Tag: Terrorism

Genealogy of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism Efforts within the United Kingdom

Today, modern-day terrorism is principally looked at as a serious global threat that warrants immediate attention. Its extensive scope, dynamic nature, and the number of nation-states impacted negatively by associated aftermaths has now forced many to resort to formulating elaborate counter-terrorism strategies to remain one step ahead of their adversaries. The United Kingdom is among a growing list of countries that have grappled with terrorism as a contemporary reality. Under UK law, terrorism is defined as using threats and intimidation with the main aim of influencing government. This is primarily done to advance a particular religious or political ideology (Great Britain. Home Office 2009).. Although the UK had previously been subjected to a number of terrorist attacks linked to the political unrest in Northern Ireland, it was only during the turn of the 21st century that the inaugural Terrorism Act of 2000 was formally implemented.

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Major Events that shaped the Creation of the Terrorism Act 2000

            The Terrorism Act of 2000 is officially recognized as the chief legislation dealing with terrorism-related matters in the UK. Its implementation was an attempt to implement legislation that focused generally on terrorism, as opposed to focusing exclusively on the situation in Northern Ireland.  The 7 July 2005 London bombings were a major factor that prompted the implementation of this particular Act. The 7/7 bombings, as they are commonly referred to, were a series of synchronized attacks targeting London’s underground railway commuter system. This marked a turning point in the UK’S approach to terrorism, especially since the attack resulted in the deaths of close to 60 individuals and hundreds more were injured (Tembo 2015). Additional coordinated attacks were also slated for the days following the bombings, but were largely ineffective due poor organization. The four suicide bombers were later identified as British nationals Mohammed Sidique Khan, Germaine Lindsay, Shehzad Tanweer, and Hasib Hussain linked to jihadist terrorist cells (Staniforth & Fraser Sampson 2014).

Read also The Correlation between the Concept of Globalization and International Terrorism

Proscribed Terrorist Groups under Terrorism Act 2000

            One of the most significant aims of the Terrorism Act of 2000 was a succinct classification of terrorist groups under the new legislation. The Act currently identifies Islamic extremism, far-right ultra-nationalist movements, and radical anarchist groups in Northern Ireland as major areas of focus when seeking to address immediate concerns related to terrorism. Individuals who identify as members of such organizations, those who don associated regalia, and those suspected to support them may be charged with a terrorist offence. This act also extend prosecution to persons who knowing or unknowingly join groups with links to local and international terrorist groups.

Read also Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper

Definition of Terrorism Prior to the adoption of the Terrorism Act 2000

            Before the 7/7 bombings and the subsequent enactment of the Terrorism Act of 2000, terrorism was synonymous with the activities of the Irish Revolutionary Army (IRA).  This had previously resulted in the implementation of the Northern Ireland Emergency Act of 1996 to aid in stemming the threat posed by the IRA (Richards 2012).  It offered a clear definition of terrorism while emboldening the police with new investigatory powers to effectively confronted suspected cases.

Read also Impact of Terrorism on Children

Counter-terrorism Efforts in the United Kingdom

            The primary objective of implementing counter-terrorism strategies in the UK is to develop the most suitable response to imminent terrorist threats. These efforts have mainly focused on the implementation of specified measures to prevent individuals from joining or supporting terrorist organizations (Great Britain. Home Office 2009). Additionally, they also aim to thwart terrorist attacks by gathering sufficient and some of the most reliable intelligence. Counter-terrorism strategies in the UK also intend to utilize appropriate infrastructure to protect citizens against potential terrorist attacks. It also guarantees a high level of preparedness to mitigate negative consequences often associated with terrorist attacks. Target groups include Islamic extremism, far-right ultra-nationalist movements, and radical anarchist groups in Northern Ireland.

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Counter-terrorism strategies in the UK now include provisions that allow members of law enforcement agencies to arrest suspects even without a warrant. This provision affords them a great deal of latitude in arresting and detaining individuals with suspected links to proscribed terrorist organizations. It has been hailed by security experts as a positive development and a shift from ordinary criminal law that hindered extensive investigation of suspects. Stop and search provisions have also become a part of counter-terrorism efforts in the UK in the wake of threats posed by terrorist attacks. Under Section 44 of the Terrorism Act of 2002, stop and search devoid of any reasonable suspicion to aid in seizing material intended for terrorist-related activities (Chatterjee 2012). Police officers were also allowed to make specific authorizations in the event they suspected of participating in acts of terrorism. Furthermore, the UK currently implements stringent measures which criminalize the collection of information to be used to plot terrorist attacks. Under section 58, suspects will be liable for to serve nearly a decade in prison for this particular offence. Bilal Zaher Ahmad was among the first individuals to be charged as a direct consequence of this counter-terrorism strategy for collecting extremist material distributed by al-Qaeda (Elshimi 2018).           

