Oppression In The United States Education System And How It Affects The Hispanic Community

Oppression In The United States Education System And How It Affects The Hispanic Community


Among all other countries that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the United States is the highest spender in matters education. The general expectation would be that these funds would then translate to an improved education system but, in reality, problems are plaguing the United States education system constantly. During its peak, the Civil Rights Movement had championed an end to inequality and segregation that would now see children of all races and creeds have an equal opportunity to access education. The Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas of 1954 abolished all forms of segregation in schools with students from all races now able to enroll (Brooks, 2013, p. 56). 63years later, oppression in the education system has morphed into a new covert type with students from minority communities caught in between this maze. The Hispanic community, in particular, has been a victim of this systematic form of institutionalized oppression that has seen many of its members miss out on opportunities to gain a decent education. In the research paper, I will delve into an emotive subject: the modern-day oppression evident in the United States Education system with the Hispanic community as the subject.

Statement of the Problem

            Being the largest minority group in the United States, Hispanics make up a substantial demographic in schools around the country. Multiple studies have sought to understand the stark inequality present in the education system when White and Hispanic students’ levels of education are compared. Inferences gathered suggest that the Hispanic education level was dependent upon factors such as autonomy, family income, access to educational material in their homes, and the parent’s education level.  Most recently, it has been discovered that pervasive oppression practices sanctioned by the United States education system are largely to blame for the oppression that has seen many members stuck in a social progression rut. The rationale of this study is to bring to light the clandestine oppression perpetrated by the United States education system against members of the Hispanic community (Urbina, 2016, p. 8). A group of three respondents will also be interviewed to understand how their experience in the United States education system.

Read also Needs of Hispanic and American Children and Adolescents – Juan’s Case Study

Background of the problem

As a generic term, “Hispanic” was officially developed by the United States Bureau of the Census to refer to people of Spanish origin while putting them in one category (Comas-Diaz, 2011). People originally from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Mexico, South, and Central America would automatically fall into this definition as it suggests the cultural link that these individuals share with Spain. As per figures provided by the Census Bureau in 2016, the Hispanic community is 56.7 million strong, roughly 17.6% of the country’s total population. The Hispanic community is mainly located in urban metropolitan areas such as Laredo (Texas), Hialeah (Florida), Brownsville (Texas), McAllen (Texas),  Santa Anna (Texas),  Miami (Florida), El Monte (California), San Bernadino (California), Aurora (Illinois) and North Las Vegas (Nevada). The main reason why they populate urban metropolitan areas is that a large majority of them can trace their family history to immigrants who moved to the area in search of work opportunities. They were easily acceptable in such areas due to the cultural hodgepodge that makes these areas readily allowed interactions of people from different ethnic backgrounds.

Padilla (1999) contends that oppression is a reality in modern-day America and more so in the education system. It adds to the list of the many adversities that students with Hispanic heritage encounter on a continuous basis while living in the United States. The Hispanic community in the United States is marginalized as a result of the oppression experienced and that which they continue to suffer. For instance, the Ameri-Indians whose ancestors make up a large chunk of the modern-day Hispanic people had experienced 500 years of oppression under the yoke of colonialists. They were subjected to the replacement of ancestral beliefs, rape, and genocide meant to annihilate their culture to enable their assimilation into the colonialist’s version of “civilization”.  As a result, this cultural genocide and its legacy have never died out completely and are exhibited in the economic, political, and social disparities that the Hispanic people are presently plagued with (Figueroa & J.-E, 2014). They are viewed as a marginalized community in the larger American society and it is such sentiments that have seen the oppression spill over into the education system.  By examining oppression in the United States education system this study seeks to expose this grim reality and help members o the greater Hispanic community surmount this barrier to them achieving their dream of a better life.

Research Questions

            The following are the research questions identified for the purpose of this study

  1. Why is the level of educational achievement among students of Hispanic heritage lower than that of their white counterparts?
  2. How is oppression in the United States education system possible?
  3. How has oppression in the context of the United States education system affected the interviewees?

Literature Review

The average Hispanic student in the United States schooling system is more likely to struggle academically as compared to their non-Hispanic peers. Several factors are to blame for this blatant disparity; their immigration status, “at-risk” student tag in school, inescapable poverty, lack of quality education, inequitable distribution of schooling resources by the Federal government, lack of qualified teachers. It is this inequality in the education system that has been to blame for oppressing students from the Hispanic community, leaving them stagnant in the socioeconomic pit due to a lack of opportunities.

Read also Early American Approach to Education and Today’s educational Challenges

A barefaced inequality exists presently in the education system where students from the Hispanic community. In inner-cities where enclaves of Hispanic community members live, schools are ill-equipped to deal with the ever-fluctuating number of students (Gándara, 2010). The situation is further exacerbated by the poor student-to-teacher ratio that sees students crammed in classes with few teachers to attend to their needs. As a result, slow learners in these classes lack the full attention of their tutors, a situation that leads to the worsening of their grades (Estrada, 2009). This explains why the number of Hispanic students graduating from high school has been dwindling over the years with no end in sight.

Navarez and Rico (2007) contend that it is during the formative years of a young child’s development that they are most impressionable or cognitive development. A study by the Schott Foundation reveals that the public school system in New York, one of the largest in the country, still remains largely underfunded. It is Hispanic students and their counterparts from minority groups that are enrolled in these schools but lack the educational resources that are necessary for a holistic education (Contreras, 2005). As a result, such students lack a fair chance to compete with other students from State-funded schools in other localities around the nation (Brindis, Driscoll, Biggs, & Valderrama, 2002). These children start their educational life at a disadvantage and have a slim chance of developing the skills needed to succeed in life. The only chance that they are accorded with is graduating from their local high school with requisite skills, proceeding to a vocational school or community college where their chances at a decent job are quite low.

Various school heads and community leaders in areas worst stricken by this institutionalized form of oppression have been at the frontline in the battle to see changes in the system. What is rather shocking is the government’s lackluster approach to dealing with this issue it is common knowledge that the government is aware of the present situation with the education system and in particular among neighborhoods that are predominantly Hispanic, yet it chooses to either ignore or overlook this current situation. Oppression in the education system has a ripple effect in society. Hispanic males, for example, who have been denied these educational opportunities are more likely to drop out of school, join criminal outfits, get involved in violent acts of crime and end up in Federal Prison on a mandatory minimum charge or a life sentence (Carter, 2007). Some of these individuals are fathers who leave behind young families that have limited opportunities to earn a living and hence end up repeating the same cycle.


The purpose of carrying out a qualitative study was to put the trauma experienced by members of the Hispanic from an oppressive education into an educational context. The use of this research method is a growing trend that has proven beneficial in psychology, sociology, anthropology, and even education (Gastic & Verdugo, 2013, p. 128). Through these methods, we are now able to analyze a participant’s language use, actions, words, and behavior during the said interview. By using qualitative inquiry we employ the social constructivist technique in the most transparent of manners while at the same time using the observer’s viewpoint and their social life.

The world also becomes inter-subjective as qualitative research deals with the understanding of people’s perspectives and their lives. The number checking technique is particularly vital as the researcher is able to provide the interviewees with the data that they collected to counter whether it is consistent with their experience. The use of this method is prevalent due to the possibility that a researcher might misinterpret statements collected from field notes and interviews. For the purpose of this study, three interviewees of Hispanic heritage volunteered to be part of the process in order to bring to light their experience in the public school system and how the systematic oppression perpetrated against the Hispanic community ended up affecting them directly.

Methods/Research design

            Close interaction with the interviewees was necessary was initially important to ensure they were well aware of intentions. By involving them before the interview, there is an opportunity to have a casual chat about the subject in a relaxed environment before the actual interrogate. The next phase would be to inform them of what to expect in the interview so as to avoid offending them in any way. The interview phase then followed with the audio being recorded for transcription later on.  It is through the comparison methodology involving the three employees that one is able to understand the salient themes affecting the Hispanic community. Open coding was then used for the purpose of dividing the data into different segments to be sifted later on. For the purpose of cross-analysis, transcriptions from the interview were then scanned to obtain all reoccurring terms. The results obtained from this scanning process included recurring terms such as language, stereotypes about Hispanics, school, work, oppression, being first-generation, low-income, and opportunities in life.


