Tag: India

India as a New Potential Market for Tesla Automobile Sales

Tesla has recently made groundbreaking strides in expanding its market portfolio key in improving its global reach. Yet, several frontiers remain uncharted, therefore, presenting an ultimate opportunity for the company to boost automobile sales. India currently represents an ideal market for base and new electric car models, which is why Tesla needs to ready itself to enter this emerging electric vehicle (EV) market within the next year. Capturing this market will also allow the company to establish a major subsidiary in South East Asia, before proceeding to establish Tesla manufacturing plants and showrooms across the entire region. The following is a summary of key findings from my evaluation of India as a new potential market for Tesla automobile sales.

Read also Nikola Tesla – Life , Impact In The 20th Century And Legacy

Key Findings

Demographics

            India will serve as an important pivot for Tesla’s automotive sales as a consequence of its ever-expanding population. According to the Word Population Review (2020), India remains the most populous country today; a position it is likely to retain given its low infant mortality rate and recent focus on a reinvigorated healthcare system.  The India population, therefore, represents a suitable electric vehicle (EV) market given its stability and solid foundation as a hub for innovation in South East Asia.

Read also Ford Motor Company Analysis Using Bolman and Deal’s Reframing Model, Morgan’s Metaphors, and Sensemaking

Political Stability

            Today, India is among the last true pinnacles of democracy within the subcontinent in which it is situated. According to Hardgrave (2019), India enjoys relative political stability due to a strict adherence to democratic political ideals of leadership and the presence of competent leaders to support the executive, parliament, and judiciary within its national governing framework. This is further strengthened by recent efforts to adopt a unitary system of administration crucial in promoting inclusivity and a basic requirement when attempting to reinforce political stability. Such an environment is ideal for a leading automotive manufacturer such as Tesla given its dedication to creating new niches globally.  

Economy and Communications

            Over the past decade, India has registered considerable economic growth in the region and is currently cited among the fastest-growing markets globally further supported by an elaborate communications network. India’s promising economy is mainly attributed to the presence of a population of young professionals credited with improving its per capita and nominal income (Joshi & Kapur, 2014)Additionally, India’s animated economy provides an appropriate market for Tesla to make headway largely owing to its potential for growth coupled with the presence of a low dependency ratio. The presence of a clearly defined communication apparatus comprising of digital, postal, telegraphy, and broadcasting systems will greatly benefit Tesla in the dissemination of information to India’s burgeoning population. Apart from covering urban metropolitan regions, the aforementioned communication systems also cover rural and tribal areas; creating a dependable system for relaying information.

Education and Cultural Sensitivities

             Education and cultural heritage have long been known to take precedence in India. For instance, Tilak (2018) acknowledges that the federal government of India has taken the extraordinary step of emphasizing the importance of schooling through its decree of free and mandatory education for children between 6 and 14 years old.  This has resulted in India being one of the most educated nations in the region; characterized by a high rate of enrollment and a major focus on a first-rate education system. Considering such factors will greatly benefit Tesla when making key staffing decisions for its Indian subsidiary. Furthermore, India is known for its cultural diversity and sensitivities given it hosts over 2,000 ethnically distinct groups (Hardgrave, 2019). The scheduled caste system has typically cast a dark shadow on India. However, the country has made notable progress through affirmative action to end all forms of discrimination within its borders.  India is, largely, a tolerant country save for emerging global issues such as homosexuality; mainly considered incompatible with the values and sensitivities within its culture. Tesla must, therefore, remain aware of this fact when developing its plan for setting up a subsidiary to enter the Indian EV market to avert the possibility of grappling with challenges associated with embracing policies inconsistent and inconsiderate of cultural sensitivities.

Marketing Opportunity Proposal

            Tesla is currently faces an uphill task competing with established automotive manufacturers such as Toyota and Ford for the Indian market. However, the Tesla might benefit greatly by exploring new products and services to generate additional revenue for the organization to ultimately fuel growth. The following are three potential opportunities I would like to pursue India to generate growth for Tesla in India.

Read also Integrated Marketing Campaign for Shrewd Motors’ Electric Car

In-house battery production. Tesla’s recent departure from its reliance on Panasonic for its battery production now presents a unique opportunity for the company to finally focus on in-house battery production as a potential business opportunity. India’s central location, between Asia and Europe, will make it possible for the company to supply electric car batteries to other electric vehicle makers, thus boosting its company and financial profile. As a major cost component, electric car battery will be in line with the company’s idea of vertical integration while cutting production costs associated with this complex process.

Less expensive base models for the Indian population. Tesla should also focus on customizing its production to suit India’s growing market. This should involve focusing on producing less expensive models for the population in this particular region of the world. As of 2019, the GDP of India stood at 2.869 trillion USD with 600 million of its inhabitants assigned a middle-class status (The World Bank, 2021.  A less expensive base model for the Indian population would, therefore, thrive among the wealthy, middle, and working class Indians, creating a new market for Tesla-manufactured automobiles.

Read also Social and Business Elements of India

Setting up an auto-component plant. Tesla’s manufacturing capabilities can also be bolstered by establishing an auto-component subsidiary within India. According to Singh (2017), India is an economically-viable location for leading companies seeking to diversify their production capacities. Moreover, an auto-component plant will also be supported by the presence of industrial clusters that serve as a defining hallmark of India, especially given the ready availability of copper, steel, and rubber for production.

Racism in India vs San Francisco

Many people believe that the recent series of physical and verbal attacks against foreigners in India is a reverberation of the country’s long history of racism. In 2017, Indian based African students expressed concern over the way they were being treated in residences, streets, and restaurants. The story of 19-year-old student Manish Khari was one of the few that painted a clear picture of what was happening on the ground. When Khari went missing on 24th March, his fellow residents believed that he had ended up on a dinner table of five Nigerian students (Sawlani). The residents did not hesitate to barge in the home of the Nigerians to rummage their fridge. To their surprise, their suspicions were quickly negated. Khari’s body was found the next day. A medical report confirmed that the cause of death was a drug overdose. One would have thought that that would be the end of the allegations, but instead, Khari’s neighbors were quick to conclude that the same group of Nigerians had drugged him. The incident, though unsupported by any evidence, prompted a spate of racist attacks on Nigerians across India. Whether the events were ignited by stereotypes among the Indian community or a genuine historical occurrence of cannibalism, they provided a strong indication of race-based prejudice. Indeed, as the author of this paper will attempt to show, racism is deeply embedded in the Indian social fabric at a much worse level than what is experienced in some parts of the United States, such as San Francisco.

