Women’s Roles in Science – Research Paper

From medieval times, women have played considerable scientific roles. Diverse historians with research interests in science along with gender focus on women’s scientific attainments and endeavors. As well, the historians concentrate on the challenges faced by women in pursuing the endeavors. The sociological, critical, as well as historical, consideration of the challenges is now an established academic discipline (Greenstadt, 2010; Whaley, 2003). There are records of women’s involvement in science stretching from the times of several early civilizations, including medieval Egypt. Merit-Ptah is the earliest recognized female physician, or scientist, globally. In about 2700 BC, she was the chief physician of medieval Egypt. Over time, women have had increasing roles in the advancement of scientific research as well as development. Even then, their scientific contributions only started getting ample recognition in the latter decades of the 20th century. Regardless of the challenges female scientists face even in contemporary times, more and more of them are venturing into science (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). This paper explores the roles played by females in science, particularly in the 18th century and in contemporary times.

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Women’s Roles in 18th Century’s Scientific Revolution

For the most part of the 18th century, there were three general perspectives regarding women. First, women were taken as socially, as well as intellectually, subservient to men. Second, women and men were seen as different while equal. Third, women and men were viewed as potentially having equal intellectual abilities (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other Jacobin Club philosophers appeared convinced that all women’s functions were restricted to serving men and motherhood. Even then, the Enlightenment era saw the scientific roles of women expand significantly. Notably, Rousseau’s political persuasions and philosophy led to the general evolution of the contemporary educational, sociological, as well as political, thought (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993).

The development of the European salon culture saw the rise of platforms where women met men to debate, as well as discuss, contemporary scientific along with socio-political subjects. They met in inspiring salon settings to enhance their collective scientific proficiency via conversations. Notably, Italians invented the settings in mid-16th century. In the 18th century, the culture flourished across France. Women developed salon etiquette rules to guide the conversations (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). Such rules took after the earlier Italian chivalry codes. Rousseau criticized the salons, especially the ones dominated by women, as generating men who were evidently effeminate. He asserted that such men stifled objective scientific discourse. Even then, more and more men continued to frequent the salons. The salons enabled women to have increasing influence on philosophy, mathematics, botany as well as physics (Whaley, 2003).

In mid-18th century, the growing role of female scientists was recognized by the then leading scientific academies, including the RSAS (Royal Swedish Academy of Science). The RSAS inducted the first female scientist, Eva Ekeblad, in early 1748 (Whaley, 2003). Notably, the RSAS had in the preceding seven years published the first female historian, Charlotta Frölich (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). In its entire history, the RSAS has remained a non-governmental and autonomous scientific organization. It promotes mathematics and natural sciences. It focuses on knowledge that is practically helpful (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003).

Sibylla Maria Merian founded contemporary zoology along with botany. She explored nature keenly, recording her observations in a diary-like study book. Natural philosophy stemmed from her recorded observations and investigations. In her publications, Merian catalogued insect and plant lives using imagery (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). Following the demise of her husband, she moved to Paramaribo where she studied the amphibians, birds, reptiles, and insects inhabiting the area.

Given that the majority of scientific studies and experiments happened at home, many women, including Pierrette Marie-Anne Paulze, assisted their spouses and other family members perform them. Paulze assisted her husband, Antoine Lavoisier, in his domestic laboratory. Lavoisier is credited with oxygen’s discovery. Paulze was a prolific English speaker (Whaley, 2003). She helped translate Lavoisier’s communications with English-speaking chemists. She helped translate one of Richard Kirwan’s most controversial essays on heat’s nature in reactions between various chemicals. As well, she helped Lavoisier draw diagrams for his publications (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). She had an inspiring salon and extensive conversations with France-based naturalists along with scientists.

Even though women registered considerable scientific attainments in the 18th century, most of them were dissuaded by their communities from studying plant reproduction. Carl Linnaeus developed a plant categorization system hinged on sexual attributes. The system increased communities’ focus on botanical decadence (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Communities were afraid that female scientists would get dishonorable knowledge from the examples set by nature. Communities projected women as intrinsically unable to reason objectively frequently. As well, communities projected women as intrinsically emotional generally. Women were taken as innate mothers charged with the reproduction of moral and natural societies frequently.

Notably, such definitions of women did not dim the scientific endeavors of some female scientists, including Lady Wortley Mary Montagu (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Montagu was a prolific author. She observed the inoculation of smallpox, variolation, keenly while on an ambassadorial visit to the then extensive Ottoman Empire (Whaley, 2003). She recorded her observations and feelings about the variolation comprehensively before returning to England, where she pioneered it. Variolation entails the usage of live viruses of smallpox drawn from the blisters on the bodies of patients with mild smallpox infections (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). The viruses were transported in nutshells. Notably, as a scientist, Montagu defied several of the then established conventions and characterizations regarding female scientists. She passionately promoted variolation in her home country against marked resistance from the then established medics. The medics were opposed to variolation since they deemed it to be an Oriental invention (Greenstadt, 2010; Whaley, 2003).

Women made considerable strides as scientific scholars in the 18th century. Laura Bassi was the foremost women to be granted professorship. She was an active member of the well-regarded IAIS (Italian Academy of the Institute of Sciences). As well, she chaired the IEP (Institute of Experimental Physics) for a considerable duration (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Other leading female scientific scholars in the century were Margaret Cavendish along with Caroline Herschel. Herschel made various astronomical discoveries, including several comets, in own research works as well as William Herschel’s assistant. King George III offered her a scientific office role. In mid-1798, she became the foremost woman to present a scientific paper to the then male-dominated Royal Society (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993).

Cavendish wrote lengthily about philosophy, nature, as well as science, to promote the interest of women in scientific discourse. She criticized various scientific applications, including microscopes and animal tests, as flawed (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). The subjects featuring in her writings commonly included Aristotelianism, scientific methods, philosophy, gender, manners, power, and romance. Even though gender-linked roles were markedly characterized within the century, female scientists experienced and realized considerable scientific attainments. They made considerable progress towards gender-linked equality among scientists. Such equality is now quite evident in the world of science (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993).

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Women’s Roles in Modern Science 

In present times, women are getting ample recognition for the contributions they make to science (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). Following the Second World War, many of the challenges that female scientists faced priory disappeared. Out of inevitability, or necessity, women rose to scientific positions that were seen as the preserve of men traditionally. The majority of such positions rely on technological and scientific abilities. Following the war, the feminist movement led to the increased societal approval of females into the positions. For instance, in 2009, Baroness Greenfield got an appointment to the position of the Royal Institution’s director. The institution serves and promotes various scientific interests.

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Women have made significant progress in fighting the stereotypes that limit their access to scholarships made for promising, young scientists (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). They have fought the stereotypes significantly by ensuring that as many of them as possible populate the panels that award the scholarships. The women in the panels project female applicants for the scholarships as confident and decisive as the male applicants. That has seen more and more females move into science in recent years. In countries like the UK, girls often outperform boys in science tests. Female-dominated organizations like WISE and global firms like the L’Oreal-UNESCO’s FWS (For Women in Science) encourage girls to view science as a field where they can excel as much as the boys. The FWS rewards females who register exceptional attainments in science.

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Women play considerable functions in promoting science and related research online. Online resources have afforded women a stronger public influence on science. Female bloggers like Christie Wilcox, Karen Vancampenhout, and Jennifer Rohn, who focus on scientific subjects, help shape the general direction of scientific research in present times. The media as well helps shape the general direction of scientific research in present times. Female media personalities like Sheril Kirshenbaum, who focuses on scientific subjects, now influence the direction significantly. They help set the overall agenda for scientific studies along with researches. There are many scientific researches that are driven by women presently. As well, there are more women partnering with males in scientific researches than in the past years.


This paper has explored the roles played by females in science, particularly in the 18th century and in current times. Historians with research interests in science along with gender have zero in on women’s scientific attainments. For the most part of the 18th century, women were taken as socially, as well as intellectually, second-rate to men. Even the, the salons the women put up allowed them increased influence on scientific developments. Many women assisted their spouses execute various scientific experiments at home. Women made considerable progress towards gender-linked equality among scientists. Such equality is now apparent. In present times, women are getting ample recognition for the contributions they make to science. Women play considerable functions in promoting science and related research online. Female bloggers and media personalities focusing on scientific subjects help shape the general direction of scientific research in present times.