            The study’s intention was to examine a group of Hispanic participants willing to discuss their experience in the United States education system and how oppression plays a huge role in it. It was expected that in the course of the interview, the participants would give detailed accounts of their experience. The following themes were also discussed; higher education, inequality, lack of educational resources, and opportunities in life.

Sara, the first interviewee, was fortunate enough to graduate from a state university. She is a third-generation Hispanic and describes how she had to struggle through an oppressive education system. There were no resources for her to use during her stint at elementary school and she had to walk 7 miles every day to a local library, traversing dangerous gang-affiliated neighborhoods in her quest for education. “It is like the education system was setting us up for failure,” she intimates sternly describing the struggle that students went through (S. Valdez, personal communication, July 19, 2017). She credits her success to a local Father who encouraged her to always visit the library but notes that not everyone was as lucky as she was to get a mentor.

Jorge is a former gang member who served five years in federal prison for possession of 50gm of Cocaine and the aggravated assault of his landlord. He notes that dropping out of school was necessary for him as he had other siblings to feedback home and the inadequate teachers and quality of education seemed as, in his words, “a waste of time” (J.Loera, personal communication, July 19, 2017). He was now in the streets selling illegal Schedule 1 drugs and it was not long until the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) arrested him during a drug swoop. He blames the poor education system on how his life turned out as a better education system would have given him reason to stay in school. Due to his past criminal record, he is currently unemployed as a result of the stereotypical nature in which ex-convicts are viewed, and seriously contemplates going back to the drug business.

Alejandra, the last respondent describes herself as the daughter of humble Hispanic immigrants from Tijuana, Mexico. Hers is a different tale, but with a very important lesson. She was enrolled in a predominantly white school that offered general-ed classes to Hispanic students and high-level courses preserved for her Caucasian counterparts. She was, however, an exception as she was the only Hispanic student to enroll in the yearly college program. It was an uncomfortable experience being selected for International Baccalaureate Studies when she came or a poor background with her counterparts coming from wealthy suburban families. Before applying to a state university, she decided to visit the school counselor for advice on her choice. She was strongly dissuaded from applying or the university and following her dream, settling for her local college as an alternative as she trusted the counselors. In retrospect, however, it made her aware of this modern-day caste system in an education system that had officials acting as roadblocks or Hispanic students who wanted to aim higher in life.


This study acts as a groundbreaking revelation of an oppressive education system that is hell-bent on maintaining the status quo even in this modern-day environment. It is this type of institutionalized oppression that has seen the Hispanic community marginalized from the mainstream and their socioeconomic condition remaining the same. An implication of this study is that the U.S Department of Education will look into the oppressive inequality that has relegated the Hispanic community to their current status and most likely deal with the problem in time.

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Social Media, A Societal Trend Affecting Patient Education

Over the past five decades, numerous rapid technological changes have been recorded globally and currently impact nearly all spheres of modern life. In particular, the introduction of the internet and related services is among one of the most notable changes witnessed today. According to Carroll, Bruno & Vontschudi (2015), the internet has greatly transformed the process of communication, sharing of important messages, and peer-to-peer interaction within a relatively short period (p. 95). Today, it is more prevalent than ever; especially as a constant presence in our homes and within the workplace environment.  As a communication medium, the internet has also morphed from simple messaging and chatting services to sophisticated social media applications such as Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter. The widespread use of social media today has revolutionized remote interactions and resulted in the “online community” phenomenon where likeminded persons or individuals with similar interests associate on a continual basis. Yet, it remains imperative to consider the implications of such technological changes in nursing. Perhaps one of the most striking aspects of the Information Age is the ever-increasing population of individuals relying on the wide range of services on offer. A future consequence of this current state of affairs is an overall increase in the number of patients and nurses interacting in social media signifying an elevation in basic engagement capabilities. Millennials in the nursing profession grapple with the idea of promoting such changes in a profession with a sizeable older generation which is generally conservative.  Nursing in the Information Age, therefore, represents a yardstick with far reaching consequences for the medical professions the provision of care, and mainly in patient education.

Read also Interprofessional Staff Update on HIPAA and Appropriate Social Media Use in Health Care

Fundamentals of Social Media    

            The initial introduction of social media as a major element of the Information Age prompted pundits versed in society’s transformation to posit a future focused on interactions, communication, and education.  Initial speculations were subsequently realized when social media emerged as a key tool in learning and communication owing to the relative ease of access and overall affordability. Today, the permeation of the Telehealth portent, as a product of social media, has seen a considerable improvement in nursing frameworks on patient education (Moorhea, Hazlett, Harrison, Irwin, & Hoving, 2017). Messages transmitted through social media platforms reach the intended target within a relatively shorter period and serves as the epitome of speedy communication. Web platforms and e-mails provide a unique opportunity to relay important information within a relatively short period, allowing nurses to communicate with patients intending to share crucial information regarding their wellbeing. If any of the questions posed remain unanswered, patients are often referred to a specialist versed in the medical field specified to guarantee access to accurately specified information.

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 Furthermore, the internet is seemingly bottomless repository of information and data which can be harnessed to improve individual’s overall wellbeing. Patient education today may also involve actively searching for healthcare information from credible peer-reviewed journal articles and online textbooks. The emergence of this trend is part of a new wave of ideas which underscore the significance of individuals being cognizant of information relevant to their health any given period (Ventola, 2018). For instance, patients today supplement instructions offered during the initial assessment with useful instructional material from government agencies such as the United States Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC).  This relative ease of access to information through social media ensures a greater population, ranging from health science students, nurse practitioners, and educators, gain succinct comprehension of best practices applied today within the healthcare sector (Sinclair, Mcloughlin, & Warne, 2015).

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The internet, through social media platforms and applications, has recently enabled healthcare practitioners to offer consultations, evaluations, therapy, and patient education remotely through innovative technology. Efforts to increase the number of platforms offering such services are informed by the essential nature of health promotion today. The initial discharge of patients and subsequent expectations placed on them represents some of the most precarious phases in healthcare. Patients are known to experience a great deal of difficulty sticking to a treatment plan which would otherwise improve their wellbeing (Ventola, 2018). Failure to adhere to available treatment options may be a sign of patient’s reservations to a particular treatment option due to insufficient information regarding its actual significance. Social media offers a unique opportunity for patients to ask pertinent questions about medication management in a bid to improve healthcare outcomes. Additionally, innovative technologies such as video conferencing promote direct correspondence between patients and healthcare providers for the purpose of clarification or further directions on a treatment plan.

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The introduction of this new subset of healthcare has significantly improved its quality by now allowing primary care providers to liaise with specialists who provide crucial care information to promote care delivery. Proponents of using social media in care provision view current trends as a major revolution in the definition of the most appropriate conduits of pertinent healthcare information while particularly aspiring to foster health promotion. Such efforts are likely to address healthcare disparities recorded in the United States today by guaranteeing unlimited access to information capable of promoting care-seeking behavior, ultimately reducing major emergency room cases. The presence of support groups in social media platform has played an invaluable role in offering a sense of community in a manner bound to improve patient outcomes by sticking to the treatment plans provided and in reducing stigma. Innovations such as telepsychiatry apply social media to engage directly with patients. Pertinent questions posed during the course of routine consultations are explored extensively in a manner that explores the behavioral and primary care aspects to guarantee comprehensive coverage.

Read also Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005

Professional Standards

While social media is commonly hailed as a positive development today, it remains crucial to acknowledge its drawbacks. The prevalence of social media use within the workplace environment for the purpose of patient education today is also associated with misuse. Evidence of blatant misuse of social media within professional settings is prohibited, with offenders risking stern legal and disciplinary action (Grajales , Sheps, Ho, Novak-Lauscher, & Eysenbach, 2016).  The aforementioned standard is also applicable within a clinical setting and may result in lawsuits for periodic offenders.  Healthcare facilities are, therefore, advised to develop and maintain an elaborate code to ensure ethical considerations are upheld and cases of malpractice accorded the appropriate punitive action.