Read also A Comparison of the African-American and Asian-American Racism Experience

The subject of racism in India did not commence with Khari’s incident. Rather, a range of scientific and non-scientific reports have shown that the country has long suffered from racial prejudice. A fascinating map of the level of racism in the world by country places India on the extreme side. Produced by two Swedish economists who sought to examine the level of economic freedom based on racial tolerance, the map was based on a survey of respondents from 80 countries around the world. The researchers asked the participants what kind of people they would tolerate or not want as neighbors. A large percentage of Indian respondents said that they would not want a person from a different race. The results were not surprising as many incidents around India provided legitimate backing. Apart from Nigerians, Ugandans, Tanzanians, Rwandan and Sudanese foreigners have suffered violent and verbal attacks on the basis of race. Attacks on Africans seem to be predominantly common, followed by racist prejudice among Indians themselves. However, Westerners are rarely attacked based on race. Indeed, Stevens claims that India is very welcoming as long as the visitors are westerners.

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The growing preference for white skin is undoubtedly behind India’s differing racial attitudes towards white westerners and black Africans. This prejudice may be partly fueled by a blend of caste-based attitudes and an inferiority complex that dates back to the colonial times. The country’s obsession for fair skin has been well deep-rooted within the culture since the arrival of civilization when the white man was seen as superior. Unfortunately, such notions remain today in India and other countries. The larger Indian society now believes that skin color is included in the criteria of a person’s worth and that all virtues are connected with “fair” while all negative connotations come with “dark” colors. Various forms of media including billboards, movies, TV programs, and advertisements are to blame for the promotion of these misconceptions as they always depict “fair as beautiful.” The Indian government attempted to counter this problem through the Advertising Standards Council of India by addressing skin-based discrimination. The body banned all ads that depict people with dark skins as inferior. However, nothing has changed much to date. India’s advertisement industry and media continue to promote the idea of fairer complexions. Accordingly, most dark-skinned persons, particularly women, are desperately trying to look fair in order to avoid the stereotypes that are associated with dark skin. It is evident that colorism is a major issue in India, and is no doubt a contributory factor to racism.

Read also Racism Against African Americans in Portland

While it may be surprising to know that racism is a recurring problem in India, it is not easy to disregard that the Indian caste system has promoted the practice of discrimination across the country for centuries. The caste system has been significantly weakened since independence. In the preamble of the Indian constitution, negative discrimination on the basis of caste is forbidden. Nevertheless, case-based interactions and ranking continue to influence how Indians, particularly in the countryside and in the realms of marriage and kinship, relate with others in the community. Each caste represents a named, endogamous group for which membership is only achievable by birth (Dumont 248). It is part of a system of interdependence with other groups that are connected to complex networks that stretch across the entire country. There are hundreds if not thousands of castes and sub-castes in modern-day India all of which characterize a South-Asian social structure. The caste system was not designed to be inherently racial, but it does contribute to the conception of racial prejudice. Notably, the original definition of a caste describes it as a breed, race, or kind. Indians may refer to a caste as “Varna” which essentially symbolizes color (Cox 5). Castes were traditionally associated with occupation and class. For instance, the Brahmans (priests) were highly ranked, while farmers and artisans were moderately ranked. Barbers, potters, and carpenters received a low ranking while latrine, butchers, and launderers were considered as “untouchable” leatherworkers. Given that one’s caste system was acquired by birth, it meant that people in lowly ranked classes would remain subjugated in social disadvantage and poverty without the hope of redemption.

The topic of caste is considered taboo in cosmopolitan India and only shows up in “urban” conversations as part of an amusing cultural stereotype where people from high ranking castes are likened to financially sound people while the others are defined along their caste ranks. Certainly, the caste system has not left but merely gone silent. It has been linked to past injustices and created opportunities for members of the “high” class (Dumont 214). These racial quotas have snatched opportunities from various races and reinforced corruption in administrations. Many analysts claim that Indians are in denial of racism. In point of fact, the denial of caste discrimination amounts to colorblind racism (McDuie-Ra 2). The Gujarati riots of 2015 are a clear indication that class injustice has festered in lower caste communities. Back in 1991, an Indian news magazine reported that a person from a low caste in a village in southeast Delhi was punished by torture and hanging in front of 500 villagers after he was alleged to have had an affair with the daughter of a high-caste landlord.  Many more stories about prejudice against lowly ranked races have exposed the capacity of the caste system in fueling racial bigotry.

A lack of education of social matters is also a major cause of the current level of racism in India. Ignorance about other people often fuels stereotypes. For instance, since many Indians do not understand that Africa is a diverse continent and that all Africans are not the same in terms of color and behavior, they are usually susceptible to the notions they are presented at first. It is evident that many Indians associate Africa with Nigeria since there’s a large Nigerian population in India. An Indian may judge every other black person based on the behavior and opinions about Nigerians (Prabhu). This close-mindedness can be explained through collective rationalization or “group think” domination. Whatever one Indian thinks about a black person is bound to be embraced by other Indians around him or her. This is not surprising because biological traits of behavior show that the human brain is predisposed to be xenophobic towards strangers or anything that is foreign. Thus, closemindedness, accompanied by stereotypes, pressure toward uniformity, pressure on dissenters, and the illusion of invulnerability underlie India’s racism towards foreigners, specifically black people. The solution to this multiplicity of factors is adequate education on social matters.

Compared to San Francisco, India is far much worse in terms of racism. The Indian caste system has existed for such a long time that it has been assimilated in peoples psyche, further making inequalities that should be seen as horrifying otherwise a normal part of daily life. This is evident in the manner in which many Indians display a shocking degree of acceptance of caste limitations. Such widespread acceptance is less visible in urban areas but is much more visible as one moves from small towns to rural villages. Additionally, the caste system has been preserved over the years through a clever manner by ascribing actions of the past life as the determiners of the present life. All these, ironically, are based on the mere accident of birth. Initially, the caste system was built to sustain social order through hierarchical and hereditary means. On the other hand, San Francisco is much more virtuous when it comes to equality. In fact, the state is nowhere in the list of the top 50 most racist regions on the planet. Cases of racism in San Francisco are very rare, and this is partly attributed to the establishment of an equality-based governance system, education of the masses on racism, and a history of learning about the negative impacts of racism. However, both India and San Francisco are alike in that segregation in the former and racism in the latter malevolently twist the philosophies of purity to foster and retain unsound levels of cultural and social inequality.

Food Insecurity In India

Food insecurity is a complex problem facing today’s word, especially in developing countries. Many people across the globe lack the resources to meet their basic needs; this increases the household’s risk of insecurity. The current paper seeks to analyze the issue of food insecurity, whereby it will focus on the background of the said problem. It will also establish technologies that can help reduce hunger and curb food insecurity. Lastly, it will identify specific factors that interrupt the flow of food from the source to the people. The paper will mainly focus on India as a case study country. It is worth noting that in many developing countries, the primary cause of food insecurity is not lack of food but rather the access to food. A feasible way to remedy food insecurity caused by a lack of access to food is to implement data-driven supply systems that will bypass interruptions that hinder available food from reaching the people.