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Perhaps the most controversial counter-terrorism strategy employed in the UK is the stop and search provision under Section 44 of the Terrorism Act of 2000. This is mainly due to the fact that it can be applied by the police even without any reasonable suspicion. Law enforcement officers can now choose to arbitrarily implement this particular provision; searching individuals and cars, even though the suspects might be innocent. One of the main criticisms of this approach surrounds the low numbers of individuals incarcerated for terrorist offences after routine stop and search events. The European Court of Human Rights has even gone as far as publicly criticizing the stop-and-search provisions granted and also asserted that it was in direct contravention of Article 8 of its Convention on Human Rights (Elshimi 2018). This has resulted in repeated calls to have this section repealed to protect the individual dignity of UK nationals. The most immediate impact of these efforts has been a sudden drive towards the prevention of terrorist attacks and an unintended consequence in the rise in islamophobia. Nevertheless, counter-terrorism strategies have largely remained static, which is worrying given the changing face of terrorism.

Impact of Terrorism on Children

As expected, the onus is customarily on Psychiatric Mental Health Nurse Practitioners (PMHNPs) to act responsively and apply empathy during the evaluation of sensitive issues that threaten children and adolescents.  Acts of terrorism have recently emerged as the archetypal representation of a special issue and with the potential to impart long-lasting trauma on children.  According to Browne (2019), exposure to trauma, both directly or indirectly, may vary in its impact on individual juveniles but still considered a major risk factor in the development of various forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents (p. 190). An evaluation of possible psychological issues, assessment measures applied within this section of society, treatment options for children and an analysis of cultural influences on treatment are, therefore, warranted when aspiring to gain an in-depth comprehension of the impact of acts of terrorism on children.

Read also The Greatest Motivator of Terrorism

Psychological Issues Among Children Caused By Terrorism

 Acts of terror cause a great deal of psychological stress among children. This is habitually the result of direct or indirect exposure to trauma or knowledge of someone close to them having been involved is such fateful incidences. Children below the age of 19 years, are normally still in the developmental stages in risk assessment, psychological coping mechanism, and cognitive abilities and are likely to be affected significantly by trauma (De Young & Scheeringa, 2018). Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the main geneses of psychological issues witnessed among children and adolescents.

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 The 5th edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) classifies PTSD for children and adolescents under Trauma-and-Stress-Related Disorders. This diagnostic criterion relies upon exposure to a psychologically stressful event, prominent dissociative symptoms, and distorted sense of reality as major signs of PTSD in children above the age of six (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).  PTSD among children causes psychological issues with sweeping outcomes. PTSD is associated with the emergence of neurodevelopmental disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive related disorders, and bipolar disorder as major psychological issues (Rothbaum & Rauch, 2020). Furthermore, PTSD among children may also present with frequent suicidal ideations, frequent anxiety, emotional numbness, and sleep disturbances. PMHNPs are among an integral class of professionals providing crucial mental health services to children and adolescents as part of health promotion.

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Assessment Measures

Identifying cases of PTSD among children is one of the most challenging practices today. DSM-5 is a leading assessment measure used in categorizing childhood PTSD in individuals above 6 years of age. The diagnostic criteria subsequently identifies direct or indirect exposure to a traumatic event, witnessing a traumatic event, and learning of its impacted on a close family member are major factors to consider during the initial assessment (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Furthermore, recurrent flashbacks can be intrusive, and accompanied by an overall repression of memories associated with the event, the presence of frequent nightmares, a high level of psychological distress, and avoiding stimuli associated with the event.

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The preliminary assessment of juvenile patients in alleged cases of PTSD normally evaluates subjects for any overt evidence of changes in cognition and mood, devoid of an organic basis (Loeb et al., 2018). Children and adolescents living in war zones such as Syria or in low-income inner-city environments in the U.S. with a relatively high per-capita homicide rate such as neighborhood zones and housing project blocks in Chicago, Illinois are highly likely to be exposed to trauma-and-stress related trauma (Rothbaum & Rauch, 2020). Children and adolescents exposed to a considerable degree of trauma feel secluded, have noticeable memory issues, and experience excessive self-blame, especially after surviving a terrorist onslaught (Garro, 2016). An additional assessment measure involves identifying signs of hyperarousal, hypervigilance, frequent sleep disturbances, irritability, and concentration problems. Symptoms should have persisted for at least a month and directly linked to a traumatic event (Kerig et al., 2018, p. 165). The condition should also interfere considerably with normal functioning and not as a consequence if illness or substance abuse.