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Recent technological advances, such as the internet and social media, have by far transformed healthcare and patient education today. The Information Age provides patients with a wide range of options, ranging from online consultations, telemedicine and even to Telepsychiatry. The common thread among these transformations is the application of social media to eventually improve patient outcomes. With the application of professional standards, patients are bound to expect the highest standards of care within a new dispensation.

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Early American Approach to Education and Today’s educational Challenges

America’s education system has a considerably complex and rich history. Since the colonial era, education has been at the center of the nation’s social progress. During the colonial period (1620-1770), education was the core of education. During the common school era (1770-1890), the education system’s primary focus was uniform education for all people regardless of their socioeconomic backgrounds. As for the public school era (1890-1950), the emphasis was on children’s interests as the basis for curriculum formulation while implementing problem-solving skills, self-discipline, hands-on learning, and flexible approaches.

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As for equality (era 1950-1980), the education system focused on promoting equality, particularly minorities and females’ integration. This paved the way for the contemporary reform era (1980-Present) (Lindert & Williamson, 2016). Although the current model has enjoyed significant success, it faces various challenges that need addressing.

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The challenges stem from the school of choice approach facilitated by the numerous reforms on the education system over the years. Today, children have various options, including public schools, private/Christian schools, or homeschooling. Since the different forms of schools use varying curriculums, there is no uniformity and equality in today’s education system (Gross, 2017). Additionally, the school of choice approach does not promote inclusiveness. For instance, private schools exclude people from the middle and lower socioeconomic classes.

Read also Oppression In The United States Education System And How It Affects The Hispanic Community

Similarly, Christian schools exclude people from other religious backgrounds (Lindert & Williamson, 2016). Some of the early American approaches to education can be applied to remedy today’s educational challenges. Firstly, the education system can borrow a leaf from the common school era to implement a uniform curriculum for the entire education. Also, similar to the equality period, the education system should emphasize promoting equality by integrating all individuals into a single set-up regardless of their gender, racial, or religious background.  Consequently, this will promote equality and inclusion in the education system.

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Women’s Use Of Education Between 1800 And 1860

Attaining a decent education is important for all members of the society and especially for women who have been denied both or either one of these opportunities for the greater part of history. A woman’s achievements resulting from the utilization of the knowledge and wisdom provided by quality education have the capacity to ripple across her generations, across the society and create changes that a man in the same position could not accomplish even on his best days. This is because, throughout history, women have been considered the custodians of morality and the vessels through which genuine transformation can be achieved through their roles in child rearing and education. This paper seeks to provide information on the kind of education that was available for women in the early to middle stages of the 19th century and the ways in which women, thus educated, utilized the knowledge they had gained in school.

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The early 1800s witnessed rapid growth in secondary education. This exponential growth was followed closely by the growth of the collegiate for young girls and women. By the middle of this century, a large number of women were being admitted to state colleges to learn and were. These bold women would be the first to take the bold steps towards equity and often received a lot of mistrust from the society and received biased labels such as ‘sex kittens’ (Peril, 2006). Secondary schools were flourishing as academies and academies such as The Young Ladies Academy became pioneers for the establishment of academies in this century. It was typical for boys to attend school and receive instruction in a diverse range of technical subjects such as arithmetic, reading, writing, geography and so on. Sadly girls were not given the privilege of receiving such detailed instruction in schools. In fact, in the early stages of incorporating women to education system, they were only allowed to attend school during the summer when the boys had come home to work on the farms and it was only with the rapid development of secondary schools that they were allowed to go to school in the winter during the same time as the boys (Lutz, 1976).

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In spite of this change, the curriculum taught to girls at the “finishing school” was drastically different from that taught to the boys. Girls would only receive a basic form of education in; reading, writing and arithmetic skills and the rest of their curriculum was devoted to needlework, knitting and religious education. True womanhood and its qualities were emphasized by the society and girls who were fortunate enough to receive an education were taught on how to remain obedient, submit to the wishes of their husbands within the home and in doing this, maintain the virtues of true womanhood. In fact, women in these schools were discouraged from having any intellectual pursuits since female intellect of any kind was greatly shunned and condemned by the broader society. Men were charged with the responsibility of expanding the society through industrial and economic pursuits while women were charged with the responsibility of protecting this society from moral and religious corruption and both sexes had to be educated so as to be able to fulfil these responsibilities.

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However, in 1815, a wave of change began taking over and this wave was redefining the paradigms that surrounded women education. This wave of change was pioneered by women such as Catharine Beecher, Mary Lyon and Emma Willard. These women had but one common goal which was to transform the curriculum that was used to teach girls. They did this by establishing seminaries, which were secondary schools that were more serious and gave young girls the opportunity to receive the same instruction as the boys. Their efforts were not without bottlenecks, Catherine Beecher for instance, had to teach close to a dozen subjects to her students every day. She had little time to teach each subject in detail and had to gloss over the basics of each to save on time. However, her efforts were rewarded when she appealed for donations, managed to expand her school, hired more teachers and was able to accomplish her mission of teaching each subject to completion (Ring, 1993). The seminary held its students up to the same standard as the boys. It gave them an equal chance at learning but once the woman was out of the seminary, there was little she could do with this education.

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In the 19th century, the responsibilities of the woman were centred on the care of her home, her children and her husband. Women from the upper class had the responsibility of displaying their husbands’ wealth to the public through their dressing and various expensive adornments on their person. Moreover, these women could use their education, the affluent status of their husband as well as the wealth in their households to foster corrections and social change by donating to worthy causes. Women form middle-class families had the responsibility of increasing the affluent nature of their families by setting standards for dressing and lifestyle. While they could find jobs as shopgirls or factory workers, working women in the 19th century were not supposed to earn a wage and often faced discrimination while at work in addition to the burden of the unsafe working conditions. Using their education to acquire some form of independent was a strenuous task and the further women in this age tried to pursue it, the more attractive the option of marriage seemed. Women who could not secure a husband and had acquired a decent education had to result to becoming distressed governesses or needlewomen to sustain themselves and live with the labels of being “unnatural” that would be laid upon them by the society.

Read also HUM 112 – Women’s Roles Then and Now In Society – Script

When one thinks about utilizing an education, one makes the supposition that this utilization would involve a vibrant career that would foster economic independence and free will. However, women in the 19th century did not receive the kind of education that would allow them to break free from the patriarchal systems that dictated every aspect of their lives. Instead, they were given an education that would ensure that they remained shackled to their husbands, that they would remain submissive to his will and use all their education to serve him better, take care of his household better, submit to and obey him better and take care of the children. Women were denied the extensive arithmetic and language skills that were given to the men. They were taught just enough to give them the capacity to educate their young children and provide meaningful instruction and shape the values of their sons, who were supposed to have a more direct impact on the nation. These roles were what the 19th-century society considered as the defining hallmarks of true womanhood and it is the skills required to perform these roles that formed the larger part of the education that was given to women.

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In spite of the discriminative environment under which women lived, education was not lost on them. It is the provision of this education that laid the foundation for the establishment of the society for promoting the empowerment of women (SPEW) and other societies that contributed to the rise of feminism as well as the enhancement of female consciousness towards gender equality (Solomon,1985).  It is this education that gave women such as Catharine Beecher the knowledge to teach a better curriculum to women in her seminary and transform the education of women from a privilege to a right. The effects of education on women and their capacity to utilize it to effectively manage responsibilities that were only given to men would not be apparent until the onset of the civil revolution in America (Woloch, 1984). When women would be pushed by the futility of attaining the dream of marriage and the necessity of replacing the men who had gone off to the civil war in the workforce, to move away from their homes and use their education to teach in schools, perform clerical work in government offices as well as manage vast plantations containing thousands of slave workers.

