to claim that same-sex relationship go against his religion, and he would actually appreciate if she did not bring it up again. He then proceeds to admonish her and implores her to pray so as to keep such thoughts out of her mind. This goes against the professional responsibility clause given that one of his obligations is to serve patients regardless of their personal views towards or their stand on various pertinent issues. Joe’s violation of this clause is further evident in his decision to fail to follow standard counseling procedures by suggesting that the patient consider hypnosis in the form of “re-birthing” as a potential therapeutic option. This type of treatment is not approved for use in the United States by the ACA, yet Joe proceeds to recommend it to the patient and even goes as far as using it secretly on the patient during treatment. Moreover, Joe is also in clear violation of his professional relationship as a general counselor by blurring the line between their relationship. He opens up to Jill about his feelings towards her and even proceeds to initiate an intimate relationship. This may have prevented Jill from fully participating in treatment and may be among one of the main reasons why she quit her job eventually and was hospitalized for severe depression.

APA and ACA Ethical Codes


Both APA and ACA Ethical Codes share some key similarities given that they are both designed to promote the integration of ethical standards within a clinical setting. Both codes underscore the importance of maintaining confidentially as a core tenet of ethical behavior among counselors. Confidentially fosters trust between both parties, especially given that patients can now consider the counselor as an individual capable of protecting their personal information while also being open about any limits from the onset. Additionally, both codes are committed to improving the integration of professional knowledge into the healthcare environment through Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and scientific research (Scrivner, 2019). Each of the above codes are also particular about the importance of consent within a clinical setting; especially before suggesting a potential treatment option. Both codes are also similar in the manner in which they advise and direct the termination of services previously offered to a client (Harris, 2021). They specify that the resident counselor would only be required to terminate the services in the event that the client no longer requires the service or in a scenario where the existing evidence proves that they are not benefiting from the current treatment module.

Read also APA Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct in Decision Making


Distinct differences are also present in the use and application of APA and ACA Ethical Codes. These differences are mainly in relation to the therapeutic relationship shared by both parties in the treatment dynamic and in client protection. For instance, ACA is definitive in its description of its prohibitions with regard to the therapeutic relationship and with the primary aim of guaranteeing patient safety and well-being (Jones, 2016). On the other hand, APA only provides a general overview of this relationship and only seems to focus on a principle-driven approach. This is further expressed by a limited focus on the possibility of multiple relationships emerging during routine counseling sessions and an overall failure to set and identify any emerging boundary changes. Additionally, the ethical code provided by ACA offers a guideline that is more detailed while APA only focuses on providing a general outlook on ethical behavior within a clinical environment and ultimately fails to explore fundamental issues associated with the therapeutic relationship.

The Alaine Congress ETHIC Decision-Making Model

Based on the information provided within this case scenario, Joe’s ethical dilemma would have been averted if he had applied the Alaine Congress ETHIC Decision-Making Model. This model is systematic and chooses to always prioritize the patient’s needs and requirements while also expecting psychologists and counselors to strictly adhere to professional values. It stresses the importance of observing relevant laws and standards when dealing with patients in addition to also hypothesizing about relevant consequences associated with non-compliance (Logan, 2013). This model requires healthcare professionals to only proceed with patient’s scheduled treatment after a thorough review of relevant professional and personal values. Besides, counselors are also expected to update their personal knowledge of existing code of ethics to ensure their practice falls squarely under acceptable care parameters. Thy should also strive to always identify the potential benefits of approved therapeutic options and consult relevant colleagues or supervisors when faced with an ethical dilemma.

Order Unique Answer Now

Counseling Specializations and Multidisciplinary Teams

The principle idea of this paper is to viably explore Multidisciplinary Teams and the part they have in the field of Substance Abuse. Multidisciplinary Teams have been turned out to be a viable configuration for collaboration of Substance Abuse Counselors to display ideas of wellbeing, strength, and counteractive action for the general soundness of the patient. Evidence has appeared to demonstrate that when MDTs are being honed in the field of study, Substance Abuse Counselors show eagerness of the aptitudes and thoughts being discovered (Ambrosino, Rosalie, et al. 37) Likewise, Multidisciplinary Teams convey counselors a lot of opportunities to work together with various counselors to learn new expertise sets and helpful ways to deal with and give excellent care for the patients. Despite the fact that MDTs have had a positive effect in the field of Substance abuse, negative outcomes still exist. To battle these negative issues, an advancing procedure on an accentuation to create basic intuition aptitudes is being energized in pushing ahead with Multidisciplinary Teams.

Read also Developing And Maintaining A Multinational Team

The field of Substance abuse has been a developing area of study as far back as its early stages. In the early phases of Substance abuse, people who were considered suitable for substance abuse counseling were being marked as “sick” and needing genuine and prompt treatment. Then again, people who were not esteemed fitting for Substance abuse were being viewed as driving a sound and ordinary life. Substance abuse can be traced back to the beginning of civilization. The establishing father of mental counseling, Philippe Pinel, had a firm establishment to refine people in mental organizations by attempting to inspire them to show a feeling of being ordinary (Woods, Evelyn, and Eric 14). Amid the late 1800’s, a traditionalist approach began to wind up plainly progressively famous where mental customers were being housed as opposed to concentrating on the general health and care of the patient.

Read also Group Counseling ACA Code of Conduct Overview

Substance abuse counselors have seen an ascent in patients who have been abusing medications and liquor when not on their pharmaceuticals at a disturbing rate. Along these lines, mindfulness in medication and alcohol addictions have become the dominant focal point. It is accounted for that 50 million people in the United States have a dependence issue, which can be attributed to sexual relations, drugs, alcohol, betting and so on. In any case, the number is to some degree skewed and has been thought to surpass 50 million (Briggs, Cynthia, Jennifer, and Pepperell, 123). Substance abuse counselors specifically are looking for a testament in addictions counseling for this sole reason. Working together with addiction counselors have positively affected the general wellbeing and prosperity of patients in treatment. Seeing every one of the parts of addictions can profit Substance abuse counselors successfully in addressing the needs of the patients.