 Treatment Options

Although numerous treatments for PTSD have arisen in recent years, a suitable intervention would be to essentially to combine pharmacological options and psychotherapeutic practices. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is yet to approve any selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant to treat PTSD among minors (Espinel & Shaw, 2018). A viable alternative option relies on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), trauma-focused therapy and exposure to stimuli as a viable treatment options in successful managing PTSD in minors. Furthermore, such efforts are further buttressed by prescribing Alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist to manage sleep disturbances, nightly awakenings, and sleep disturbances (Haag et al., 2019).

Cultural Influences on Treatment

            Cultural competence is vital when treating various psychiatric conditions due to variations in perception about mental health issues amongst different cultures. These differences are also present in notions regarding the most appropriate intervention to implement in the management of a psychiatric disorder (Rothbaum & Rauch, 2020). For instance, mental health disorders are shrouded in superstition within the Puerto Rican folk belief system where a psychiatric patient is routinely thought to have gone “loco” (crazy), signifying their exposure to evil spirits (Carlos, 2017, p. 297). Other cultures may assume the child is bewitched and propose mystical interventions by inviting a spiritual medium or exorcist. However, ethical practice dictates that PMHNPs should participate in health promotion initiatives by guiding parents or legal guardians through some of the most suitable treatment options and, demystifying myths surrounding mental health conditions.

Read also Ways That Cultural Expressions Influence Our Daily Life

Conclusion

Acts of terrorism present a constant threat to children and their overall wellbeing. Exposure to trauma may cause PTSD and the emergence of associated psychological issues such as neurodevelopmental disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, depressive disorders, obsessive-compulsive related disorders, and bipolar disorder.  Assessment measures rely on major gauges identified in DSM-5s diagnostic criterion for PTSD. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), trauma-focused therapy, and exposure therapy are the only treatment options currently recommended for children with PTSD. PMHNPs must, therefore, implement learnt cultural competence skills during initial assessments; dispelling cultural misconceptions and guiding the parent or guardian in choosing the most feasible treatment option available.

The Greatest Motivator of Terrorism

The terrorists are the main enemies in the war against terrorism. Terrorism has seen a recent growth and much attention towards the subject, which has led to many researches done on the major causes of the now global threat to security. According to (Miller, 2007), terrorism has been defined as system of battle, where typical casualties become the targets of violence. The behaviors and nature of terrorists shows a range of set of data. Ideology and motivation has been found to have an influence on the objectives of terrorist activities, especially the rates of casualties.

Read also The Correlation between the Concept of Globalization and International Terrorism

The major objective of terrorism as outlined in (Greaves, 1981) is target immobilization while keeping the end goal in delivery of confusion. To achieve these goals, the perpetrators of terrorism are often motivated by certain aspects, which become their main driving force. The observations of the nature of humans and the group dynamics under anxiety, stress and extremist values, provides insightful causes of the particular observed behaviors. In general, terrorism has many motivating factors, which depends on the interests of cells or individuals. For example, terrorist groups with secular and non-religious ideologies will employ highly selective and discriminative forms of violence to achieve their political goals. Accordingly, (Miller, 2007) has identified the main motivators behind terrorism as political, religious, social, cultural and economic goals.

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            The global terrorism index (GTI) ranks religious extremism as the greatest motivator of terrorism over the past decade (Statista, 2017). According to their 2014 report, the author points that about 70% of the terrorist attacks in the world are instigated by religion. Ranked according to their perpetrator category, Islamic extremists had the highest number of fatalities more than secular/political anarchist, neo-Nazi/fascist/white supremacist and others, combined. Religious motivations play a role in terrorism by providing the terror group’s identity and through provision of self-justifications of the terror actions. The famous religious terror groups with huge influence include the Taliban, Boko Haram, ISIS and Al-Qaida.

Read also Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism from the Perspective of Invasive Species, Biological Threats, and Logic Behind Suicide Terrorism

            The religious form of extremist is the most dangerous and common form of terrorism owing to the belief in martyrdom (shahadah) and self-sacrifice that motivates the perpetrators. The doctrine informs the perpetrators that although suicide is illegal under the Islam law, the element of self-sacrifice is justified if done in the will of God. Moreover, the widespread use and effectiveness of religious beliefs demonstrate the power of religion as a motivator of terrorism. This form of terrorism is not selective but is motivated by the will to spill blood and sacrifice to achieve their goals. According to (Fink, Marvasti, & Haroun, 2005) the millenarian and religiously oriented groups attempt to inflict as many casualties as they can. They believe that the best way to inflict fear and achieve influence is through mass fatalities.

