Tag: Police

Community Policing Should Be Adopted To Address Crime Most Effectively


Community Policing is a policing approach aimed at helping fight crime and build rapport between police and local communities concurrently. It is quite different from the typical, or traditional, policing. The typical policing is commonly employed in urban zones by municipal agencies that are deemed highly responsive.

Community policing entails the assignment of groups of police officers to particular neighborhoods. It is hinged on the thinking that the presence of the officers in the neighborhoods, working with the populations they serve, deters crime. As well, it is hinged on the thinking that residents who find the officers approachable and amiable are highly likely to share with them security-related information and intelligence, ultimately lowering crime levels.

Read also Community Policing Concerns and Issues and Proposed Solutions

In some localities, community policing is effective as a supplement to traditional policing. Such localities have police officers on patrols cars and others on foot, interacting with citizens in their day to day activities. For instance, the combination of the two forms of policing define the Impact Program of the New York Police Department (NYPD).

Read also Community Policing Concept – Introduction to Law Enforcement Paper

Facts on Community Policing 

Community policing is commonly christened foot patrolling. Police officers partaking in it  patrol neighborhoods on foot. They are repeatedly assigned to patrol particular neighborhoods on foot. That ensures that they personally interact with the populations in their assigned localities.  As the officers patrol the localities, their presence is significantly heightened in the localities.

Read also Community Policing and Problem Solving Method – Westwood Community

As an approach of enforcing law, community policing is rather public and positive. It is positive on the public in the sense that it entails gently coordinated collaborations between law enforcers and communities, or residents. The collaborations help form strong bonds, or linkages, between the law enforcers and the communities.

Read also Impersonal Policing vs. Community Policing

Community policing helps in problem solving by building effective community-police relations. Police officers develop assistive partnerships with the populations, or neighborhoods, they serve. Through the relations, the majority of community concerns, as well as the related solutions, are identified via problem-solving. Notably, the diligent appraisal of the concerns and formulation of appropriate solutions to them reduces incidences of disorderliness and crime in communities.

Read also Community Oriented Policing

Community Policing Strengths

Community policing is better in preempting crime than traditional policing. Community policing ensures  that citizens and police collaborate closely in crime prevention. The citizens and police emphasize on preventing criminal acts prior to their happening. That ensures that only a limited number of possible crimes materialize.

Read also Victorian Community Crime Prevention Program

Community policing  is better than traditional policing as regards the promotion of the safety of the public  and communities’ living standards. That is because it ensures that everyone partakes in protecting community welfare. In community policing, policing objectives are broader in scope than in traditional policing. It is preventive and reactive while traditional policing is only reactive.

Community policing transforms policing structures and their management. That helps in the building up, as well as strengthening, of communities by linking police departments to them. The community becomes an added resource to the police for tackling crime.

Read also Communication Barriers between Police and Community

Community policing allows officers to wholly appreciate the profiles of communities they serve and potential criminals within them. Community policing allows for direct contact between citizens and police, as they all move around same neighborhoods.  The police get ample opportunities to know the citizens. The citizens get opportunities to develop confidence in police.

Community policing persuades the allocation of more and more public resources to police work. Through community policing, neighborhoods may pull together resources and commit to the work. Resources donated by neighborhoods supplement the ones committed by the government to the work (Watson, Stone & DeLuca, 1998) .

Read also Types of Misconduct by Community Corrections Professionals

Community policing, unlike traditional policing, helps unravel and address the root causes of criminal activities within given communities. Officers understand the factors that possibly give rise to the activities within their assigned communities. Does traditional policing expressly allow officers to engage communities in establishing such factors? Does it principally focus on arresting suspected criminals?

Counterclaims are Invalid

Those opposed to community policing argue that its success is dependent on the trust that citizens have in police. Is it possible that communities develop trust in police?  Is community trust in police attainable. Even though the success is dependent on the trust that citizens have in police, the trust is and can be grown over time.

Read also Evolution of Policing and the Training and Skills For Success In Law Enforcement

Other persons opposed to community policing contend that communities, citizens may not care. This contention has no basis since the policing is premised on communities working closely with police. When communities are engaged in community policing programs, it is not possible that they will not care about the programs (Ahlin & Gibbs, 2012; Goldstein, 1990).

Other pessimists contend that community policing worsens relationships between the police and citizens. That argument is not factual since as an approach of enforcing law, community policing is rather public and positive. It is positive on the public in the sense that it entails gently coordinated collaborations between law enforcers and communities, or residents. The collaborations help form strong bonds, or linkages, between the law enforcers and the communities.

Read also Misconducts in Policing, Their Causal Factors and Strategies Used to Prevent Such Occurrences


  Community policing should be adopted to address crime most effectively. Community Policing is a policing approach aimed at helping fight crime and build rapport between police and local communities concurrently. It is quite different from the typical, or traditional, policing. The typical policing is commonly employed in urban zones by municipal agencies that are deemed highly responsive.

  Community policing helps in problem solving by building effective community-police relations. Police officers develop assistive partnerships with the populations, or neighborhoods, they serve. Through the relations, the majority of community concerns, as well as the related solutions, are identified via problem-solving. Notably, the diligent appraisal of the concerns and formulation of appropriate solutions to them reduces incidences of disorderliness and crime in communities.

  Community policing, unlike traditional policing, helps unravel and address the root causes of criminal activities within given communities. Officers understand the factors that possibly give rise to the activities within their assigned communities. Does traditional policing expressly allow officers to engage communities in establishing such factors? Does it principally focus on arresting suspected criminals?

