Tag: Police

Why Operational Police Officers Should Reflect Demographic Diversity of the Communities in Which they Work

Diversity in law enforcement has recently been hailed for bolstering officer’s ability to communicate effectively with members of the public. Over the past decade, this has become an issue of great significance to the Australian Federal Police (AFP) as an equal opportunity establishment (Australian Federal Police 2016). A diverse police force, therefore improves the establishment’s working knowledge of subtle body and conversational cues which would otherwise have been missed by a homogenous unit.

Read also Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion

Another primary reason why operational police officers should reflect the demographic diversity of the communities in which they work is to first enable them gain a respectable level of grasp of communities within a given locality; allowing them to adequately prepare for interactions during routine patrols. Furthermore, it is a reflection of law enforcement’s commitment to diversity rather than simply serving as an embodiment of compliance with applicable government legislations. A relevant example is the inclusion of Torres Strait Islanders in the Malunggang policed as a direct consequence of conscription efforts by the Malunggang Indigenous Officers Network (Australian Government Transparency Portal 2019).

Read also Challenges Related to Use of Force By Police Officers

Demographic diversity within the operational police members is also crucial as a working framework for future liaisons with international law enforcement partners such as the United States and Britain. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that diversity in this particular context alludes not only to ethnic and racial backgrounds, but also encompasses age, gender, and sexual orientation. For instance, the Women’s Network and Gay and Lesbian Officer Network bear essential working frameworks in the Australia and strive to implement international standards of inclusion into the force. Members are accorded a unique opportunity to adopt workable strategies and leadership strategies to aid them when operating in diverse communities.’

Read also Tidewater Police Department Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy

Furthermore, diversity and inclusion within law enforcement is one of the most effective strategies to apply when seeking to gain public trust and particularly crucial before the implementation of community policing endeavours. The presence of operational police members from a given community enhances trust in law enforcement agencies since they serve as a representation of diversity within the community. Allowing the community to see police officers who look like them elevates the level of confidence particularly in communities which typically meet operational police members only during moments of crisis.

Entrapment and Legitimate use of Lies by Police

Research the concept of police “entrapment,” and discuss the differences between entrapment and the legitimate use of lies by the police.

Differences between Entrapment and the Legitimate Use of Lies by The Police

Law enforcement officers typically operate in a fast-paced environment where the ability to produce substantial results has traditionally taken precedence. The pressures and demands associated with this profession are now linked to an upsurge in the application of unconventional techniques with the sole aim being the attainment of desired ends. Today, the concept of “entrapment” and the legitimate use of lies are common phenomena in law enforcement and the subsequent administration of justice. An in-depth evaluation of both concepts is, therefore, fundamental in order to paint an elaborate picture of inherent differences herein and Biblical implications of their application.

Read also Cases Related to Entrapment by the Police

The legitimate use of lies is, perhaps, the most common police tactic in use, particularly among undercover operatives and during interrogations. Its use may span scenarios where police blatantly deny being members of law enforcement, as is the case during covert operations to implicate drug dealers, or when interviewing individual suspects separately to get them to incriminate their co-accused (Hritz, 2018). For instance, an undercover officer is allowed to lie about their identity when approached by a drug dealer attempting to conduct an illegal drug transaction. Similarly, an investigator can lie to a suspect that their counterpart in the other room has already confessed to being at the scene of a crime and has agreed to become a state witness in a bid to mislead them into making their confession.

Read also Cases Where Intoxication and Mistake of Fact were used as a Defense To Crime

In essence, law enforcement officers are often expected to maximize the use of the interrogation room and use it to their advantage. Legitimate lies, therefore, come in handy especially in scenarios where police initially had a probable cause for arresting a suspect and the amount of evidence linking them to a crime. Controlling the environment using legitimate lies then becomes an invaluable form of persuasion for them to achieve their desired ends. Yet, Jeremiah 48:10 warns against using deceit since it is not associated with God’s work. Legitimate lies make it possible for law enforcement officers to build their case and ultimately lead to a conviction. On the other hand, entrapment is generally considered an illegal police tactic and has, over the years, been applied successfully as a defense by defendants and resulted in the consequent dismissal of court cases. Entrapment entails conscious solicitation by a law enforcement officer to dupe an individual into engaging in an illegal activity or committing a crime (Levanon, 2016).

Read also Police Mission – Fighting Crime or Public Service

While the legitimate use of lies typically entails tricking a suspect to catch them in the act, entrapment may involve creating situations where a suspect is highly likely to break the law leading to their subsequent arrest.  Entrapment creates a circumstance that forces an individual to unwittingly break the law as opposed to them viewing it as nothing more than an opportune moment to commit a crime. In such instances, a law enforcement officer may win an individual over using pity or friendship with the primary objective of blinding them to commit a crime. The very act of planting the idea to commit a crime goes against ethical norms in criminal justice and may also be combined with coercion in order to elicit the response initially sought. This inducement becomes a major issue of concern in cases where police use entrapment techniques on individuals who would not ordinarily commit a crime.

Read also Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion

For instance, an undercover officer who succeeds to trick an individual to sell them part of their medical marijuana by claiming that thy don’t have insurance to get them arrested on drug charges may have the case dismissed if the defendant uses entrapment as their defense.

Cases Related to Entrapment by the Police

United States vs Black

This case took place at the United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. It was decided on October 23, 2013. The case arose when an agent serving the federal government in Phoenix recruited a confidential informant to carry out some undercover tasks (Findlaw, 2020). According to the instructions given to the informant, he was supposed to visit a “bad part of town” and recruit “bad guys”. These recruits would help to rob a fictional stash house. Once the confidential informant had recruited the first person, he linked him directly to the federal agent. The federal agent then urged the recruited person to bring more people on board in order to help in the robbery. The agent promised him that this act promised to come in handy and change their lives because the stash house contained many kilograms of valuable cocaine. As such, this was a promising venture as it promised significant financial returns. The first person recruited by the undercover agent was Shavor Simpson. Later, group to include Cordae Black, Kemford Alexander, Angel Mahon and Terrance Timmons.

The court decided that they were guilty of conspiring to rob a stash house. The judges also convicted them of knowingly agreeing to participate in a crime of stealing and distributing cocaine, an illegal substance. The judges and the jury that passed this decision said that it was not an entrapment sentencing because all the participants had affirmed to the undercover agent that they had previously engaged in crimes. The judges also said that the conduct of the government was reasonable in the circumstances. However, there was a dissenting opinion that came from Judge Reinhardt. The judge raised many serious questions in regards to the role of the government in the incident, as well as the lack of critical evaluation of the case from his follow judges. The judge questioned if the government could target poor people in poor neighborhoods and tempt them into committing crimes that could result in them escaping poverty.