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To conclude, the provision of quality education for women has come a long way from this age when women were not allowed to be intellectual nor provided with the opportunity to use the knowledge they acquired in school for any other tasks other than housekeeping, taking care of children and pleasing their husbands. However, tracing the journey of gender equality from this tender age allows one to appreciate the historical milestones that have granted women some form of equality in the attainment of quality education, the capacity to achieve a state of independence and maintain free will as well as the opportunity to pursue a vibrant career.

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Teaching Resource for Inclusive Education – EDMAS 6025

EDMAS 6025 – Understanding and Supporting Young People

In this task you are to create a resource that demonstrates your understanding of inclusive education.  It will demonstrate the theoretical and legislative elements of inclusion, and build on these to identify pedagogical approaches, practical strategies and resources to move towards inclusion in education.  It also incorporates elements of collaboration with parents/ carers, respect and confidentiality, and how you could involve them in the planning and teaching process.  This task aims to provide a foundation of options to draw on for AT3, where you can draw on this knowledge and understanding to apply your knowledge as you plan for a class cohort.  This resource file can be thought of in four parts:

  1. Understanding development and issues that impact individual development
  2. Rights, legislation and inclusion
  3. Inclusive education pedagogies and strategies
  4. Developing connections to learning

Read also Effectiveness of Public Education

Teaching Resource for Inclusive Education

Childhood and Adolescent Development

Childhood and adolescent development have a significant impact on the education. This fact explains why it is important to understand various stages that children go through in their development in order to understand how each learner’s education is impacted by their development. Early childhood covers the period between infancy and 8 years. During this stage, a child undergoes tremendous growth and development. This growth encompasses physical growth and weight increase. There is a doubling of the child’s weight and height. There is also acquisition of many skills such as sitting, walking, sufficient hand-eye coordination, and scribbling, among others. There is also development of fine-motor skills which enables them to have a better grasp of such items as pencils and crayons. These children also develop their language and cognitive skills. This allows them to build a vocabulary of between 300 and 1000 words. Language development also helps to advance the children’s cognitive skills and their social development by promoting interactions.

Read also Insight into the Teenage Brain and The Mysterious Workings of the Adolescent Brain

In the middle stage and adolescence stage, children undergo tremendous development that advances their growth even further. The middle stage covers the ages between 8 and 12 years. During this stage, children develop the skills of developing hypotheses and classification of information. Children also gain enthusiasm for certain fields and subjects based on their interests. There is significant social development and development of independence. The adolescence stage covers the ages between 12 and 18 years. During this stage, children undergo identity development. At this stage, there is also significant physical and mental growth. Sexual maturation sets in during adolescence, and adolescents develop a sense of responsibility. There is increased ability in the solving of abstract problems.

Read also Needs of Hispanic and American Children and Adolescents – Juan’s Case Study

Factors that Impact Growth and Development

Many issues can impact the growth and development of children. Hereditary issues are one of the main factors that play an important part in the development of children. Children can inherit such conditions as hypertension and diabetes from their parents. These conditions have a negative impact on the growth of children. The environment is also another important factor that is central to growth and development. The home and the school environment should be made in a way that positively affects the development of children. The impact of sex cannot be left out, as it shows that boys tend to grow faster than girls, while girls mature faster than boys during adolescence. Socio-economic status and nutrition also play an important part in growth and development. Children from poor background tend to grow slowly mainly due to malnutrition. A lack of a regular balanced diet means that children do not develop as fast as those who have access to highly nutritious diets. Developmental stage, such as adolescence also has a significant impact on development and education, as adolescents have high emotional challenges that need to be critically managed.

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Disability also impacts the development of children significantly. Disabilities are of various forms, such as hearing loss, blindness, learning challenges such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and dyslexia, traumatic brain injury, and developmental conditions such as autism and epilepsy. These disabilities make it difficult for children to grow and develop normally. As such, their normal life is affected, which includes education.  These disabilities may range in their severity, and thus children with disabilities should be managed in a manner that responds to the student’s individual needs. Creating an inclusive learning environment is crucial as it ensures that diverse learners have an environment that meets their diverse needs.

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Rights and Legislation of Children with Disabilities in Relation to Education

All children have a right to education as stipulated in law. Various advantages have been recognized for encouraging inclusive education that encompasses children with disabilities. For example, it ensures that children living with disabilities face reduced stigma in the society. Education also empowers them to be more independent and self-reliant (Tomlinson, 2014). According to the Australian Disability Discrimination Act, children with disabilities should have access to appropriate and free public education (Schwartz & Elder, 2018). Schools should be able to conduct assessments of each child in order to determine the individual needs that should be met. This legislation, which was enacted in 1992, requires that schools should have individualized plans for each child in order to respond to their specific needs. The schools are also required to design programs that facilitate meaningful participation of all children in the education system.

Read also Article Review – Educating Students with Learning Disabilities in Inclusive Classrooms

The Disability Standards for Education of 2005illegalizes all forms of discrimination against people with disabilities in the public service. Public institutions are required to treat people with disabilities like everyone else, and ensure that they have access to education at all levels. Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act seeks to ensure that there is equality in the public institutions, and that people are not discriminated on the basis of disability. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 helps to protect the rights and privileges of people living with disabilities in programs that are financed by the federal government. Schools are required to provide accommodation and support to living with disabilities, according to the legislation. These legislations help to guarantee the rights of all children to education. As such, children living with any forms of disability are nit discriminated against in the education system.

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Inclusive Education

Children with disabilities, just like all other children, have dreams and ambitions for their futures. They need quality education just like every other child in order to develop their skills and build their careers with full potential. Children with disabilities are more often than not overlooked in several ways, ranging from policy making to limitation of their education because they are often regarded as inferior species to those without physical disabilities. They thus face several challenges and barriers to education in form of stigma, discrimination and many others.

Inclusive education is one of the surest ways to ensure that all children are given equal and fair chance to learn. Inclusive education means that all children regardless of their backgrounds and disabilities are in the same schools, same classrooms and given equal learning opportunities (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2017). Inclusive education system values and respects the unique contributions made by learners from all backgrounds and allows these diverse groups top grow together to the benefit of all.

Inclusive education brings with it a lot of benefits both to the learners and to the society as well. An inclusive education system promotes bonding and friendships among learners of varied background; this makes learning easier and fun and generally improves performance (Greenhow & Lewin, 2015). An inclusive education system grants access to the curriculum to all students in equal measure thereby alleviating discrimination. Enhanced skill acquisition and generalization is another important benefit that inclusive education brings, this enables all the learners to develop their skills that later enable them to pursue their careers. Last but not least, an inclusive education system motivates the disabled children to learn.

Inclusive Pedagogical Approaches and Teaching Strategies

Inclusive pedagogy is a student-centre teaching approach that aims at creating an exciting and fully engaging environment to all students regardless of their background, learning methods, and cognitive and physical abilities in classroom. Inclusive pedagogy has been shown to improve learning outcomes among children with disability when the faculty recognizes these differences and take measures to ensure that each and every student feels welcome and that they are just as important as other children. Two of the most commonly used inclusive pedagogies include differentiation and universal design for learning.

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Differentiation is a flexible learning approach when giving instructions to students. It features a flexible and adaptable curriculum that aims at maximizing learner’s potential. It involves features as simple as subtitles on a film and complex ones like media form. A differentiated classroom uses several ways to give instructions to students so that everyone has an equal opportunity to understand. A well differentiated teaching approach is adaptive, malleable, flexible, outcome based, oriented to student growth and success, recognizes learns disabilities and works on them, dynamic and diverse, believes in learners and empathetic.

To ensure that a curriculum is student-centred and well differentiated, the universal design comes in handy. Universal design is a way of thinking about learning and teaching with the aim of ensuring all students succeeds in their education irrespective of their physical and mental disabilities. Its principles are intended to avail course materials and learning experiences to all learners in the most welcoming way possible. The universal design guides teachers and other instructors to vary their ways of teaching so as to meet the learning needs of diverse groups of learners. The principles that guide the universal design for learning are: representation, action and engagement.