Intimate Relationship In Police Work, Its Effects And Control Measures

Almost half of the population in the United States of America has been proved to be meeting their lifetime partners from their respective placed of work. That population also includes the hardworking police officers of the nation. In most cases, not all the employees would be happy for such a thing to take place in their various organizations. There are some employers who even go to the extent of issuing requirements that requires such workmates to sign a love contract that shows that they will abide by the rules and regulations of the company. The only problem with most of the companies as well as the police departments is that they do not have stipulated laws either formal or informal. Therefore such relations normally are left to blossom at the risk of the company’s prosperity. The same does apply to our police department that has a number of patrol units.

Read also Why Operational Police Officers Should Reflect Demographic Diversity of the Communities in Which they Work

One of the night patrol units in our department has been significantly affected by the intimate relationship that is alleged to be brewing between two professional officers. One of the most notable negative influences that such a relation has had is that the busiest sector unit is experiencing a massive drop in its productivity. The intimate relation is alleged to be taking place between one of the married police officers and a single young female. According to the investigations that have been conducted over a period of two months, we have been able to establish that the two are indeed lovebirds. As a department, we have noted the ongoing relation between the two officer and abrupt actions have to be taken in order to save the department from problems in the future. We all know that relationships normally tend to be very romantic and interesting at their beginning points. However, when they get to the levels where the partners want to separate, it normally becomes worse because the two may not even work together. In order to avoid such embarrassments and difficulties in the future, the department has to come up with policies that govern such relations within the unit.

Read also Entrapment and Legitimate use of Lies by Police

The intimate relations between the two officers can indeed affect the culture of the patrol units of the police. If they are left to continue with their romantic relations, the rest of the unit members may take it to be a normal tradition within that unit. What will then happen is that the rest of the officers will also start adopting the same behavior pattern (Yarmey, 1990).

Read also Cases Related to Entrapment by the Police

The number of romantic relations between the officers will be on the rise in the near future. Ultimately what will happen is that the patrol duties will be turned in to romantic dates where officers will only focus on getting their sexual desires satisfied at the expense of keeping their regions safe. In the event that no patrol work takes place especially at night, the number of burglaries within the cities will be on the rise. Additionally, the public might as well lose its confidence on the police unit. There is nothing as dangerous as the public losing its confidence on the police officers because if that happens then there is no way that the police will ever get vital intelligence information (Yarmey, 1990). Apart from that, those who get into the intimate relation may start giving one another certain undeserving favors to one another within the work environments.  For instance, if one of the partners needs to be absent from work without a valid reason, the other partner can easily guarantee the other partner. In case of division of police resources, one of the partners may get a favor to be one of those who get the resources even in the event where their names could be missing as one of the beneficiaries.

Read also Case of Jesse James Arrested for Killing Police Officer

Finally, such relations do affect the cultures of the police patrol units because it will eventually lead to a reduction in productivity by a margin of approximately 22 %. Moreover, the relations will have a negative effect on the working relation with the other team members. The more serious consequence is that it will damage the entire working relation environment by a margin close to 28 %. The romantic relations will in the long run have a way of disrupting the dynamics of the teams. When such relations turn sour, the ultimate effect is the two officers will no longer be able to work effectively as a team.

Read also Police Mission – Fighting Crime or Public Service

The above mentioned dangers could then trigger stress to the other officers apart from the one who gets affected directly. An officer who is paired to work with a colleague whom they once had a romantic relation may not give his all to his duties. The stress of having to work with an ex partner may not only affect such an officer but also affect the families of that officer (Borum and Philpot, 1993). One of the most notable effects is the inability for an officer to regulate their emotions which may lead to massive destructions. If such high levels of stress are not controlled in good time, it may lead to depression. Eventually such a person may get himself or herself getting into post-traumatic stress disorder (Haisch, D., & Meyers, L. (2004).

Read also Communication Barriers between Police and Community

Policies measures include prohibiting romantic relations between workmates either within or outside their areas of jurisdiction. Secondly it should be a policy that any two individuals found to be taking part in a romantic affair while on duty will be suspended for an indefinite period. Finally, it should be a law that during such period when an officer is suspended, they do not receive their payments.

Why is the US Military Referred to as The Policemen of the World?

Policemen of the World Thesis and Outline

In the past years, the US Military has been brought up as the ‘world cops’. This has raised some feedbacks and upshots from different leaders, countries and even the US citizens themselves. So, why is the US military repeatedly referred to as the world police?

To begin with, the US military has undergone numerous changes and modifications in its recent history. Some are just but a number of initiatives by the government to improve the efficiency while some are direct consequences of past mistakes and complications suffered either in the military or the US as a nation. The civil war for example chipped in greatly in defining the modern state of affairs in the military. At the outset, the wars lasting-effects led to the obliteration of slavery and redefining America as comprising of a united and indivisible nation preferably than the previously existing separate states. This in turn led to the whole America joining forces to come up with one superior army which subsists to this day.

As a superpower sustaining a large military, the US has always volunteered in international unions and peace operations in an effort to aid and keep good international relations. Similarly, it has continued to protect its citizens living abroad, and as a result, the government has often found itself entangled in abroad military actions. In the recent time for example, it performed a military intervention In Libya (Operation Odyssey Dawn) in a coalition with UN to enforce the Security Council resolution of 1973.