Read also Plan To Establish a Career and Counseling Service Center

In the particular case of Paul, the combination of drinking and feeling anxious in the wake of coming back from deployment has a double outcome. To start with, he is showing a special case of dependence by utilizing the demonstration of drinking to adapt, and in view of feeling on edge, he is trying to manage what is happening in his life with his wife and at work. Both an Addictions Counselor and the mental clinician can assume an exceptional role in helping Paul with his issues. To begin with, the Addictions Counselor will work with Paul to conquer his dependence on drinking which is being an inconvenience to his general well being and association with his wife and colleagues at work.

Read also Multicultural Group Counseling – Sexual Minority Group With lesbians And Gays

Knowing inclinations of people that have a compulsion, counselors can show a feeling of regard and comprehension while not being judgmental to ease Paul in having trust and certainty. On the other hand, the Substance Abuse Counselor will work with Paul to overcome being on edge in the wake of returning home from being conveyed, which is influencing his mental state with leading a typical and sound life. Substance abuse counselors can display affectability and compassion to demonstrate Paul they think about his prosperity. With affectability, it opens up a discourse with Paul at the underlying phases of the counseling procedure where it limits misconstruing and negative effects of the process of counseling.

Read also Family Based Interventions In Substance Abuse Counseling

In case I was a counselor working with Paul to conquer his nervousness issues, I would likewise make a point towards the use of a multidisciplinary group, including an addictions counselor since Paul has been showing indications of a drinking fixation. I would work together with the addictions counselor to think of a successful treatment plan. To guarantee to work in a community oriented condition, I would urge Paul to have a session with me promptly after having a session with the addictions counselor and the other way around. This will permit both the addictions counselor and me to meet after the sessions to survey everything and to impart thoughts to each other to perceive what is working and not working with Paul and to execute the necessary stages in the treatment procedure. Both the addictions counselor and I ought to have the capacity to assess treatment results and set treatment objectives to guarantee a full and compelling visualization for Paul. As far as Paul’s compulsion issue, I would propose to the addictions counselor to supplement Paul to a fitting treatment as opposed to an expansive and summed one.

Read also Ethical Issues in Multicultural Counseling

I would likewise urge the addictions counselor to use an oversaw mind sort of approach. This approach has been appeared to significantly affect substance abuse treatment programs regarding expanded length of outpatient treatment and an accentuation on singular treatment rather than simply just solution. As far as managing Paul’s uneasiness, I would attempt to use a gathering counseling kind of approach where I will work with Paul and different patients who are managing tension issues. This will enable Paul to have a care group of people experiencing comparable issues and letting him be agreeable in a nonjudgmental situation.

While counseling as a profession is particular from related fields of social work, brain research, psychiatry, and marriage and family treatment, the professional elements of each frequently overlap in the work setting (Fitzgerald 251). Collaboration is regularly a basic piece of a counseling work. One approach to comprehending the significance of collaboration between the three ranges is to apply it to a specific medical problem, for example, school-based psychological well-being. For instance, an individual student might be experiencing difficulty in class—low evaluations, challenges concentrating, and a hard time associating with companions. The student’s school counselor might be the principal purpose of contact, meeting with the student, giving direction, and concluding what the basic causes may be for the inconveniences. It might turn out that the counselor presumes the student experiences a psychological wellness issue, and soon thereafter the instructor may connect with the school clinician for extra support and finding. Notwithstanding this effort, the counselor may request the partnership of a social worker to work with the student’s family for extra support. Each of the three professionals in this circumstance conveys diverse levels of aptitude to the circumstance and can give a complete plan to treatment and development.

Order Unique Answer Now

Group Counseling ACA Code of Conduct Overview

The ACA code of conduct is an ethical guideline provided to counselors to ensure that they behave in a manner that can enhance the life quality of the society through promoting the professional counselors development, counseling profession advancement, and employment of the counseling practice and profession to encourage diversity and human dignity. The ACA does not have a special document for group counseling; however, it has special sections that address group counseling. This means that a group counselor must satisfy all ACA code of ethics requirements given to guide all counselors, and specifically considerations given for group counseling.

Read also Multicultural Group Counseling – Sexual Minority Group With lesbians And Gays

According to ACA (2014), the code sections that are relevant to group counseling include Section A.9. Section A.9.a guides that a counselor on group screening where is required to screen the anticipated participants of group counseling to the highest level possible, and choose individuals whose goals and needs are compatible with group goals. The counselor should ensure that the selected members cannot hinder the process of the group. In addition, the counselor should ensure that the wellbeing of members will not be endangered by the experience of the group.

Read also Group Counseling for Children: 8 Week Counseling Plan

Section A.9.b is also specifically given for the group counselors. In this section, counselors are required to take sensible precautions to safeguard clients from psychological, emotional or physical trauma. This section ensures that the counselor prioritizes on the wellbeing of the clients or participants. Another group counseling relevant sections is section B.4 regarding groups and families. According to section B.4.a, a counselor handling group therapy need to explain clearly the parameters and importance of confidentiality for the particular group. This enhances the protection of the client’s information to ensure that this information is not misused or used to harm the client outside the group therapy.

Order Unique Answer Now

Comparing And Contrasting Counseling Approaches Assignment

Research and write a paper of 1,250 words in which you compare and contrast two of the following counseling approaches: cognitive behavioral, contingency management contracting, CRA, brief interventions, solution-focused therapy, 12-step approaches, and pharmacotherapy.

  1. Discuss how the approaches are combined to form an integrated treatment and help the counselor utilize individualized techniques for a client.
  2. Discuss how solution-focused therapy may not provide a corresponding treatment solution for the client’s problem but, when used, still decreases the addiction problem.