Read also Impact of Commercial Farms on Improving Food Security in India

Food insecurity Background

Food insecurity refers to the lack of consistent access to sufficient food to ensure an active, healthy life. According to Prosekov and Ivanova, food insecurity occurs when people do not have enough economic, social, or physical access to safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and preferences to ensure an active and healthy life (72). Notably, though hunger and food insecurity are closely related, they are varying concepts. Whereas the former refers to the personal, physical sensation of discomfort, the latter describes a lack of available economic resources for food at the household level (Parappurathu, 77). Thus, the household level is the application of the concept of food insecurity, with individuals within households as the primary focus of the concern.

Population growth plays a vital role in food insecurity. An increase in population induces increased demand for food. If food production does not match the increased population growth, then the country in question faces the risk of food insecurity (Prosekov & Ivanova, 75). Additionally, increased population growth contributes to global warming due to the increased release of greenhouse gases. Consequently, global warming causes a decline in agricultural output, thereby contributing to food insecurity (Parappurathu, 78). For instance, population growth in India over the past few decades has been accompanied by increased global warming in the co8untry, which in turn has led to a decline in agricultural production (Banik, 39). Hence, if the population growth rate is not accompanied by a similar or higher increase in agriculture production levels, then it causes food insecurity.

Technologies that can Reduce Hunger and Improve Food Security

As noted earlier in this paper, the leading cause of food insecurity is not a food shortage but rather a lack of food access. A technology that can help address this problem is a data-driven food security system. The system will collect household data across India to identify at-risk populations. The identification of these households will paint a vivid picture of households that face food insecurity. The information will help inform frameworks aimed to improve the economic wellbeing of the said households. It is important to note that the data collected will not be used to distribute food to at-risk households. Instead, it will help relevant entities and authorities identify households to channel their stimulus strategies to improve their economic status. Therefore, the technology will address food insecurity caused by limited access to available food due to governmental control over food distribution. Improving the financial wellbeing of at-risk households will provide access to the Indian population faced with food insecurity.

Another technology that can reduce hunger and improve food security in India is a data-driven food supply chain management system. The system will address the issue by bypassing existing food distribution controls that lead to food insecurity. The data-driven system will ensure that food supply to households facing hunger and food insecurity flows seamlessly. India is one of the countries that benefit from food reliefs from various global organizations such as the World Food Programme and the United Nations food relief agency. However, the existence of counterproductive government controls and corruption prevents the target beneficiaries from enjoying the aid. A data-driven food supply chain management system will ensure that relief food timely and effectively reaches households facing food insecurity.

Specific Factors that Interrupt the Flow of Food in India

Considering the above-discussed cause of food security in India, several factors interrupt the flow of food from the source to the people. Firstly, high rates of population growth lead to increased demand for food. Considering that the said demand is accompanied by agricultural production decline due to global warming, it interrupts the flow of food from the source to the citizens. Another factor that plays a significant role in promoting food insecurity is poverty. Notably, two-thirds of people in this country live in poverty. According to George and McKay, more than 68% of Indians survive on less than $2 a day (Banik, 42). As such, these people struggle to afford safe and nutritious food consistently; thus, facilitating the interruption. Lastly, government controls have also significantly compromised food security in India is governmental controls. Food policy and food politics in India have rendered the country the largest number of people facing hunger and food insecurity (3221). Thus, reforms in these areas are urgently needed to promote food security in India.

Conclusion

Thus, food insecurity is a significant problem facing India. The problem is mainly caused by governmental controls stemming from food policy and politics. A viable way to remedy the problem is implementing data-driven systems to monitor food insecurity in India, which will help identify households facing hunger and food insecurity. Based on the information, relevant agencies and authorities who seek to curb food insecurity in the country can establish supply frameworks that will avoid existing interruptions that hinder available food from reaching the people.

Population Growth Contribution to Increased Greenhouse Gases Emission in India

Analysis of the Effects of Population Growth

A major environmental problem facing today’s world is global warming, caused by the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Notably, population growth is a significant contributor to the increasing emission of greenhouse gases. The current paper defines greenhouse gases, elucidates how they cause problems to developing countries, identifies their causes and recommends solutions to the said problem. Specifically, the paper will consider how population growth has contributed to the increased emission of greenhouse gases in India. Over the past five decades, India’s population has grown from 555.2 million to over 1.3 billion people (Population, total – India | Data). The leading causes of greenhouse gases in India are coal power plants and rice paddies, which emit carbon dioxide and methane, respectively. India should invest in low carbon energy sources and promote a shift from flooding as a rice-growing technique to direct seeding.

Read also Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Global Warming And Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse Gases Emission in India

Greenhouse gases refer to any gaseous compounds capable of absorbing infrared radiation. They include carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, surface-level ozone, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases. According to Al‐Ghussain, greenhouse gases absorb heat energy emitted from the Earth’s surface and reradiate back to the Earth’s surface (16). By trapping heat from the sun, these gases have kept the Earth habitable for humans and other numerous species through warming its temperature to ensure the survival of living organisms, a phenomenon known as the greenhouse effect (17). However, due to their increased emission into the atmosphere related to human causes, greenhouse gases are now out of balance and threaten the survival of living things on Earth owing to global warming.

Global warming refers to the gradual increase in the overall temperature of the atmosphere, mainly attributed to increased greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, global warming occurs when human activities change the Earth’s natural greenhouse effect by releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (Al‐Ghussain, 19). As per Al‐Ghussain, these gases collect in the atmosphere and absorb solar and sunlight radiation bouncing off the Earth’s surface. Under normal conditions, this radiation would escape into space, but the increased greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap the heat, causing Earth to become hotter (20-21). Greenhouse gases are, therefore, one of the leading causes of global warming. Thus, if the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere continues increasing, then the Earth faces a considerable threat related to the adverse effects of global warming.

How Emissions Cause Problems for the Developing World

Since the beginning of the global industrial revolution in the late 18th century, greenhouse gases emission due to human activities has increased increasingly. The world’s countries emit different amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Countries releasing the most greenhouse gases into the atmosphere include China, the US, India, Russia, and Japan, respectively (Ge & Friedrich, 1). The emissions pose economic, security, and political challenges, especially to developing countries such as India.

Farming is one of India’s main economic activities, with the country being one of the largest world rice exporters. Increased release of greenhouse gases has seen India’s face significant climate changes. India’s temperature, which usually is conducive for rice farming, has become too hot for the crop to yield optimally. Experts forecast that climate change will continue to reduce the overall annual rice yield by 3-5% under medium emission and up to 10% under high emission scenario (Palanisami, 2). Thus, the increased release of greenhouse gases hurts India’s economy.

Regarding security challenges, contemporary research works have established that global warming is the ultimate threat multiplier. India has not effectively absorbed or managed the shocks of changing climate associated with the release of high levels of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. As a result, it faces an increasing threat to livelihood security by negatively affecting resource availability. The challenge mainly stems from volatile food provisions and prices, increased local resource competition, and unintended adverse effects of climate change policies (Shurpali, Agarwal, & Srivastava, 13). The identified challenges facilitate livelihood insecurity.