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The apocalyptic frame of reference that is common with religious form of terrorism makes the loss of life irrelevant and the more casualties they achieve the better their goals achievement (Fink, Marvasti, & Haroun, 2005).  The fatalities suffered by their co-religionists are of little concern because they consider them as the beneficiaries of afterlife. Likewise when the targeted non-believers suffer casualties, whether intended or as collateral damage, are considered as deserving as it is deemed a moral duty to be killed. These beliefs make religious terrorism not only the most dangerous form of terrorism, but provide the greatest source of motivation behind their attacks.

Read also Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper

            The religious terror groups have also adopted the suicide bombing as a strategic attack too owing to its effectiveness. The use of human beings makes it hard to detect and counter; besides providing maximum impact and damage compared to other secular groups. For example, the Nairobi attack on the U.S embassy led to deaths of many U.S citizens and injuries to over 5000 Kenyan civilians, yet the bombers who died were incomparable to the fatalities among the targets. The use of human suicide bombers has been shown to create the greatest fear among the targets since it is often hard to know the bombers. The religious form of terrorism under the motivation of their apocalyptic frame of references has since become the most effective strategic tools for advancement of extremist ideologies.      

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            Religion as the greatest motivator of terrorism is further reinforced with the fact that the beliefs by religious terror groups are intertwined with the teachings in the Bible. These relationships between the religious terror group’s beliefs have created a huge loophole which facilitates innocent and naïve individuals into joining these religious extremist groups. The achievement of terrorist intent cannot be fulfilled if there is no essential environment to operate (Amir, 2006). However, religion provides an effective motivator for the creation of good cultural conditions for terrorist activities.

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According to (Amir, 2006) the use of religion as a motivator in creation of essential cultural conditions for terrorist attacks are best demonstrated by Yasser Arafat. According to the author, Arafat, during his reign as the leader of Palestine was not a religious leader. However, he reiterated the importance of creation of appropriate cultural conditions in which the Palestinians would use to further their struggle for their rights. He used religious rhetoric and terminology in his public speeches made in Arabic to reiterate that the dead Palestinian children (whom he referred to as “shahids”) were a testimony to the world.

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According to (Rausch, 2015) most of the religious extremists have been caused by political and cultural intrusions into their territories. Most of the organized groups such as the Taliban fight to safeguard and advance their influence which is perceived to be under threat from the incumbent political and external occupations. Therefore it is recommended that giving such groups a political and religious freedom is critical to their suppression. The use of military action can only serve to exasperate such groups and offer less viable solutions. In contrast, they need to be accommodated and allowed to have equal political and religious autonomy.

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However, the greatest impediment to this course of action remains the political unwillingness to adopt diplomacy as the strategy to fight religious extremism. Most incumbent political office holders hold the religious groups in bad views. Such groups are deemed as terrorists whose main goal is to kill. Those in power fail to recognize the legitimate intentions of such groups in fighting for their rights (Rausch, 2015). This has resulted in continued use of military in retaliation to such group which further reinforces their fight for their course. Religious groups will continue to fight to attain autonomy over the cultural intrusions and legitimate control of their economic wellbeing. Unless these major causes of the extremist violence are understood these groups will never relent and their influence will expand. Allowing such groups their cultural and political freedom remains key in combating religious extremism in the foreseeable future.

The Correlation between the Concept of Globalization and International Terrorism

The end of twentieth and throughout the 21st century has witnessed an increase in terrorism over the world. The phenomenon of terrorism has now spread across many countries including the Middle East and North African (Lutz & Lutz, 2015).  The increase in international terrorism has coincided with globalization, suggesting a correlation between terrorism and globalization.

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            Globalization has been blamed to a number of difficulties that are being experienced in many countries. According to (Lutz & Lutz, 2015), globalization is defined as the process through which international connectedness deepens, widens and speeds up. The phenomenon goes beyond the increase in economic interactions to include social, political and cultural interactions among the different nations of the world. According to the author, modern globalization has been linked to global terrorism.            