Provide Opportunities for Agency, Participation, and Engagement

There is need to adopt teaching strategies that promote agency, participation, and engagement. Learner agency helps to shift the responsibility of learning from being teacher-based, to being based on learners. This approach helps to inculcate a sense of responsibility in learners in order for them to be more conscious of the importance of education in their lives. This approach also ensures that learners can intervene in the learning process in a way that improves the learning environment and learning outcomes. One of the strategies of promoting learner agency is by creating a culture of inquiry and creativity. A culture of inquiry makes children more insightful and engaging while learning. It also increases their curiosity to ask questions on things that they would like to understand better. A culture of inquiry also ensures that learners can engage among themselves in questions and discussions in order to understand things as well as raise even bigger questions. Creativity also promotes innovation and invention in the learning environment.

Promoting learner participation in the learning process helps to create an equal opportunity for every student to have an effective experience in the learning process. It also helps to encourage students to explore issues from different perspectives. As learners will participate in various ways, teachers should understand each learner at a personal level in order to develop the best approach in encouraging participation and engagement. Some learners may participate by raising their hands and answering questions, while others may participate by asking questions. Some learners may also be more comfortable illustrating things on the board or by helping in development of teaching aids. The instructor’s goal is to develop healthy environment that embraces diversity of students.

Development and Recommendations for Individual Learning Plan

In implementing inclusive learning, it is important to develop individual learning plans (ILPs) that help in meeting the needs of each learner. The steps that should be followed while developing an ILP include: understanding the learner’s unique needs, set measurable and meaningful goals, plan the program, implement the developed learning plan, monitor and review the plan and the outcomes. There should be clear goals that should be achieved, such as a learner achieving a good level of social interactions and progressing well in class. While carrying out an individual learning plan, it is crucial to ensure that there are clear mechanisms for evaluating their effectiveness. This step ensures that it is easy to notice if the system is working or not. This makes it possible to make appropriate changes when needed for the benefit of each learner.

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Strategies for the Involvement of Parents or Caregivers

It is essential to ensure that parents and guardians are well integrated in the education of their children. This approach ensures that children are well supported while at home and in school. A good integration of parents ensures that instructors can meet the needs of the students based on the information provided by their parents and guardians. One of the best strategies for incorporating parents in the development of ILPs is the active integration of teachers in all meetings that focus on development of learning plans. In such a way, the parents will help in outlining the goals they would like to see met in the learning process (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2017). Instructors can also help in containing expectations from parents by explaining to them the best approaches in attempting to meet the learning goals.

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Disease Control and Education Plan – HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) represent one of the most prevalent contagions in recent history.  AIDS is a condition occasioned by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which proceeds to weaken the immune system, resulting in the development of a myriad of opportunistic infections. HIV is transmitted chiefly during unprotected sexual contact, from mother to child, and during routine blood transfusions through contaminated blood (Journal of AIDS and HIV Treatment, 2019). Although the first clinically reported cases involved homosexual men and intravenous drug users in the United States during the early 80s, conclusive research traces its origins to a zoonotic leap from non-human primates to humans in Central Africa. HIV is now a global pandemic with far-reaching implications for society.

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Percentage of the population affected by HIV

            HIV is one of the most widespread diseases affecting a considerable segment of the global population. Risky sexual behavior, inadequate information about the virus and the ease of travel introduced by globalization were recently cited as possible reasons for HIV’s prevalence. HIV is now a severe public health challenge requiring global commitment to counter its spread. According to UNAIDS, 37.9 million individuals (1.2 percent of the global adult population) were living with HIV/AIDS as of 2018 (UNAIDS, 2019). This figure is not surprising given HIV’s high rate of infection within any given population and the primary reason why health pundits are projecting an exponential increase in new infections within the coming decade.  Close to 1.1 million individuals (0.3 percent of the adult population) are currently infected with the HIV virus in the United States (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2020). 

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Instances of historical outbreaks of HIV

            The generally accepted axiom among epidemiologist such as Professor Haroutune Armenian is that HIV originated from the Kinshasa region of the Democratic Republic of Congo during the 1920s. Lack of documentation for sporadic cases may have hindered the collection of data surrounding the historical outbreak of HIV. Nevertheless, HIV was formally documented 1981 after it was linked to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and Kaposi sarcoma among homosexual men and intravenous drug users (Levin et.al, 2001). An outbreak of HIV was then reported among heterosexual couples after the discovery of the Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus (or LAV) as a possible cause. By 1989, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated 400,000 individual had contracted the HIV virus (Dumais, 2017, p. 98). To aid the affected population, the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the introduction of Combivir as the first ant-retroviral drug.  In 2003, an outbreak HIV that lasted for close to 7 years was reported in Larkana district of Pakistan. But perhaps the most renowned case is the southern Indiana outbreak between 2011 and 2015 linked to needle sharing among intravenous drug users during the height of the opioid crisis.

Read also A Comparison Of HIV-AIDS Prevalence In USA, Haiti And Rwanda

Objectives and goals of disease control and education plan on HIV

            The following are the primary objectives and goals of this disease control planned education on HIV:

  • Promote the reduction of the rate of new infections by preventing transmission.
  • Ensuring the process of blood transfusion is safe and untainted.
  • Instituting a decline in the number of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs).
  • Raising the public’s awareness while reducing the stigma that accompanies the disease.
  • Capacity building among health practitioners to equip them with appropriate tools to manage the disease.
  • Creating a conducive and enabling environment where program management is fully implemented.
  • Clamoring for research on the disease in and greater focus on behavioral studies.
  • Bolstering prevailing institutional frameworks.

Initiatives by government departments to mitigate the impact of HIV

            Government departments have been the first line of defense in the management of HIV and in reducing the rate of new infections. They now partner to mitigate the impact of HIV through an array of activities meant to turn the tide. The Department of State (DoS) provides human resource services, funds the U.S Global Aids Coordinator and provides information technology services to aid in policy discourses on HIV management. On the other hand, the Department of Defense (DoD) is tasked with implementing federal programs which focus on the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV. The Department of Commerce (DoC) offers direct support to the President’s Plan for Emergency Relief (PEPFAR) by initiating data management initiatives and surveys to ascertain the best response plan. The Department of Labor (DoL) executes initiatives targeting prevention such as offering condoms at the workplace as an effort primarily aimed at reducing the rate of new infections. Also, the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is also among the most protuberant departments in the fight against HIV. The introduction of care programs and prevention initiatives was the brainchild of the HHS with the main objective of mitigating the impact of HIV on the affected population within the United States.

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Measures to reduce health risks associated with HIV

            HIV is associated with numerous health risks which typically emerge in the form of opportunistic infections. These are pathogens that take advantage of an altered microbiota to thrive and afflict an individual based their compromised immunity. Common opportunistic infections that pose health risks to individual with HIV include Candidiasis, Herpes simplex virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Kaposi sarcoma (Whiteside, 2018, p. 76). Yet, several fundamental measures can be applied to reduce health risks associated with HIV.

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            Practicing safe sex is integral in the reduction of health risks associated with HIV. The consistent use of condoms prevents the transmission of the virus, which reduces new infections while averting a spike in the viral load in infected persons. Persons with HIV should always remember to practice safe preparation of food as one of the most effective measures in preventing the transfer of pathogens. Remaining aware of animal’s capability of spread infections to human beings is also essential. Additionally, taking extra precaution and avoiding persons suffering from diseases such as tuberculosis and pneumonia will dramatically reduce the chances of one contracting an opportunistic disease. HIV positive individuals should also take antiretroviral medicines to control their viral load and enabling the body to repair the damage done.

Allowing the public to recognize HIV causes AIDS and other associated health issues

            In order to allow the public to acknowledge HIV as the primary pathogen responsible for AIDS, this control and education plan will introduce an elaborate awareness campaign for educational purposes. The designation of a HIV awareness day represents a crucial stage during which the community is educated regarding the transmission of HIV and its role as a causative agent. It would also provide a unique opportunity HIV testing to be conducted, an addition to an elucidation of major issues affecting a particular population. Furthermore, awareness campaigns will also be conducted on social media platforms such as YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter. This will be instrumental in spreading crucial information within the shortest time possible and through a cost-effective medium.