It also recently in 2014, attempted to rescue James Foley and the other hostages held by the ISIL. Air strikes were carried out on the ISIL camp in Syria and although the mission was unsuccessful, some ISIL militants were killed. Other large operations that has led to the US military being called the world police are the operation Neptune spear that led to the killing of Osama bin laden and air strikes on Somalia in an effort to kill al-Shabaab militants (Halevi, 2011). These and many more military strategies have and may continue to be the pillars of the US military being called the world police in a modern world where peace is a jewel.

Policemen of the World Final Paper

You have already developed a thesis statement and developed an outline in which you explored two (2) real-life international incidents from the past five (5) years involving the United States involving the United States as a world power. Now you will develop the final paper in which you explore your main points in detail.

Write a three to five (3-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Introduce your paper with your previously crafted thesis statement. Identify two to three (2-3) international events from the past five years that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the Civil War.
  2. Discuss three (3) aspects of US history since 1865 that have led to the USA’s rise as a world super power policeman.
  3.  Identify three to five (3-5) international incidents since World War II where America has taken on a policing role.
  4. Determine three to five (3-5) driving forces that fueled international policy decisions involving the international incidents you outlined previously. (Consider treaties, exit strategies, elections, wars, etc.)

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Analyze the rise of the United States to a world “superpower” and how that status has shaped its internal developments in recent decades.
  • Recognize the major turning points in American history since the Civil War.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in contemporary U.S. history. Write clearly and concisely about contemporary U.S. history using proper writing mechanics.


For a very long time, the US military has been assisting various situations around the world. This is because of the decision made by the government to protect their citizen no matter their location in the world. Instead of comprising of individual states, the United States of America joined forces to create a superior army, proving that it is now a united and indivisible nation. Protecting its citizens who are abroad has led to the U.S sending its army to work together with the army of other countries in certain situations. This paper champions the thesis that although the U.S is commonly criticized  for being referred to as the world power, it has been engaged in a series of overseas military activities that are important across borders.

International Events From The Past Five Years That Can Be Traced Back To A Foreign Policy Created After The Civil War

America’s foreign policy is enabling the country to have a large impact on the world today. The foreign policy keeps on changing from time to time. The presidents who are responsible for influencing the formation of these policies in the present have already come to accept the fact that U.S is a member of the world community that cannot benefit in any way by ignoring the importance of alliances and getting along.

One of the International events that can be traced back to a foreign policy created after the civil war is the killing of Osama bin Laden. After taking office, president Obama gave an order to the CIA to direct more of their assigned resources to the hunting of Osama bin Laden. Once located, the president chose to overrule advice given by many of his generals to bomb his compound, and instead he opted for the U.S special Forces to carry out the task. This boldness in hunting and killing bin Laden reflects the counter-terror policy passed by Obama. Due to this policy, the U.S army plays major roles in various attacks against terrorists around the world (Heitmeyer, 2011). For instance, the increased use of drone strikes as a way of attacking the al Qaeda targets in Pakistan has turned out effective. The al Qaeda capacity has been reduced significantly.

Another international event is the attack against Al-Shabaab in Somalia using the drones. The Al-Shabaab is also a group of militias who are carrying out terrorist activities against many countries and citizens of the world. For this reason, a drone was set to strike a small village whereby most of the top leaders of the group were camped.

Aspects Of US History Since 1865 That Have Led To The USA’S Rise As A World Super Power Policeman

There are certain aspects of the US history since 1865 that have greatly contributed to the rise of the country as a world super power policeman. First, by becoming the world’s greatest economy at 1865 and achieving a 50% level of world production at the end of World War II, the country managed to start its rise (Heitmeyer, 2011). Having the largest economy gave this country a lot of power over other countries. It is what enables it to have more resources to use in worldwide activities. Second, this country gained great respect when it chose to extend its existing opposition to imperialism in the Western Hemisphere to other regions of the world (Schlesinger, 2004). This was one of its first actions in matters relating to other countries. In late 19th century, America reacted bitterly to the revival of the European imperialism. In the 1900 Open Door Note, the same opposition was extended in China (Schlesinger, 2004). This was not the end of it, as in 1918 and 1941 more oppositions created by the USA were subjected in Europe, Wilson’s 14 Points and in S/SE Asia and Africa (Schlesinger, 2004). Lastly, this country started participating fully in the destruction of powers in the World Wars, division in Cold War, and the stagnation under communism.

International Incidents Since World War II Where America Has Taken On A Policing Role

            First, America took on a policing role when it got involved in Iran politics at the time of the White Revolution by supporting Reza Pahlavi. Second, the country was at the forefront of the 2003 rescuing mission of Iraq citizens when the country was suffering from mass killings conducted by Saddam Hussein (Schlesinger, 2004). Third, the country played an essential role in Libya and Egypt back in 2013 when it sent its troops there on a mission of peace restoration (In Hehir & In Murray, 2013).

Driving Forces That Fueled International Policy Decisions Involving The International Incidents

            The reason why the U.S chose to support Reva Pahlavi at the heights of the cold war was because the two were great allies. This meant that there was no other reason to help its people during the famous White Revolution. A factor that led the U.S to interfere and host Saddam Hussein from power was the threat received on September 11, 2001 (In Hehir & In Murray, 2013). This action was meant to keep things under control and protect innocent lives. Lastly, the U.S was in support of change of how elections were being conducted, as they were in support of the free and fair elections. They did not want a recurrence of what Gaddafi and other dictators were used to (In Hehir & In Murray, 2013). This is why they intervened.