The dissenting judge took an issue with the fact that that the agent had clear instructions to the informant to look for people that looked like bad guys in a bad town. This approach, to him, was discriminatory of vulnerable people and put the defendants in an impossible position of avoiding the trap. The judge said that it amounted to racial discrimination considering that the bad part of town that the informant was sent to was a minority place where the biggest population was that of blacks. The other point that was raised was the fact that the government predetermined the amount of drugs that the reverse sting operation would be handling, and, as such, had predetermined the length of time that the defendants would spend in jail once they were arrested. This is because the length of time spent in prison in connection to drug possession is usually determined by the amount of drugs one is caught with. Finally, the judge raised the issue of mass incarceration and the logic behind the government using the reverse sting operation to target the minority group. He said that at the age where the government should be confronting the issue of mass incarceration of blacks, it was instead going around manufacturing fake crimes in order to arrest and jail even more people of color.

United States vs Hollingsworth

This case was heard and decided in the 7th Circuit. The determination and the ruling of the case happened on October 29, 1993. In this case, Hollingsworth and Pickard were convicted of money laundering. The conviction came from a jury, and the two men were sentenced to 24 and 18 months, respectively. However, majority of the judges in the court ruled that the men had been entrapped by the police. As such, the men deserved to be acquitted. In this decision, the circuit held that the government cannot defeat an entrapment defense by merely illustrating that the defendants were willing to commit a given offense. The court said that the accused persons, Hollingsworth and Pickard did not have the means to undertake an international money-laundering scheme. As such, the government facilitated the entire scheme. The court opined that the government cannot use its resources to induce people to commit crimes. The court said that the government should use its vast resources to shape the character of people, rather than inducing them to commit felonies. The judges finally by saying that a person who only commits a crime following an inducement by the government is not a threat to the society, regardless of their evils threats as might be demonstrated by undercover agents. Judge Easterbrook offered a dissenting opinion by pointing that the two men should have been charged different. The judge said that Pickard demonstrated willingness to carry out money laundering even without inducement from the undercover agent, Hinch. Though he agreed that Hollingsworth had been entrapped and deserve to be acquitted, his aide, Pickard, should not ride on the favorable ruling that Hollingsworth deserves.

United States vs Rameriz-Rangel

This case happened in the 9th Circuit in 1996. In this case, the judges argued that they could not sentence the defendants on the type of weapon that was supplied in a reverse sting operation. The court argued that the government supplied the defendants with more drugs than they could afford in order to have them sentenced for longer years after their arrested. One of the main determinations to be made, however, was in connection to violation of U.S.C. §924(c). This clause is related to offenses that touch on possession of drugs and use of firearms at same time. The judges say that the undercover agents supplied to the defendants machine guns, rather than normal guns. The court considered this to be against the knowledge of the defendants, and that the government clearly entrapped the men, and had the intention of having them face more years behind bars. The judges unanimously referred the case to a lower for determination of whether the defendants had the knowledge of the weapons that were to be supplied by the agents.

Case of Jesse James Arrested for Killing Police Officer

Jesse James, a 20-year old, was arrested for killing a police officer. As a newly elected prosecutor, you are responsible for prosecuting Mr. James. You announce your decision not to seek the death penalty in this case, but under your state’s law, the offense charged is considered special circumstances, which would qualify as a death penalty case. Your decision does not sit well with the law enforcement community.

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Address the following in 900–1,200 words:

  • List the various hearings that will typically occur and how the case is affected by each event.
  • Provide an overview of the various courts in the typical state system where Mr. James will appear and why he is appearing there, from arraignment to trial and the various levels of appeal. Be sure to provide specific information as it relates to any constitutional issues that may be raised at each stage in the process.
  • What are the potential hearings that might be involved in this case? Be sure to describe them from the time of arrest through appeal.
  • What are the relevant civil liberties issues pertaining to the 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, and 14th Amendments present in this case?

Read also Criminology Theoretical Application – Basil Borutski Triple Murder

Special Circumstances Murder Case – Case of Jesse James Arrested for Killing Police Officer

In this particular case, Jesse is arrested for killing a police officer. His case is to be handled by a newly elected prosecutor Mr. James who considers seeking a death case penalty under special circumstances in the state law. Special circumstances murder refers to heinous crimes that are punishable by death or life imprisonment without parole. One of these crimes in murdering a police officer to escape or prevent arrest or murdering a public safety officer when the officer is on duty. By killing a police officer, Jesse presented a circumstance under which he can be tried under special circumstance murder. However, the prosecutor needs to prove that Jesse killed the police officer either while performing his duty or to escape an arrest. This paper discusses Jesse prosecution and trial under special circumstances murder.

Read also New Policy on the Death Penalty for Minors – Roper v. Simmons

Hearings that will Typically Occur and how they affect the Case

The case will start by Jesse arraignment in court where the charges are read and the offender takes the plea to the case. This will be followed by preliminary hearing, which is a hearing that focuses on determining whether there is enough evidence to prosecute the accused. The pre-trial motions can include a judicial session with intention of deciding issues of law or fact, in some cases with witnesses testifying before trial (California Attorney General, n.d.). If enough evidence is found, the case will be submitted for the grand-jury review or filed in the trial court. This is followed by the guilty phase trial. This trial focuses on determining whether the offender is guilty of capital murder. The prosecutor should be able to prove that the accused is guilty of murdering a police officer either on duty or to resist arrest. The prosecutor will be permitted to provide evidence and witnesses to prove that the offender is guilty, while the defense lawyer will be permitted to present evidence and wittiness to refute the charges. The offender is allowed to defend himself in all possible ways. The prosecutor must be able to convince the jury that the defendant is guilty of committing first-degree murder and also prove that the crime committed is among the crimes covered by special circumstances and hence it warrants the death penalty. Once the offender is found guilty, then the trial goes to the next phase where the offender penalty is determined (California Attorney General, n.d.).

Read also Is The Death Penalty A Valid Example Of Deterrence Theory, Based On Beccaria’s Theories Of Punishment?

In the penalty phase, the jury reviews mitigating and aggravating evidence. The jury then gives a verdict of either life imprisonment without the chance of parole or death. The penalty phase is primarily like another mini-trial. The district attorney is permitted to offer testimony and evidence to support the argument that the death penalty is the most suitable punishment for the offense (California Attorney General, n.d.). The defense lawyer is also granted the chance to address the jury and to give testimony and evidence to persuade the jury to discard the death penalty request. Some of the aspects assessed to mitigate and aggravate the death penalty verdict include the crime nature, the case special circumstances, offender’s state of mind, past criminal record, a show of remorse, age at the time of committing the crime, and offender’s history of violence. In case a death verdict is returned, a trial judge is requested to determine if to reduce the judgment to life imprisonment without parole or to leave the verdict as it is (California Attorney General, n.d.).