Lastly, high levels of greenhouse gas emission pose political challenges for the formulation of policies to address the problem. In the cause of formulates and implements laws and regulations to curb the increasing level of greenhouse gases, the Indian government must ensure that these policies do not hurt economic growth. The leading emitter of greenhouse gases in India is coal-fired plants, whereby coal is the primary source of energy in this country (Shurpali, Agarwal, & Srivastava, 17). Thus, the Indian government is in a dilemma since whereas coal is the least expensive source of energy, it is also the leading cause of its environmental pollution predicaments.

Read also Climatic Change Management – A Global Issue Where Shared Responsibility for Common Good is not Being Realized

Causes of Greenhouse Gases and Solutions to the Problems Greenhouse Gases Cause in India

There exist many causes of greenhouse gases, and all have varying degrees of impact on global warming. The two leading causes of greenhouse gases in India are coal power plants and rice paddies (The Carbon Brief Profile: India). In India, coal-fired power plants emit tons of carbon dioxide, rendering them the leading greenhouse gas emitters. India is known for its large rice paddle firms, with rice being its main cash crop. Rice paddies emit methane resulting from anoxic soil; flooded soil trap large quantities of methane, which later escapes into the atmosphere during tillage, weeding, harrowing, and transplanting (The Carbon Brief Profile: India.) Thus, carbon dioxide and methane are the most released greenhouse gases in India.

            India can utilize various measures to curb the emission of carbon dioxide and methane. Firstly, the Indian government should invest in sustainable low carbon power sources, including nuclear, wind, hydro, and solar power (Sivaram & Norris, 154-155). This will reduce its reliance on coal as its primary source of energy; hence, reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Secondly, the Indian government needs to promote a shift in the rice-growing technique from the conventional flooding approach to direct seeding. Research has shown that direct seeding is characterized by a shorter flooding period (about a month), which ensures that there is oxygen in the soil (Li et al., 126-127). The approach will help India minimize the emission of methane into the atmosphere.

              It is also worth noting that there exists a strong correlation between population control and greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple research works have confirmed that human activities are partially responsible for the increased release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere as nations strive to increase their productivity to meet the growing demand (Alam, 466). Thus, controlling population growth can help governments curb greenhouse gases emission.

Read also Land Clearing – Environmental Harm in Australia

Conclusion

The increasing release of greenhouse gases due to human activities pose a considerable threat to developing countries. Specifically, India faces economic, security, and political challenges, stemming from its high carbon dioxide and methane emission levels. The trend is related to its population, which has rapidly grown over the past five decades. The leading causes of the two greenhouse gases are coal-powered plants and rice paddies. The Indian government can invest in low carbon power sources, including hydro, wind, nuclear, and solar power to reduce carbon dioxide emission levels. The government should also promote a shift from flooding to direct seeding in rice farming to minimize methane emission. Most importantly, it should emphasize population growth control since it’s the leading cause of the increasing release of greenhouses into the atmosphere.

Servant Leadership in Diverse Contexts – Indian Cultural Context and Hinduism

The second half of the 20th century was a period characterized by numerous transformations in the manner in which leaders managed organization. It was during this era that different leadership styles were developed, chief among them being servant leadership. First proposed in 1970 by Robert Greenleaf, servant leadership is now popular globally and adheres to the principle of responsible morality through higher ideals and values (Dierendonck & Patterson, 2018). This approach represents a paradigm shift in how leaders are perceived and their role within an organization since it espouses a role reversal. Servant leadership is compatible with a majority of world religions and transcends cultures. It is, therefore, fundamental to discuss instances where servant leadership is apparent in other cultures by reviewing the Indian cultural context and Hinduism when seeking to understand its manifestation in contemporary society.

Read also MGT 410 -Principles of Servant Leadership in Diverse Contexts Sample Paper – Indian Cultural Context and Islam Religion View

Hinduism

            Hinduism is an Indian religion that is considered one of the world’s oldest faiths. It is practiced in the greater Indian subcontinent and can be traced back to the Vedic period (1500 to 500 BCE).  Hinduism is currently the most popular religion in India with close to 966 million adherents (Pew Research Center, 2019). Over the years, it has emerged as a top contender among organized religions in India, soaring above Taoism and Buddhism.  Hinduism provides clear instructions to followers with the primary aim of aiding them to control their thoughts, demeanor and the manner in which they communicate. This is achieved through shared concepts, principles, cosmology and rituals meant to guide followers to a transcendent state. The Upanishads, Mahabharata, Ramayana and Vedas are the main scriptures within the religion and regarded as sources of authority for the tradition. Hinduism endeavors to guide its followers by enabling them to develop clear goals, ethics, worship and a sense of liberation.

Read also World Religion – Hinduism – What Happens When We Die?

Similarities with Servant Leadership

            Several parallels can be drawn between the servant leadership style and the practice of Hinduism. Firstly, it is important to acknowledge that Hinduism is a deeply structured religion requiring devotees to understand and follow all requirements for leading a piteous life as outlined in governing scriptures. These basic tenets aim to ensure that adherents gain a firm understanding of their role in the scheme of life and can, therefore, transform their overall demeanor to reflect this new-found realization. Individuals are expected to remain aware of their duty on other while leading a life governed by ethics as espoused in the idea of dharma. The result is a deep appreciation of life and the process that emerged at different phases during this cycle.

Read also Servant Leadership Research and Application Paper

One of the major core beliefs is that Hindus must strive to serve others as they would expect to be served.  This is strikingly similar to servant leadership which expects persons at the helm of power to reverse roles, serving their subordinates in the same manner they expect to be served. The Bhagavad Gita is also categorical in outlining the role adherents of Hinduism in serving others (Gesteland & Gesteland, 2010, p. 65). They are, therefore, expected to be mindful of the welfare of others while also striving to adopt a selfless approach in life. This corresponds to servant leadership where the welfare of others always takes precedence. Furthermore, Hinduism also encourages service to humanity as opposed to focusing on one’s own pleasures. Servant leadership requires individuals to be caring and sensitive to the needs of others.  This eventually ensures that leaders concentrate on their employee’s happiness as a path to productivity.

Differences with Servant Leadership

            Although similarities exist between Hinduism and servant leadership, glaring differences are also present between the two. The most evident difference is the framework through which they are implemented. In Hinduism, servant leadership is outlined as a basic tenet within the religion. Adherents are required to actively pursue this particular end of they are to make any progress in their religious life. It is almost as though they are commanded by sages and deities to employ this principle in their lives as a way of being assured of a worthwhile experience in the afterlife. They, therefore, apply it in their lives as a religious duty as opposed to personal obligation.  Additionally, servant leadership is viewed within a higher scope in the Hindu context when exploring service, trust, and altruism. The presence of a higher score for the aforementioned variables often means that individuals always remain aware of their actions and accompanying karmic consequences. In performing their duties, Hindus expect a form of reward for their actions.  Servant leadership presents a divergent perspective where rewards are not expected for performing a good deed within an organization.