The United States indeed deserves the title of world power and world police, as is seen by the various activities that it has chosen to indulge in selflessly. Without its help, many countries would be suffering from terrorism, and lives would also be lost each passing day.


Why Operational Police Officers Should Reflect Demographic Diversity of the Communities in Which they Work

Diversity in law enforcement has recently been hailed for bolstering officer’s ability to communicate effectively with members of the public. Over the past decade, this has become an issue of great significance to the Australian Federal Police (AFP) as an equal opportunity establishment (Australian Federal Police 2016). A diverse police force, therefore improves the establishment’s working knowledge of subtle body and conversational cues which would otherwise have been missed by a homogenous unit.

Read also Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion

Another primary reason why operational police officers should reflect the demographic diversity of the communities in which they work is to first enable them gain a respectable level of grasp of communities within a given locality; allowing them to adequately prepare for interactions during routine patrols. Furthermore, it is a reflection of law enforcement’s commitment to diversity rather than simply serving as an embodiment of compliance with applicable government legislations. A relevant example is the inclusion of Torres Strait Islanders in the Malunggang policed as a direct consequence of conscription efforts by the Malunggang Indigenous Officers Network (Australian Government Transparency Portal 2019).

Read also Challenges Related to Use of Force By Police Officers

Demographic diversity within the operational police members is also crucial as a working framework for future liaisons with international law enforcement partners such as the United States and Britain. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that diversity in this particular context alludes not only to ethnic and racial backgrounds, but also encompasses age, gender, and sexual orientation. For instance, the Women’s Network and Gay and Lesbian Officer Network bear essential working frameworks in the Australia and strive to implement international standards of inclusion into the force. Members are accorded a unique opportunity to adopt workable strategies and leadership strategies to aid them when operating in diverse communities.’

Read also Tidewater Police Department Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy

Furthermore, diversity and inclusion within law enforcement is one of the most effective strategies to apply when seeking to gain public trust and particularly crucial before the implementation of community policing endeavours. The presence of operational police members from a given community enhances trust in law enforcement agencies since they serve as a representation of diversity within the community. Allowing the community to see police officers who look like them elevates the level of confidence particularly in communities which typically meet operational police members only during moments of crisis.

Entrapment and Legitimate use of Lies by Police

Research the concept of police “entrapment,” and discuss the differences between entrapment and the legitimate use of lies by the police.

Differences between Entrapment and the Legitimate Use of Lies by The Police

Law enforcement officers typically operate in a fast-paced environment where the ability to produce substantial results has traditionally taken precedence. The pressures and demands associated with this profession are now linked to an upsurge in the application of unconventional techniques with the sole aim being the attainment of desired ends. Today, the concept of “entrapment” and the legitimate use of lies are common phenomena in law enforcement and the subsequent administration of justice. An in-depth evaluation of both concepts is, therefore, fundamental in order to paint an elaborate picture of inherent differences herein and Biblical implications of their application.

Read also Cases Related to Entrapment by the Police

The legitimate use of lies is, perhaps, the most common police tactic in use, particularly among undercover operatives and during interrogations. Its use may span scenarios where police blatantly deny being members of law enforcement, as is the case during covert operations to implicate drug dealers, or when interviewing individual suspects separately to get them to incriminate their co-accused (Hritz, 2018). For instance, an undercover officer is allowed to lie about their identity when approached by a drug dealer attempting to conduct an illegal drug transaction. Similarly, an investigator can lie to a suspect that their counterpart in the other room has already confessed to being at the scene of a crime and has agreed to become a state witness in a bid to mislead them into making their confession.

Read also Cases Where Intoxication and Mistake of Fact were used as a Defense To Crime

In essence, law enforcement officers are often expected to maximize the use of the interrogation room and use it to their advantage. Legitimate lies, therefore, come in handy especially in scenarios where police initially had a probable cause for arresting a suspect and the amount of evidence linking them to a crime. Controlling the environment using legitimate lies then becomes an invaluable form of persuasion for them to achieve their desired ends. Yet, Jeremiah 48:10 warns against using deceit since it is not associated with God’s work. Legitimate lies make it possible for law enforcement officers to build their case and ultimately lead to a conviction. On the other hand, entrapment is generally considered an illegal police tactic and has, over the years, been applied successfully as a defense by defendants and resulted in the consequent dismissal of court cases. Entrapment entails conscious solicitation by a law enforcement officer to dupe an individual into engaging in an illegal activity or committing a crime (Levanon, 2016).

Read also Police Mission – Fighting Crime or Public Service

While the legitimate use of lies typically entails tricking a suspect to catch them in the act, entrapment may involve creating situations where a suspect is highly likely to break the law leading to their subsequent arrest.  Entrapment creates a circumstance that forces an individual to unwittingly break the law as opposed to them viewing it as nothing more than an opportune moment to commit a crime. In such instances, a law enforcement officer may win an individual over using pity or friendship with the primary objective of blinding them to commit a crime. The very act of planting the idea to commit a crime goes against ethical norms in criminal justice and may also be combined with coercion in order to elicit the response initially sought. This inducement becomes a major issue of concern in cases where police use entrapment techniques on individuals who would not ordinarily commit a crime.