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Beyonce For Women in Western Music

Beyonce Knowles is among the most famous African American artists of the 21st century. Her performances are iconic, and her albums have earned numerous awards. In 2001, Beyonce made her first Grammy stage debut with the “Destiny’s Child” at the 43rd Grammys. She is the most-nominated female artist in the history of Grammy with a whooping 62 career nominations (Recording Academy Grammy Awards 2020). Beyonce has grown from being a media product to a popular black feminist of the present day. Some scholars acknowledge the effect and importance of Beyonce’s feminism. She has been connected to the idea of sexuality, and many people regard Beyonce as one of the few African American female artists who directly talk about sexuality in her songs and live performances. Most of Beyonce’s performances and music initiate a dialogue on Black heritage, which triggers Black Americans to examine Black Power and civil rights. For all the women taking part in Western music, Beyonce is recognized as a reckoning force that has developed a platform of creating a sense of self-empowerment among African Americans by voicing their dissatisfactions.

            For a long time, Beyonce has been regarded as the link between post-feminism, black femininity, and the black female body. According to Bennett (2014), the concept of femininity is associated with female sexuality. In her music video “Baby Boy,” Beyonce explores femininity and race, which are the key issues affecting the contemporary Black community. In her song “Hold Up,” she addresses the hegemonic slavery images of southern urban dilapidation and the Antebellum South, indicating the complexity of black heritage, culture, and life in general. While “Hold Up” did not earn her a Grammy for Best Pop Solo performance, she won a Grammy for the Best music video for “formation.”

            In “Jackson Five,” Beyonce claims that while the iconic Michael Jackson was rejected with plastic surgery, she resonates with African attributes as pleasing rather than hereditary shame. While she accepts the influence of her Louisiana Creole heritage, she proudly claims the Texas negro heritage hence subduing the conventional notions of European complexion as the standard (Dunbar, 2020).  This complex Black American and heterogenous identity make Beyonce the enviably sexy woman the world perceives simply as B.

            In Beyonce’s masterpiece “Lemonade,” she embraces her desirability of rd. African American femaleness. In the song of the song, Beyonce empowers the audience by dancing in a drained pool in black women, disclosing grey leotards, and wearing natural hair. The scene portrays Beyonce around other black women whose dance movement shares the message, “This is who I am, this is who motivates me, this is the person I identify with.” Contrary to Beyonce’s perception in the video, people worldwide regard women of color embrace their ability and physicality to arouse the internet platforms. This implies that the rhetorical and visual demonstration of black femaleness is empowering women throughout the world and is sexually desirable by many globally.

            In her acceptance speech for garnering the Best Urban Contemporary Album, Beyonce explained the goal behind the composition of “Lemonade.” She notes that her intention for creating the album was to build a series of work that would voice the struggles, pain, history, and darkness we go through in our daily lives. she adds that it was a body of work fit for confronting challenges that make us uncomfortable. Beyonce argues that through her songs, she wants to create images for her children that will reflect their beauty to understand the world where they live. The children must look through the mirror first via their families, the news, the Super Bowl, the Grammy, the Olympics, and the White House and see themselves as great people. “My children should not doubt that they are capable, intelligent, and beautiful.” Beyonce says that this is something she wants for children of all races, and she feels it is crucial to learn from past mistakes and come up with sound resolutions (npr music 2020).

            We can see that Beyonce is beyond an ordinary artist but a feminist who reiterates her purpose to reflect images that display beauty for future generations of the world (Weidhase, 2015). However, for anyone to understand black female sexual empowerment, one must learn about an array of black facial elements and skin tones portrayed in her videos and performances. Visually and lyrically, “Lemonade” addresses the contemporary issues affecting the black femaleness that women in various cultures accept. For instance, British Adele, Beyonce’s great fan and the winner of the year’s album, acknowledged that Beyonce deserved the trophy due to the influence, inspiration, and empowerment she gives to women worldwide. Adele, a self-proclaimed Beyonce fan, described her as light and that the way Beyonce makes her black friends feel is empowering. Beyonce makes black women in the world stand-up for themselves.            

In conclusion, Beyonce is among the greatest female artists whose intentions are creating self-awareness of African American invisibility across the American culture. Through her songs and videos, she subverts stereotypical images of black women as powerless to tackle the interest of man, the media, and society. She also dismisses the concept that black women are undesirable. In other terms, Beyonce delivers a black female-centric message of sexual empowerment and aesthetic beauty. Therefore, a win for Beyonce is a win for all women of the world. As a female artist in the Western world, Beyonce is warm-hearted yet capable of making women of the world feel worth as people who have substance to look at and hold on to.

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Women Role in the French Revolution and Art

The role of women in the French revolution and how art reflected that at the time

The French revolution marked an upheaval of the political, social and economic scenario for France. Before the revolution, France was in high debt and attempted to restore the financial crisis through regressive methods that forced the poor to work hard under unpopular situations (Palin, 2). Notably, the clergy and nobility estates were exempted from high taxation, and this led the commoners’ estate to demand reforms. The involvement of women is highly depicted in artworks of the time, wherein women are posed as feminist figures representing equality, democracy and liberty. This paper discusses the role of women in the French revolution as well as how their involvement was depicted in artworks at the time.

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Women from both the Nobility and General estates played a vital role during the French revolution. Particularly, women in the Estate- General, who comprise of the commoners fought for a list of grievances including reduced prices and equal pay for equal work as that of men. On the other hand, women from the nobility estate participated to fight for inclusion in political, social and economic privileges similar to that of men (Palin, 4).  Notably, the behavior of women with regards to the French revolution was similar to that of men.

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Women had a significant role in the fall of Bastille and the signing of the declaration of rights which was effected by the Versailles March. They also participated in the Twilight incident and the various riots aimed at reduction of bread and soap prices (Chu, 22). Further, Bourgeoisies women from aristocratic families participated by forming and joining salons that often operated from their homes. The elitist women used their education and intellectual capacities to spread ideologies of equality through prints such as pamphlets and journals. This can be seen in the works of Olympe de Gouges; “Rights of Woman and Child” (1791).

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In the later years of 1791, there was a rise in women activists who were radical and militant. This kind of activism was established through a club started by Pauline Léon and Claire Lacombe in 1793. The goal of the club was to stop projects by enemies of the revolution (Gutwirth 57).  Their practices included aggressive participation in riots as well as kidnapping of officials and seizing grain (Chu 22).  Through various clubs and activist movements, women fought for inclusion in the right to citizenship, and other revolutionary ideologies. Notably, women who were artists also participated through the creation of artworks that depict themes of the revolution and the representation of democracy, equality and liberty as seen in the works of Elizabeth Vigee Lebron, who painted Marie Antoinette as a devoted mother and gentle homemaker as a way to intervene between the generals and aristocratic estates.

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The declaration of the revolution incited art representations of the upheaval from both sides of the revolution (Taylor 1). Nonetheless, revolutionary art depicted women as feminist drivers of freedom. First, the shift from the Rococo movement to the use of neoclassic techniques in the artworks was a result of the revolutionary role of the women at the time. The involvement of women led to the introduction of a new set of imagery that replaced the nurturing and maternal role of the woman as depicted in Rococo styles. The Rococo styles portrayed women as the figures of aristocratic standards of style, homemaking, fashion and beauty (Gutwirth, 57). In contrast, the revolutionary art created a clear line between the monarchial representation of women and the feminist women who played a major role in the change process. With the new political inclination, neoclassic styles were instead used to depict women as feminist goddesses, a factor that altered the political landscape. Second, revolutionary art depicted women as symbols of democracy, liberty and equality. Pre-revolutionary art rarely portrayed women given that the Monarchial culture suppressed the roles of women in society to homemaking (Vaughan 5). However, the French revolution led to a rise in simplistic art that portrayed women as goddesses or centers of worship. This can be seen in works of art like Republican France and The Fountain of regeneration.

The depiction of women as symbols of the revolution was a direct representation of their active roles through activist movements and political salons. Further the sudden connotation of women in the arts suggests that the tides of gender roles in civic affairs had shifted from a male dominated platform (Vaughan 5).

Third, using the neoclassic technique of nudity, revolutionary artists focused on women to depict the eroticization of the state, where nudity and nakedness was used to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor (Palin, 6).  Previously, Rococo style artworks portrayed women in fashionable and aristocratic styles; a symbol of wealth and monarchial ideals of a woman. Nakedness was therefore a result of the inclination to neglect the aristocratic portrayal of women in clothes that reflect on wealth and social class. Women were therefore depicted in nude paintings or in Greco-Roman dresses as goddesses, to further the feminist ideas as well as the revolutionary idea of inclusion regardless of gender (Palin, 15). The rise of eroticized paintings of women prompted the ideologies of liberty, democracy and equality which were the themes of such paintings as it seen in the Citizenes Domouchy Liberty. The use of nudity in the artworks of the time was also symbolic of the goodness of liberty through the representation of the latter as a seductive and desirable thing. Fourth, art during the French revolution started depicting women as goddesses of action. This followed the aggressive nature they portrayed in support of the revolution, as seen in the case of Charlotte Corday, who murdered a Jacobin publisher Jean Paul Marat in 1973. Artworks at the time started portraying women as the centerpiece of a piece of art, whilst taking a strong action. This can be seen in the paining Liberty, Triumphant Destroying.