Read also Concept of Servant Leadership and The Difference Between Servant Leadership and Transformational Leadership

Indian Culture

            India has one of the most vibrant cultures in the world. It consists of a myriad shared attitudes, customary beliefs and social practices that have been honed over millennia.  Hinduism also plays a major role in the culture through the development of succinct cultural systems that guide the general population in everyday life. Religion dominates and informs the Indian culture and largely considered the primary reason why the society has thrived through different epochs. Servant leadership is compatible with the Indian culture owing to individual’s ability to commit within an organization while accommodating the needs of others.

Similarities with Servant Leadership

Several similarities exist between the Indian culture and servant leadership. One of the main connections is on the emphasis on voluntary subordination. Leaders are expected to voluntarily offer their services to those who may be requiring them without having been subjected to any form of duress. Theirs should be an exceptional service by putting others first and employing a practical approach when serving people. Additionally, the Indian culture and servant leadership both underscore the importance of relying on the authentic self (Gardenia T. Bulluck ACS BCH.M. M.S. ED.S., 2019).  In both instances, individuals are expected to display a high level of responsibility and humility when interacting with others. It is this particular attribute that allows them to make accurate self-estimations when serving those who may require urgent attention. Moreover, both approaches place the needs of others above the individual while stressing the importance of humility. Individuals are also advised to be patient and avoid seeking instant gratification. Long-term goals are a specific focus in Indian culture and servant leadership a base for success in everyday endeavors.

Read also Servant Leadership Research Annotated Bibliography

Differences with Servant Leadership

            A few differences exist between the Indian culture and servant leadership. The primary differences between the two are the stipulations present within both contexts.  For instance, the Indian culture adheres to the laws of Samsara and Dharma which describe life in detail and the role of each individual within the wider scheme of things. It describes the process present in life and the code of living that should be adopted to ensure that each individual was responsible for their actions. The Indian culture is focused on the self and the liberation individuals can find when serving others (Knott, 2016). Conversely, servant leadership is preoccupied with humbling oneself in a flexible manner that allows individuals to adopt a new mindset to aid in the improvement of relationships shared with employees and the entire organization. Servant leadership permits individuals to stray from established tenets as long as they do so for the benefit of others.  

Read also An Analysis of Nordstrom and Starbuck’s Mission Statements as a Guide to Servant Leadership       

Conclusion          

            Servant leadership is a relatively new trend that has been gaining traction across the globe. It is compatible with a majority of world religions and even transcends cultures. Servant leadership within the Indian culture and Hinduism is appealing since it emphasizes the importance of always considering other individuals. Although similarities and differences exist between the two, they both provide an opportunity to serve and improve the condition of others.

Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India And Greece

The sculptures of ancient India and Greece depict the cultural myths and gods of the two societies. However, the style of depiction were different between the two societies. For example, ancient India preferred simplistic approach with beautiful paintings as well as unglazed pottery. On the hand, ancient Greece preferred red-figured pottery style with black backgrounds which was created through firing in the kiln (Shukla, 2014). Another difference that was quite conspicuous was the emphasis on sports in the sculptures by the ancient Greek, something that was lacking in the ancient Indians. The ancient Greeks made their sculptures to depict sporting activities such as Olympic Games as well as gods and goddesses, animals and royalty. In addition, ancient Greek used their pottery to depict everyday life, myths, and stories including sports as well.

Read also A Comparison of Classical and Hellenistic Age Sculptures

            On the hand, ancient India use sculptures to depict people dancing, Buddha, Kings gods and goddesses. In the Indian society, sculpture dates back to Maurya dynasty which was the first Indian empire. The sculptors of that time carved the sculptures to depict scenes and characters about the stories that interconnect the three Indian religious: Jainism, Buddhism and Hinduism (Mosteller, 2013). The other unique feature with ancient India sculpture was the frontal presented that tend to looked like the figures were posing for the camera. From the beginning, ancient Indian sculpture depicted strong and abiding images such as completely nude women with exposed full breast and striking athletic pose.

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            Additionally, the ancient Indian sculpture bears an elegant themes and designs that depicts the lifestyle. This means that ancient Indian sculpture primarily depicts the human form and realistic nature that resembles the surrounding (Benay, & Rafanelli, 2014). Most of the ancient Indian sculptures dug out in the construction sides and cities composed of few statuettes of bronze and stone, seals carved with animals, steatite, soapstone, terra-cotta objects and small pieces. The terracotta figurines were designed and provided with elaborate jewelry.

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            The ancient Indian sculpture took a different twist during the 3rd century BC, when Mauryan Emperor Ashoka decided to practice Buddhism faith. As a result, he committed to spread the teachings of the Buddhism faith. He instructed for the construction of the 85,000 stupas and dome-shaped monuments engraved with Buddhism teachings mounted on the pillars and rocks (Shukla, 2014). Some of these monuments carrying Buddhism inscriptions could be seen in Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Gujarat. It is important to note that the lion capital was not the official Indian Republic emblem, but the scared wheels of law also known as dharmackhakra symbolized the first sermon that Buddha delivered at Sarnath.

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            Unlike the ancient Indian sculpture, the Greece’s art was characterized by innovation founded on the western tradition in both sculpture and painting. The key features associated with classical Greek art was the heroic realism. The Greece sculptures and painters attempted to depict the human body in repose and movement as it exactly appears to the naked eye (Benay, & Rafanelli, 2014). Further analysis indicated that sculptures and painters put more emphasis on high moments, noble drama and unusual beauty. It is clear that the Greece painters and sculptors had technical ability to turn familiar appearance of things and change into any subject.

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            Between 800 and 300 BCE, ancient Greek sculptures was inspired by conglomeration of the near eastern monumental and Egyptian art. However, over the century the Greek art has evolved and adopted the Greek vision which was unique art form. As the Greek art transformed, the artist were able to move and capture the feelings of the audiences thus reaching the peak (Shukla, 2014). This was period where the Greek sculpture and other art forms was enormously copied around the world. The Greek sculptors captured the attention of the world by perfectly idealizing the human body, poise and proportion and carve them on the bronze and stone.

            Comprehensive analysis indicated that between the period 600 and 300 BCE, both ancient India and Greece sculptures had shared ideas. For example, monism is the universal ideal that is considered to be unitary inner self that drives the understanding of the world (Shukla, 2014). The other similarity between the Indian and Greek sculpture was the Indo-European heritage. The shared ideas that resulted through Indo-European heritage was brought about by the interaction between these two society and the European. Indo-European heritage facilitated the diffusion of cultural models between different societies.