Include at least five scholarly references in addition to the textbook in your paper.
Create a chart detailing the five techniques used in motivational interviewing:

  • Define and illustrate counselor techniques of motivational interviewing.
  • Explain how the techniques help overcome the conventional problems of transference and counter transference.
  • reference page is required WITH LINKS TO ARTICLES. I ask that you use as many american references as possible so I can check citations for corrections

Order Unique Answer Now

Plan To Establish a Career and Counseling Service Center


Many people come to various organization and perform different tasks in accordance to how much information they either have, which drives them to be successful in their achievement or lose out in the quest for a meaningful existence (Brown & Lent, 2013). Career counselling is important to any person seeking to make it in the business world and even in governing the daily activities. As such, each person needs to have more information that can make them make appropriate decisions regarding their career paths and asset them in pursuing career paths that they are suited for. In light of these the website is going to concentrate on the various aspects of career and counselling to students and the individuals still pursuing their careers as all of them need more information on how they can successful purse a career path and make it in the end.


The vision of the center is to prepare and nurture students to make appropriate decisions in an ever-changing world


To provide services that are of high standards to the students and the wider community through consultation and counselling together with partnering with the individuals to enable them improve on their decision making mechanisms and follow a clear path in the various choices they make in life.


  • To provide students with support regarding their studies
  • To provide the students with opportunities to develop wholly on their academic and personal life together with building on their life skills
  • To provide to the community counselling services in regard to their personal life and careers at a fee

Information on the website

The website is going to host information on the various issues affecting careers. Such issues include personality, values, strengths and interests, which will help the students to improve on their choices especially as they study and focus on certain careers (Patton & McMahon, 2014). Psychologists will be available for further information especially where they can be conducted using the chat platforms at various times. Media, blogs, frequently asked questions (FAQ), services, resources, testimonials, and the teams working on counselling will have their information on the website. The services offered to the students will include personal and career counseling.

Student section

The student section will involve various services that are tailored towards meeting their needs. Such services will be tailored towards improving their situation at the time especially in relation to their situations. The personal services will deal with the students themselves and the various situations they are passing through. Stressful conditions like grief, fitting in to the student life and the various pressures associated with the academic environment will be dealt with in personal counseling. Career counseling will involve engaging the students in their career choices and giving them more information on the various careers about the interests, talents and other factors that can help one make the right decision in choosing a career (Sharf, 2013). In addition, it will include the various sessions available to the students especially where the students have to meet the counselor in person. Communication will be conveyed to the students through the chat platform. The website will further have more information about various problems that face students and especially crises that are affect the students most of the times. The website further will provide details on how more professional services can be conducted especially about the students on the various issues affecting them. Referrals can thus be made appropriately to the students especially by the advice of the counsellor who interact with the students on the website. To take a personality test please click here

Community section

The website will further have information concerning people outside the institution who may seek professional help and thus will further carter for the community. Professional help will further be provides in terms of dealing with stress (Eliason & Patrick, 2008). Such services will involve personal counselling, student’s services, and personality inventories. The members of the community in this regard will have to pay for the services while the students will obtain the services free of charge.

Organization use

Counselling tailored towards meeting the organizational needs in terms of interacting with the workers is important. More people in the organization can thus get counselling on the website by choosing the organization section. The organization section will further be linked to the various workers who can access the counselling services at their own convenience especially if they need any help with any problems affecting them. Organizations will have to pay for the counselling services (Brown, 2002).

The center will therefore provide services both to students and outsiders through the website and further help the community in dealing with the various pressures in their life especially where they may come to a standstill about various issues they are facing in their life (Leong, 2014). Therefore, the purpose of the counselling services will clearly be elaborated especially in ensuring that students and the community at large have a fulfilling live and approach the various challenges they face with more wisdom gained form counselling.

Career development theories

Krumboltz’s social learning theory.

Career development is an important concept that focusses on the continuity of a person’s quest to obtained fulfillment in life especially in seeking for education, knowledge on self together with educational and occupation alternatives (Spencer et al., 2013). People thus come to understand more about themselves as they engage in various roles in life about their work and development in life. Career regards the occupation of a person. The United States for example describes a person with what he does and thus the work identity describes the person. Therefore, in this regard, education should be tailored towards assisting people gain their full potential by discovering their interests and information that can help them choose their careers wisely.

Theories are important in describing the various careers developments in people’s life. Not all people are fitted to follow the same path in life as some are best suited for other occupations due to their characters while other have total different points of view and thus cannot fit properly in certain job descriptions.

Theories further study people in terms of their personality and tendencies especially in focusing on their whole person to determine how counselling can be carried out, when it can be conducted and what how it should be implemented in different circumstances in regard to the specific individuals. Therefore, instances of career guidance, career education and career counselling are done accordingly in respect to the situations of the individuals (Blustein, 2013). career development theories are an important part in counselling especially since they focus on various disciplines in the academic fraternity that include developmental psychology, sociology which concentrated on occupational dynamics, personality that rests on the notion that individuals specifically contribute to their experiences and differential psychology which deals with occupations and work. All the theories thus describe behavior of people and given information to the counsellors that tis effective in dealing with various problems facing certain individuals. Some of the theories are as below.

Person environment theory

Holland theory

The Holland theory focusses mostly on the style of behavior and type of personality of an individual as a primary influence on how he or she chooses a career. The choice in an occupation is not random and it is related to the personality of a person. Furthermore individual in the same occupations have near identical personalities as such individuals respond to the different problems similarly (Meijers & Lengelle, 2012). The satisfaction, stability and achieving in relation to an occupation is dependent on how the job environment connects with the personality of a person. Six Holland typologies help significantly in studying the personality of a person in relation to his workplace. The six typologies are realistic, investigative, artistic, social enterprising and conventional. Counsellor concentrate on the personality of person in connection to the appropriate career suited for him.