Read also Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion

For instance, an undercover officer who succeeds to trick an individual to sell them part of their medical marijuana by claiming that thy don’t have insurance to get them arrested on drug charges may have the case dismissed if the defendant uses entrapment as their defense.

Cases Related to Entrapment by the Police

United States vs Black

This case took place at the United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit. It was decided on October 23, 2013. The case arose when an agent serving the federal government in Phoenix recruited a confidential informant to carry out some undercover tasks (Findlaw, 2020). According to the instructions given to the informant, he was supposed to visit a “bad part of town” and recruit “bad guys”. These recruits would help to rob a fictional stash house. Once the confidential informant had recruited the first person, he linked him directly to the federal agent. The federal agent then urged the recruited person to bring more people on board in order to help in the robbery. The agent promised him that this act promised to come in handy and change their lives because the stash house contained many kilograms of valuable cocaine. As such, this was a promising venture as it promised significant financial returns. The first person recruited by the undercover agent was Shavor Simpson. Later, group to include Cordae Black, Kemford Alexander, Angel Mahon and Terrance Timmons.

The court decided that they were guilty of conspiring to rob a stash house. The judges also convicted them of knowingly agreeing to participate in a crime of stealing and distributing cocaine, an illegal substance. The judges and the jury that passed this decision said that it was not an entrapment sentencing because all the participants had affirmed to the undercover agent that they had previously engaged in crimes. The judges also said that the conduct of the government was reasonable in the circumstances. However, there was a dissenting opinion that came from Judge Reinhardt. The judge raised many serious questions in regards to the role of the government in the incident, as well as the lack of critical evaluation of the case from his follow judges. The judge questioned if the government could target poor people in poor neighborhoods and tempt them into committing crimes that could result in them escaping poverty.

The dissenting judge took an issue with the fact that that the agent had clear instructions to the informant to look for people that looked like bad guys in a bad town. This approach, to him, was discriminatory of vulnerable people and put the defendants in an impossible position of avoiding the trap. The judge said that it amounted to racial discrimination considering that the bad part of town that the informant was sent to was a minority place where the biggest population was that of blacks. The other point that was raised was the fact that the government predetermined the amount of drugs that the reverse sting operation would be handling, and, as such, had predetermined the length of time that the defendants would spend in jail once they were arrested. This is because the length of time spent in prison in connection to drug possession is usually determined by the amount of drugs one is caught with. Finally, the judge raised the issue of mass incarceration and the logic behind the government using the reverse sting operation to target the minority group. He said that at the age where the government should be confronting the issue of mass incarceration of blacks, it was instead going around manufacturing fake crimes in order to arrest and jail even more people of color.

United States vs Hollingsworth

This case was heard and decided in the 7th Circuit. The determination and the ruling of the case happened on October 29, 1993. In this case, Hollingsworth and Pickard were convicted of money laundering. The conviction came from a jury, and the two men were sentenced to 24 and 18 months, respectively. However, majority of the judges in the court ruled that the men had been entrapped by the police. As such, the men deserved to be acquitted. In this decision, the circuit held that the government cannot defeat an entrapment defense by merely illustrating that the defendants were willing to commit a given offense. The court said that the accused persons, Hollingsworth and Pickard did not have the means to undertake an international money-laundering scheme. As such, the government facilitated the entire scheme. The court opined that the government cannot use its resources to induce people to commit crimes. The court said that the government should use its vast resources to shape the character of people, rather than inducing them to commit felonies. The judges finally by saying that a person who only commits a crime following an inducement by the government is not a threat to the society, regardless of their evils threats as might be demonstrated by undercover agents. Judge Easterbrook offered a dissenting opinion by pointing that the two men should have been charged different. The judge said that Pickard demonstrated willingness to carry out money laundering even without inducement from the undercover agent, Hinch. Though he agreed that Hollingsworth had been entrapped and deserve to be acquitted, his aide, Pickard, should not ride on the favorable ruling that Hollingsworth deserves.

United States vs Rameriz-Rangel

This case happened in the 9th Circuit in 1996. In this case, the judges argued that they could not sentence the defendants on the type of weapon that was supplied in a reverse sting operation. The court argued that the government supplied the defendants with more drugs than they could afford in order to have them sentenced for longer years after their arrested. One of the main determinations to be made, however, was in connection to violation of U.S.C. §924(c). This clause is related to offenses that touch on possession of drugs and use of firearms at same time. The judges say that the undercover agents supplied to the defendants machine guns, rather than normal guns. The court considered this to be against the knowledge of the defendants, and that the government clearly entrapped the men, and had the intention of having them face more years behind bars. The judges unanimously referred the case to a lower for determination of whether the defendants had the knowledge of the weapons that were to be supplied by the agents.

Case of Jesse James Arrested for Killing Police Officer

Jesse James, a 20-year old, was arrested for killing a police officer. As a newly elected prosecutor, you are responsible for prosecuting Mr. James. You announce your decision not to seek the death penalty in this case, but under your state’s law, the offense charged is considered special circumstances, which would qualify as a death penalty case. Your decision does not sit well with the law enforcement community.

Read also The Beltway Sniper Case

Address the following in 900–1,200 words:

  • List the various hearings that will typically occur and how the case is affected by each event.
  • Provide an overview of the various courts in the typical state system where Mr. James will appear and why he is appearing there, from arraignment to trial and the various levels of appeal. Be sure to provide specific information as it relates to any constitutional issues that may be raised at each stage in the process.
  • What are the potential hearings that might be involved in this case? Be sure to describe them from the time of arrest through appeal.
  • What are the relevant civil liberties issues pertaining to the 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, and 14th Amendments present in this case?

