Martin Luther King Jr’s I Have A Dream – Speech Criticism

Martin Luther King, Jr’s I Have a Dream speech has retained approval across time and space in the past half a decade. Delivered in 1963 before a crowd of 250,000 people, the speech referred to the founding fathers of the American constitution, the bible, and universal themes that cut across societies to depict the struggles of African Americans (History). His address has earned many descriptions, including a work of poetry, a political treatise, and an improvised sermon.

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            The structure of King’s speech was sincere and straightforward like that of Ronald Regan. This seems to be a critical aid to the memorability of their statements. Another notable feature that gave King’s speech its unique profile is the soring rhetoric of demanding justice and promoting an integrated society. He was keen to use a rhetoric with which all American citizens were familiar. His reference to the Declaration of independence was primarily instrumental in helping the audience understand the social and political upheavals of the time.

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King used a mix of ethos, pathos, and logos in an attempt to convince the American nation that all people were created equal. Though the reality in America did not seem to reflect his statement at the time, he expressed his confidence in a future that could do so. He successfully portrayed an idealized American dream and the seething nightmare of racial injustice. His speech calls for action with a sequence of cleverly crafted phrases such as “now is the time.” The most essential part of his speech carried the premise “I have a dream.” The phrase was frequently repeated to drive the essence of the address to the minds of the audience.

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Ronald Reagan’s Space Shuttle Challenger Speech – Speech Criticism

Ronald Reagan is known to be one of the best masterful communicators of his time. His skill was remarkably tested in the situation that ensued after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. At that time, Americans were desperate to hear from him, and his insight and comfort were highly sought. Reagan delivered the speech behind his oval office. Overall, the structure of the speech was quite straightforward and short, perhaps because it was being delivered to a broad and diverse audience. It had short paragraphs and sentences that were easily comprehensible.

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            In terms of rhetoric, Reagan used precisely the right amount of ethos, pathos, and logos to appeal to all audience segments. The death of seven crew members was at the heart of his emotional response. He responded with a frank and a calm attitude without dwelling on the tribulations. Instead, he celebrated the lives of those who died. Your loved ones were daring and brave, and they had that special grace, that special spirit that says, “Give me a challenge, and I’ll meet it with joy.” (Ronald Reagan Foundation, 13). Reagan’s use of pathos was gently accompanied by a degree of ethos and logos.         

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            Conversations about sorrowful events can be difficult. However, Reagan maintained a sense of confidence and steadfastness, coupled with steadfastness. With a strategic balance on solidity and tenderness, his speech restored the psyche of American citizens with a strong and nourishing massage. His use of tone was compassionate and comforting. Words such as “faith”, “brave,” and “daring” are apparent throughout his discourse.   

Read also English transcript of Osama bin Laden speech           

In conclusion, Ronald Reagan showcased his masterful skills in communication during the emotionally tense Space Shuttle Challenger tragedy. The rhetoric, structure, tone, and writing style of his speech matched well with the needs of the audience.

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How To Avoid Plagiarism In A Speech

To plagiarize a speech means directly using other people’s words or ideas without acknowledging the source. In order to avoid plagiarism in a speech, there are straightforward rules that a speech reader needs to follow. This include acknowledging sources in the written form as well as in oral form by the speech writer and presenter respectively (The University of Southern MIssissippi, 2010). Therefore, the important aspect that the speech writers and the presenters need to observe is to cite the source of the ideas and wording regardless of direct quoting or paraphrasing. As oppose to speech presentation, rules governing plagiarism are more established in writing since the writer is required to follow a particular writing style format such as Turabian, Chicago, CBE, MLA, Harvard and APA. It is important for the speech writer to cite the source within the speech and at the end of the document at the reference page. Regardless of the writing style adopted by the writer, it is mandatory to cite any information used to support the ideas being presented in the speech including direct quotes and paraphrasing.

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Avoiding plagiarism

            It is important to note that avoiding plagiarism in writing and speech does not only entails staying away from the troubles and utilizing researched information ethically, but also it involves earning respect. Studies have indicated that accessing information for research is easy, but to incorporate these information into the speech without bridging the rules of plagiarism is a challenge to many writers (Muskegon Community College, 2016). There are six ways that a speech writer may use to avoid plagiarism in writing and presenting a speech. These six ways are simple steps that helps the speech writers and presenters to ensure that their papers are free of plagiarism. These six ways are:

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Upon locating the information that supports the ideas of the speech, it is the work of the writer to read the information, comprehend it and put it into his/her own words. The writer should paraphrase the information and ensure that not more than two words are verbatim copied in one sentence (Turnitin, 2016). If the writer finds it challenging to avoid copying two words in one sentence, then he/she should use quotation marks.