The six typologies go into further retail to explain the characters of individuals and further links them to the appropriate occupations according to their personalities. Therefore, the counsellor looks at the carious characters regarding the individuals and individuals are marched according to the different traits associated with Holland six typologies to find a suitable occupation for the person (Hoekstra, 2011). If the personality of the person matches the various traits in a certain typology then such people can have a satisfying, persistent and congruent approach to their work. As such, the Holland theory examines individuals on their most dominant traits and links them to the suggested careers. The theory is significant in counselling as it enables people who a certain predisposition towards various issues to be linked to occupations that fit their personalities. If a person is social, he will be placed in an occupation that involves a lot of interaction.

Person-environment fit theory

The person fit environment theory focusses on the compatibility of the work environment to an individual. As such, the characteristics of the work environment and the particular individuals are matched to know if there is a match. Some characteristics of individuals can be the personality, values, and abilities among others (Kuijpers et al., 2012). Environmental qualities in this regard can be qualities of certain people at the workplace, extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and cultural blues associated with the social environment of an individual. There are various fits used in the domain that include person organization fit, person job fit, person group and person – person fit. Counselors are required to measure the various individuals according in terms of their characteristic and their work environment.

Trait and factor theory

The trait and factor theory mainly focusses on career development by pointing out various individual characteristics by examining a person, understanding the qualities of various occupations and matching a person with a particular career. The trait and factor theory has greatly been used to counsel individuals in attaining there goals of choosing a better career. The theory has helped to study individuals and further develop instruments that are effective towards studying the specific individuals and getting more information that can help in choosing an appropriate career (Pryor &Bright, 2012). Other methods are being developed together with the existing ones, which have helped in studying the various career paths and thus job descriptions. Only traits are concentrated upon in this theory but they leave out any interests, values, changes, personalities and achievements that can be associated with a person in his or her lifetime. The theory is limited thus because it focusses on traits only without considering the whole person and what he or she can achieve.

Bandura’s social cognitive theory

Albert Bandura who had a different opinion on the learning process among different individuals developed social cognitive theory. The theory mostly concentrated on the various influences on people by the environment in their career choices. Career choice among individuals was examined by the theory in terms of how individuals developed career and academic interests (Hartung, 2010). Furthermore the individuals were further examined on how they made their career and education choices and finally career, academic and stability. All the various models as put forth above sum up to three main variables that are personal goals, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. Counselors in this regard look at the academic performance and the career prospects in determining how an individual can effectively make a career choice.

Super’s development theory

Donald Super Instituted the theory. The theory greatly focusses on self-concept of a person. Career choice in this regard is linked to the developmental processes of a person in regarding having a self-concept, which is stable and realistic. People have the tendency of following career paths that are connected to their self-concepts (Moon, 2013). Career maturity is further deliberated in the theory where certain individuals have developed to a certain level in terms of their behavior. As such, maturity in regards to development means that the people have met the expectations needed at a certain developmental stage. The theory focusses on the lifespan on an individual and the various developments that are required of such a person in different stages of his or her life. Five stages are further looked at by the theory.

The first stage is the growth stage that ranges from birth to the fourteen and fifteen years. The stage usually have various characteristics, aptitudes, interests and needs associated with the children at this stage. The next stage is the exploratory stage, which ranges between the ages of fifteen to twenty four years. Choosing occupations for the individuals at this stage is narrowed further due to their developmental stage. Another stage is the establishment stage. The individuals in the establishment stage range from twenty-five to forty-four years (Kagitcibasi, 2013). Such years usually feature the work experience obtained by the individual as he or she pursues a career. The ages of forty five to sixty five years encompass individuals who are passing through the continual adjustment stage, which usually features various improvements that are made to the work processes or career of an individual.

People in the range of sixty-five years and over form part of the decline phase. The output at work of such an individual is reducing continually as a person gets older and retirement is the next option for such a person. The theory greatly brings into detail the career developing concerning various person than the other theories. More people can get information that can help them plan their life more accurately and thus give them more information about the choice of the career and in which stages they can change their careers and further develop until they reach retirement age.

Krumboltz theory

Krumboltz’s theory is another important theory in career counselling especially since it borders on classical behaviorism while further borrowing much from the social learning theory. The theory concentrates on many factors, which individually have an effect on the person making a career choice (Krumboltz et al., 2013). Environmental conditions and situations that a person cannot be able to control television from a central factor that which determines the decision a particular person has to make in choosing a career. The various aspects of such a factor are that the person has to undertake the course even if he or she does not like it or it may be because of his or her parents wanting their child to choose a certain career regardless of his interests in another career.

Cultural and social norms are some of the aspects in this factor. Genetic makeup of person is another important aspect that is instrumental in career choice and counselling. The genetic makeup of a person thus may contribute to the success or failure of person in a certain career (Krumboltz, 2011).

. It can limit or expand alternatives for different individuals. Genetic endowment further includes other factors like race and sex, which may hinder a person in succeeding in certain careers due to discrimination or even hinder them from achieving their full potential especially for women in certain careers and even in education institutions (. People have different talents in accordance with their genes, which can increase their chances at pursuing other careers and eventually living fulfilling lives pursuing their careers. Individual learning is another factor that helped in determining the individual career choice with associative and instrumental approaches (Sharf, 2014). As such people can be motivated to pursue a certain career when they see problem that they can contribute in solving it like seeing poor child on live television  and opting to be a solution to them by taking on a career in social work. Some people can be rewarded for doing something and then they develop an interest towards a related career path like athletics where one goes decides to be an athlete fulltime and does not follow the career path set by the course he or she is taking.

Learning experiences according to the theory include the various ways learners obtain the various skills especially where they get skills they did not have before from carrying out their tasks. As such, the theory bases on the fact that people are always comparing themselves with others in terms of abilities, skills and their performance.