Read also Criminology Theoretical Application – Basil Borutski Triple Murder

Special Circumstances Murder Case – Case of Jesse James Arrested for Killing Police Officer

In this particular case, Jesse is arrested for killing a police officer. His case is to be handled by a newly elected prosecutor Mr. James who considers seeking a death case penalty under special circumstances in the state law. Special circumstances murder refers to heinous crimes that are punishable by death or life imprisonment without parole. One of these crimes in murdering a police officer to escape or prevent arrest or murdering a public safety officer when the officer is on duty. By killing a police officer, Jesse presented a circumstance under which he can be tried under special circumstance murder. However, the prosecutor needs to prove that Jesse killed the police officer either while performing his duty or to escape an arrest. This paper discusses Jesse prosecution and trial under special circumstances murder.

Read also New Policy on the Death Penalty for Minors – Roper v. Simmons

Hearings that will Typically Occur and how they affect the Case

The case will start by Jesse arraignment in court where the charges are read and the offender takes the plea to the case. This will be followed by preliminary hearing, which is a hearing that focuses on determining whether there is enough evidence to prosecute the accused. The pre-trial motions can include a judicial session with intention of deciding issues of law or fact, in some cases with witnesses testifying before trial (California Attorney General, n.d.). If enough evidence is found, the case will be submitted for the grand-jury review or filed in the trial court. This is followed by the guilty phase trial. This trial focuses on determining whether the offender is guilty of capital murder. The prosecutor should be able to prove that the accused is guilty of murdering a police officer either on duty or to resist arrest. The prosecutor will be permitted to provide evidence and witnesses to prove that the offender is guilty, while the defense lawyer will be permitted to present evidence and wittiness to refute the charges. The offender is allowed to defend himself in all possible ways. The prosecutor must be able to convince the jury that the defendant is guilty of committing first-degree murder and also prove that the crime committed is among the crimes covered by special circumstances and hence it warrants the death penalty. Once the offender is found guilty, then the trial goes to the next phase where the offender penalty is determined (California Attorney General, n.d.).

Read also Is The Death Penalty A Valid Example Of Deterrence Theory, Based On Beccaria’s Theories Of Punishment?

In the penalty phase, the jury reviews mitigating and aggravating evidence. The jury then gives a verdict of either life imprisonment without the chance of parole or death. The penalty phase is primarily like another mini-trial. The district attorney is permitted to offer testimony and evidence to support the argument that the death penalty is the most suitable punishment for the offense (California Attorney General, n.d.). The defense lawyer is also granted the chance to address the jury and to give testimony and evidence to persuade the jury to discard the death penalty request. Some of the aspects assessed to mitigate and aggravate the death penalty verdict include the crime nature, the case special circumstances, offender’s state of mind, past criminal record, a show of remorse, age at the time of committing the crime, and offender’s history of violence. In case a death verdict is returned, a trial judge is requested to determine if to reduce the judgment to life imprisonment without parole or to leave the verdict as it is (California Attorney General, n.d.).

Read also Against the Death Penalty – Argumentative Essay

The defendant can consider filing for an appeal if unsatisfied with the given verdict. In this phase, the defendant’s role is not to prove he is innocent but to show there was a critical mistake in the process in which he was convicted. The new trial motion can be based on jury misconduct, newly discovered evidence, or insufficient evidence in the first trial. These reasons can initiate a new trial. The appeal is admitted in the court of appeal, and in case the decision is still dissatisfactory, the appeal can be submitted to the highest criminal court in the state. This court is required to review the trial court decision and maybe reverse it (California Attorney General, n.d.).

Read also Application: Impact of the Death Penalty

Courts Where Mr. James will Appear and Why?

Mr. James will appear in pre-trial, trial, and verdict trials in the state superior court. Here, Mr. James will focus on presenting the evidence, witnesses, and own input regarding the case, to convict the offender. Mr. James will also cross-examine the defendant’s witness and try to nullify their evidence in an attempt to prove the defendant guilty to the court.  In case the Jesse is not satisfied with the trial court verdict, Jesse will appeal in the state court of appeal where the case will be reviewed (Georgetown Law, 2019). Mr. James will also appear here to defend his case against Jesse. Here Mr. James will hand in all evidence, testimonial reports, and other materials that can guide the appeal case in deciding on the validity of the initial verdict. In case Jesse is not satisfied by the court verdict, he may consider appealing to the Supreme Court. Mr. James will still appear in this court to defend his case against Jesse. As the case prosecutor, Mr. James will be required to defend his case by filing a state respondent brief answering the defendant briefs regarding the case (Georgetown Law, 2019). 

Potential Hearing that might be Involve

There will be several hearings to take place in this case. The first will be a pre-trial hearing where the charges will be read and Jesse takes a plea. Mr. James will present his evidence to determine if there is enough evidence to initiate a trial. Mr. James should also declare his intention to make this a special circumstance case at this stage. This will be followed by the first trial hearing. The first trial will focus on determining whether the accused is guilty of first-degree murder of the police officer. It will also determine whether the case qualifies for a special circumstance (California Attorney General, n.d.). This will be followed by a penalty trial hearing where the verdict will be given. The fourth hearing will be in the appeal court is Jesse decides to file an appeal. The fifth hearing can be in the Supreme Court if the appeal court verdict is not satisfactory. In the Supreme Court, the defendant can also file a petition for a writ of certiorari which can provoke another hearing. The defendant can also file state habeas corpus review that may require another hearing. The number of hearing after the end of the initial trial will be determined by Jesse’s desire to overturn the initial judgment, and the far he can go in requesting reviews or filing for appeals (California Attorney General, n.d.).