For example, before Indo-European heritage, Buddhists was symbolized by only the Wheel of the Law, empty throne, his umbrella and footprints. When fusion of Indian and Greek art culture originated from south Hindu Kush (Shukla, 2014). The Greek Hellenistic sculptors as well as the painters entered the Gandhara region Through Central Asian trade routes where they established their workshops. Although they maintain the Hellenistic models, they were forced to use locally available materials and also change the art form in order to appeal for the local population. In conclusion, the ancient Indian and Greece sculpture has been regarded to depict highly respected wisdom during the Hellenistic age. Despite the fact that the two ancient art form differed significantly in ideas and concept, the sculpture and painting depicted the reality of the surrounding.

Taino Indians – Native Indians Of Puerto Rico

Taino Indians are a subgroup of the lager group of Indians known as Arawakan who lived in the north eastern part of North America. The Taino Indians settled in Puerto Rico as well as the Greater Antilles during the period of Christopher Columbus’ arrival (Crosby, 47). The settlement of Taino Indians in Puerto Rico was as a result of their desire to depart from other groups forming the larger Arakawan Indians in North Eastern part of South America and venture into the new lands of Puerto Rico. There Choice to settle in Puerto Rico led them to encounter several other communities with diverse cultural background, economic activities as well as religious beliefs. Their settlement in Puerto Rico, therefore, had a general influence on the economic, Socio cultural and religious way of life of the people they resided with in Puerto Rico. Moreover they had things to learn from the locals of Puerto Rico. This led to a cross cultural exchange of beliefs and ideologies among the various communities (Córdova, 1990).

The Reawakens, who initially included the Taino Indians, are believed to have their origin from a village called Saladero located in Venezuela. They migrated, passing through the Caribbean at around 900 BC and settled within the Greater Antilles (Schimmer, 65). With the passage of time, a section of the Reawakens developed a distinct culture that was different in all aspects from the original culture of the Arawakan people as well as the Lesser Antilles and the Fierce Caribs. This group of the Reawakens later came to be known as the Tainos. The Taino Indians then moved into Puerto Rico as well as the Greater Antilles during the period of Christopher Columbus’ arrival (Saunders, 2005).

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The Taino Indians did not live in isolation but encountered other neighboring communities in Puerto Rico such as the Carib tribes as well as the immigrant Spaniards who came in later on to colonize them (Miguel, 171). The Carib tribes were, for a long time, enemies of Taino Indians. During their stay in Puerto Rico, they also encountered the Spaniards who came in an attempt to colonize them. They were faced with great intimidation from the Spaniards who wanted to colonize them against their wish. These intimidations went as far as sexually molesting the Taino Indians’ women. In addition, they were required to pay tax to the Spaniards in form of gold or spun cotton. Those who failed to comply had their hands cut off and they bled to death. Moreover, the Taino encountered infections in Puerto Rico to which they had neither immunity nor capacity to cure. Smallpox outbreak in 1518, for instance, led to the death of about 90% of the population (Madrigal, 121). They further encountered colonialism from the Spaniards in Puerto Rico.   

This notwithstanding, the Taino Indians made several exchanges with the neighboring communities as well as the immigrant Spaniards. The Spaniards, for instance, took their women as wives. These inter marriages led to cultural exchanges among the two communities. The Christianity for instance started being appreciated by some of the Taino Indians as a result as a result of such intermarriages. It is worth noting that the Taino Indians were originally ancestral worshippers (Traboulay, 47). Moreover a new interbreeds between the Taino Indians and the Spaniards arose. Mesta’s children arose from this cross cultural marriages. Substantial cultural exchange was also witnessed in Cuba (Watts, 2003).

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The Tiano language was also copied by several other neighboring communities. Many carrib women, for instance started speaking Tiano having leant the language from the Tiano Women who had been taken as captives by the neighboring Carib tribes who constantly raided them.

It is worth noting as well that Taino Indians culture and way of life become the most prominent in Puerto Rico. Most of the other communities learnt hunting skills as well as agriculture from Taino Indians. Foods such as potatoes, cassavas, mamey, garlic, Onan and quava that were originally eaten by the Taino Indians become common among all the communities in Puerto Rico. Places were further named in Tiano. Towns such as Mayanguez, Humacoa, Caguas as well as Utuado still use Tiani names to date (Sale, 2014).

European settlers also copied Tiano techniques and implements such as hamaca (hammock), Bohio (straw house) as well as Maracas (a Tiano musical instrument). They further learnt how to prepare and eat Tiano meals such as Cassava bread. Taino Indians influenced the Puerto Rican language and vocabulary to a large extends and many of their words have remained in Puerto Rican vocabulary to date (Aikhenvald, 7). In addition many Tiani superstition were adopted by all the communities in the Puerto Rica and influenced their way of life to a large extend. In conclusion, the separation of the Tiano from the rest of the Reawakens and their subsequent settlement in Puerto Rica had a great impact not only to them but also to the neighboring community in Puerto Rico.  Their desire to explore new lands landed them in Puerto Rica. They however, encountered both positive and negative effects from the neighboring communities. Negative effects included diseases, colonization among other. Positive effects included cross cultural interactions and benefits that come with such interactions.

Social and Business Elements of India

Subsidiary Country- India

The recent announcement by MTE Corporation regarding its significant expansion is a business strategy which aims to improve its footprint across the globe. To fulfill this objective, the company will acquire faltering domestic companies from a number of localities and may soon become the largest foreign-owned entity across Asia Pacific. India has been selected for this expansion. The following is a summary of the social and business elements and the competencies necessary to work and manage effectively in this environment.

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Demographics of the People and Society

            India is the second most populous nation in the world. As of 2019, its population stands at 1.4 billion and projected to surpass China in the near future (World Population Review, 2019).  The presence of an elaborate healthcare system and a low infant mortality rates were cited as some of the primary reasons why India’s population has been experiencing a steady growth since the early 1980s.

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Government

            India is one of the last remaining true democracies in South East Asia. Its federal government is a unitary administration established by the constitution of India to supervise the eight states in the democratic republic.  India adheres to the basic legislature, executive and judiciary structure of government with the president serving as the commander in chief and the prime minister the executive head. Moreover, the government has also established civil and criminal codes which govern its large population while ensuring that there is a semblance of order in the country.

Economy

            The Indian economy is one of the fastest developing markets in the region. Using its nominal GDP, purchasing power parity and per capita income, India proves to be a prospective area for international business. India’s young population is one of the main reasons why it is projected to continue growing (Banik, 2015). Furthermore, it also has a low dependency ration which increases the country’s integration into the global economy. India has also been identified as one of the most ideal environments in which to conduct business in, with its government implementing various stimulus measures to boost overall growth.  Foreign partners have also identified India as an ideal environment in which to conduct free trade agreements and conduct business in.

Communications

            India has an elaborate communication system which strives to serve its large population.  It includes telegraph services, postal system, broadcasting and the prevailing information services. The country’s postal system network is the largest in the world, encompassing tribal and rural areas. Recent advances in technology have also been applied in the area of communications in India where computerized systems are now applied when conducting the postal operations in the country. The presence of a Hybrid Mail Service and an extensive business channel make it possible to introduce important developments in the sector which ultimately benefit its general population. Moreover, the communication sector in India strives to provide cost-efficient services using high-speed computer networking for businesses.