As such, standards have to be put in place, which determine the skill set of such individuals in linking them to the factors mentioned above to determine a clear path for an individual’s career. Therefore, though many people may not like various subjects like sciences or math’s career counselling can open them up to greater opportunities especially where they learn on how to deal with their personalities and approach different subjects that will further enable them achieve success in pursuing their careers throughout school. Therefore, career development in Krumboltz’s opinion looks at each individual as unique and that people can still change their careers from their initial careers and still be successful so long as they discover where they can operate more successfully in various careers.

Order Unique Answer Now

Multicultural Group Counseling – Sexual Minority Group With lesbians And Gays

What type of group do you think would be the most challenging to lead and why?

The most challenging multicultural group to lead in this case is sexual minority group with lesbians, and gays. The main reason for selecting this group is because the group experience a lot of problems both external and internal problems. The group is normally rejected in the society and may easily experience prejudice from members of the society. In this regard, most of them are traumatized by these experiences. They may also experience rejection in their own families and thus, they do not have refuge in their family. The group experiences deep condemnation from all corners including religious group where most discriminated group get refugee. In this regard, it is a group surrounded with a lot of controversies and issues and thus, sensitive group to represent in the society. The group is believed to go against majority cultural and religious believe and norms.

The best form of leadership to employ for this kind of group is caring leadership where the members will acquire emotional support, protection, and acceptance. This is because most individuals found in the group have experienced a great level of prejudice which makes them to feel rejected and worthless. They are normally treated as outcast in the society. Despite of the legalization of gay marriage, gay marriages have not been fully accepted in the society and thus, most of them still experiences prejudice at a certain level in the society. In this regard, they should get the life comfort they deserve from the group and their group leader. They should feel more secure and worthwhile while in the group. Thus the leader should ensure their fear is eliminated and their peace is restored (Jacobs et al., 2010, p. 25).

Order Unique Answer Now

Family Based Interventions In Substance Abuse Counseling


Drug abuse has been one of the major challenges for the American government over a very long period of time. The situation is at times made complex by the intensity with which the victims desire to use and abuse the drugs. For instance, in some cases, the victims get an uncontrollable desire to use the drugs, eventually leading to the abuse of the drugs even when it might result into dire consequences. The same problem is what faces our client by the name Julie. Probably her problem began with a voluntary action of taking the drugs and consuming excessive alcohol.. When the behavior is carried on for a long period of time, the urge to stop or walk away from the substance abuse becomes compromised.

An individual finds it difficult to eventually walk away from the substance abuse as a result of becoming a drug addict. For Julie, consuming the drugs, especially alcohol to an intoxicated capacity has been the major problem that has eventually led to her being arrested on a number of occasions. The problem is that she has been into the business of using drugs to an extent that it has affected the functioning capacity of her brains (Laureate Education, 2008).  The addiction has therefore affected a number of her brains circuits and cells so that she feels functionless without the use of the drugs. Moreover, her brain cells that are involved in creating rewards and motivation for her have been greatly affected by her use of the intoxicated levels of the drugs. Finally, her addiction has brought her to a level that she feels she no longer has control over her life and the use of the drugs. The suggested solutions and appropriate counseling that she deserves to get will be outlaid in the course of this paper.

Current symptoms

For most of the drug abuse victims, the problems start when the victims get into problems either at work or at home and a result of using the drugs. Additionally, there are those who even find themselves getting into problems in their relationships as a result of using drugs. For the case of Julie, the symptoms include letting her life revolve around the use of the alcohol. She openly claims that she likes frequenting broken spoke bar where she normally drinks with her father. Moreover, she insists that even after the counseling sessions, she would not want to stop her frequent visits to the pub due to the kind of satisfaction that she derives from that place. It therefore means that she will still be in a position to get access to the drinks making her more vulnerable to future problems. The problem is also made worse by the fact that it is her father who owns the bar, so it is easy for her to pop up at any time of the day. The only problem is that she takes the drinks in excess quantities to an extent that it forces Cathy and Alexis to carry her to bed.

Apart from that, Julie can also be seen to have withdrawn from her activities that she used to enjoy in the past. For instance, she has not been able to have a cloud of friends around her due to her alcohol addiction. As a result of that, she has had the lonely feeling that makes her want to get back to her social life where she used to meet friends and date. Julie’s problems may also be occurring as a result of the divorce she had to go through with her former husband who is currently re-married. It therefore means that the drugs addiction has taken her to worst levels where she cannot do without them and she therefore loses the urge of having a man in her life (Narconon).

Another symptom that she exhibits is her continued use of the alcohol despite the fact that she knows that alcohol causes a lot of trouble in her life. Her children have their own share of problems but she cares less about that. For instance, Joshua is being tested for ADHD and at the same time, he keeps missing his classes as a result of the same. On the other hand, Alexis tries to perform so well in school but she does not get the moral support she deserves from her parent. Moreover, Julie’s addiction has topped her from getting married despite the fact that her biological clock is quickly ticking away. Finally, it can be seen that the lady may have had the desire to stop using the drugs but she has been unable to do so due to the addictions. Probably, the counseling sessions and advice will act as the best solutions for her to get over her addiction practices.

Objectives/ Outcome criteria

The primary objectives of the treatment process will be to talk to the client and give her the best solutions that will enable her to stay free from her drug addiction and alcohol abuse. There will also be a need to get the lady to her right senses so that she lives a free life that is free from violent behavior. In most cases, when is under the influence of the drugs, their judgmental capacities normally goes down thereby making them prone to getting into violent acts. Such a move would ensure that she becomes free from being a threat to herself as well as the others. For instance, she has been accustomed to the behavior of getting back home late because of staying the broken spoke bar. Eventually she struggles to get back home, and it forces both Cathy and Alexis to intervene in order to help her get to bed.