Read also Against the Death Penalty – Argumentative Essay

The defendant can consider filing for an appeal if unsatisfied with the given verdict. In this phase, the defendant’s role is not to prove he is innocent but to show there was a critical mistake in the process in which he was convicted. The new trial motion can be based on jury misconduct, newly discovered evidence, or insufficient evidence in the first trial. These reasons can initiate a new trial. The appeal is admitted in the court of appeal, and in case the decision is still dissatisfactory, the appeal can be submitted to the highest criminal court in the state. This court is required to review the trial court decision and maybe reverse it (California Attorney General, n.d.).

Read also Application: Impact of the Death Penalty

Courts Where Mr. James will Appear and Why?

Mr. James will appear in pre-trial, trial, and verdict trials in the state superior court. Here, Mr. James will focus on presenting the evidence, witnesses, and own input regarding the case, to convict the offender. Mr. James will also cross-examine the defendant’s witness and try to nullify their evidence in an attempt to prove the defendant guilty to the court.  In case the Jesse is not satisfied with the trial court verdict, Jesse will appeal in the state court of appeal where the case will be reviewed (Georgetown Law, 2019). Mr. James will also appear here to defend his case against Jesse. Here Mr. James will hand in all evidence, testimonial reports, and other materials that can guide the appeal case in deciding on the validity of the initial verdict. In case Jesse is not satisfied by the court verdict, he may consider appealing to the Supreme Court. Mr. James will still appear in this court to defend his case against Jesse. As the case prosecutor, Mr. James will be required to defend his case by filing a state respondent brief answering the defendant briefs regarding the case (Georgetown Law, 2019). 

Potential Hearing that might be Involve

There will be several hearings to take place in this case. The first will be a pre-trial hearing where the charges will be read and Jesse takes a plea. Mr. James will present his evidence to determine if there is enough evidence to initiate a trial. Mr. James should also declare his intention to make this a special circumstance case at this stage. This will be followed by the first trial hearing. The first trial will focus on determining whether the accused is guilty of first-degree murder of the police officer. It will also determine whether the case qualifies for a special circumstance (California Attorney General, n.d.). This will be followed by a penalty trial hearing where the verdict will be given. The fourth hearing will be in the appeal court is Jesse decides to file an appeal. The fifth hearing can be in the Supreme Court if the appeal court verdict is not satisfactory. In the Supreme Court, the defendant can also file a petition for a writ of certiorari which can provoke another hearing. The defendant can also file state habeas corpus review that may require another hearing. The number of hearing after the end of the initial trial will be determined by Jesse’s desire to overturn the initial judgment, and the far he can go in requesting reviews or filing for appeals (California Attorney General, n.d.).

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Relevant Civil Liberties Issues about the 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, and 14th Amendments

Jesse is arrested for the murder of a police officer. Mr. James will require to present evidence to prove Jesse is guilty. While looking for this evidence, Mr. James will be restricted by the 4th Amendment that protects Jesse from unnecessary search and seizures of his home, himself, and items. To collect any evidence from Jesse or any of his belonging through search and seizures, Mr. James will need a warrant from the court, failure to which he may lose the case through wrong procedure and violation of Jesse’s right to privacy. During Arrest, Jesse will have to be reminded of his right based on Fifth Amendment against self-incrimination. Jesse will be permitted to record statement if he wishes, and his silence in any interrogation will be respected in connection to the Fifth Amendment (Grabel, 2020).

Read also Historic Events Leading to 14th Amendment, Supreme Court Interpretation And Relevant Cases

Jesse sixth Amendment rights will be protected through the pretrial reading of charges and taking a plea. He will also be offered the right to find a lawyer to defend himself through court trials. This will protect him from punishment without trial. Although the 8th Amendment is provoked in some cases, Jesse will find problems provoking his bail right due to the nature of his crime. In this regard, Jesse may remain in custody after arrest until his trials are over. However, the Amendment may protect him from cruel treatment such as electric shock treatment when in custody. Jesse will also have rights to due process of the law based on the 14th Amendment. This means he is protected by the law and has the right to make appeals and to request for all possible review of the case as provided by the country criminal justice system, especially for special circumstances case (Grabel, 2020).

Read also Primary Constitutional Amendments That Comprise Prisoner Complaints; 1st, 4th, 8th, and 14th – Cases

Communication Barriers between Police and Community

The police often communicate to people from diverse backgrounds, preconceptions and attitudes (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). The police often face a challenge when communication to the people and this could be attributed to many factors. Sometimes the police are required to communicate to people who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. The use of drugs or alcohol causes mood swings, disorientation and even passing out. Due to the effects associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs, the police have a challenge in communicating with individuals under drugs or alcohol and difficulty of attaining possible outcome.

Read also Police – Community Relations

            The police often serve communities with diverse culture, beliefs and values (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). Sometimes a police officer can be posted to serve in a community, whose values, beliefs and culture are different from the one of the police officer. The variations in culture, beliefs and values can cause a barrier in communication for example the differences in languages or dialects. Moreover, the differences in values, culture and beliefs can be a source of misunderstanding, which hampers effective communication by creating confusion.

Read also Community Policing Concept – Introduction to Law Enforcement Paper

            Sometimes the police officers can misuse their power while exercising their duties (Du, 2004). Since the police officers have the power to arrest individuals who have been suspected to breach the law, if such police officers abuse their powers, for example through threats, intimidation or belittling people, such people may get scared, upset and confused. When people lose their cool, they may not be able to communicate well and thus leading to ineffective communication with the police officers. Finally, when police officers make assumptions about other people, they can cause poor communication with such individuals. For example, if a police officer views those who breach law as troublemakers, such a view on a first time offender may hurt them; make them lack confidence thus hampering communication.

Read also Defining Police Ethics

What Police Officers can Do to Reduce Communication Barriers

            According to (Shah, Rahman, & Khashu, 2007), police officers cannot perform well if they cannot attain effective communication with the people they serve. One way of breaking the communication barriers is for the police officers to have comprehensive knowledge about the population that they serve. This entails knowledge in the changes in demographics of communities and the languages. One they police officers develops an understanding of the language of the people they serve, they can allocate appropriate resources for their services. For example, if they serve non-speakers of English, the police officers can employ translators or interpreters. Moreover, the police officers could learn the language of the people they serve in order to bridge language barriers.          