Measures to prevent the outbreak of HIV            

Measures to prevent the outbreak of HIV are essential in managing the spread of the virus. One such measure which will be implemented through this plan is the spread of crucial information regarding the spread of HIV using brochures, pamphlets, and audiovisual material. This would allow the transfer of important knowledge key in the prevention of a HIV outbreak. School-based sex education and voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) will equip the public with integral information key in the in preventing outbreaks and intervening in the case of individuals diagnosed with the virus. Transmission can particularly be prevented through condom distribution and promotion within the community. STI screening programs will also reduce transmission and ultimately avert HIV mortality. 

Read also Process Mapping of a Quality Improvement Initiative – Improving Healthcare Delivery For HIV Patients

Additionally, avoiding unwanted pregnancies, feed substitution for HIV-infected mothers and the use of antiretroviral therapy will go a long way in managing this contemporary pandemic while preventing new outbreaks.

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Past Present and Future Trends of Master’s Education in Nursing – Article Critique

Gerard, S. O., Kazer, M. W., Babington, L., & Quell, T. T. (2014). Past, present, and future trends of master’s education in nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing30(4), 326-332

The main focus of the article is that there was need to revise master’s education in nursing in order to give the students the needed expertise in the changing healthcare environment. The main argument in the article is that, Masters Programs have become questionable in equipping the students pursuing advanced nursing practice in the context of evaluating past, present and the future trends of health care (Gerard et al, 2014). The author asserts that, due to the tenuous position of Master’s program nurses who will be pursuing careers in advanced practice will do so in doctorial levels or the so-called new model in Master’s nursing education(Gerard et al, 2014).With the detailed arguments provided by the article it is easy to validate and agree with the authors’ arguments.

            The authors have highlighted various drivers of healthcare, for instance, technology to explain why Master’s nursing programs lacks the ability to connect the past, present and the future of advance nursing practice. However, the research may be subject to bias as it is based only on private universities while we have advanced nursing education offered in public universities. The best part in the article is that, it evaluates the history of the Master’s programs in Nursing, the past and current demands in health care and other important aspects like technology, accountability, team approach and the future of Master’s nursing program (Gerard et al, 2014).With all these aspects the author explains why Master’s education is questionable in meeting the needs of health care institutions, consumers and even students. The past, present and the future trends are well connected making it easy to know why Master’s program does not have the ability the link up the past, current and the future of advanced nurse practice. The authors’ message has a huge application to the real world as health care programs are issues which not only impact the students but the whole world.  The historical part of Master’s in nursing serves a huge purpose of connecting the evolution of technology and new knowledge in improving patient care.

            Gerard et al (2014) chose an interesting topic and everything they depict have been thoroughly discussed and connected. Since the topic of the article touches on the aspects of past, present and the future of Master’s nursing program, the authors denotes that to build the present and have a prospect of the future it is good to look at the past so as to build a model which gives master’s nursing education hope in offering advanced nursing practice. However, there appears to be a disconnect particularly given the fact that majority of the focus of the current Masters programs have been viewed as aligned more to education that developing advanced practice nurses who are able to lead, manage and implement important systems in the changing healthcare system.            

The other important aspect that has been discussed and which I agree with the authors is the aspect of the need to develop interprofessional education in the Masters nursing programs.  Teamwork is a critical component in any healthcare facility and this has been emphasized even in undergraduate nursing programs. As professionals who will be in charge of teams and leading change, implementation of technology and nursing care programs, advanced nursing practice nurse must show high level of interprofessional competence. However, the authors seem to rule out the fact that even a registered nurse must possess the necessary skills and competencies of interprofessional education. Though the article addresses real issues facing the private nursing institutions, no information has been provides for the pubic educational institutions, which is its major weakness.

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Persuasion Campaign for Online Education

The growth in economy of the United States has coincided with an increase in demand for education. Although some sectors of economy have been affected by recession and harsh economic times, education continues to witness unprecedented growth. However, learning opportunities of American students have historically been shown to be shaped by factors beyond their control. (Lips, 2010) has identified the factors that influence education of American students as geography, finance and access to quality education. Online education provides an alternative source of instruction helping to break such barriers and increasing access to education among the American students.

Read also Effectiveness of Online Learning in Higher Education

The Central Message of the Campaign

Spend Less Money, Less Time In Class, and Learn More Through Online Education!!

            In making an advertisement campaign, there is need for a slogan or central message. The message must be short, captivates and is easy to remember. The central message that was chosen for the online education campaign is “Spend Less Money, Less Time In Class, And Learn More Through Online Education!!. The slogan is short and captures the main theme of the campaign, that is, online education. In addition, the use of the words “less money, less time and learn more” captivates the audience since it shows that the campaign will address the major factors that hinder access to education.

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            As outlined in (Lips, 2010) geography, finance and accessibility of quality education are some of the barriers towards education among the students in America. The creation of a slogan that captures these factors will be critical in attracting attention of the target audience of the campaign. Since quality education is associated with high costs, the target audience will be eager to know how one can learn more with less money, less time through online education.

Read also Similarities and Differences between E-Learning and Face-To-Face Learning

The Target Audience for the Campaign

            According to the U.S. Department of Education, the number of students graduating with high school diploma has risen than the previous years (U.S. Department of Education, 2017).  The authors point that in 2012-14, a record 84% of high school students graduated in the United States. This represents a huge number, yet as the college education continues to be more expensive with other factors such as accessibility to quality education and geography still in play, this segment of the population remains of great significance to the national economy. The enrollment for degree courses continue to drop in the country, which is worrying to the country’s future economic prospects. It is for these reasons that the campaign seeks to target secondary school graduates in the online education advertisement.

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            In addition, a majority of the high school graduates are in a position to make their own choices regarding the institutions to pursue their higher education. However, they need to learn about the various college and learning options that are available, the cost variables and access to quality education. Also, online learning has major drawbacks, which includes discipline and retention among the learners. (Allen, & Seaman, 2011) identified discipline as the most critical component for success of online education. Online earning involves the use of web resources with minimal class attendance. Having huge discipline is important for retention in online learning. Individuals in online learning learn with less contact and supervision from teachers, which exposes students to likelihood of indiscipline (Allen, & Seaman, 2014). The choice of high school graduates is important since the graduates have enough discipline that will ensure the success of their studies.

The Medium for Promoting the Campaign

            Advertisement has been considered a form of persuasion that attempts to influence and win audience. According to (Cobley & Schulz, 2013) advertisement encompass persuasion, which should not be coercive, but should be interpersonal rather than intra-personal and must me symbolic with resulting effects. However, these are possible through an establishment of contact with the target group of audiences. The contact should enhance the interaction that will facilitate effective persuasion.

            A number of advertising strategies are available for advertisement campaigns. They include face-to-face communication, use of billboards, and use of radio, social media, television, local newspapers and school visits. These strategies have individual advantages and drawbacks. The online education campaign shall adopt the use of television as the medium to promote the campaign. The rationale on the choice is that persuasion being a form of communication needs some form of visual interaction. Although face-to-face communication offers face-to-face interaction, television is relatively cheap and offers the opportunity to reach far and wide, including areas that may be difficult to access owing to geography. Moreover, the target audience consists of categories of students whose interests include watching, which can be an appealing strategy to use. It also offers an opportunity of reaching the parents of high school graduates who can be persuaded to advice their students to enroll in higher education online learning.

The Intended Persuasion Outcome

            The persuasion theory is underpinned in the development of the understanding of the effects of advertising (Magee, 2014). When the audiences are exposed to an advertisement, they can develop positive or negative reactions. The reaction or effects of the message on the audience can be measured using a number of variables. (Cobley & Schulz, 2013) identifies the variables as including the extent of exposure, the degree of interest and the extent to which the audiences remember the message. In advertisement for online campaign, the persuasion will be directed in order to achieve a number of outcomes. The following are the intended persuasion outcomes of the online education campaign.