Some of the methods that will be used in the treatment process include both the behavioral and medication therapy that have proved to be very effective in the past. A combination of the two processes will begin with a detoxification process so that her blood is freed from the contents of the alcoholic contents. Thereafter, a treatment and a relapse prevention process will follow so that she no longer gets the urge to use the drinks (Gordon and Marlatt, 1985).

Order Unique Answer Now

Assessing Religion And Spirituality In Counseling – Reflections And Recommendations

There is growing professional awareness about the importance of spirituality and religion in counselling. This is however often overlooked by many professionals during the phase of assessment in the counselling process (Kelly, 1995; Miller & Thoresen, 2003; Richards & Bergin, 2005). Spiritual and religious assessment is relevant to counselling for several reasons.

By understanding the clients’ spiritual view, the counselor will be able to understand them. The misunderstanding of this view will in most cases undermine the relationship, therapeutic relationship that they are supposed to have. The mutual understanding between the client and the counselor can lead to positive outcomes. When a counselor assesses the client’s spirituality, they are able to respect their religious beliefs and values. The spiritual assessment may also help to decide if there would be need for spiritual intervention to be indicated with the clients (Richards & Bergin, 2005).  If there is need, then they are able to know which ones are most helpful. These assessments are able to indicate whether a client has any unresolved needs or spiritual concerns that need to be addressed in the counselling session. Finally, it also enables the counselor determine whether the client’s religious or spiritual belief is deleterious to their health mentally or whether this can be used to help in faster healing.

The code of ethics guiding spirituality has been set in place by a number of the professional counselling organizations so as to ensure that every person who needs counselling are treated equally. The counselor’s professionals pledge is to commit to increase the clients understanding of the meaning of life, beneficial and the vital understanding of the benefits of the counselling profession (D’Andrea & Sprenger, 2007). The implementation of religion and spirituality helps clients’ growth and welfare and also help solve the issues that the clients bring to them (Steen, Engels & Thweatt, 2006).

There are several ways that have been recommended by scholars to help in assessing the religious beliefs of the clients. (Richards & Bergin, 2005). The counselors can assess the religious beliefs of their clients through inquiring on the various aspects of their lives.  This, this might include their physical, emotional, relational, physical, spiritual well-being and also their occupational well-being. Assessments can be done on two levels. The first level basically involves depending entirely on the client’s self-description and self-receptions of the way they are operating in every aspect of their lives. This is important in helping the counselor understand how the client’s spiritual background will be relevant in solving the problem at hand and aid in the treatment process.

When deemed relevant, the counselor may go ahead and undertake the level 2 assessment. This assessment is done so as to determine the specific spiritual and religious beliefs. This goes to greater depth. When a client states that their spiritual concerns are creating complication to them emotionally, the counselors may be interested in exploring the concerns further (Richards & Bergin, 2005).

Level 1 assessment may also be obtained through the use of counselling interviews and questionnaires. This information may also come up as a result of the counselling process. These questionnaires can be filled before the interview (Richards & Bergin, 2005). For the questionnaires to be efficient, it should ensure that all the important life events of their clients are assessed right at the beginning of the counselling session. The clients can also be given inspirational quotes from the different spiritual and the religious traditions. The counselors may also create their own quotes to top up.

The level 2 assessment may also be done through the administration of the standardized measures of assessment. Several instruments have been set up to aid in the study of the religious variables. Most of these instruments have got psychometric properties that are well established (Hill, Hood, 1999; Miller & Thoresen, 2003).

Thus assessing the client’s spirituality and religious beliefs can play a huge role in therapy. According to the discussion above, it is very beneficial in helping in the therapy session and thus should be fully incorporated by the professionals.

Order Unique Answer Now

Ethical Issues in Multicultural Counseling

United States is made up of a combination of numerous cultures from different geographical regions. These cultures have come together combining the diverse aspects of their cultures to form one complex country governed by the same constitution and laws. Looking at the American world you can confuse it for a harmonized society in terms of beliefs and values but the reality is that it is a very challenging and complex society. The country sees unending immigration by people from different regions of the world therefore bringing in more backgrounds and cultures something that increases the need for multicultural counseling. These disparities in cultures create issues in multicultural counseling as during a session the counselor’s culture and that of the client come to play. The counselor’s values and beliefs as well as those of the person getting help are key factors and how well a session goes depends on the counselors understanding of the client’s cultures and their ability to blend into other cultures.

The multicultural counseling field has experienced setbacks in the past due to the inability of proper counseling occasioned by lack of competence and knowledge in the interpretation of ethical guidelines. It is a requirement that a counselor possesses the skills and tools for them to conduct the counseling according to the guidelines. Unfortunately, there lacks proper training concerning how race and ethnic backgrounds should be tackled and in the present there seems to be lack of adequate education on cultural backgrounds. There are so many situations that require ethical input today giving reason why ethics has become a popular topic with counselors including instances of client betrayal and injustice. Handling situations in an ethical manner remains hard because of the many ethical issues that come into play. These cause differences in accepting or deciding the appropriate response for a particular situation. Privacy and confidentiality, finance, time and roles, informed consent, competence and termination initiated by a therapist are examples of areas in ethical issues.

Code of Ethics

Code of ethics in the fields of counseling, social work and psychology is bound to experience modifications as time passes. In mental health for instance, physicians are restricted by the ethical codes and standards set in that profession. In their book, Brabender and Fallon (2009) highlights that the American Counseling Association has ethical guidelines set for counselors to oversee enhancement of human growth and cultural strategies to be embraced in order to uphold the uniqueness and dignity of their patients as well as recognition and respect for the diversity of those they serve (p. 96).


The association has five purposes for the proposed for the code of ethics: (a) clarification of the ethical responsibilities’ nature, (b) ethical complaints and enquiry processing (c) guide members on course of action construction (d) organization’s mission support and (e) establishment of principles that contribute to best practice (Brabender& Fallon, 2009).