In conclusion, the revolutions were spear-headed by a male dominated population. Nonetheless, women began participating in activist movements to fight for their rights and freedoms in 1979. The women faced oppressive pressures from society that restricted their participation in civic issues as they were forced to rely on their male counterparts for decision regarding their well-being. Women from the nobility estate were highly focused in the inclusion in political affairs while commoners raised concerns regarding the rising cost of living and other aspects of the lives like religion, which were affected by the political crisis at the time. Further, artworks at the time depicted the role of women through adaptation of various styles that portrayed women as feminist goddesses who were the image of the revolution.

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Violence against Women – The wife of Bath’s Tale, The Clerk’s tale, The Rape of Lucrese, Wuthering heights and The Penelopiad

The aim of this paper is to provide insight in to the gender based differences in status and power that exist between men and women and how these differences influences the susceptibility of women to acts of violence with specific reference to the primary sources; The wife of Bath’s tale, The Clerk’s tale (From The Canterbury tales), The rape of Lucrese, Wuthering heights and The Penelopiad. Specific areas of discrimination and their influence on the incidence of physical, sexual and emotional abuse will be brought to focus by the context of this paper and they will include; The normalization of gender based acts of aggression such as domestic violence, sexual assault and psychological abuse, The stereotypical definition of gender roles by the society that serve to encourage violence towards women, objectification of women and the power balance within intimate relationships.

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While analyzing The wife of Bath’s tale and its capacity to inform a discussion on gender based perspective on violence against women, one is confronted by the stereotypical definitions of the roles of women in intimate relationships from the account of the wife of Bath of the ‘tribulations of married life’ informed by her experience during the course of her five marriages. She describes her success in marriage as being influenced by the amount of ‘sovereignty’ she could get over her husbands (Chaucer, 1948). She describes an incident of domestic violence and how she utilized this occurrence to gain sovereignty over her fifth husband. In the medieval ages, provincial laws did permit men to rebuke their wives for unruly behavior with many Christian texts describing the woman as the carriers of human sin and the cause of the downfall of the human race.  This provides motivation for the man to take up a role in controlling the woman in order to prevent actions that may lead to the downfall of the family. This rebuke for unruly behavior could take the form of hitting with the fist, such as in the case of the wife of Baths but it was unacceptable for a man, according to provincial law to beat his wife to an extent where she was incredibly hurt or died (Regner et al, 2009).This could be the reason why when the wife of Baths feigned death, her husband promised her anything if only she would agree to live. In this text the wife of bath is a classic representation of the societal view of women in the medieval ages as sexually insatiable, shrewd and treacherous monsters. It also shows how society has normalized violence against to the point that a woman can only learn to retaliate in order to escape it but cannot avoid it.

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 The tale and the story of the fate of the Young Knight also attempt to challenge the societal norms about the roles of men and women in marriage and how a shift in the balance of power can prevent violence and destruction. The young knight rapes a maiden in King Arthur’s palace, he is given the task of discovering what women desire most by the queen in lieu of the death penalty that had been demanded by the people (Chaucer, 1948).The king, by giving up control to his wife was able to avoid killing the young knight and reform his behavior considerably. The young knight, by giving up his need for control to the hag was able to gain a better perspective on intimate relationships and his role within them as well as mitigate his sexual entitlement. Despite the jest implied throughout the telling of the tale, it challenges the requirement by the male gender to dominate over their wives in the marriages and tries to show a situation where relegating this control would have far better outcomes and would result in a lower incidence of violence.

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The clerk’s tale provides insight in to the psychological and emotional aspect of domestic violence and the imbalance of power within relationships. The Marquis subjects his wife Griselda to the suffering of knowing that her children had been put to death and finally that he himself had divorced her and was intending to marry a new wife just for the purpose of testing how much she would be willing to endure without becoming resentful of him (Chaucer, 1948). Griselda endures the suffering without any complaint or grievance and remains completely devoted to her husband despite his unwavering ‘cruelty’.

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The tale may be seen as praise of the attitude of Griselda which eventually gets rewarded by her husband or even a mockery of it since all the torture she endured could have been avoided had she not been so meek and subordinate to her husband. Speaking out, adopting a proactive role would have allowed her the opportunity to gather information about the whereabouts of her children and save herself unnecessary distress. In this tale the male is given an all-powerful role and the woman is supposed to subjugate herself to him and accept whatever decision he makes regardless of its effect on her wellbeing. The clerk advises the ‘noble wyves’ to use their arrows of eloquence to pierce the stoic armor of their husbands and to avoid nailing down their tongues in feigned or real humility. In the execution of acts of violence against women, one person controls and asserts power over another.

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It is not the aim of the perpetrator to end the relationship with the woman on whom he exerts control over, it is his aim rather, to through these actions, draw his victim closer to himself (Sepali et al 2012). This is clearly seen In this tale as the Marquis has genuine affection for his wife, but through his actions, he seeks to draw her closer to himself by making her completely dependent on him even to the point of placing her life and that of her children in his hands and this according to the society should be the role taken up by an exemplary wife. This cultural inequality between the roles of man and women and these stereotypical representations of the meek and submissive wife versus the willful and omniscient husband serve to legitimize acts that lead to emotional distress and even exacerbates these acts (Regner et al, 2009).

The rape of Lucrece focuses on the objectification of women and the consequences of unbridled emotions on the part of the man. In the poem, Collatine brags to his fellow soldiers that his wife, Lucrece, is the most desirable and virtuous of all other wives. His descriptions of his wife whets Tarquin’s sexual appetite, who goes to visit Lucrece and takes advantage of her unprotected state to rape her in the night (Shakespeare, 2009). The objectification of women comes across in the description of Lucrese provided by Collatine which comes across as if the woman is not human but a priceless work of art of sculpture or a painting that only serves the purpose of propagating a man’s fame but has no humanity attached to it. This could be the reason why Tarquin does not see any fault in gauging the merit of Collatine’s description by raping his wife.

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In this poem the powerlessness of women in these situations of sexual violence is explored in the words of Lucrece who blames herself for her inability to defend herself from her assailant and eventually take her own life. The guilt that ensues on the part of the violent and non-violent males is also shown through the distress exhibited by Tarquin after he commits this act and the guilt and thirst for vengeance displayed by Collatine upon the loss of his wife. In this poem, the woman is subjugated by the man, she is powerless and unable to defend herself and suffers grave consequences for this powerlessness. The man is less susceptible to be the victim of sexual violence and he feels he is entitled to sex and views the woman as the object of satiating his needs. The subjective position occupied by the woman does not even give her the power to seek any sort of retribution against her assailant, she can only rely on her husband and her father to do this for her, her only action remains to save herself the torment of living with the shame that results from the violence by committing suicide (Shakespeare, 2009)

Heathcliff’s treatment of Isabella in Wuthering Heights is extremely cruel and violent, he has no pity, he pays attention to her screams cries only as a means to motivate him to crushing ‘her entrails’. He imprisons Cathy and Nelly and uses violence to express all his emotions including love. Edgar’s success in   forcing Catherine to choose him over Heathcliff despite her nature shows the power of the man to debilitate the identity of the woman by imprisoning her psychologically, emotionally and socially. The impact of childhood trauma on patterns of abuse is shown in this novel through the character of Heathcliff who is constantly abused in his childhood and the trauma from this abuse affects him such that his love for Catherine turns out to violent and he loses her due to this (Bronte, 2003). It should also be noted that this novel was published when domestic violence had started becoming an issue of public concern in the Victorian society and it succeeds in providing a critique of the middleclass domesticity by showing how the powerful males in the home abuse the weaker females and children by battering, isolating and imprisoning them.