Education

            The government of India lays great emphasis on the provision of education in the country. Public schools are a common hallmark of the education system in India which is usually free and compulsory for children between 6 and 14 years of age (Dash, 2014). India’s progress in education now makes it one of the most educated countries in South East Asia which also contributes to its economy. Additionally, the government has also expressed its willingness to provide this inalienable right to rural children who would otherwise have remained without any hope of advancing in the existing societal strata. To achieve its objective of having an educated population, the government of India focuses on high enrollment numbers while providing high quality education which will ultimately assure them of success.

Analysis of how Ethnicity, Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, National Origin, and Disability Impact Aforementioned Business Elements

            India is an ethnically diverse nation with close to two thousand ethnic groups. The implementation of its affirmative action has improved the condition of historically disadvantaged groups, particularly those from scheduled castes. The government now insists on the adoption of an all-inclusive system for all  ethnicities, races, and regardless of gender as an initiative aimed a propelling  India to a new age. Although national origin and disability are not major issues of concern, sexual orientation is still a contentious issue in Indian society. Heterosexuality is readily accepted in Indian culture and largely viewed as the only acceptable sexual orientation. Anything contrary to this is shunned and may pose an existential challenge to any company embracing this type of policy.

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Competencies Necessary to Work and Manage Effectively in this Environment

For MTE Corporation to function at optimum level in India, several competencies are required to ensure that the firm manages effectively in this environment.  The company needs to ensure that its employees in the Indian hinterland are supervised appropriately during this transition period.  This new environment may prove to be sensitive which is why it is imperative to remain aware of all the different dynamics that exist. The company’s executives must also be ready to resolve any conflict that may emerge between its representatives and native employees.  They will also be required to manage performance in this new frontier as a way of making sure that sufficient progress is made in this new environment.

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Germany And India Differing Governmental Institutions

Choose two democratic foreign nations with differing governmental institutions and answer the following questions.

  1. How is each nation’s legislature, executive, and high court/judicial system structured (presidential vs. parliamentary executive, bicameral vs. unicameral legislature, adversarial vs. inquisitorial judicial system, etc.)?  How does each institution function?
  2. How is power divided within or between each institution?  What kinds of powers does each institution have within the nation’s governmental structure?
  3. How are the members of each institution elected and/or appointed?  How much influence does public opinion/vote have on each institution?

Comparative Analysis of Differing Government Institutions – Germany And India

 Government institutions provide a semblance of order for countries seeking to fulfill their administrative duties. They have been honed over extend periods to develop approaches that work and suited for a culture in a specific jurisdiction. This comparative analysis will focus on Germany and India, two democratic nations with different governmental institutions.

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Germany

            The Federal Republic of Germany is a sovereign European nation comprising 16 constituent states. It is a paragon of democracy in its western-central location, with its seat of power located in the capital Berlin. It adheres to the principles of a federal parliamentary republic in establishing government institutions for administrative purposes

Legislature

            Germany’s legislature comprises of a bicameral parliament; the lower (Bundestag) and upper house (Bundesrat). Both houses have sweeping powers that allow them to discuss and initiate crucial bills before final approval. The federal government is responsible for introducing the bills for review, which allows the two houses to collaborate in the appraisal process. Differences are resolved by the Joint Conference Committee, which strives to ensure that both houses liaise when conducting legislative duties (Johnson, 2013, p. 62). The Bundestag is responsible for legal programs and checking executive power.  On the other hand, the Bundesrat holds subordinate legal authority but strives to serve administrative roles. Members are elected by the electorate, which is also why public opinion weighs heavily on members.

Executive

            The Federal President of Germany is the de facto head of the country and the executive wing of government. Political matters and handled by the Federal Chancellor, who makes most of the public appearances and functions as the face of the government. The Federal President is responsible for providing the government with a sense of direction and guides political debates as they relate to the governing party.  The Federal Chancellor is the head of government and elected by the lower House of Representatives (Bundestag). The country’s parliamentary system stipulates that a Federal Chancellor enjoys security of tenure and cannot be removed from their position before the end of a four-year term. Although public opinion matters to both the Federal President and Chancellor, both offices deal with fundamental matters of governance and have the last say on contentious issues.

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Judicial System Structure

 The structure of the judicial system in Germany is steeped in its rich civil law tradition. It encompasses a three-court system; ordinary, specialized and constitutional courts. They all enjoy the judiciary’s independence that underscores the importance of the rule of law in governance. The German judiciary emphasizes the importance of equality in governance, where the executive allows citizens to participate in amending statutes. Principles of Roman law define this judicial system with clear codes that guide abstract legal standards (Johnson, 2013). Judges are not appointed from a list of qualified attorneys, as is typically the case in most countries but required to follow a specific career path before being confirmed by a superior judicial council. The complex nature of this arm of government means that it is now swayed by public opinion but depends heavily upon the interpretation of the law to draw legal conclusions.

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 India

            The Republic of India is one of the last remaining true democracies in South East Asia. It adheres to federalism in an attempt to distribute legal authority in the country. The federal structure is enshrined in the Constitution of India and a model for other countries in the region.

Legislature

 The Parliament of India is the institution tasked with legislation in India. It is bicameral, with two main houses; the Council of States (Sabha) and the House of the People (Lok Sabha). The legislature is headed by the President who can summon, prorogue or dissolve either house upon consulting with the Union Council of Ministers.  The President also has the power to appoint and nominate Members of Parliament (MPs) to both houses to ensure that critical laws are passed on time. The citizens elect members of the lower house (Lok Sabha) during election time, which is why public opinion is taken seriously within the legislature. The upper house (Rajya Sabha) cannot be dissolved by the President and made up of members elected to state legislative bodies.

Executive

 Administration in India is the sole responsibility of the executive arm of government. It also oversees state bureaucracy and headed by the President of India. The President exercises his mandate by following the Prime Minister’s advice as spelt out in Article 74 of the constitution (Chakrabarty & Pandey, 2015, p. 87). The Electoral College elects the President, who then proceeds to appoint high officials to serve under various capacities.  As the de jure head of state, the President is independent in his opinion on national matters and supported in his role by the vice president. The Prime Minister serves as an adviser and the leader of the majority in parliament and appointed by the President. Additionally, the Prime Minister headed the cabinet and supported in his role by the Cabinet Secretary. The nature of this arrangement means that public opinion rarely influences this structure, although criticism is often taken under consideration. 

Judiciary

The judicial system in India is headed by the Chief Justice, who is at the helm of the Supreme Court.  It consists of 30 justices who are appointed by the President and make all relevant rulings devoid of advice from the jury (Ghosh, 2014). The judicial system adheres to a unitary system headed by the Supreme Court. An appeal court listens to verdicts by other state courts and issues a final pronouncement on cases. The Supreme Court is also tasked with making certain that it enforces the fundamental rights of all Indian citizens. Public opinion cannot sway decisions made by the judiciary since it is responsible for interpreting the law.