Reasons why a counselor should be Aware of the ethical standards

From time to time, counselors will be faced with ethical dilemmas and they need to consult the ethical standards to guide them in their decisions. To make informed ethical decisions a counselor needs to have adequate knowledge of the ethical decision making models, the understanding of the ethical situations with proper application of his or her own ethical codes. Lack of this knowledge may lead to unintentional mistakes or breaking of the codes.Sue, Arredondo and McDavis, (1992) noted that there are not many professionals that get accused of being unethical. Only those who make clients and patients traumatized as a result of their mistakes and negligence.

It would be hazardous if there were no ethical standards predefined to monitor, censor and guide counselors in their work. If the guidance wasn’t available then the counselors would conduct their work basing it only on their beliefs and values. This means they would counsel their clients basing the guidance on their lives, since the counselors are the superior in the session, therefore trying to change the clients instead of providing them help that is based or aligned with the client’s life.  There is also the danger of laziness, selfishness, racism and ethnicity. Without the standards there is a great deal of favoritism and mistreatment that would be experienced by clients from a different race than that of the client. In a money making organization, selfish professionals may conduct sessions with an aim to make money forgetting the need to help the clients.   Fortunately, there existcodes of ethics in all organizations that the professionals need to follow.

Ethical Issues Unique to Multicultural Counseling

Multicultural counseling is made up of people from different backgrounds and cultures and therefore ethical codes and procedures are not effective in tackling every situation that presents itself. Durodoye (2006) poses that counselors should prepare before meeting clients from a certain ethnic group by researching their history and culture as well as health issues that theyhave. Academic, social, professional and web researches on the clients is important. They can also use movies and lectures as avenues for information source. However, this information cannot be considered definitive explaining why multicultural counseling cannot be compacted. Achor (2010) suggested thatdifferent cultures tackle different ethnic dilemmas are tackled differently by different cultures and there exists variations on how ethical behavior is set.

Confidentiality Risks

Confidentiality is critical in counseling. Ethical clinical practice and judgment are two things that go hand in hand (Achor, 2010).For a client’s needs to be met ethically, a lot of challenges have to be overcome from dealing with restricting decisions to ethics and the most crucial challenge, confidentiality needs to be maintained to ensure that client feels safe to divulge information for a session to be successful.

The success of a counseling session depends on how well a doctor offers advice but it cannot be effective if the client is not going to contribute. The contribution of a client is usually information and finance, with information being the ultimate contribution by a client to the session.  When a client trusts a counselor with personal or criminating information then the information comes back to haunt them or they hear it from other people the session becomes ineffective. A client doesn’t feel safe to give any more information and they start viewing the counselor as an enemy. A client may come out of such a session worse than they were before they started.

Informed Consent

According to Brabender and Fallon (2009), a psychology session causes legal problems and dilemmas as well as ethical issues. Achor (2010) explains that informed consent requiresthat a counselor requests permission from the client before they conduct or involve themselves in a study. In a case where the client is below the legally accepted adult age, the counselor needs to get consent from the guardian or parent. Should they use deception there must be justification for it and should not result to harm or go against the privacy of the client. A good example is where a session is recorded; the audio or video should only be viewed if the client allows it.

Role Boundaries

There are lines that cannot be crossed between professional and personal life in a counseling intervention. To ascertain this, personal and professional lines should be limited by set guidelines. According to Brabender and Fallon (2009) counselors are required to follow a careful but ethical decision-making procedure with proper situation evaluation based on the professional’s relationship covenant.

Unplanned Endings

Sometimes counseling takes an unplanned ending. Abrupt ending of counseling occasioned by unexpected of unavoidable occurrences can be challenging for both the client and the counselor because they leave heaps of uncompleted or unaccomplished businesses. They have a negative effect on your creativity and drive and may act as a test for your service. Should they happen then you should not question yourself and your potential but encourage yourself.


Financial hardships sometime contribute to client’s inability to continue their counseling sessions. These hardships may be occasioned by loss of income channels and other unforeseeable happenings. Achor acknowledges existence of cultures with funeral rites that are too extreme for some human beings (Achor, 2010). The list of reasons multicultural counseling can be affected by finances is endless.


0explains expertise as the possession of skills and competencies in a certain field. The expertise is nurtured through devotion of attention and practice to gain skills and experience in that field. Experts can take different channels to find solutions for certain problems and they can approach a problem in any manner they deem fit as long as it is ethically acceptable (Achor, 2010,). A competent counselor is not the one with a doctorate in the profession or above. A competent is one with the education or training, one that has taken enough time to research and understand the cultures of the clients and one who understands the codes of conduct and is able to apply all of the above in a session to make a client comfortable and safe therefore being able to help them.

Understanding Ourselves

A counselor is equipped with knowledge and formal education that puts them in a beneficial position and privileges including access to professional attachments. A counselor is required to stretch to extra limits and become equipped with knowledge of diverse cultures for them to be capable of handling sessions with clients from all fronts and cultures (Cannon& Frank, 2009).

The significance of Multicultural Counseling Training

Canon & Frank, (2009) explains the development of ethnic or racial identity as the path through which a person becomes aware of ethnic or racial differences and attains self-understanding. A counselor in the multicultural field has to add training or education on skills and awareness for them to be able to conduct multicultural sessions. Such education should make them competent enabling them to administer to patients from different ethnic backgrounds and also to enable them bemore effective in collection of information through the various studies they conduct (Brabender& Fallon, 2009). Beyond providing income, work acts as a source of shield from stress and frustrations and plays an important role in providing the psychological and social needs for the person as they spend a big part of their day at work (Brabender& Fallon, 2009). An organization that you work for acts as your teacher because it develops your personal and professional skills that act as your armor for in the fulfillment of the organization’s objectives and the economic needs as well as positioning you well to take on the changes in life (Brabender& Fallon, 2009).