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The Penelopiad aims to tell Penelope’s account of Homer’s Odyssey. Specific acts of violence against women that come to light through this text include; female infanticide, rape and sexual assault, neglect and murder (Atwood, 2006). Penelope’s father, Icarius, throws her in to the sea after he receives information from an oracle that she will weave his burial shroud which he assumes means that she would be the one to kill him. After her marriage to Odysseus, he neglects her for a long period of time to go fight in the Trojan War. He delays in returning home by engaging in various exploits by getting involved with the goddess Circe. Penelope’s gets overwhelmed by number of suitors who had assumed that Odysseus had died and were seeking her hand in marriage, they threaten to ‘eat’ her kingdom into poverty by holding daily feasts in the palace. Penelope tries to mitigate the crisis by telling them that she would only get married once she had finished weaving her father’s shroud and delaying the weaving by unweaving the shroud during the night. In order to conceal this secret from her suitors, she instructs her maids to seduce them and distract them (Atwood, 2006). Unfortunately, this plan backfires on her maids considerably when her suitors find out and rape the maidens. Much later, Odysseus returns and orders the execution of the maids and these maids later haunt Penelope in the underworld, without saying a word and staying away from her grasp when she tries to go near them. The acts of abuse against women and their powerlessness in defending themselves against the men within the context of the story shows the innate discrimination and second tier humanity accorded to women in the society and the capacity of this discrimination to cause intense psychological distress, trauma and eventually lead to the death of women at the hands of the superior male species.

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Women clearly have a higher vulnerability to violence in all its contexts and their susceptibility to this kind of violence does not decrease with age as that of men does (Sepali et al, 2012). As witnessed in Wuthering Heights Heathcliff’s vulnerability as a child provided the basis upon which acts of violence were perpetuated against him but he grew up, attained status and was no longer susceptible. On the other hand, a woman continually experiences threats of aggression and is a victim of abuse from the onset of her life to its culmination. The low status bestowed upon women by the society by giving them a subsidiary/ supportive role to the man who is supposed to dominate over her entire life contributes to the attitude displayed by perpetrators of these actions who regard them as normal and even believe that they are entitled to behave the way they do and it is the duty of the woman become an outlet for their anger, sexual and emotional frustration. Gender inequalities that are in many ways defined by the society increase the risk of violence from intimate partners by creating unequal balance of power within the marriage that gives one partner autonomy over all the affairs if the home and turning the marriage from a partnership to a dictatorship (Sepali et al, 2012). To provide a hope for the future, the society needs to be educated on its role in shaping perceptions and this information needs to be utilized to move away from the traditional stereotypical roles that deny humanity, confidence and freedom to certain genders and grant full autonomy to others.

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Women’s Use Of Education Between 1800 And 1860

Attaining a decent education is important for all members of the society and especially for women who have been denied both or either one of these opportunities for the greater part of history. A woman’s achievements resulting from the utilization of the knowledge and wisdom provided by quality education have the capacity to ripple across her generations, across the society and create changes that a man in the same position could not accomplish even on his best days. This is because, throughout history, women have been considered the custodians of morality and the vessels through which genuine transformation can be achieved through their roles in child rearing and education. This paper seeks to provide information on the kind of education that was available for women in the early to middle stages of the 19th century and the ways in which women, thus educated, utilized the knowledge they had gained in school.

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The early 1800s witnessed rapid growth in secondary education. This exponential growth was followed closely by the growth of the collegiate for young girls and women. By the middle of this century, a large number of women were being admitted to state colleges to learn and were. These bold women would be the first to take the bold steps towards equity and often received a lot of mistrust from the society and received biased labels such as ‘sex kittens’ (Peril, 2006). Secondary schools were flourishing as academies and academies such as The Young Ladies Academy became pioneers for the establishment of academies in this century. It was typical for boys to attend school and receive instruction in a diverse range of technical subjects such as arithmetic, reading, writing, geography and so on. Sadly girls were not given the privilege of receiving such detailed instruction in schools. In fact, in the early stages of incorporating women to education system, they were only allowed to attend school during the summer when the boys had come home to work on the farms and it was only with the rapid development of secondary schools that they were allowed to go to school in the winter during the same time as the boys (Lutz, 1976).

Read also Women In The Justice System Research Paper

In spite of this change, the curriculum taught to girls at the “finishing school” was drastically different from that taught to the boys. Girls would only receive a basic form of education in; reading, writing and arithmetic skills and the rest of their curriculum was devoted to needlework, knitting and religious education. True womanhood and its qualities were emphasized by the society and girls who were fortunate enough to receive an education were taught on how to remain obedient, submit to the wishes of their husbands within the home and in doing this, maintain the virtues of true womanhood. In fact, women in these schools were discouraged from having any intellectual pursuits since female intellect of any kind was greatly shunned and condemned by the broader society. Men were charged with the responsibility of expanding the society through industrial and economic pursuits while women were charged with the responsibility of protecting this society from moral and religious corruption and both sexes had to be educated so as to be able to fulfil these responsibilities.

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However, in 1815, a wave of change began taking over and this wave was redefining the paradigms that surrounded women education. This wave of change was pioneered by women such as Catharine Beecher, Mary Lyon and Emma Willard. These women had but one common goal which was to transform the curriculum that was used to teach girls. They did this by establishing seminaries, which were secondary schools that were more serious and gave young girls the opportunity to receive the same instruction as the boys. Their efforts were not without bottlenecks, Catherine Beecher for instance, had to teach close to a dozen subjects to her students every day. She had little time to teach each subject in detail and had to gloss over the basics of each to save on time. However, her efforts were rewarded when she appealed for donations, managed to expand her school, hired more teachers and was able to accomplish her mission of teaching each subject to completion (Ring, 1993). The seminary held its students up to the same standard as the boys. It gave them an equal chance at learning but once the woman was out of the seminary, there was little she could do with this education.

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In the 19th century, the responsibilities of the woman were centred on the care of her home, her children and her husband. Women from the upper class had the responsibility of displaying their husbands’ wealth to the public through their dressing and various expensive adornments on their person. Moreover, these women could use their education, the affluent status of their husband as well as the wealth in their households to foster corrections and social change by donating to worthy causes. Women form middle-class families had the responsibility of increasing the affluent nature of their families by setting standards for dressing and lifestyle. While they could find jobs as shopgirls or factory workers, working women in the 19th century were not supposed to earn a wage and often faced discrimination while at work in addition to the burden of the unsafe working conditions. Using their education to acquire some form of independent was a strenuous task and the further women in this age tried to pursue it, the more attractive the option of marriage seemed. Women who could not secure a husband and had acquired a decent education had to result to becoming distressed governesses or needlewomen to sustain themselves and live with the labels of being “unnatural” that would be laid upon them by the society.

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When one thinks about utilizing an education, one makes the supposition that this utilization would involve a vibrant career that would foster economic independence and free will. However, women in the 19th century did not receive the kind of education that would allow them to break free from the patriarchal systems that dictated every aspect of their lives. Instead, they were given an education that would ensure that they remained shackled to their husbands, that they would remain submissive to his will and use all their education to serve him better, take care of his household better, submit to and obey him better and take care of the children. Women were denied the extensive arithmetic and language skills that were given to the men. They were taught just enough to give them the capacity to educate their young children and provide meaningful instruction and shape the values of their sons, who were supposed to have a more direct impact on the nation. These roles were what the 19th-century society considered as the defining hallmarks of true womanhood and it is the skills required to perform these roles that formed the larger part of the education that was given to women.

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In spite of the discriminative environment under which women lived, education was not lost on them. It is the provision of this education that laid the foundation for the establishment of the society for promoting the empowerment of women (SPEW) and other societies that contributed to the rise of feminism as well as the enhancement of female consciousness towards gender equality (Solomon,1985).  It is this education that gave women such as Catharine Beecher the knowledge to teach a better curriculum to women in her seminary and transform the education of women from a privilege to a right. The effects of education on women and their capacity to utilize it to effectively manage responsibilities that were only given to men would not be apparent until the onset of the civil revolution in America (Woloch, 1984). When women would be pushed by the futility of attaining the dream of marriage and the necessity of replacing the men who had gone off to the civil war in the workforce, to move away from their homes and use their education to teach in schools, perform clerical work in government offices as well as manage vast plantations containing thousands of slave workers.

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To conclude, the provision of quality education for women has come a long way from this age when women were not allowed to be intellectual nor provided with the opportunity to use the knowledge they acquired in school for any other tasks other than housekeeping, taking care of children and pleasing their husbands. However, tracing the journey of gender equality from this tender age allows one to appreciate the historical milestones that have granted women some form of equality in the attainment of quality education, the capacity to achieve a state of independence and maintain free will as well as the opportunity to pursue a vibrant career.