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

The police can overcome the barriers that result from abuse of powers by developing understanding of what is wrong and right in how to treat other individuals without bringing their power into the situation (Shah, Rahman, & Khashu, 2007). An example is learning ways of making arrests without use of force. Strategies such as polite arrest requests and giving full information can calm individuals and facilitate communication. Giving people chance to talk without judging them and allowing them to talk with what the police officers believe helps in overcoming the communication barriers associated with making assumptions and those associated with beliefs and values. For example, appreciating the differences in values and accepting to be addressed under the unique religious or cultural values by those being served can enhance communication between the police officers and the people they serve.

Police Mission – Fighting Crime or Public Service

There roles of the police has been changing since the inception of the profession in the United States. The roles of the police have been under progression since their introduction to the public in 1840s and 1900s (Kelling & Moore, 1998). The political era defines the time when the police were introduced to the public in 1840s and early 20th century. Then followed the reform era that occurred in the late 20th century, the modern community policing introduced in 1970s, which defines the roles of the police in the modern American society. The modern policing have moved from the old roles of police officer of crime prevention to include a cohesive community that works in partnership with the police department in roes that go beyond just fighting crime to include public service.

Read also Principles of Police Organization, Administration And Service

            The police departments are not entities to themselves but exist for the purposes of serving the public for which they should bear some responsibility. According to (Gaines & Worrall, 2011), being responsible means the act of responsiveness to the problems and challenges facing the citizens. Moreover, the author asserts that the responsibility extends to effective management of the police resources. The police obtain the mandate from the consent of those they serve and thus their acts should replicate and act of public service and not just crime prevention.

Read also Evolution of Policing and the Training and Skills For Success In Law Enforcement

            The public have a number of diverse problems, in addition to the crimes, for example emergencies in case of fire breakouts and accidents. According to (Gaines & Worrall, 2011, p. 22), police sole focus on the crime prevention will not help in dealing with the diverse problems that confront the police officers and the public. Moreover, the emphasis on the pursuit of administrative efficiency and capability to fight crime isolated the police from crime and lead to ineffective responses to the disorders and crimes affecting the citizens. The police can help in preventing crimes and disorder through a coordinated police strategy that incorporates the public. Such police public service strategy makes the public as police partners and this helps in reporting of crimes and thus assists in prevention of crimes.

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

            Most crimes emanate from the social ill embedded in the American society. The development of trust between the police and the public is important in quelling of conflicts (O’shea, 2000). For example, if the youths show some distrust in the police, they are less likely to share information of a crime that is being planned. Moreover, such distrust prevents such youths from testifying in cases that involve crimes. This calls for a shift in change of the basic position of the police officer. For example, rather than react to incidences, a police officer must plan, analyze, and take appropriate initiatives. However, planning and analysis process can only be successful if public participation is encouraged. Through public involvement, effective crime prevention strategies, responses to emergency social crises and dispute resolutions can be achieved.          

Read also Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Treatment – Final Project : Research Paper

The resources and methods of police officers extend beyond citations and arrests (Fielding & Innes, 2006).  The changing policing strategy has altered the content of jobs of a police officer into that of public service delivery. They should be able to make decisions that encompass questions of honor or dishonor. Through public service delivery, the police shift the scope of their work from crime prevention into service to the interests of the public. Such shifts are pertinent in crime prevention and incorporation of public views into the execution of their mandate and this ensuring effective maintenance of order in the society. In conclusion, the service of the police officers must extend beyond crime prevention into public service for effective policing.

Tidewater Police Department Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy

Assignment Instructions

The Tidewater Police Department is a small rural department that consists of 22 police officers, 4 detectives, a criminal intelligence analyst and 3 secretaries. The mayor just hired you as Chief of the department. About half of the officers have 20+ years of experience and the other half have less than 3 years of experience. You learn that there have been 4 civil cases filed against the department for police officer misconduct within the last year.

Read also Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion

Write a 2-3 page, APA style paper addressing the issues of Code of Conduct and Ethics Policies for Police Departments. Include in the body of the paper a Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy for the Tidewater Police Department. Please include 2-3 references. Only one reference may be from an internet source (not Wikipedia) the other references must be located in the Grantham University Online Library. Only the body of the paper will count toward the page requirement. Include a title sheet. Please see the rubric below.

Read also Misconducts in Policing, Their Causal Factors and Strategies Used to Prevent Such Occurrences

Sample Tidewater Police Department Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy

Introduction

            The fundamental duty of a police officer is to serve mankind by protecting live and property, protect the innocent from deception, the weak from intimidation or oppression, and the peaceful from disorder or violation and more importantly to abide by and respect the constitutional rights of all to justice, equality and liberty(Barath, & Sherriff, 2011). Code of ethics requires police officer to keep their private life unsullied, act courageously and calm even when faced with danger, ridicule or scorn as well as develop the culture of self-restrain and always be mindful of others(Delattre, 2011). Police employees should be exemplary in obeying the regulation of Tidewater police department and the law of the land. They should conduct themselves in a professional manner by not allowing their personal feelings, friendship, animosities and prejudices to influence their decisions.

Read also Defining Police Ethics

Code of conduct

            All police employees are expected to conduct and behave in a manner that public will build their trust in them. These code of conduct include:

  • Integrity and honesty: Police officers should be honest and carry out their duties while observing integrity at all time without allowing compromise to come in between or abuses their position.
  • Courtesy, Respect and Authority: They should exercise self-control and tolerance as well as treating colleague and members of the public with courtesy and respect. They must use their authority and powers proportionately and lawfully as well as respecting the rights of all individuals.

Read also Principles of Police Organization, Administration And Service

  • Equity and diversity: They should discharge their duties impartially and fairly by not discriminating unfairly or unlawfully.
  • Use of force: They should only use force as part of their responsibility and roles, and only to the extent that is required, reasonable and proportionate in all the situation
  • Order and instruction: They are required to abide by police regulation by giving and carrying out only lawful orders. They should follow and give out reasonable instructions.
  • Duties and responsibilities: They should carry out their duties diligently and responsibly.

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

  • Confidentiality: They should respect confidentiality of the information, treat with respect and disclose or access it using the proper course of their duties.
  • Fitness for work: They should ensure at all times that they are fit to perform their duties and responsibilities.
  • Conduct: They should behave in way that does not discredit police service or undermine public confidence whether on or off duty.
  • Challenging and reporting improper behavior: They should take action, challenge or report against colleagues who have misconducted or their professional behaviors have fallen short of set standards.

Considering that most police officers carry out their duties without close supervision, the responsibility of proper conduct lies squarely on the individual officer. The officer is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the community is safe and fellow police officers operate in a safe environment (Haberfeld, 2013). Therefore, a police officer is expected to discharge his/her duties faithfully and diligently. Anything short of this code of conduct and ethics violates the trust bestowed by the public and belittles the qualities of professional conduct as a police officer.