            Analysis have indicated that citation is a perfect way of avoiding plagiarism in speech writing and presentation. It is upon the writer to follow the speech’s writing style guidelines such as Chicago, Harvard, MLA and APA which depends on the institutional requirements (Turnitin, 2016). This involves the process of indicating the author and the date of publication within the speech.


            Quoting is the process of using exact words as it appears in the researched information and enclosing with the quotation marks (Turnitin, 2016). Depending with the institution, the writer can quote 40 words or more. It is important to note that misquoting an author may result to plagiarism.

Citing quotes

            This is a simple process that entails citing the paragraph number or page number which is commonly applicable in the legal profession.

Citing own material

            In most case, the speech writer finds themselves borrowing information from their previous papers. It is important for the writer to note that information from their previous research work should be treated as if it was written by someone else (Turnitin, 2016). Therefore, the information should be correctly cited in order to avoid self-plagiarism which is against the rule and ethics of writing.


At the end of the document the writer is required to present the author of the information used, date of publication, the title of the information, the publisher and the city of publication. The reference should meet the formatting guidelines of the institutions.

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English transcript of Osama bin Laden speech

English transcript of Osama bin Laden speech

The main reason why Osama claims to be involved in war is simply because he was unhappy that most people in their country lacked the freedom they should be enjoying. They wanted to restore freedom that their nation should be enjoying. In the speech he challenges bush why they should not be identifying the real cause behind the attacks that had taken place the US four years ago. Finding the root cause of a problem is the best way to ensure that such a problem does not occur again in society. Instead of identifying the actual causes of the attacks the government of bush was busy hiding from the reality on the actual ground (Lahoud, 2012).

In the speech Osama gave the real motive that was behind the attacks. He gave out the circumstances under which a decision was made to bomb the twin towers. The situation had become unbearable and they would no longer bear the oppression that was caused by the Bush administration. The people who were oppressed were mainly the ones in the Palestine. That was the basis on which the decision was based upon. In 1982, America allowed the Israelites to attack the Lebanon and Palestine. Many people were killed and others were injured during the attacks. That was the major reason that was behind the attacks (Lahoud, 2012).

Complaints against the Western Society

The major complaints that Bin Laden raised against the western society were intimidation and harassment of their people in various parts of the world. There were also attacks that were carried out on their people and in the process many of their people were injured while some were died. That made it very painful and they had to take revenge (Gauvain, 2011).

Plan for the Islamic State

Osama aimed at ensuring that Muslims fought those who supported Israel or any other Western military forces. The enemies were considered from civilians to the military in those particular areas. The main aim of engaging in war was to ensure that Western military were withdrawn from the Middle East (Randal, 2011).

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When Does Freedom of Speech Potentially Violate Ones Legal Rights to Privacy?

An old saying states that freedom of speech does not include the right to yell fire in a crowded building.So, when does freedom of speech potentially violate ones legal rights to privacy? What specific violations can be considered invasion of privacy in digital media?

The freedom of speech is highly protected by the First Constitution Amendment. The first amendment forbids the Congress from making law reducing the freedom of press or speech. However, this does not imply that people can just anything at any time to anyone. Digital media is currently being used to update people status in different degrees. The use of digital media may not be as private as people may want it to be regarded since most information posted there end up being accesses by a huge number of people through friends or followers connection. Sometimes we share so much information that we end up exposing our private information to the public.

Sharing information regarding individual working area incidences or other personal life that conflict individual reports on the work place in the social media can be used against a person and initiate disciplinary action to an employee or even termination based on the seriousness of the case. Social media pages and walls are also being used to identify criminals based on what they been sharing with friends, especially videos, photos and their related explanations or descriptions. What may seem as a normal updates may result to inversion of one’s legal right to privacy. In such cases, individual freedom of speech expresses information which can be used against them, violating ones legal rights to privacy (Ess, 2009).

Although one can publically expose his or her private information in digital media knowingly or unknowingly, there are acts that can be regarded as violation of individual digital privacy. This would include accessing employees digital media accounts for instance emails, Facebook or twitter  using their computers, by either snooping using software or by stealing password or by going through personal accounts from their unlocked computers or smartphones (Ess, 2009).Other methods can include stealing personal information by use of surveillance camera in the work place, or even spying from behind. All this would be considered as inversion of privacy in digital media.

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Accountant Role Speech – Assignment Instructions And A Sample Answer

You have been asked to speak at a career fair for high school students in your home town.
Specifically, you are making a presentation about your role as an accountant.
  • Describe for the students the primary objectives of accounting.
  • Explain the basic terminology of the accounting process or financial reporting.
  • Explain how accounting has affected your personal life emphasizing professional ethics.
  • Explain the role that technology has played in small business accounting.

Please include APA in-text citations and references.
Background on Course Research Requirements: In the business world, it is important to use research to strengthen points made in presentations and projects. Learning to use the search functions in databases for research is a crucial critical thinking skill that complements other research techniques.