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Women’s issues Coverage in Media

The media is among the most influential sources of information, opinions, and new ideas, for most individuals worldwide. What is covered in the news, what is not covered, who is mentioned, what is disregarded, and how events and people are portrayed in the news media matter a lot. A study by Collins highlights that women’s issues are underrepresented in the media and that gender stereotypes are intense in the field (Collins 290-298). This research paper aims to compare past investigative work on women’s issues coverage in media to a nowadays situation. In the past, not only less females were seen, heard, or written about in the media, but also the portrayals of men and women were intensely unbalanced in all journalist content, including news, entertainment, advertisement messages, talk shows, and current affairs programs. Moreover, in current affairs programs and advertisements, females are younger than men and mostly are models. In the news, fewer women are portrayed in international or local politics, industries, and science field coverage, though females occur in the coverage of social issues more frequently than males. However, even though media news is still biased when it comes to gender, women issues coverage by media have changed significantly over time.

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How Women Issues Coverage in Media has Changed Over Time

Women’s exclusion from essential daily news has been witnessed throughout the history of media. For instance, Tuchman and Gaye in their article noted that, during the 18th century, suffragists and women’s rights activists in North America and Europe raised the concern of women exclusion from essential news of the day (Tuchman, Gaye 528-542). The first activists and the issue of women’s suffrage required the media attention to carry their activities and ideas to the broader public. Nevertheless, men-run magazines and newspapers massively ignored the women activist. The few media outlets that covered women’s activities trivialized their objectives and goals repeatedly. Not only were female leaders and women’s issues excluded from the media, but the bias against females was practiced in reporting. The main reason men-dominated media did not cover women’s activities was that men perceived it inappropriate for women to deviate from social norms of obedience and deference to male authority and the conventional role of mother and wife. 

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 In modern days, women organizations have established their own journals. Moreover, these organizations have also put a lot of effort into promoting and encouraging more females to be trained as journalists to deal with continuous patriarchal messages in advertising, television, and film programs. However, besides the efforts to change the women’s portrayal and the presentation of gender inequality issues in news media, mainstream media is characterized by women’s objectification. Research that was conducted by Bareket and his colleagues indicates that women are depicted in a sexual manner more frequently than men (Bareket et al. 28-49). Women mostly appear on media platforms dressed in skimpy clothes with facial expressions or body postures that express sexual readiness. Wesleyan Bareket and colleagues, in their research, found out that, in more than 58 different magazines, about 50% of advertisements present women as sex objects. Nevertheless, the media focus on women issues has improved from the past, even though sexual objectifying women in advertisements is a modern concern. While the number of women represented in the media has been increasing, the manner in which they are portrayed highlights stereotypical depictions that might be particularly harmful to the audience.

The Main Concerns of Journalists while Covering Women’s Issues

The concerns of journalists who covered women’s issues in the past have also changed over time. According to Van Zoonen and Liesbet, The main concern of the journalist who covered women issues in the past was the public perception of women’s position in society (Van Zoonen, Liesbet 33-34). Journalists who advocated for gender inequality risked being termed as misfits, insane, or unprofessional. Few female journalists that existed during those days could not advocate for gender equality because many women who demanded equality in social norms were depicted  as aggressive or militant. Though professionalism in the journalism field has been long reserved for men, more women are entering into the profession nowadays. Modern-day concerns for journalists who attempt to investigate or cover women’s issues are based on threats, including physical violence, intimidation, or even maunder. The research that was conducted by the International Women’s Media Foundation (IWMF) indicates that 75% of women who work as a journalist are victims of threats, intimidation, and abuse in relation to their work (Collins, L 290-298). Even though male journalists experience the same challenges, research has shown that, when it comes to women reporters, harassment frequently takes particular gender-based forms such as sexual nature violence, sexual smears, and threats against their children (Luqiu, Rose 1-19). The journalists’ concerns while reporting on women’s issues have advanced from being termed as a traitor of the society in the past to more serious threats such as a death in modern days.

If to treat the above researches as historical documents, it is evident that individuals’ social realities have changed over time. Based on the articles by Tuchman and  Van Zoonen,  women in the past were second-class citizens, subjected to the males. Fastidious demand regarding the virtue and conduct that women were supposed to maintain was put on them, otherwise, females were judged accordingly. The appropriate guidelines for females dictated all aspects of their life including personality, family, and even dress-code. Women were required to be alert in home-keeping, constant in friendship, but not talkative. Generally, considering the past perception, women were created to serve men, and men always dictated how women should act. Women were also portrayed as homemakers, nonprofessionals, mothers, as well as sexual objects.

Nowadays, the situation has not changed much as women are being perceived as sex objects. In modern society, women are being identified by their body shapes, and their value is based on their appearances. For women to gain social acceptability, they remain under continuous pressure to enhance their appearances and bodies. In other words, women are being exploited by society and by media advertisements even in the product that has no relation to women, such as motorcar launching. Women are frequently objectified — typically by portraying them in provocative or scanty clothing. Young females are also sexually objectified in different ways as it is portrayed by their body positions, facial expressions among other factors. Though women’s perception has changed over time, women are still perceived as inferior to men.

How the Investigative Reporting On Women Issues has Changed Over Time

Investigative reporting means revealing the concealed issues either accidentally, under certain circumstances, and as a chaotic mass of facts, or by individuals in the media field who analyze all relevant facts to the issue in open source. In the 18th and 19th centuries, women’s issues, such as violence against women, were not sufficiently investigated by journalists. This is not only because the media was dominated by males but due to the fact that patriarchy was believed to be the traditional perception. Most women issues, such as gender violence, were perceived as a natural expression of men’s dominance. Due to these facts, the media never initiated women’s issues, but rather reported on them by means of short news once they acquired information from sources such as activist’s organization (Tuchman, Gaye 528-542). The journalists’ investigative content on women’s issues was also fashioned to portray men’s superiority. This was because most of the media content was aligned with the public interest to attract audiences’ massive attention. Physical abuse of women was depicted by media as a warning to other women on their behavior. This was in line with the society’s belief that since the male role was to rule in the society, both in a private household and public sphere, he was expected to have the power to reprimand everywhere. Most journalists never found the need for intensive investigative reporting on women’s issues. Women’s punishment, including physical chastisement, was perceived as a necessary duty for men, socially accepted in men’s circles.

In modern days, investigative reporting on women’s issues is still overlooked though it has improved. Most reporters who carry investigative reporting on women’s issues do it with limited budgets, hence they receive less recognition. Most media outlets and publications that explicitly focus on female issues are packed with relationship and fashion advice to women. Luqiu and colleagues, in their research, noted that, in those media outlets that attempt to investigate women’s rights issues, the investigative reporting content is characterized as slut-shaming and blaming of the victim (Luqiu, Rose 1-19). Most of them tend to show that the victims’ rights violation was due to their engaging with wrong people or being at certain places at the wrong time. In many articles, patriarchy is only quickly mentioned if it involves the famous and the rich. Most reporters who claim to do investigative reporting on women’s issues get their information from the police, some of which are distorted, especially if the violence against women is perpetrated by powerful people and they report it by blaming the victim and not the perpetrator. Through investigative reporting on women’s rights violations has improved over time, victim shaming and blaming are still a great concern.

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How Investigative Work Changed the Way Women’s Issues are Handled by the Media

The authors’ investigative work in the articles used in this paper is of great importance in transforming how both media and society handle women’s issues nowadays. Bareket and colleagues, in their investigative work on women objectification, have brought attention to the society and media to the problem of women being objectified. This has contributed to creating gender-transformative and gender-sensitive content by media, as well as breaking women stereotypes. The research has been used as evidence by civil societies in challenging convectional cultural and social norms regarding women perception both in media houses and content.

Luqiu and Luwei Rose and Collins provided researches on journalist challenges while reporting women’s issues to increase civil society and public awareness on these issues. Civil societies have used this research to convince legislatures on the importance of passing media shield laws. Such laws protect investigative journalists who report on women’s issues from being forced to provide confidential sources to the police or any law enforcer. By bringing the attention of journalist challenges while investigating women’s issues to the public, the government and civil society ensure the security of the journalists to promote media freedom. In the research on issues challenging reporters while reporting and investigating women issues, Van Zoonen and Liesbet provided great implications on how women issues are handled. The research has sensitized the government and media industry on the insecurity issues that journalists experience while reporting on women’s issues. This has led the media industry to prioritize media workers’ safety, especially those investigating women’s issues.

     By exposing women’s historical exclusion on important news and the causes of this exclusion, Tuchman and Gaye have motivated civil society to promote and support more females to study journalism with the aim to counter this exclusion. The increasing number of women in journalism has brought a significant improvement in media coverage on women’s issues. The research also served as an eye-opener for females to begin their own media houses to counter male-dominated media houses that ignored women’s issues in their news. Investigative work has transformed how women’s issues are handled by bringing the issues to government, civil societies, and the entire public.