This War is for a Whole Life – The Culture of Resistance among Southern California Indians, 1850-1966 – Book Review

A Brief Summary of the Book

            The book highlights the controversy that touched on the freedom of the American-Indian occurred because of the cold war involving the two races (Hanks, 2006). The main concern was the termination of the foreign land and values trust protections. The actual main concern was based on the idea of the ‘no middle ground is tenable’. The legal and contact procedures ought to be the limelight more so on the work possibilities and political temperatures that would result in tension between the Americans and Indians. The major element of unity was acceptance to work with the Indians and equality among the people. In addition, the risks and dangers that touched on the issues of the assimilation of the Indians to a civilized group created many tensions.

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            Furthermore, the book asserts that the most dominant and civilized group had to embrace and accept the proliferation of the Indians into California, South of America. The book points the difficulty of the acceptance of the Indians due to the difference in the culture and general ways of life between the two groups. An excellent example was the Pratt’s motto that asserted ‘kill the Indian, save the man’, that was discouraging and charming, becoming a part of the Indian federal policy. The following are the discussions and analysis the book chapters, as they appear in the book.

Chapter One

            The chapter discusses the reforms of activism as a vital response regarding the Indian reorganization act. The chapter gives an analysis regarding the introduction as well as the implementation of the reorganization act. Furthermore, the chapter discusses how the Indians could survive in California under the act. It also gives an overview of the conflicts in the Southern California Indian country, which resulted from the political and tribal bands. The chapter is very important in creating the understanding of the reader about the whole process of political termination in 1950s. The manipulation that took place in the Indian office gave rise to the government distrust especially in the government agency.

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            The benefits of the Indian reorganization act had an equal impact on the on and off individuals, who were on the reservations in the country. Similarly, when the communism and socialism was allowed within the Indian country, it led to widespread criticism towards the IRA, making it political thus prompting high impacts. Between 1930s and 1940s as the American focused more on ending depression and the beginning of the Second World War, the problem of the Indians went towards the periphery.

Chapter Two

            The chapter of the book gives an analysis of the termination period that was taken as a potential and viable alternative after the new reforms that came courtesy of the activism. In addition, the chapter also focused on the entry into the Second World War as pointed in the previous chapter. The chapter indicates that the Second World War fueled political temperatures and led to the elimination of the Indian bureau. The effect was the likely creation of the division of the governance, harmonious relationships and unity that the bureau that would bring among the Indian-American country. As a way of enhancing the objective, the American government transferred the Indian office of home affairs to the Chicago to pave way for the Second World War operations. Furthermore, that had an added objective of reducing the significance of the well-being of Indian-American towards the periphery.

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            Moreover, the Indians continued to exercise the fight against the discriminatory practices that were championed and facilitated by the federal, local and state governments in the United States. They also fought the steps that were taken by the pro-terminationists in eliminating the protection within the federal government and disbanding of the BIA.  Besides, the chapter gives an explanation on the changes that were experienced and occurred which the mission Indians pursued into looking that the federal government fully dealt with the issues.

Chapter Three

            In chapter three, there is an intensified termination, while the mission of Indian activism receives higher rejection at home and in the congress. The main issue is whether the policy could get full support from the compact majorities and its applicability. The chapter gives a detailed analysis of the impact that activism could bring on the grass roots, judging from the mission of the Indian community. Besides, the chapter also analyses the potentials of activism based on the pro-termination groups, the spokespersons and the anti-termination groups, which were formed to control the termination process and the loose tribal lands.

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            In addition, the higher degrees of hypocrisy placed the termination process under siege. This prevented the mission Indians from exercising free and fair election of their representatives, who would aid in the process of termination. The events create a contrast with the concepts of freedom and emancipation as alluded by the BIA commissioner (Myer) and congress representatives. The scenes are a revelation of Myer’s pretense on the dynamic way of operations as adopted by the congress representatives.

            Finally, the chapter highlights the efforts by the Mission Indians in using all means in order to shade some light on their problems to the non-Indian population. In contrast, their efforts did not receive public scrutiny and made it hard to compromise the termination process. However, the congress passed a resolution in 1953s, which ordered the termination of the California-Indian reservations. Besides, upon the termination act, the eliminations of the Indian law resurfaced when the public law 280 was formalized.

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Chapter Four

            The chapter provides an analysis of the public law as stated in the previous chapter of the book. In addition, the chapter provides an analysis on how the house concurrent resolution 180 facilitated the elimination of the reservations of the Indian-Americans in California. The main arguments in the chapter relate much on the explanations of the ways in which the spokespersons and community groups facilitated the barring of the termination process.

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            The tireless efforts of the community groups and spokespersons were evident as the mission Indians thrived in their push for the tribal land. The community spokespersons showed their disagreement with the conclusion of the congress regarding the termination process, since they believed that it could destroy and strongly affect the well-being of Indian-Americans, who lived in the southern California.   As a result, they employed all forms of communications in order to convince the government regarding the consequences and impacts that could result from their conclusions on the termination process.

Chapter Five

            In chapter five, the fight against the termination process continues and the major problem was the next move after all the events highlighted in the preceding chapters. This chapter elaborates the role of the federal and fiscal governments in dispensation of power and in maintaining the well-being of the state. In fact, after a compromise between the mission Indians in Southern California and their allies concerning the termination process, the state government intervened. In fact, when the house passed the concurrent resolution 108, the state of California was fully in charge of the Indian problem. It dug deeper on the pertinent ways ensuring the prevalence of peace and unity among the white settlers and Indians of the Southern California.  Based on the outcomes of the termination process, the state of California was presented with a chance to assess, synchronize and evaluate the impacts of the process within the Southern Californian state. In 1953, the termination process led to development of a summit hearing where the south and north California convened to discuss the matter.

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            The ramifications of the termination process were the likely loss of the federal protection and money that would champion and facilitate the well-being of the societal demands and communism. The federal government delayed the termination process based on the fundamentals of doubts it had over the process. Therefore, the anti-termination groups prevailed in ensuring the process scuttled. In order to ensure the success of their move, they opposed and barred the government from implementing the house concurrent resolution 108. The house concurrent resolution 108 was meant to speed up the termination process. In the end, the mission Indians were successful in their efforts to stop the termination process.

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Overall Analysis of the Major Historical Events Discussed In the Book

The book gives a critical and in-depth analysis of the plight of mission Indians in Southern California. The chapters offer a systematic analysis of the way the problem of the Mission Indians escalated from a community problem to a Californian problem. When the problem became part of the state, it warranted an intervention for the well-being of the whole population regardless of the race or tribe. The success of the termination process restored a sense of unity for the Californian state, which was in a mess. Besides, the unity of the people was instrumental in pushing for the end of discriminatory practices that were prevalent in the state.