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How Speech Codes affect Freedom of Speech

An example of the policy or controversy and how it affects freedom of speech.

Freedom of Speech

Freedom of speech simply refers to the freedom to communicate and express oneself without fear of government retaliation or censorship thereof. However, the government restricts speech to specific limitation which includes libel, slander, incitement, pornography, classified information, graphic content, and copyright violations among others. Additionally, governmental as well as other organizations have policies that restrict the freedom of speech for political reasons for instance, speech codes at state schools. Offense principle is a term used to expand the limits of free speech restrictions to prohibit those forms of speech that are offensive to the society, special groups or even individuals (Williams, 1960).

Public universities have been at the center of controversies as far as freedom of speech is concerned. Universities are made up of people from various economic, social and political backgrounds and therefore, most of these people always hold strong yet very controversial views about issues that affect them. These universities have their own platforms of expression such as university magazines more often than not, written and produced by the university. There are policies that objectively seek to balance between expression and community order. This policy is primarily aimed at dealing with issues to do with hate speech; that is those utterance that point at a given group, race, ethnic group etc. Universities have adopted those policies that were once banned and the adoption of speech codes have been viewed as the best way of controlling speech so as to improve the climate for different races as well as other minorities. This has been a major source of controversy with the state laws that provides for limits to free speech.

How Speech Codes affect Freedom of Speech

Speech code refers to any regulation that not only forbid but also punishes and restricts significant amount of protected speech or what would be defined as protected speech by the society at large. The most common type of speech code embraced by universities is harassment policies. This policy protects students from violating other students’ rights through harassment. The scope of this policy includes language that degrades, insults, and taunts another individual through communication, especially verbal that provokes violence.

While freedom of speech provides people with the right to express themselves without fear of government retaliation and censorship, it also spells out the limitations to which free speech is expected to fall within. One of these restrictions includes harassment. For this reason, speech codes are critical to broadening the functionality of freedom of speech in terms of its limits of application for which the law guarantees.

Initially, courts have always dismissed speech codes as unconstitutional. Public universities that have sought to regulate speech content within these universities by using speech codes have been subjected to judicial scrutiny (Kermit, 2002). Typically, courts have always found speech codes to violate the First Amendment and this is because they have been considered not only ambiguous but also overboard and in contravention to the constitution. Because most of similar cases on speech codes have always been dismissed as vague and unconstitutional, the ruling on the same may not be any different. This is because the courts have high proclivity to the constitution and speech codes being a policy that is not legally supported, the courts would still rule against application of speech codes (Perry, 2006).

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APU COMM200 Speech Outline Assignment Instructions

Write an outline in complete sentence form. Include a thesis statement (which may be spoken);

  • a purpose statement, indicating the response from the audience you wish to achieve (which is not usually spoken)
  • an introduction
  • a body, including supporting evidence
  • transitionas
  • and a conclusion.

If you use outside sources in creating your speech, please include them in a bibliography.

This outline is for a 2-4 minute (and be closer to four minutes than to two) speech to inform, which may be an introduction to yourself or to a topic of interest to you or a speech in which you inform the audience about an issue important to you.This can include a process (how to do something), a place (good for a vacation), an important idea about which you feel strongly, or any other issue that you believe the audience needs to know better. If you choose to introduce yourself, please offer more than a list of job assignments or duty locations. What is that one defining moment in your life experience that would make people say, if they knew it, “Yes, that’s (your name).”

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Mikhail Gorbachev’s 1988 UN Speech Review

The keynote speech by Mikhail Gorbachev in the December 1988 UN General Assembly represented a departure from Soviet policy and the way the Soviet Union viewed the west. According to (Kanet, 1989), the previous years had witnessed foreign policies based on a tit-for-tat basis and the world was in a brink of cold war between the then superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union.  Therefore, it was imperative that one of the two world’s superpowers made a significant move to prevent the escalation of the temperatures.

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Gorbachev’s choice of United Nations as the venue for the speech by Gorbachev was important, as it would send a signal to the whole world that the Soviet Union was ready and openness to being a leader for global peace leadership. Initially initiating the reforms in his Soviet Communist Party through the “glasnost” and the “perestroika”, Gorbachev felt that it was equally important that he presented the same domestic political experiences that tolerated similar and different interests, to the international community.

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In his speech, Gorbachev anticipated the development of what he called “the new world order”. The development of the cold war had forced the Soviet Union to allocate more resources into military actions (Kanet, 1989). He realized that to accommodate the different social and political ideologies among the Soviet Union satellite states, his nation needed the cooperation of the United States.