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In conclusion, women’s issues coverage in media has changed significantly over time. In the past, women’s issues were extremely excluded from important news by the media houses. The media industry was dominated by the male who perceived women’s issue, such as gender violence, to be a social norm that is unnecessary to report. This motivated women to establish their media houses that will focus on their issues. Before then, women were under-represented in the entire media settings. Moreover, when women’s issues were highlighted, it was often in a negative and circumscribed manner. 

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In modern days, media focuses on fashion and relationships as the main women’s issues, while ignoring issues concerning women’s rights. Women’s objectification by media also has become a modern concern. The journalists did not sufficiently investigate women’s issues, such as violence against women, in the past due to media dominated by men and the traditional perception of patriarchy as natural. The investigative reporting on women’s issues in modern days is characterized by slut-shaming and blaming the victim. However, researchers’ investigative work has greatly transformed how both media and society handle women’s issues.

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Mistrust in The Justice System Among Women And Children

The criminal justice system was created to deliver justice to the public by punishing and convicting the guilty and assisting them to stop offending while safeguarding the innocent.  The basic purpose of the justice system is to deliver a fair, efficient, accountable, and effective process of justice for the public. Held as the final say in all disputes, the sole purpose of the justice system is righting wrongs. However, despite its growth over the decades, the justice system lacks fair treatment and equality for all. According to Ossei-Owusu (2010), victims are not treated with the same level of respect and seriousness. Unequal treatment in the U.S. justice system is noted based on the offenders’ gender, race, and ethnicity, among other things. Women, particularly single mothers, are highly incarcerated for non-violence offenses leaving their children at the mercy of relatives and other well-wishers.

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In some cases, the same women are unable to receive justice when assaulted due to a lack of enough evidence and blamed for what they experienced in the hands of the offenders. In addition to this, the system has been practicing racial victimhood, where Latino and black men are always more endangered and vulnerable to the criminal justice system and crime (Ossei-Owusu, 2010). This lack of equal treatment makes it hard for some victims to receive justice and for some offenders to be fairly evaluated, resulting in the mistrust in the justice system. This paper evaluates the mistrust in the justice system. The article is founded on the thesis statement that the true injustice of the victim is not the crime itself, but the lack of faith in the justice system.  

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Unequal Treatment in Justice System

The justice system has been found to discriminate on how it treats women and children who come to seek justice. According to Worden (2003), women are likely to fall victim to sexual assault, domestic abuse, and rape. When this happens, victims tend to seek legal assistance from the police with the hope of receiving justice and having their assaulters punished. However, this is not always the case; women who seek help sometimes do encounter skeptical and even suspicious and hostile attitudes on the practitioners’ part. Regardless of reforms aimed at directing violence responsibility on perpetrators instead of victims, research proposes that some frontline prosecutors, lawyers, and law enforcement officers still endorse rape myths and attribute spousal abuse to women provocations or failures. Sometimes, these cases, especially marital rapes, are treated with lightweight compared to other cases, making it hard for the involved women victims to receive the anticipated or required justice. Moreover, the adversarial process of the criminal court imposes strong defendants’ protections and high proof standards. This adversarial process enforces still expectations for victims’ participation, and it judges’ liability based on concrete evidence regarding particular events. These expectations might be played out during the proceedings in a manner that they are intimidating and coercive, and thus these requirements are at odds concerning the privacy and safety of the victim. The courts are normally structured to react to cases where parties are confrontational, antagonistic, and strangers. They are not used to complainants who contain family associations with perpetrators (Worden, 2003). In this regard, women end up not receiving the justice they deserve. 

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Children are likely victims of child neglect, physical and sexual abuse from their parents or close relatives. Similar to women, children are also likely to experience equal treatment in the justice system, especially when a child is required to testify against their parents or guardians. In most cases, there is a fear of life after making that statement. Moreover, children are highly likely to fall for threats given to prevent them from giving their statements. Others may go to the extent of coaching children on what to say and what not to say, based on the anticipated outcome. The fear and need for indisputable prove to punish the offender makes it hard for such children to receive the justice that they deserve. In most cases, the children who are unable to give their statements, due to fear, end up not getting the justice they deserve and in most cases, they are likely to experience a continuation of the abuse with nowhere else to seek for assistance (Corteen & Steele, 2018).

Complexity in Proving Crimes Committed Against Children and Women

According to Saunders (2018), one person’s word over another’s is a usual phrase in the criminal justice system while addressing rape. This explains attrition issues in rape cases that create a justice gap. Hohl and Stanko (2015) argue that rape cases report a low rate of conviction, which can be attributed to the specific rape case characteristics. Generally, rape cases lack any objective or physical evidence, and it boils down to the word of one person against another. The absence of objective evidence implies that these cases frequently need jurors to evaluate whose story seems believable. With little in the manner of hard evidence to give guidance to the juries while making decisions, rape cases are precisely the form of cases that are open to attitudes and stereotypes influences. In the lack of independent evidence, judgments regarding the reliability and credibility of the accused and complainant’s conflicting accounts in rape cases are said to be vulnerable to rape myths; a phrase used to describe false beliefs, stereotyped, or prejudicial about rape, rapists and tape victims. These cases eventually are settled on one person’s word against another. Bigoted by the rape myth, juries, police, judges, prosecutors, and society in general routinely fail to trust rape victims’ words (Saunders, 2018).

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The complexity of sexual harassment cases is also enhanced by tying everything around the complainant characters. According to McGlynn (2017), evidence centering on the sexual history of the complainant has long been introduced in rape case proceedings, initially focusing on guaranteeing that prostitution evidence; the notorious bad character was presented in the court to challenge the credibility and infer consent. Succeeding cases tested the limits of this early case law, proposing that promiscuity evidence, if not prostitution, challenged the credibility of the complainant and implied consent. Inferences of this form regarding women’s likelihood and sexuality show that sexually active women are more likely to consent and less credible as witnesses are the twin myths that limitations on sexual history evidence have been attempting to counter (McGlynn, 2017).

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Another cause of complexity in crimes against women and children is the lack of physical evidence. In most cases, these crimes are hard to prove in a court of law, since most offenders ensure to interfere with forensic evidence that can be used against them in the court. Moreover, due to shame and other psychological distresses associated with sexual assault experience, most victims delay reporting the cases, making it too late to collect forensic evidence or any other physical evidence. This is mostly the case in rape cases or domestic violence cases. This delay results in the depletion of any physical evidence that could have assisted in reinforcing the case. Such cases make it hard to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the offender committed the crime against the victim (Morabito, Willians & Pattavina, 2019). Another challenge is that most of the victims are unwilling to testify against the offender, especially in a situation where the victim is not ready to fully end the relationship with the offender. These cases are highly common in domestic violence or rape happening in a romantic relationship. This unwillingness to testify makes it hard to convict the offender, reducing the number of convicted offenders in rape, among other similar cases significantly (Morabito, Willians & Pattavina, 2019).

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Justice System Letdown

As a while the justice system is full of misleads and letdowns for these victims, thus causing a deep, hurtful history of trust. In most cases, the prosecutor enters into a plea deal with the offender, where the offender is requested to plead guilty for a lesser punishment. This is mostly meant to reduce the time used in the trial, reduce the use of resources in a court case, and ease the court’s case burden. However, it also, in a way, denies victims the justice they deserve. Plea deals give the offender a lesser punishment for the crime committed; this means the victim get less satisfaction than anticipated. The victim feels short-changed as the prosecutor makes a deal that favors the offender and the court, but with no consideration of the victim. The victim is denied a chance to participate in the justice system and thus lacking the satisfaction she could have felt for ensuring that justice is served through the legal system (Morabito, Williams & Pattavina, 2019).

The plea deal ends up looking like a violation of the victims’ right to justice. The plea bargain does not consider that the victim could have managed to give convincing evidence that could have resulted in the offender’s sufficient punishment, even without pleading guilty. At the end of it all, the victim gets disregarded in the process of punishing the offender. The victim is also denied the satisfaction that one gets for ensuring the offender is punished accordingly. The case process plays a significant role in enhancing the psychological and emotional healing of a sexual assault victim.  Denying rape victims this chance makes it hard for them to heal completely and get the satisfaction required to be able to move one and live after the incident. Thus, the justice system ends up violating the victim’s rights (Patterson, 2011).  This goes against the justice system’s biblical purpose, which is working on behalf of God, to give justice to the poor, as illustrated in Psalm 82: 3-4.