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Relevant Civil Liberties Issues about the 4th, 5th, 6th, 8th, and 14th Amendments

Jesse is arrested for the murder of a police officer. Mr. James will require to present evidence to prove Jesse is guilty. While looking for this evidence, Mr. James will be restricted by the 4th Amendment that protects Jesse from unnecessary search and seizures of his home, himself, and items. To collect any evidence from Jesse or any of his belonging through search and seizures, Mr. James will need a warrant from the court, failure to which he may lose the case through wrong procedure and violation of Jesse’s right to privacy. During Arrest, Jesse will have to be reminded of his right based on Fifth Amendment against self-incrimination. Jesse will be permitted to record statement if he wishes, and his silence in any interrogation will be respected in connection to the Fifth Amendment (Grabel, 2020).

Read also Historic Events Leading to 14th Amendment, Supreme Court Interpretation And Relevant Cases

Jesse sixth Amendment rights will be protected through the pretrial reading of charges and taking a plea. He will also be offered the right to find a lawyer to defend himself through court trials. This will protect him from punishment without trial. Although the 8th Amendment is provoked in some cases, Jesse will find problems provoking his bail right due to the nature of his crime. In this regard, Jesse may remain in custody after arrest until his trials are over. However, the Amendment may protect him from cruel treatment such as electric shock treatment when in custody. Jesse will also have rights to due process of the law based on the 14th Amendment. This means he is protected by the law and has the right to make appeals and to request for all possible review of the case as provided by the country criminal justice system, especially for special circumstances case (Grabel, 2020).

Read also Primary Constitutional Amendments That Comprise Prisoner Complaints; 1st, 4th, 8th, and 14th – Cases

Communication Barriers between Police and Community

The police often communicate to people from diverse backgrounds, preconceptions and attitudes (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). The police often face a challenge when communication to the people and this could be attributed to many factors. Sometimes the police are required to communicate to people who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. The use of drugs or alcohol causes mood swings, disorientation and even passing out. Due to the effects associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs, the police have a challenge in communicating with individuals under drugs or alcohol and difficulty of attaining possible outcome.

Read also Police – Community Relations

            The police often serve communities with diverse culture, beliefs and values (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). Sometimes a police officer can be posted to serve in a community, whose values, beliefs and culture are different from the one of the police officer. The variations in culture, beliefs and values can cause a barrier in communication for example the differences in languages or dialects. Moreover, the differences in values, culture and beliefs can be a source of misunderstanding, which hampers effective communication by creating confusion.

Read also Community Policing Concept – Introduction to Law Enforcement Paper

            Sometimes the police officers can misuse their power while exercising their duties (Du, 2004). Since the police officers have the power to arrest individuals who have been suspected to breach the law, if such police officers abuse their powers, for example through threats, intimidation or belittling people, such people may get scared, upset and confused. When people lose their cool, they may not be able to communicate well and thus leading to ineffective communication with the police officers. Finally, when police officers make assumptions about other people, they can cause poor communication with such individuals. For example, if a police officer views those who breach law as troublemakers, such a view on a first time offender may hurt them; make them lack confidence thus hampering communication.

Read also Defining Police Ethics

What Police Officers can Do to Reduce Communication Barriers

            According to (Shah, Rahman, & Khashu, 2007), police officers cannot perform well if they cannot attain effective communication with the people they serve. One way of breaking the communication barriers is for the police officers to have comprehensive knowledge about the population that they serve. This entails knowledge in the changes in demographics of communities and the languages. One they police officers develops an understanding of the language of the people they serve, they can allocate appropriate resources for their services. For example, if they serve non-speakers of English, the police officers can employ translators or interpreters. Moreover, the police officers could learn the language of the people they serve in order to bridge language barriers.          

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

The police can overcome the barriers that result from abuse of powers by developing understanding of what is wrong and right in how to treat other individuals without bringing their power into the situation (Shah, Rahman, & Khashu, 2007). An example is learning ways of making arrests without use of force. Strategies such as polite arrest requests and giving full information can calm individuals and facilitate communication. Giving people chance to talk without judging them and allowing them to talk with what the police officers believe helps in overcoming the communication barriers associated with making assumptions and those associated with beliefs and values. For example, appreciating the differences in values and accepting to be addressed under the unique religious or cultural values by those being served can enhance communication between the police officers and the people they serve.

Police Mission – Fighting Crime or Public Service

There roles of the police has been changing since the inception of the profession in the United States. The roles of the police have been under progression since their introduction to the public in 1840s and 1900s (Kelling & Moore, 1998). The political era defines the time when the police were introduced to the public in 1840s and early 20th century. Then followed the reform era that occurred in the late 20th century, the modern community policing introduced in 1970s, which defines the roles of the police in the modern American society. The modern policing have moved from the old roles of police officer of crime prevention to include a cohesive community that works in partnership with the police department in roes that go beyond just fighting crime to include public service.