During the period of communism, most of the countries in the Eastern Europe had began to agitate for their political and social rights. In respond and readiness for the change in the ideologies among the states of Eastern Europe, Gorbachev needed the cooperation of the United States in order to allow for the smooth transition of the Eastern European countries into their internal ideological perspectives. Therefore, in his speech, by saying “de-ideologizing relations among states” (CNN Cold War, 1988), he meant the Soviet Union and the United States had to be prepared for the social and political change that was to occur in Eastern Europe.

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The implications that this had on the super power nations was that they had to be ready to accept and tolerate the “new world order”. Since Gorbachev foresaw a world led by rule of law and respect of social and political difference, the “de-idelogizing relation among states” meant that the superpower relations would be improved. The Soviet Union had huge military officers and most of its Eastern European states had heavy military deployment. Moreover, the United States possessed great military equipment.

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Since the speech by Gorbachev came during the cold war and after the Pearl Harbor attack, his move to allow for toleration of the political and social difference among its states, meant a reduction in military use (Njølstad & Njlstad, 2004). Consequently, the United States would be forced to cut on its nuclear developments in response to the Soviet Union’s move to cut down on use of military and allow for new ideologies in Eastern Europe. This had an implication of improving the relationship between the two superpowers.

Read also English transcript of Osama bin Laden speech

Gorbachev further noted that radical and revolutionary changes take place and will continue in the near future. While recognizing this, he pointed in his address “force no longer can…be an instrument of foreign policy” (CNN Cold War, 1988). In saying saw, Gorbachev was pointing the need for acceptance of the rule of law and the need to allow for changes to take place in the peaceful manner without use of force to alter such social changes to conform certain ideologies held by specific countries. This had an implication of allowing for the toleration of the social and political changes in the soviet bloc, which ultimately led to the separation of member countries of the Soviet Union. Moreover, Gorbachev foresaw the future role of the superpowers as the advocates of peace and the ones to preserve humanity. The relationship between world superpowers was the key to world peace and economic growth.

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Winston Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech Review

Winston Churchill’s “Sinews of Peace” speech was delivered at Westminster College with the aim of charting out the relations among the Allies after World War 2. The speech was delivered in the US because of the country’s crucial role in winning the war and consequent emergence of the US as an undisputed world superpower. Moreover having lost the British elections, the wartime prime minister’s words had lost some traction in his homeland, the former superpower. Indeed the US was to address Churchill’s concerns by enacting the Truman Doctrine two years later that was to later lead to independence for the Baltic States(Encyclopaedia Britannica, undated). The cold war pitting US (and NATO) versus Russia was to last forty six years.

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Churchill’s speech aimed to invigorate the British-American alliance and to chart out the alliance’s direction in the face of increasingly cold relations with Soviet Union, a former ally. This cooling relationship can be traced to Stalinismand Russia winning the “Great Patriotic War” during World War 2. Having tasted the “fruits of war” after defeating Germany toregain its lost territories and extend into new ones to be in control of most of Eastern Europe, the Soviet Union put up the “Iron Curtain” – military tanks – seemingly with a view to protecting and expanding its territories and spreading thecommunist ideology.

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This flew in the face of the Allies’ principles that included self-determination as captured by the League of Nations and championed during World War 2(Encyclopaedia Britannica, undated). Notably, Woodrow Wilson had listed self-determination as an important objective in a postwar world. Hence the Allies championed self-determination as a means to achieve peace during and after the war.

Stalin’s government aim to expand its powers with a view to spreading its socialist doctrines was likely to make world peace as envisioned by the British-American alliance elusive. Churchill hence speaks about Stalin’s tyrannical tendencies versus a person’s free will to political choice. He posits the latter as one of the ways for “the permanent prevention of war and the establishment of conditions of freedom and democracy as rapidly as possible in all countries” and the former as a challenge that must be dealt with pronto (The Churchill Centre, 1946).

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By acknowledging “Russia’s need to be secure on her western borders”, Churchill is alive to Germany’s aggression, which was the cause of the two world wars. Indeed he is sympathetic to Russia’s plight, welcoming the country “to her rightful place among the leading nations of the world” and encouraging the “growing contacts” between Russians and the alliance people (The Churchill Centre, 1946).  So if the “Iron Curtain” was solely a deterrent to Germany’s invasion, Churchill would seemingly have no qualms about it.

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But he notes that the “Iron Curtain” locks in Eastern Europe laying the foundation for unfettered Russian expansion of its powers and doctrines. Notably, Churchill qualifies this as Russia’s pursuit of “fruits of war” rather than a “desire for war” (The Churchill Centre, 1946). He is consistent in viewing Russia’s defense of its western border as moral but its tyranny in Eastern Europe as immoral.

Churchill does not advocate for war with Russia by saying that the Russia’s admire strength. Rather he is advocating for the building of a strong United Nations with a peacekeeping force to act as a deterrent to the rise of fascism, communism and other doctrines and conditions that may seemingly lead to war.

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