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The court proceedings also fuel the mistrust of the justice system. In most cases, prosecutors work to discredit the victim of rape. In most cases, the prosecutor cross-examines the victim to defame them. Prosecutors apply the approach of tarnishing the victim character, by adopting the prostitution narrative or too ready to consent for sex, to discredit their statement in the court (Tyler, 1997). In the bid to discredit the victim, the prosecutor is likely to glorify the offender. This mostly happens where the prosecutor cites the offender’s history to demonstrate good character and the diminishing likelihood of engaging in the offense. The offender also tries to bring forth witnesses that can aid in cleaning the offender’s character and life, eliminating the intention of the offense or even the likelihood of engaging in the crime. The prosecutor tries to create a scenario whereby if it is true the offender was involved in the offense; then it was the victim’s fault; the victim seduced the offender in a rape case (Tyler, 1997).  

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Failed Justice System and Victims Hardships

Because of the justice system failure, most of these victims are sent back to endure worse hardships. In most cases, rape victims experience prejudice in society. They are mostly blamed for what happens to them. This narrative fits well when the case fails or when the offender is not punished for the committed crime (Jordan 2004). The victim then has to endure ridicule from the members of the society. In a situation where the victim maintains the offender’s relationship, the victim continues being assaulted since there is nowhere else to go for justice. This also happens to children who are abused and the offender manager to escape the punishment. The justice system’s failure to punish the offender empowers the offender to keep abusing the victim. The offender gets the chance to restrict the victim to take any measure to save herself from him by limiting her movements and cutting her communication with people who can rescue her. This makes the victim go through serious hardship and endure unbearable punishment for attempting to punish the offender (Cui et al., 2013). 

Improved Understanding of the Effective of Assault Crimes on Victims 

To better serve these special victims, there needs to be a much better understanding of the extent of damage these crimes have and a more honorable way of handling these cases. The justice system should ensure that the offender goes through the trial without trying any shortcuts, such as a plea deal. The prosecutor should develop a case without trying to discredit the victim to protect the defender. The prosecutor should take his or her time to study the case and acquire all necessary evidence and witness statements to be able to offer a fair approach in the trial. The prosecution should avoid entertaining attritions that are likely to initiate biased judgment. The defense lawyer should also work diligently by ensuring that the defense approach is not inclined to gender bias and use attrition, such as prostitution defense, to discredit the victim. The juries and judges should focus on the case, without employing any rape myth that focuses on discrediting the victim. This means the case should be judged based on fair trial, effective evaluation of the provided evidence, and witness statements, without assuming that the victim is lying among other gender-based misconceptions. By so doing, juries and judges will ensure to give a fair judgment that is just to both the victim and the offender (Patterson, 2011).).

Read also Assault, Battery, And Crimes Against Persons

In a fair trial where juries and judges are not gendered biased, the sentencing should be done based on the severity of the crime. Rape and sexual assaults are capital crimes that are crimes against another individual. They destroy the inner being, resulting in psychological and emotional illnesses. They are also likely to result in physical damage to the human body. When not handled well, they can result in severe psychological trauma and suicidal thoughts or act among other internal damages. They also result in the destruction of personal will power, resulting in severe depression, loss of self-worth, and self-esteem. The justice system then needs to take these crimes seriously with the severity or importance that they deserve. This means, other than developing tactics to justify the offender’s act; the criminal justice system should focus on enacting justice and punishing the offender with punishment that matches the severity of the crime. This is proven by the provided evidence and witness statement, and information gathered from both the victim and offender cross-examination. The punishment offered should match the crime committed. The justice system should avoid giving punishment that does not match the crime committed. Severe punishment should be offered to those involved in severe crimes (Corteen & Steele, 2018). This move is supported by Exodus 21: 24-25 “eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.” The bible verse advocates for equal punishment that match the severity of the crime

Read also Uncovering Why Sex Crimes are Under-reported in the United States


Based on this analysis, it is evident that there is a mistrust of the justice system among sexual abuse, rape, and physical abuse victims. Although seeking the justice system is the only viable measure, they end up disappointed and even more broken than when they first considered taking it. Justice system mostly subjects them to victimization, discrediting their character, and justifying their suffering. They also release their offenders with little or no punishment compared to the crime committed. To restore this trust, the justice system needs to fix mistrust by handling rape and sexual assault cases with the weight it deserves. The system should also ensure to follow the right trial procedure to ensure victim participation and satisfaction with trial transparency. Also, the judges, juries, prosecutors, and defense lawyers should drop attrition to a fair trial, and justice is served. The system should avoid centering on the victim’s secondary victimization and defending the offender to ensure that offenders receive the punishment they deserve based on the severity of the crime.

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Getting Women the Right to Vote

For many years, women were not allowed to take part in elections in the United States. The disenfranchising of women from voting took root over many centuries. This practice was common even beyond the United States, with many countries recording of history of times when women were banned from participating in democratic elections. The history of women suffrage in the United States is replete with many small and incremental changes that final culminated in the current voting status for women. Many women directly took part in fighting for women’s right to vote, while other formed organizations that helped to advance this cause. Some of the notable organizations include National American Woman Suffrage Association; later known as the League of Women Voters, and National Women’s Party. These two organizations, under the leadership of strong women, employed different strategies to achieve the common target of attaining women suffrage.

Read also GOVT 220 Becoming an Informed Voter

The National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) employed different unique strategies in its fight to earn women the right to vote. The organization set out to ensure that many states in the country ratified women suffrage amendments. This strategy was inspired by the fact that if enough states in the country ratified these kinds of amendments, the Congress would be left with no other choice but to pass a federal government suffrage amendment. The organization also employed the tactic of recruiting many members to participate in public rallies and in agitation for women rights in general. As the leader of NAWSA, Carrie Clinton Lane Chapman Catt employed extensive means to propel the organization’s agenda. She used elaborate public speeches to highlight the plight of women, as well as to champion for women to join the mainstream political landscape (Bystrom & Burrell, 2018). She also founded the International Woman Suffrage Alliance (IWSA) as she recognized the issue of the right of women to vote was a global phenomenon. This approach helped to galvanize her organization even more. Her “Winning Plan” between 1915 and 1920 contributed to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.

Read also Is It Important That Every Person Legally Allowed To Vote To Vote?

The National Women’s Party (NWP) was founded in 1916 with the purpose of fighting for women’s right to vote. The organization is also known for having fought for equal rights for everyone in society. The organization used a number of strategies to advance their mission. One of these strategies was the use of the “silent sentinels” outside the White House. The Silent Sentinels were vigils organized outside the White House by the members of the group to constantly agitate for women suffrage. The vigils started after President Wilson had declined to publicly support suffrage in a meeting that he had with NWP. The protests employed silence as a means of agitation. Alice Paul served as the leader of the group, and, as such, was the brain behind most of the strategies employed by the group (Bystrom & Burrell, 2018). She came up with the idea of silent protests while using banners with clear messages to the president.

Read also National Organization for Women – Women’s Civil Rights

In conclusion, women suffrage in the United States was attained through the use of various tactics. Women organizations such the National American Woman Suffrage Association and the National Women’s Party played significant roles. The former used the strategy of ensuring that most states ratified amendments on women suffrage, while the latter used silent protests to advance the same cause. Led by strong women like Alice Paul and Carrie Clinton Lane Chapman Catt, the two organizations’ mission of achieving women suffrage was realized in 1920.

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Medical Technological Advances Unique to Care of Women and Children

Please research medical technological advances that may be unique to the care of women and children. Discuss how this technology will improve care to women and children. (ideas may be: genetic screening, public health initiatives, mammography, cervical screening, Fetal monitoring, Electronic medical records, telemedicine). Which technological advances have been utilized in your local hospital? How has it impacted the care of women and children?

Genetic screening and Telemedicine – Medical Technological Advances Unique to Care of Women and Children

Recent technological interventions represent renewed progress in child and maternal health with the chief aim of reducing disparities while significantly improving the quality of care provided. The expediency of such innovations has not escaped the notice of governments in different jurisdictions globally. Policymakers are now increasingly making political and financial commitments towards this cause with the intent of expanding access to new technological innovations with the capability of improving health outcomes. Improvements, particularly those introduced by innovations in child and maternal health, endeavor to provide feasible interventions to common problems facing at-risk populations. One such intervention is the dependence on genetic screening, hailed for its usefulness in improving health and wellbeing. It is, thus, fundamental to review its propensity to improving care provided to women and children. Additionally, a discussion of technological innovations utilized in my local hospital will also be provided and its impact on this particular population.