  • Increase the audience interest towards online education
  • Create a positive perception amongst the audience towards online education
  • Create a lasting positive impression among the audience regarding the online education campaign.

Why the Online Education Campaign Will be Effective

            The success of online education campaign hinges on the effectiveness of persuasion employed in the advertisement message. Persuasion remains a critical concept, which has been adopted widely by scholars and practitioners in communication and in field, especially in advertisement. Owing to the great significance of the concept in academic and practical level, it has attracted numerous definitions. The concept has been defined by (Cobley & Schulz, 2013, p. 273) as a form of communication, whose purpose is to shape, reinforce or alter responses of another/others. In the field of advertising, the author points that the theory of persuasion has the ultimate aim of alteration of the perception of people through message with the aim of influencing them to make decisions that they would otherwise have not had they not been exposed to the advertising message. As a tool of persuasion, advertising campaigns seeks to change, shape or create the behaviors and attitudes of the target audience.

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Persuasion Theories

            The persuasion theories in advertising campaign consist of the theoretical knowledge, the perspectives that concern the relationship between the advertising variables, the methods and modes. According to (McDonough & Egolf, 2015) persuasion theories are important at the practical levels, helping in decision making about the media plans, creative message strategies and in better understanding of the all the phases and advertising aspects. In recognition of the important role that persuasion theories can have on advertising campaign, the online education persuasion campaign shall employ the following persuasion theories.

  • Message learning theory
  • The congruity theory
  • Cognitive dissonance theory
  • Self-persuasion theory

Read also Persuasion, Causation, Multisensory Priming, Compliance Gaining, Dissonance

Message Learning Theory

The practical guidelines that have been developed for use in the design of advertising strategies are entrenched in the message learning theory. According to (McDonough & Egolf, 2015), message learning theory guidelines suggest that repeating message enhances learning, while commercials that employ users last long than those that use straight foreword claims. The authors also assert that the message learning theory makes enables the analysis of message order, with the aim of identifying where best to place strong arguments.

The message learning theory will be employed extensively in the online education campaign. Message learning theory points that the medium characteristics influence the effectiveness of persuasion in any advertisement campaign, with radio considered poor. The choice of television as medium hinges on the ability of the campaign to offer greater persuasion to the target audience through delivery of the message from the source. The campaign would employ an expert in online education to deliver the campaign message. The rationale is that having an expert deliver the campaign message would positively alter the perception of the target audience. According to (McDonough & Egolf, 2015) the degree to which the target audiences learn and retain the message depends on determines the extent of persuasion. The use of expert increases audience learning, thus positively influencing the persuasion effectiveness.

The Congruity Theory

            Developed in 1955 by Osgood and Tannenbaum, congruity theory employs the concept of cognitive balance in persuasive communication (Petty, Ostrom & Brock, 2014, p. 146; Shaver, 2015). According to the authors, the theory provides a prediction about the direction and magnitude of attitude change that will occur during persuasive communication. The theory posits that when a source and attitude link together, there arise pressures towards attitudinal congruence. For example if a source (speaker) expresses favorable attitude towards a particular topic or issue, the congruence form audience occurs if the target audience hold the same attitude towards the topic under consideration. Sources in congruity theory include commentators, newspapers, professional experts, political analysts and so on.

            The online education campaign will employ congruity theory of persuasion in the persuasion of the target audience and thus attempt to influence them into accepting the advertisement message. In the campaign, the source as outlined will be an expert in the field of online education, with proven experience and having practiced in the field as a consultant for time that is long enough. It is hoped that through the wealth of experience of the expert, the target audience will attain attitudinal congruence. For example, through the expression of favorable attitude (associative bond) on the topic (speaker endorsing online education by citing it being affordable and effective) the target audience can hold same attitude towards the message and the subject and thus reaching congruence.

The Cognitive dissonance theory

            Developed by Leon Festinger, the cognitive dissonance theory is the most known theory which is regarded as being the most important (Sanderson, 2009, p. 196). According to the author, the cognitive dissonance theory posits that when individuals hold two conflicting beliefs or cognitions, or engages in behaviors that are in conflict with their cognition, they experience an unpleasant psychological arousal (dissonance). The theory is important in shaping the attitudes and behaviors of the audiences.

            The cognitive dissonance theory will be employed to influence the attitudes of the target audience by creating unpleasant psychological states that will eventually alter them into embracing the concept of online education. Many of the American parents/students believe that a child can only learn through the traditional methods of teachers instructing students in class. However, through the work of the campaign expert, the long held lack of belief towards the use of web sources will be discussed in detail. It is believed that the campaign will highlight the lack of enough knowledge while actually showing that contrary to the general believes, online education is associated to improved levels of outcomes relative to the traditional methods. The new information is expected to create contrary cognitions among the target audience. These clashing cognitions will prompt the target audience reactions and thus change of their behaviors into adopting online education.

Self-persuasion theory

The self-persuasion theory contrasts the message learning theory in that is asserts the effectiveness of an advertisement campaign can better be understood through the examination of how the target audience persuade themselves upon receiving the message (McDonough & Egolf, 2015, p. 1212). According to the authors, learning through message is not the only method that audience can get persuaded. The mere presence of arguments does not mean the target audience will learn and remember, but the audiences often become involved with the advertisement message and they try to elaborate on the message.

When target audiences are exposed to the message from the advertisement campaign, they get involved and try to elaborate on the advertiser’s message (McDonough & Egolf, 2015, p. 1213). They then assume an active role, try to establish the meaning thereby persuading themselves into bolstering, accepting, distorting, or rejecting the message contained in the advertisement.

The persuasion theory will be employed in the online education advertisement campaign. The advertisement message will be tailored so as to evoke issue-relevant thinking among the advertisement target audience. This can be captured through advertisement discussion that offers arguments which are relevant to the topic. Moreover, the information will be offered in a way that will be easy for the target audience to comprehend and process as this offer motivation for the target audience to follow central route in processing the online education advertisement campaign information. The persuasion campaign for online education depends on the message delivery, the type of message and the power of t

the speaker. This is an advertisement that targets to change the perception of high school graduates, with the goal of increasing their enrolment in online learning. An online advertisement campaign as a form of persuasion, must encapsulate all the elements and strategies outlined in the persuasion theories as taught in class.  However, it is believed that the online education advertisement campaign will be successful mainly because of the power of the speaker.

According to (Petty, Ostrom & Brock, 2014) the power of the source is the greatest element in which message recipient can be influenced. The source must be able to control the delivery of the rewards and punishments to the target audience. The source can induce compliance, making the audience to follow the position advocated for by the speaker. The use of the theories of the persuasion will provide a great impetus in the design of the campaign message and the choice of the speaker. The choice of the speaker will be made in a way that ensures they possess the skills and education that are respected in the field of online education. This will provide the necessary power over the target audience, thus helping to influence them into adopting the position that will be advocated during the delivery of online education advertisement campaign in the television.

            In as much as the power of the source is important, ensuring the speaker combines the persuasion theories as discussed in class and in the paper will be critical to the success of the campaign.  The theories will govern the nature of message, the choice of words, the mode of delivery and the medium of delivery. It is important to note that these theories will be combined to ensure that a comprehensive online education campaign programme is developed. It is believed that with these factors included in the paper, the online education advertisement campaign will be successful.


The number of high school students who graduate annually with high school diploma in the United States has been on the rise in the past few years. However, the same is not true for the students who graduate with degree certificates from universities and colleges. This is attributed to factors such as geography, access to quality education and financial factors. The adoption of online learning is one form of educational instruction that can help to address the decreasing rates at which students graduate from degree programs. Through persuasion campaign, more students can be influenced to enroll for degree programs through online learning. An effective online campaign program that employs persuasion theories such as message learning, self persuasion, congruity and cognitive dissonance theories can help in shaping the perception and attitudes of the high school graduates to enroll for online learning.