Principles of Police Organization, Administration And Service

Introduction

Police administration is a career that requires high level of dedication to be able to keep up with the work related demands. Thus just like all other careers, police department requires to employ individuals that are fit for the job and to constantly train them to be able to discharge their duties with high level of efficiency. Based on the police work demands, the police department spend a lot of time in recruitment and training process as a way of ensuring that the force has the right people who understand their duties and who are ready to serve. Once a police officer passes the two stages, he or she qualifies for all other policing duties and can easily manage to be promoted to a higher level based on the level of experience, individual track performance record, and ability to pass promotion written exams. This paper evaluates police career development stages and some of the process that take place during police daily operations in the United States police force.

Read Also Evolution of Policing and the Training and Skills For Success In Law Enforcement

Police Recruitment

The United States police recruitment process starts with placing job advert in relevant media which can include printed media and virtual media. The advert normally contains information regarding the required individual minimum qualifications to stand a chance to be selected. It also states the role and duties of the specific unit that requires new recruits, and how the unit anticipates these duties to be accomplished. This guides applicants in making informed decision while making their applications. The initial application highly determines whether an applicant will be selected for entry level or not based on how convincingly a person proof that he or she qualifies for the advertised position. Once selected at this level, a person get a chance to go through other numerous selections and training as they seek career advancement (US.Sagepub, n.d).

To qualify to join the police force in the U.S. one must be a U.S. citizen and be able to proof that he or she is a U.S. citizen at the beginning of the selection process. The police unit also requires all applicants to be aged between 21 and 39 years at the appointment time. One must have a GED certificate or higher school diploma certificate.  Applicants will also be required to have a valid U.S. driver license, which should be well maintained and that has not been withdrawn, under suspension or revoked and show responsible habits of driving. Applicants must also be listed with the Selective Service System or excused from registration with Selective Service System as female or due to military or age status. Individual applicants with military service will be required to offer honorable discharge proof or documentation (US.Sagepub, n.d). Applicants are also required to go through a full background investigation. Individuals who satisfy the minimum requirements are then required to make an online application to the relevant police department as directed by the job advert. The police recruitment process in the United States can take varying time based on each applicant’s individual primary eligibility. The length of the period taken relies on specific circumstances of an individual, and it can takes months to years to be completed. The application procedure differs based on the unit one is interested in. Applicants are thus required to strictly follow the unique application process included in the specific unit, fill in all the required forms, and to attach all the required documents or proofs before submitting their application. The application forms should be accompanied by cover letter and resumes which are gauged based on how well they are written (Sagepub, n.d).

The application process is then followed by entry level selection. This process involves going through the application forms and choosing applicants that meet the recruitment requirement convincingly. This is followed by a number of interviews and tests to enable the unit to select the most qualified personnel. The police recruitment selection process include written standardized test, oral board interview, status test, physical agility test, background investigation to validate submitted information, and medical exam. Status test evaluates individual citizenship, ability to get or possession of a driver license, age, service in the military, level of education, and residency. Physical tests involve medical examinations, physical agility tests, vision tests, weight-height proportionate tests and endurance to do police work. All the physical agility tests have to be job-related; otherwise they can be challenged in a court of law (US.Sagepub, n.d). The candidates that manage to satisfy all of these requirements are offered the job. Other than discriminating applicant on height, height-weight proportionate test concentrates on body proportionality based on BMI requirements to check on applicant fitness. Vision test mostly vary greatly from one unit or department to another most focusing on weapon qualification, ability to identify persons and license plates, and ability to drive based on individual duties.

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 Medical testing during recruitment is very important since it assist in determining how healthy a person is and noting any possible disabilities or health issues. The initial assessment results are later used to determine work related injuries later in an applicant career and hence guiding the department in injury related compensation. Medical test also includes physical examination, cardiovascular pulmonary test, blood test, vision test and hearing test. The test also includes mental tests which are divided into two groups that include tests to determine psychological fitness and test designed to assess applicant aptitude, knowledge and intelligence. The intelligence test mostly checks on applicant’s ability to apply and learn police information, ability to remember and learn details, ability to employ logic and judgment and ability to follow directions. There are also molarity tests which include polygraph examination, drug tests, and background investigation. The background investigation checks on aspects that include driving records, bankruptcy, court records, education records, social security number, military records, vehicle registration, past employers, character references, property ownership, personal references, credit records, incarceration records, court records, state licensing records, neighbors interviews, sex offender lists, criminal records, drug test records, workers’ compensation, and medical records. The oral board test individual person’s ability to communicate, to think critically and to solve problems among other things (Sagepub, n.d).

The police selection process is also carefully done to ensure that the country’s employment laws are strictly followed especially while doing medical test, and body agility test. Some of the laws that are considered in this process include the anti-discrimination laws. This law focuses on ensuring that applicants are not discarded based on unique individual traits that are determined at birth and other features applicants should not be anticipated to change such as religion, race, disability, gender, age and national origin. However, the police recruitment employ age discrimination which is regarded to be legal since Age discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) permits age limit in situations where age has confirmed to be a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) (Sagepub, n.d.). Age is highly related by individual physical decline, agility or ability. It is also related to individual risk to personal trauma or injury and thus, it is an important factor while defining the recruitment and retirement of police officers in the force. The selection process in police unit can reject an applicant based on disability. Although the American with Disability Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination of individuals with specific groups of disabilities, it also requires a qualified person with disability to be able to execute important job elements with or without sensible accommodation. This provision makes it possible for police unit to eliminate applicant with physical and mental disabilities that would interfere with their job execution (US.Sagepub, n.d).

Police Training

The United States police training is highly standardized at both federal and state level. The US academy training is offered at local, state and federal levels. Others federal law enforcement training centers and FBI academy are found at national level. Every state contains its own police training academy with training taking twelve to twenty six weeks. The total number of training hours at the end of the academy training also varies from one state to another.  However, the basic academy training hours at state level ranges from 280 to 1032 hours. The state primary academy program is standardized to control the minimum training level in every state. For instance the primary academy training program for Hawaii goes for 1032 hours, while that of Minnesota only goes for 280 hours (Dogutas, Dolu & Gul, 2007). Kentucky, Ohio and California are the most significant states with regard to police training. This is because they set the initial USA police academy training standards. For instance, in 1959, the Peace Officer Standards and Training Commission (POST) was created in California to develop a standard for primary police training. This regulation has since then been implemented by all states.  All cities at the local level have their own academies and some universities contain academies to address the police training needs in their region. All state and local police academies are required to meet minimum training requirements, although most go beyond the minimum level (Dogutas, Dolu & Gul, 2007).