Read also Biosensors and Wearable Health Trackers

            Genetic screening is a relatively recent innovation in healthcare introduced with the primary aim of identifying developmental anomalies and hereditary disorders in fetuses. It is routinely administered during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy to review the development of the fetus and potential problems. A routine genetic screening test identifies specific predisposing factors such as genetic disorders within a family and the probability of their expression in a fetus. Genetic screening tests have been instrumental in aiding couples in calculating the odds of a fetus being born with debilitating conditions such as cystic fibrosis and Down syndrome. Furthermore, it has also proven effective in the identification of birth defects which are likely to affect 1 in every 34 babies in the United States (R. Aro & Jallinoja, 2017). It is worth noting that birth defects may occur unexpectedly during any given stage during a pregnancy and the primary reason why genetic screening has been steadily gaining traction. Genetic testing is typically offered as an option during formative prenatal visits where specialists weigh in on its importance in reducing risks associated with pregnancies.

Read also Emerging Health Care Technology with Potential to Overcome Current or Emerging Barriers to Care

            Genetic screening tests amalgamate procedures crucial in the identification of the proclivity to developing specific disorders using test samples. Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus sampling are two of the most common genetic screening tests currently in use. Both are invasive and rely solely on an in-depth analysis of fetus cells. It is through this procedure that a concise determination of the number of chromosomes is made and possible damage. Chorionic Villus sampling is the most common method of genetic screening due to its cost-effectiveness and relative availability. It is conducted during the first trimester using test samples collected from the placenta. Placenta tissue is similar to the fetus’s genetic makeup and, therefore useful when seeking to conduct an evaluation of chromosomal abnormalities (Medicine et al., 2016).

It is conducted after careful extraction of tissue samples to avoid compromising the expectant mother and fetus’s wellbeing. Amniocentesis, on the other hand, is a popular prenatal genetic screening test which relies on samples drawn from the amniotic fluid.  Samples are then reviewed to assess genetic material for any anomalies which may be evident during this particular stage. Both tests are optional and only conducted after gaining approval from the expectant mother. Nevertheless, medical practitioners underscore their importance in determining the presence genetic disorders and abnormalities while informing decisions regarding the possible termination of a pregnancy. Positive genetic screening tests can also aid expectant parents in planning for children with special needs while reducing the uncertainty and anxiety commonly associated with pregnancies.   

Read also How Tele-Health Technology Impact Outcomes Of Population Health Management         

Telemedicine is also a recent technological innovation currently applied at Lenox Hill Hospital, a local healthcare facility in New York City. It involves providing medical care and advice remotely. Telemedicine requires laptops, personal computers (PCs), and tablet devices with a steady internet connection during routine consultations. It creates a system where medical practitioners are accountable for patient outcomes by providing timely interventions which ultimately aid in preventing emergency room (ER) visits (Khandpur, 2017, p. 23).

Read also How Clinicians Develop A Therapeutic Relationship And Maintain A Caring Environment With Patients, Utilizing Telemedicine/Tele-Health Technology

Patients are also accorded a unique opportunity to lower healthcare costs while providers strive to improve the efficiency of services provided through this system. Telemedicine is convenient since patients enjoy perks of virtual care such as its relative affordability in comparison to in-person visits. Homebound individuals also benefit from this innovation and are now able to consult medical practitioners through video conferencing without having to leave work. Reduced service costs also cut expenses traditionally associated with hospital visits.

Read also Difference between Telehealth and Telemedicine

Telemedicine also allows specialists to become accessible to patients residing in remote regions, thus reducing the stress associated with long commutes during appointments. Telemedicine is particularly crucial in the promotion of child and maternal health. It increases the engagement of expectant mothers, which ensures that they commit to a specific set of healthcare goals. Engagement initiatives also ensure that they receive crucial healthcare information which goes a long way in improving their overall wellbeing. Telemedicine is also proving useful during this precarious period associated with the spread of the novel COVID-19 virus. Remote consultations and telephonic evaluations now play a major role in reducing the rate of new infections while keeping both expectant mothers and health providers safe within the greater New York City area.

Read also Implementing a Telemedicine Solution – Grand Hospital Case Study

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Article Critique – A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effects Of Nursing Care Based On Watson’s Theory Of Human Caring On Distress, Self-Efficacy And Adjustment In Infertile Women

This paper critiqued article “A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effects Of Nursing Care Based On Watson’s Theory Of Human Caring On Distress, Self-Efficacy And Adjustment In Infertile Women.” By Ilkay, et al., (2013). The aims of this article were to evaluate the effects of nursing care Based on the theory of human caring on distress caused by infertility, perceived self-efficacy and adjustment levels

  • Does the research report clearly describe a theoretical or conceptual framework to guide the study? If yes, complete questions 2 and 3


  • Evaluate whether the report adequately describe the link between the theory/CF and the research study?

The article clearly outlined the connection between the theory the research in the sense, the theory emphasized the need understand that patients should not be treated as objects that can be fixed by repair. The theory focuses on nursing paradigms and human (Ilkay, et al., 2013). The conceptual framework of Watson’s theory is the process infertile patients goes through while undergoing treatment. These processes include caring-healing modalities, caring occasions, caring moments, the transpersonal caring and caritas process. The article emphasized the benefits associated with the theory of human caring on nursing care. According to this article, the application of the concept of theory of human caring in nursing practice brings more efficiency and awareness, thus improving care outcome. Therefore, the link between Watson theory of human caring and this article was the improvement of the care outcome

  • What purpose does the theory serve in the study (e.g., development of instruments, identification of independent and/or dependent variables, Other, None?).

The Watson’s Theory of Human Caring served as a development of instrument in this study because the author planned nursing care based on this theory. For instance, the study was designed to be executed in six sessions in the infertility treatment process and each of the session was designed in accordance with the improvement process selected from the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. The first phase of the study was the internalization and examination of the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring prior to adapting and putting it into the practice. The study includeed the 10 caritas processes:

  • Altruistic values and loving kindness
  • Faith, hope and honor
  • Being sensitive to self and other
  • Helping, trusting, caring relationship
  • Promoting and accepting feelings
  • Problem-solving methods
  • Teaching and learning
  • Creating a healing environment
  • assisting with human needs
  • Openness to mystery and allowing miracles.
  • Does the researcher clearly tie the findings of the study back to the framework at the end of the report?

At the end of the article, the author clearly tied the findings of the study back to the frame work by stating that it was first time Watson’s Theory of Human Caring was used in the provision of nursing care to women with infertility in randomized controlled trials. The finding showed a positive effect on the adjustment to infertility in women, perceived infertility self-efficacy and distress. This is clear indication that planning nursing care in according with the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is very effective.

Ethical Considerations

            Nursing research like any other scientific research should be done in accordance with ethical guidelines. These ethical guidelines provide a framework on how data should be collected. In research that involves human subjects such as the article under study, it is important that data collection seeks to protect rather than harm the study participants (Montalvo & Larson, 2014). In the article, (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013) conducted research among women and there was no physical harm subjected to the respondents. Although the researchers did not harm the research participants, the article does not expressly outline any steps that were taken to remove or prevent harm or minimize discomfort.

            The study sought to implement and investigate the effect of Watson’s Theory of Caring among infertile women in Turkey. The benefits of the study outweigh the costs and any potential risks or discomfort to the research participants. Given that the authors point that there was lack of clear framework of application of Watson’s caring theory in treatment of infertile women, the potential benefits of the study are great (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013). In addition, the authors assert that infertility affects close to10-15% of the population (pp. 1802). This outlines the importance of the study against the potential risks, discomfort and costs.

            The authors pointed that informed consent was sought from the research participants before the research, through the informed consent form. However, there was no clear description on how the informed consent was sought from the research participants. The research was approved by the university research ethics committee and the necessary corporate approvals were obtained.

Method of Data Collection

            The research method that was employed in data collection was interviews. According to the authors, the demographic data varied as the study sample included women aged between 1& 45 (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013). In order to ensure that the appropriate data was collected, the researchers individualized the interviews in order to meet the personal needs of the participants. The interviews were appropriately employed based on how they were designed and administered by the researchers. The data that was collected included the participant data on fertility, sociodemographic characteristics, and data on how the participants perceived their self-efficacy.             The researchers provided information that the study collected its data from two groups, the control and the treatment group. The data was collected through structured interviews that were administered by trained nurses in the university infertility centre.  In the research, the authors point that the interviewer or the investigator was the intervention provider, who are the RNs in the infertility centre. In order to ensure the RNs had adequate preparation and training, the researchers selected them based on the attributes that are described in Watson’s caring theory, which included empathy, listening, touching, motivation, encouragement, empowerment, and positive thinking among other attributes. The data that was being collected was qualitative and the approach employed by the researchers was adequate and appropriate.

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