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Levels of Education for the Registered Nurse

The level of expertise for a registered nurse is critical for quality patient care (McHugh & Lake, 2010). As the population of the United States becomes increasingly old, there is need for nurses to be prepared for the numerous challenges in the healthcare setting. There are different levels of education for a registered nurse in the United States, which prepares nurses to work in different hospital settings or to advance their education. The levels of education have different levels of educational preparation and responsibilities. 

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Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN) 

Educational Preparation

            The most common way of becoming a registered nurse (RN) is through the associate degree in nursing. The degree program takes two years to complete before taking certification exams to become a practicing nurse (NurseJournal, 2016). Before enrolling for the RN program, one is required to have prerequisites such as biology, math, chemistry and English. The ADN classes are offered according to the area of specialization such as microbiology, anatomy, nutrition, pharmacology and physiology. The program offers practical skills such as insertion of catheters, operational of technical equipment, starting of intravenous lines, both in class as wells as in hospital shifts.

Read also State Regulations for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Prescribers

Levels of Responsibility

            The major responsibilities of the registered nurse or ADN, is to work in the healthcare setting or specialties taking care of patients. Their work includes making diagnostic tests, documenting in charts, performing treatments and giving medications to patients. In addition, they work in advocacy, educating patients and families in order to meet their needs.

Read also Strategies a Graduate Registered Nurse Could use to Manage Intra Professional Conflict

Benefits and Challenges

            The ADN is not a specialty program, which offers the benefits of diverse job opportunities. Although it is more affordable and takes reasonably short time to gain licensure, the ADN offers no specialization, which means the RN works in all aspects of patient care. The ADN also offers no opportunity for leadership and management positions due the general kind of education.

Read also American Nursing Association – Professional Organization for Nurses

Baccalaureate (Bachelor of Science in Nursing- BSN)

Educational Preparation

            The standard or generic baccalaureate program is a four year college or university education, which incorporates a variety of courses, education and professional training (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2017). The baccalaureate program is designed for high school graduates without previous nursing experience. The first two years in college includes classes in humanities, social sciences, nutrition, ethics, sociology, basic sciences and basic sciences.

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            The general requirement for the bachelor’s of science in nursing varies depending on education and experience (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2017). The RNs who wish to gain reentry into the baccalaureate degree program must possess a valid RN license and an associate degree or hospital diploma.  In some programs, the baccalaureate education may start in sophomore classes. The admission into the last two years of the baccalaureate degree program requires an average GPA of 2.8. Moreover, the baccalaureate degree program is offered in diverse settings, including clinics, healthcare maintenance organizations and community hospitals.

Levels of Responsibility

            The BSN graduates enter the field of nursing as generalists with the foundation for graduate studies in nursing profession. The BSN accredited graduates have responsibilities of working in all the healthcare units, including the ICU, outpatient, mental health and public health.  According to (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2017) the BSN nurse is also suited to work in neighborhood clinics, outpatient centers and private homes. Other responsibilities include planning of nursing care, supervision of other support staff and nursing personnel, guide and educate patients on available healthcare options.

Benefits and Challenges

            The BSN nurses have the benefit of moving higher in the administrative and management positions (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2017). BSN nurses can work alongside physicians in research or sometimes hold clinical teaching positions. In addition to more preference by the employing organizations, the BSN offers many job outlets than the ADN. A BSN nurse has an opportunity to pursue many nursing education and certifications, for example the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) and nurse practitioner (NP).

However, the BSN degree is expensive and takes longer (4 years) to complete, compared to the ADN. In addition, the BSN nurse faces more challenges due to increased work overload that arise from their generalist and wide area of responsibilities.

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)

Educational Preparation

            The RNs who wish to advance education can apply for the Master of Science in nursing (MSN) (Raines & Taglaireni, 2008). To be eligible for MSN the applicant must possess a bachelor of science in nursing, associate degree in nursing or diploma in nursing from accredited institutions. Moreover, the applicant must have a GPA of at least 3.0, with strong proficiency in statistics and English.    The Master of Science in nursing program includes classroom instruction and nurse training in clinical setting. The MSN can lead to a number of specialties, which include nursing administration, public health, mental health, nursing health informatics and adult gerontology.

Levels of Responsibility

            The Master of Science in nursing RNs play an important role in advanced care setting providing more specialist role. In addition, their levels of responsibility extend to design and implementation of advanced healthcare plans, performing healthcare research and implementation of healthcare programs such evidence-based healthcare.

Benefits and Challenges

            The MSN nurses enjoy a more specialty roles in the healthcare setting. The MSN provides the nurse with an opportunity for managerial and leadership roles. In addition, the MSN registered nurses enjoy a higher pay package. However, it is expensive to pursue the MSN compared to the BSN. The MSN nurses work in more challenging environment as they are required to make important patient decisions and implement healthcare models within healthcare setting.

Doctor of Nursing Practice Program

Educational Preparation

            Doctor if philosophy in nursing prepares registered nurses for advanced clinical practice, health administration and advanced knowledge in healthcare, which enables them to conduct and publish nursing research papers (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2017). The degree program generally takes three year, with course work and dissertation. The graduates of the program can go on to become future nursing lead researchers and lecturers. One must be a registered nurse with bachelors and masters degrees in nursing from accredited institution(s).

Benefits and Challenges

            Doctor of philosophy in nursing allows one to take part in major nursing research projects that directly impact primary care. Moreover, the graduates of the program enjoy higher wages that the nursing graduates of masters and bachelors programs. However, the PHD degree is expensive and requires a lot of dedication to complete. The PHD in nursing may take longer three years due to complexity of the practical dissertation project.

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Similarities and Differences among Nurses at all Levels of Education

            Regardless of the level of education, all nurses must pass the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). This is a requirement for all registered nurses in the United States. In addition, the BSN, MSN and PHD in nursing prepares nurses for leadership and management roles in healthcare setting. The major differences are the path and time commitment that are required to complete the entire degree program. The ADN takes 2 years, BSN 4 years, Master of Science in nursing 1-2 years and PHD about 3 years. Another major difference is the areas of specialties, the AND is the most general of all the levels, while the masters and PHD prepares nurses for specialty roles. In addition, the BSN, MSN and PHD prepare RNs for management and leadership roles.

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How Level of Education Changes the Role of a Nurse

As the nurse advances in level of education, the graduate nurse takes more specific roles in the healthcare setting. The change in education from ADN to BSN prepares nurse for management and leadership roles. The change in education from BSN to MSN prepares nurse for advanced clinical practice such as research and implementation of evidence-based nursing practice, while change in education from MSN to PHD in nursing prepares a RN for role in nursing research and advanced healthcare practice.

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My Ideal Educational System Based on Classical Thinking

This paper presents a discussion on an ideal educational system based on classical thinking. In the present times, it has become significantly essential for every person in the society to access education in order to be safe and lead a prosperous life. It is upon education that people develop their intelligence and characters. Therefore, an ideal education system is the best framework for facilitating access to education. Education system is a terminology mostly used when referring to public schooling starting from programs in kindergarten, high school all through to college (Clarke, 2012). An ideal education system according to classical thinking is the one that has the capacity to grade students based on their capabilities, enable them to change their class level, decrease the rate of failure, and enable them choose their options early enough depending on their interests.   

Based on classical thinking, liberal education is my ideal education system. This is a system of education that can offer the individuals a unique strategy to learning, which enables them to cope with the diversity, complexity and change that they may encounter. According to Clarke (2012), liberal education enables students to acquire a wide range of skills and knowledge of the broader world in terms of society, culture and science. It provides students and scholars with a platform upon which they can develop strong and convenient practical and intellectual skills like problem-solving, analytical and communication. Therefore, it enables individuals to become socially responsible in such a manner that they can demonstrate their capabilities to apply skills to manage the realities of the world (Clarke, 2012). This implies that, besides professional competence, liberal education aims at developing free individuals who can have the ability to engage their minds when solving problems of the real world.    In conclusion, education system is a terminology mostly used when referring to public schooling starting from programs in kindergarten, high school all through to college. Based on classical thinking, liberal education is my ideal education system. It can offer the individuals a unique strategy to learning, which enables them to cope with the diversity, complexity and change that they may encounter.

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