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All departments of police support formal training which is used to introduce recruits to primary police procedures and legal concepts. These rough police training programs are structured to drive police trainees to perform their best cognitively and physically. Most states contain some kind of governmentally authorized training regimen which must be completed by law enforcement officers. These programs are normally held at the specific department police academies or state facilities of law enforcement training utilized by all agencies of law enforcement in the state. These training programs take four to eight months, and those who manage to complete them are awarded with college credits in some states and certificates in others. Most states offer intensive four months training as the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers (FLETC). This training covers a number of areas which include physical fitness, officer survival and safety, driving training, interviewing and communication, tactics for flying armed, Federal and constitutional law, firearms, criminal law, physical security, arrest techniques, VIP protection, defensive tactics, terrorism, and drugs of abuse. The above training is offered to all officers in most cases despite of their unit of specialization. The training is meant to ensure that all officers have general knowledge needed to ensure effective operation and provision of quality services as police officers. Majority of police training academies are modeled on programs of military training that instill a high concern for performance and physical conditioning. According to Dogutas, Dolu and Gul (2007), active police officer need to be ready for anything, from chasing a suspect fleeing on foot and restraining unruly persons physically, to pursuit discharging sidearm while driving. The thoroughness of extreme police training programs is highly demanding and demand candidates to be in their best mental, psychological and physical condition. This explains why the recruitment process demands physical agility and medical examination.

Police in the United States also require field training where police cadets are needed to spend twelve weeks training after their graduation. The officers are needed to spend time with a Field Training Officer (FTO) immediately after their graduation. FTOs incorporate police officers who are the most successful in their career. In addition, an officer that is specially trained is assigned for every probationer to assist then in adapting to the police force. The field training process also has Field Training Coordinators that are responsible of managing activities between the Training Bureau, Patrol Zone Commanders and FTOs. The FTOs provide three varying evaluation reports about the Field Trainee Field Training Coordinators (Dogutas, Dolu & Gul, 2007). The trainees begin patrolling with the help of FTO until they turn to be successful in working independently as qualified police officers. In case an individual trainee fails based on the evaluation report, the FTO might demand the trainee to pursue extra course back at the training academy. US also offer in-service training programs in the country’s police academies. The departments publicize their programs of in-service training through publishing the courses schedule, descriptions of course, and course costs (Dogutas, Dolu & Gul, 2007). Pursuing in-service program is normally voluntary, officers are urged to pursue as many courses as one can manage, especially is an officer wishes to take part in some specialized duties. Additional, in case an officer fails to complete some tasks he or she is obligated to take similar courses in in-service training. The US specialized police training programs are provided to train distinctive personnel that include members of special response team, technical crash investigators and detectives among others. Similar to basic training academies in the US, programs of in-service training are application and hands-on founded programs particularly structured to meet specific police needs. Police officers are required to at least take proficiency and quality control tests once per year. If an officer fails the test twice, the officer is needed to pursue some refreshment courses or lose their police officers operation license. In this regard, majority of US local police departments have their own standard training facilities and shooting ranges and they do not have ammunition limits for officers in their range training (Dogutas, Dolu & Gul, 2007).

Police Promotion

The last stage of fresh police officer training ends when an officer in field training is approved. This officer gets to work alone but on probation, where he or she is closely monitored by a supervisor. During this time an officer can be dismissed for any careless mistakes performed during the operation. However, once a fresh officer is confirmed, he or she stands a chance to join any unit or specialty in police department. At this point an officer can move from one unit to another in the department to gain exposure. An officer needs to work in certain position for a minimum of time to qualify for possible promotion. He or she will also need to advance in the related field and write and pass an exam to qualify for promotion. The police ranks moves from junior entry level to a sergeant, then a lieutenant and finally a captain. To be promoted to a higher position in police department one may need to go through further training and past various tests or take general career advancement by enrolling in a university (Utsystem, 2016).

To be promoted from one rank to another officer must attain time requirement in the current positions and classification based on promotion process regulation. One must also take promotion written exam and a performance evaluation for the past years where performance progress will be assessed to determine the performance trend. An officer must also attain a specific level of rating based on his or her service to the public in the current position to be able to be considered for a higher position. This is compared to that of other candidate to determine the most competitive applicant. Reference letter from other stakeholders who include other jurisdictions of law enforcement, civil servants or retired senior executive who can professionally or personally attest to individual applicant’s work, relation with the public, efficiency in work, level of morality, exposure, work experience, work volume and accuracy, and customer-service standard will play a great role in making promotion decision. In addition, award and recognition given to an applicant in their current service period will serve as an added advantage. Other aspects to be considered include disciplinary actions record where disciplinary action severe that written warning within 12 months will limit chances of being selected or make an applicant disqualified. Promotion in police administration is provided on competitive ground, and hence one need to demonstrate a higher level of proficiency compared to other candidates to qualify for promotion (Utsystem, 2016).

Complaints

Local police departments offer the Office of Police Complaints (OPC) which offers different means to file complaint on police misconduct. According to the department, public has the right to file a complaint against a police officer within 90 days from the day the incident took place. The complaint can involve any topic of police misconduct which includes failure to display of wear needed identification, use of insults or offensive language, discriminatory treatment, humiliating and/or demeaning among other. The allegation can be filed through filling in and submitting an online complaint form, making a phone call to the relevant authority, sending the complaint form via email, writing a letter with detailed information on the incident or appear physically in a police office and file a complaint (Goldsmith, 1990). The complaint should include information such as exact location, time and day of the indent, the physical description of the officer, badge number and name. One should also include name, and contact of the witness, vehicle number plate and photos, videos, documents such as medical records, description of injury or any other viable information. The applicant should be left with a copy after submitting the complaint copy. The complaints can as well be anonymous. The complaint filed will be followed by investigation process which will involve interviewing the officers and witnesses, inspecting provided evidence reviewing records, procedures and policies of police department. This will be followed by sending of preliminary disposition letter to the officer and the complaint. The officer and complaint have the right to meet with the investigator to review investigation procedures. In case a complaint is affirmed, it will be taken to the chief of police who organizes a hearing within ten days. A disciplinary hearing may as well be held where the chief can impose suspension for 10 days. A complaint may be passed to the police commission in case the complaint is very serious. A hearing must take place before making a conclusion. The right action is taken based on the investigation results (Terrill & Ingram, 2015).

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Records

The police department plays a great role in protecting life and property of all citizens in their locality. They thus keep records of the occurrence of event in a region based on their own discovery or citizens reports. These records may include simple to serious crimes taking place in an area, with details like time, date, locality and event description. The record can also include road accident records, offenses records grouped based on the type of offense. The records may also include criminal database with past convicted individuals and their crime records and wanted individuals and their crime record. The database may contain criminal name, face, description, and finger prints among other important information (Denver Police Department, 2018). These records can also be written records for the cases reported verbally, or recording from 911 hotline calls, used by the public to report crimes. Audio recording can as well include dispatching 911 record where the police radio call and the 911 respondent in the station are tape record or computer dispatch records. Other police records include investigation reports, halo video recording activities in a monitored location, and DUI room video among others. Most of police records are protected from public access to prevent interference with police work. However, some of this information can be provided to the public upon request and sometimes at a fee. It is important to note that police cannot release information that will jeopardize its investigation or that will result in endangering life of others.  The provision of police record in most states is governed by Freedom of Information Act where the law provides terms for individual access to public records (Denver Police Department, 2018).