Read also Principles of Police Organization, Administration And Service

            The police departments are not entities to themselves but exist for the purposes of serving the public for which they should bear some responsibility. According to (Gaines & Worrall, 2011), being responsible means the act of responsiveness to the problems and challenges facing the citizens. Moreover, the author asserts that the responsibility extends to effective management of the police resources. The police obtain the mandate from the consent of those they serve and thus their acts should replicate and act of public service and not just crime prevention.

Read also Evolution of Policing and the Training and Skills For Success In Law Enforcement

            The public have a number of diverse problems, in addition to the crimes, for example emergencies in case of fire breakouts and accidents. According to (Gaines & Worrall, 2011, p. 22), police sole focus on the crime prevention will not help in dealing with the diverse problems that confront the police officers and the public. Moreover, the emphasis on the pursuit of administrative efficiency and capability to fight crime isolated the police from crime and lead to ineffective responses to the disorders and crimes affecting the citizens. The police can help in preventing crimes and disorder through a coordinated police strategy that incorporates the public. Such police public service strategy makes the public as police partners and this helps in reporting of crimes and thus assists in prevention of crimes.

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

            Most crimes emanate from the social ill embedded in the American society. The development of trust between the police and the public is important in quelling of conflicts (O’shea, 2000). For example, if the youths show some distrust in the police, they are less likely to share information of a crime that is being planned. Moreover, such distrust prevents such youths from testifying in cases that involve crimes. This calls for a shift in change of the basic position of the police officer. For example, rather than react to incidences, a police officer must plan, analyze, and take appropriate initiatives. However, planning and analysis process can only be successful if public participation is encouraged. Through public involvement, effective crime prevention strategies, responses to emergency social crises and dispute resolutions can be achieved.          

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The resources and methods of police officers extend beyond citations and arrests (Fielding & Innes, 2006).  The changing policing strategy has altered the content of jobs of a police officer into that of public service delivery. They should be able to make decisions that encompass questions of honor or dishonor. Through public service delivery, the police shift the scope of their work from crime prevention into service to the interests of the public. Such shifts are pertinent in crime prevention and incorporation of public views into the execution of their mandate and this ensuring effective maintenance of order in the society. In conclusion, the service of the police officers must extend beyond crime prevention into public service for effective policing.

Tidewater Police Department Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy

Assignment Instructions

The Tidewater Police Department is a small rural department that consists of 22 police officers, 4 detectives, a criminal intelligence analyst and 3 secretaries. The mayor just hired you as Chief of the department. About half of the officers have 20+ years of experience and the other half have less than 3 years of experience. You learn that there have been 4 civil cases filed against the department for police officer misconduct within the last year.

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Write a 2-3 page, APA style paper addressing the issues of Code of Conduct and Ethics Policies for Police Departments. Include in the body of the paper a Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy for the Tidewater Police Department. Please include 2-3 references. Only one reference may be from an internet source (not Wikipedia) the other references must be located in the Grantham University Online Library. Only the body of the paper will count toward the page requirement. Include a title sheet. Please see the rubric below.

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Sample Tidewater Police Department Code of Conduct and Ethics Policy


            The fundamental duty of a police officer is to serve mankind by protecting live and property, protect the innocent from deception, the weak from intimidation or oppression, and the peaceful from disorder or violation and more importantly to abide by and respect the constitutional rights of all to justice, equality and liberty(Barath, & Sherriff, 2011). Code of ethics requires police officer to keep their private life unsullied, act courageously and calm even when faced with danger, ridicule or scorn as well as develop the culture of self-restrain and always be mindful of others(Delattre, 2011). Police employees should be exemplary in obeying the regulation of Tidewater police department and the law of the land. They should conduct themselves in a professional manner by not allowing their personal feelings, friendship, animosities and prejudices to influence their decisions.

Read also Defining Police Ethics

Code of conduct

            All police employees are expected to conduct and behave in a manner that public will build their trust in them. These code of conduct include:

  • Integrity and honesty: Police officers should be honest and carry out their duties while observing integrity at all time without allowing compromise to come in between or abuses their position.
  • Courtesy, Respect and Authority: They should exercise self-control and tolerance as well as treating colleague and members of the public with courtesy and respect. They must use their authority and powers proportionately and lawfully as well as respecting the rights of all individuals.

Read also Principles of Police Organization, Administration And Service

  • Equity and diversity: They should discharge their duties impartially and fairly by not discriminating unfairly or unlawfully.
  • Use of force: They should only use force as part of their responsibility and roles, and only to the extent that is required, reasonable and proportionate in all the situation
  • Order and instruction: They are required to abide by police regulation by giving and carrying out only lawful orders. They should follow and give out reasonable instructions.
  • Duties and responsibilities: They should carry out their duties diligently and responsibly.

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

  • Confidentiality: They should respect confidentiality of the information, treat with respect and disclose or access it using the proper course of their duties.
  • Fitness for work: They should ensure at all times that they are fit to perform their duties and responsibilities.
  • Conduct: They should behave in way that does not discredit police service or undermine public confidence whether on or off duty.
  • Challenging and reporting improper behavior: They should take action, challenge or report against colleagues who have misconducted or their professional behaviors have fallen short of set standards.

Considering that most police officers carry out their duties without close supervision, the responsibility of proper conduct lies squarely on the individual officer. The officer is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that the community is safe and fellow police officers operate in a safe environment (Haberfeld, 2013). Therefore, a police officer is expected to discharge his/her duties faithfully and diligently. Anything short of this code of conduct and ethics violates the trust bestowed by the public and belittles the qualities of professional conduct as a police officer.

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