Awareness and Acceptance of Differences

Multicultural counseling starts at attainment and growth of awareness and competence of diverse cultures and understanding that the differences in cultures have a direct influence on the impact of a session (Durodoye, 2006 ). People have different ways of acquiring psychological needs which is dependent on the way they grew. Durodoye further states that disparities in cultures are seen in communication, values, community health and personal time. These disparities therefore pose challenges to counselors whose cultures and beliefs conflict with those of their clients.A counselor therefore, has to be broader in perspective and should be able to accept differences in realities and be able to deal with them without comparing or judging (Durodoye, 2006)


A person starts to be aware of themselves at a tender age of twelve months (Achor, 2010). During the same time they also start realizing their capabilities. Culture has a very important impact in everyone’s life and to cherish this one needs to know their culture well.Durodoye confirms this by comparing culture to the adhesive that molds our lives and the experiences while defining values and experiences enabling us understand what we are capable of (Durodoye, 2006 ). Counselors need adequate understanding of how our values are affected by our daily encounters and the influence family, friends and people we interact with have on the values. Lack of self-awareness makes it hard for a counselor to be effective while at the same time being empathic of diverse cultures.

There is a famous psychology experiment that focuses on ‘unintentional blindness’. Achor (2010) explains it as the human inability to see something that is in front of them occasioned by the fact that they don’t focus on it.  People will see things in different ways but the ways they do will not result to equal seeing of those things. Some people tend to lean too much on the negative side of something not regarding the positive well enough and this usually tends to have a negative effect on their happiness and performance in what they do. It is important therefore that one tries to pay more regard on the positive in a situation.

Difference in Culture

The diversity in cultures occasions misunderstandings and miscommunications during the sessions. Cultures are gradually changing. For instance, in America, people live under one constitution and governing law. They also grow through the same education system, political systems and culture (Hildebrand et. al., 2008).For counselors to be able to maintain the right track and also be able to solve conflicts and bring back a session to the right path they need to be better trained as well as have adequate knowledge of cultures.

Taking Culture Into Consideration

Training for counselors should not have an end. It should run through their entire career (Brabender& Fallon, 2009). A counselor cannot be able to empathize or help a client if they don’t have an understanding of the groups and their different cultures. This explains why it is critical that a counselor gathers plenty information on each client’s culture to understand how to deal with them.Durodoye (2008), states that active consultation on cultures from experts should go hand in hand with understanding.

Adapting to Multicultural Counseling

There are a number of measures that can be put in place to accommodate the diversity in cultures. In a session, a counselor usually has a plan they intend to follow when dealing with cultures and these plans can be modified as per the cultural values of every client. Some topics for treatment can be subjected to alterations to fit the diversities in terms of culture therefore making it easy to deal with different races and conflict resolutions as it pertains to adaptation and clarification of ethnic identity issues (Durodoye, 2006). This helps counselors succeed in helping their clients. They also need to know the different emotional responses between different ethnic groups as this would have an effect on the relationship of a counselor.

Personal Approach

Responsibility is a three staged process. It begins with choice recognition followed by choice ownership with the last stage being accepting the consequences of the choice (Canon & Frank, 2009).Achor (2010) explains that the difficulty of life’s journey is evidenced by the difficulty in moving from being selfish to being in a serving heart.


As time passes the nation is gaining demographical diversity posing a need for the counselors to take a lead role in promoting and multicultural advocacy.  For a counselor to be able to make better ethical decisions they need to consult their personal codes, understand and apply ethical decision making models and also have adequate knowledge of the ethical circumstances. The diversity in cultures and religions promotes ethical issues and dilemmas when conducting a session. A counselor therefore needs to be aware that ethics depends on focus on morality and not the theory. The issue of ethnicity is too profound for it to be bound by a particular set of rules. Should a counselor be a Christian, they need to display great character, be guided by accommodating values and beliefs, and be able to solve conflicts with consideration of cultures and religion. It is also worth noting that the changes in time and the shift in cultures and values requires a continuous review of ethics and codes as what is important today may not be after some time (Achor, 2010). The ultimate goal of a counseling session is helping the client and as such a counselor’s actions should not result to a negative mental effect on the client.

You can order a unique paper on Ethical Issues in Multicultural Counseling at an affordable price. 

Order Unique Answer Now

Christian Counseling From Mark R. McMinn’s Perspective

A sensitive counselor considers a number of factors before confronting sins of a counselee. This factors include the level of the counseling where by the counselor evaluate whether he or she has enough information about the counselee, the counseling is in a willing position to face his or her sin, the trust between the counselor and a counselee among other important factors. This ensures that sins are only confronted at the right time when the client is free to handle them and when the atmosphere between the counselor and the counselee is conducive (Davis, 2012). Among the cautions provided in the class, the cautions that counselor overlooks is the client’s willingness to confront their sins. This is because, counselors assume that people come for counseling since they are ready to change and thus, ignore the fact that even then there is the right time to handle the most difficult aspect in their past or present life.

The best way to confront Jane’s sins in this scenario is through questioning. This is because, Jane has been through so much in life. The urge to commit suicide may be driven by one or more of the past life which must be confronted. In this regard, questioning would be the only way to dig out the actual cause of Jane’s current behavior. Questioning will help the counselor understand which among many sins that Jane committed or which among many of her bad experience is pushing her into contemplating suicide (McMinn, 2012).

I would consider confronting Jane’s sins after I have built the trust between us and have made Jane believe in me. This will make it easy to discuss all her past life and experiences openly without covering anything.  The best techniques to confront her sins in this case include questioning and pondering which will help her in realizing her mistakes and developing a conscious about her sin and desire to leave them behind (McMinn, 2010).

Order Unique Answer Now