Communication

Police department need to be able to effectively communicate with each other and with citizens to be able enhance peace and order in their region of operation. Some of the means of communication provided within the department include radios which are commonly used to report a situation, to give information and sometimes to give incident approach procedures. Beside this, most police officers have contact with other units or department and they constantly communicate in a situation where they may need help with a case that overstep their jurisdiction (Stephens, Hill & Greenberg, 2011). This kind of communication enhances investigation to crimes that involves different operation regions but with similarity in operations. The communication in the police department is normally two ways where seniors communicate to juniors while giving orders and instructions, and juniors communicating to the seniors while reporting back on progress of an assigned duty or emergency of an issue that need immediate attention. This can happen verbally or through a radio or phone call. Communication can also be between the police officers and citizen, which mostly happens by calling 911, hotline, to report crimes or through face to face meetings in the police stations. Police department can also use media to report matter of public interest to the people. This can take place in a newspaper or in aired media statement where the police spokesperson report issues to the public, especially on matters related to security, or when the force needs public assistance in an investigation. Thus communication is an important tool in effective execution of police duties of fighting crimes (Stephens, Hill & Greenberg, 2011).

Conclusion

Police administration involves a lot of activities that need to be done with a high level of efficiency. In this regard, most police departments focus on recruiting and training the right personnel to ensure that it has the right workforce to accomplish the right duties effectively. Based on the analysis, it is evident that police officers continue with further training even after they are confirmed. They also need to pass tests and maintain a great performance and ethical record to be promoted. They need to be conversant with the law and various police operation processes such as crimes recording, crimes monitoring, and call response among others.

“Don’t Talk to the Police” by Professor James Duane

A contemporary axiom made popular in recent times is that benefits often accrue from creating a rapport with law enforcement officers and communicating with them in the event that they require information to aid in investigations. Nonetheless, Professor James Duane begs to differ. In his lecture at Virginia’s Regent Law School, the professor is emphatic in his belief that individuals should never talk to the police (Don’t Talk to the Police, 2012). His radical viewpoint is based on the premise that numerous risks present themselves by simply talking to a police officer. Professor Duane opines that providing police officers with any information during an interrogation setting can possibly lead one to provide a faulty account, officers misremembering the events previously related and resulting in false confessions. The precarious nature of his perspective stems from a high likelihood of police officers combining the sketchy information provided with a faulty eyewitness account. Innocent persons could, therefore, end up being convicted of a serious crime and subjected to maxim penalties for the purported offence.  The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution is explicitly mentioned throughout the video as a legal calling card. This concept offers protection to individuals from being forced to provide incriminating evidence during a criminal proceeding (Brezina, 2011, p. 78). On the other hand, the Rule of Evidences (801 d 2 a) is also relevant in this case. Law enforcement officers have an obligation to use any information provided by suspects against them in court. Moreover, Professor Duane cautions viewers against talking to the police as it may ultimately lead to an unimpeachable witness. In such an instance, the witness will be viewed as credible and can, thus, give testimony before a tribunal.

Baltimore Police Department Consent Decree

Introduction

Consent of decree in the US law refers to a formal legal judgment which defines an agreement that has been reached by two sides especially in a specific legal case. This mostly entails one side accepting to terminate legal action if certain things are carried out by the other side. Consent of decree is mostly used in enforcement of federal civil antitrust and it has proven to an effective enforcement tool in forcing the involved parties to make changes and live within the rule of the law (Flynn1968).In this case the consent of decree involved the police misconduct. Although the huge number of the law enforcement officer in the nation do their very complex jobs with regard for their communities and in submission with the law. This paper focuses on preparing the US Department of Justice consent of decrees and agreements to the Chief of the Virtual Police Department.  The main purpose of this presentation is to make the chief understand circumstance under which a police department is forced to a decree with intention of determining if Virtual Police Department is at risk of being given one and how the department can avoid such circumstances.

Description of the Situation

This paper is based on consent decree given to Baltimore Police Department in Maryland. Baltimore was given consent of decree by the Department of Justice the investigative research conducted on the Baltimore police behavior revealed that the Baltimore City Police Department takes part in a practice and pattern of conduct which violates the 14th, Fourth and First Constitution Amendment and federal anti-discrimination laws. Baltimore Police Department (BPD) investigation began in May 2015 and the findings were announce by the Department of Justice (DOJ) in August 2016. In the DOJ report, it was established that the BPD made arrests, searches and stops without the needed justification. They were said to have applied enforcement approaches which illegally exposed African Americans to unequal rates of arrests, searches, and stops. They were also found to react against persons for expressions that are constitutionally-protected. The practice or pattern yielded from systematic deficits which persisted in the BPD for a number of years and aggravated police distrust by the community, especially in Black American community. The decree was therefore initiated by police misconduct. The police are required to enforce the law, while respecting the constitution of the country which safeguards the rights of the citizens. Failure to do this they kill the trust that the public has in them (Department of Justice, 2017).

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The BPD and city leadership in October 2014, requested to get into a collaborative process of reform with the Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Office in DOJ. The practice-or-pattern investigation was opened by Civil Rights Division in May 2015, after which the Justice Programs Office in the DOJ and COPS office continued to provide federal resources that include technical assistance to the community leaders, city officials and the BPD. The investigation carried out proved that Baltimore police were engaged conduct which deprived Baltimore people of the protections and rights guaranteed to them by the American constitution and the deeply-rooted distrust enacted by the Baltimore community toward law enforcement officers harms all individuals who live in the city. Following these finding it was very relevant for the DOJ to get into a court-enforceable agreement with the Baltimore city to address the violations identified in the carried out investigation (Department of Justice, 2017).

Provisions of the Consent Decree

The consent decree demanded that the BPD and the city of Baltimore should instrument comprehensive reforms to terminate the Baltimore legacy of zero tolerance policing. The BPD is expected to empower its police officer to engross positive, community-based policing. The reforms should be effectively implemented to restore advance public and officers’ safety as well as restoring community trust toward the police officers. The BPD and the Baltimore city will instrument comprehensive reforms which will guarantee that BPD embraces a community based policing approach, which is founded on principles of problem solving. Implementation should also create a community Task Force Oversight to commend reforms to today civilian oversight system. The reforms should guarantee that officers intended interactions are courteous and professional. All investigatory arrests, searches and stops, conducted by officers should be in a way that safeguards rights of the people. The BPD should offer equal legal protection for all people, including offering neutral policing services. Police officers employ suitable de-escalation attempt and techniques to resolve incidents with no force when probable. In this case, the officers should only apply force in a way that is relative to the presented threat. The BPD should therefore employ force policies, review and training system, and offer enough accountability, skills, and guidance with regarding to use of force (Department of Justice, 2017a).

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The BPD is also required to transports prisoners in a way which maintains their safety. Officers should also protect the rights of all people as provided by the first constitution amendment. They should also investigate gender related crimes such as sexual abuse comprehensively with no gender bias. BPD is also required to effectively, fairly and fully investigate employees’ misconduct allegations, and ensure that all investigative results are supported by suitable proof standards and recorded in writing. The department should also ensure that all officers that commit misconduct are served as required by the law in a consistent, fair and as provided in due process. The department is also required to analyze mental health system gap in the city and provide suitable training to its officers in handling individuals under psychological distress or behavioral disabilities. The city should also carry out assessment to reduce the involvement of youths with the criminal and juvenile justice systems and provide manner in which officer can interact with youth in age appropriate manner. The reforms are also required to facilitate the provision of necessary support, equipment, training, and policy guidance to officer to enable them to perform their work effectively and safely. A staffing study should also be conducted by BPD to guarantee enough number of supervisors and officers. These measures were anticipated to make the necessary changes in the department (Department of Justice, 2017b).

Connection of the Consent Decree Provision to the Initiating Cause

The consent of decree defines the steps that the BPD must take to restore the police dignity in the area. It clearly points out issues that must be looked at while providing the police reforms. This provision is highly based on the investigation report. According to the investigation, the police officers in Baltimore have been violating the fourth, first, and 14th constitution amendment. The fourth amendment safeguards citizens from unlawful seizures and search (Cornell Law School, 2017). Meaning the police may need a probable cause or a warrant before search a citizen, citizens’ property or before making an arrest. This has been violated and hence the consent of decree demands that BPD to ensure that all arrest, search, and seizures are done with respect to people’s rights as provided by the constitution. It advocate for the use of force that is proportional to the threat presented and nothing more.

Police were also found in the investigation to respond to people’s expressions that were protected by the constitution as per the first amendment. The first amendment provides that no law should be made by the Congress regarding religion establishment or barring the free exercise undermining the freedom of press or speech, or the people right to assemble peacefully and to petition the government for grievances redress (Cornell Law School, 2017). The consent decree demanded that the BPD should adopt a more community based policing which is based on problem solving and respect rights of all citizens as provided by the first constitution amendment. The police were also found to be more discriminative to Black Americans, violating the 14th amendment. This amendment approved citizenship to all individuals naturalized or born in the United States, including freed former slaves (Cornell Law School, 2017). This means that the rights of all individual defined as US citizens based on this amendment are protected by the constitution of the country. This made the decree to demand for equal treatment for all by the Baltimore police. The consent of decree is therefore specifically made to address police misconducts, specifically based on how they were behaving toward the public. The consent of decree is specifically created to change the police behaviors for a better police-public relationship.

What Virtual Police Department Needs to do so as to Avoid Consent Decree

Consent decree in this case involve the judicially and the law enforcement agency with the main aim being ensuring that police observe the law while enforcing it. The consent decree ensures that the police maintain a code of conduct while performing their duties. This implies that any police department whose officers are overstating their mandate and legal operational level are bound to be subjected to a consent decree.  This implies that the Virtual Police Department needs to review its officers’ conduct to determine if there are officers overstating their position as law enforcers. The review should check on how the officers go about stop, search, seizure, and arrest. The department should investigate on whether there is any of its officers who use excessive force than the presented threat and if so, a disciplinary action should be taken against them (Department of Justice, 2015).

The department should investigate on other aspects which the officers are likely to behave inappropriately. This includes how they treat minority communities, how they handle demonstrators and citizens when exercising their rights for free worship, and free expression. This general overview can be facilitated by the community interview, review of previous media reporting regarding police brutality in the area, and review of any raised complain regarding how police solve problems or respond to call from the community. This will give the department an insight on the relationship between the police and the public and decide on whether there is anything amiss that may attract a request for investigation in the department. The department should take the initiative of conducting reforms long before the intervention of the judicially. This should start by disciplining the officers involved in any identified misconduct (Department of Justice, 2012).

The department should impose disciplinary action as directed by the law and the police code of conduct governing the law enforcement agency. The department should also look at the policies loopholes that make it easy for its officers to break the law or behave in a gross manner. Development of new policies that will assist in controlling police behaviors to ensure that are within the required range should be established. A review will be required in the use of force and also in the use of firearm among others. The policies will need to ensure proper discipline measures are employed to those who use unnecessary force and those who use their guns improperly. To create effect, these individuals should be punished immediately there is enough evidence that they were involved in any of the two forms of misconduct. Thus, investigation should start immediately such cases are reported and action taken immediately after the investigation is over.The Virtual Police Department will also need to engage community in its operations. A good community reporting system should be developed to ease the process of receiving community complains. A regular survey will also be conducted assist in collecting data regarding cases of misconduct and employing the right measures to curb them (Department of Justice, 2003).

The provision of consent decree depends basically on the conduct of the police officers in the department, based on the US constitution. All police officers go through training and hence, they are well informed of how they should work professionally to safeguard the constitution of the country, without undermining it. However, they mostly behave in unacceptable manner due to many factors that include challenging working condition and exposure to stressful situation during their work. This may cause mental distress that in most cases influences their behavior. In this regard Virtual Police Department has an obligation of reviewing the officers work condition and review it. The department needs to provide its officers with the right equipment and facilities to enhance their operations. The provision of mental facility will assist in ensuring that police officers mental health has been taken care of. Provision of these facilities will highly facilitate the operation of the police officer (Department of Justice, 2015).

Just like other workers in any other organization, police officers need motivation. The Virtual Police Department will need to come up with a strategy to enhance motivation in the department. Police officers with clean conduct record should be rewarded, just as those with negative record are disciplined. This will motivate them into trending in the right direction. Constant training to promote their ability to handle different situations and different kind of people especially juvenile and individuals suffering from mental condition. This will enhance their general work efficiency and improve their conduct toward the country’s citizens. The department will also need to develop a law training program where all its officers will be assisted in understanding the constitution of the country and their requirement in law enforcement. The training will include guiding them on how to handle citizens or offenders in different circumstances. They will be trained on what law expects them to do, and what will always be regarded as misconduct (Department of Justice, 2015).