The movement of ideas and materials, a result of globalization, is likely to bring socially dissimilar groups closer to one another leading to conflict (Lutz & Lutz, 2015). Increased economic interactions with the outside world create anxiety about the cultural and social changes that result from economic adaptations.  Moreover, globalization has been associated with some form of inequality in the societies, thus creating and increasing tensions. The author cites the case of foreign direct investment, which has caused inequalities in the affected societies. The culturally and economically disadvantaged groups oppose the groups or political systems that associated with such changes. When satisfaction cannot be attained through peaceful means the groups resort to violent forms, which often leads to a vicious cycle of violence.

The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act Written Analysis

Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (IRTPA) was considered as the most dramatic and fundamental changes brought to U.S. intelligence community since the creation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1947. The key objective of the IRTPA was to ensure intelligence information was shared effectively among the intelligence community something that was missing prior to 9/11 attack (Jacobson, 2004). As a result, IRTPA mandated the creation of director of national intelligence office and National Counterterrorism Center. Analysis indicated that IRTPA brought significant improvement to the Justice Department and FBI by enhancing their powers in combating international terrorism in various ways. However, IRTPA have most controversial changes which include the amendment of Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA). This amendment permits FBI to conduct secret searches and wiretap the conversation of individual suspected terrorist who has no tangible connection with the foreign power.

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            Some of these changes were been pushed by many members of the Congress upon realization that FBI were unable to wiretap conspirator Zacarias Mousaoui before the 9/11 attack because his lawyer argued that FISA did not provide a provision that allowed FBI to wiretap communication of the terrorist suspects that had insufficient information to link them with foreign powers. In order to convince the Congress to support the changes, FBI officials reiterated the increasing danger associated with lone actors who are sympathizers of a formal terrorist groups and are capable of carrying out an attack with no or little connection to the international terrorist groups (Civic Impluse, 2017). The critics of this amendment have argued that IRTPA violates Fourth Amendment that protect individuals from unreasonable search and seizure. This will affect Justice Department from prosecuting the case, but the defendant is likely to have hard time challenging the legality of the FISA warrant if the FBI agent relied on ‘lone wolf’ provision while conducting the searches.

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            Another major change that IRTPA brought to Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 was the inclusion of ‘material support’ statute in Title 18 Section 2339. The included provision states that it is a crime for an individual or organization to provide material resource or support to an individual, organization or groups to be used in connection with terrorist act. Section 2339B went further to prohibit ‘knowingly’ providing material support or resources to organizations designated as ‘foreign terrorist organizations’ (Hastedt, 2006). The statute defined materials resources to include physical assets, safe houses, communication equipment, training, financial assets and other facilities. The USA PATRIOT Act changed the statute to include ‘expert advice and assistance’.

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            IRTPA make it explicitly clear that it is criminal offense to ‘knowingly receive’ military-type training from the designated terrorist organization. It was not possible to prosecute someone in the past if he/she confessed to have knowingly attended an al-Qaeda training camp since it was not an illegal act (Hastedt, 2006). Considering that U.S. intelligence have approximated 10,000 – 20,000 individuals to have undergone training at al-Qaeda camp between 1996 and 2001 in Afghanistan.            

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In conclusion, IRTPA has enhance counterterrorism by clearly defining the terms that were considered as questionable in courts such as ‘training’, ‘knowingly provided’ and ‘expert advice or assistance’. These gaps had been identified by FBI official but it required the support from the Senate and Congress in order to become a law.

Read also State Secrets, The USA Patriot Act And The War On Terrorism

Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism from the Perspective of Invasive Species, Biological Threats, and Logic Behind Suicide Terrorism

Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) represent a group of weaponry that has the potential to kill a multitude of people within a very short time. Also, WMDs are known to have catastrophic effects that last for many years after an attack. WMDs include biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. Biological weapons include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other contaminants that are deliberately manufactured to cause death or induce diseases to plants, animals or humans (Curley, 2012). Chemical weapons are lethal chemicals whose effects are capable of causing death, permanent or temporary injuries to animals and people. Such chemicals include nerve and tear gas. Subsequently, nuclear weapons represent explosives such as bombs and missiles that rely on nuclear energy to cause death or destruction to the targeted people or place. All these weapons have been used in the past and it has become apparent to the whole world that they pose a great threat to both living and non-living things (Curley, 2012). While WMDs are used as part of security measures by various countries, it could be detrimental and disastrous if the same weapons land on the hands of terrorists or states that are allied to terrorist organizations. In the wake of rising terrorism and animosity between various countries, there have been concerns about the likelihood of the usage of WMDs to launch attacks against perceived enemies which may cause great harm to innocent civilians. This paper explores WMDs terrorism from the perspective of invasive species, biological threats, and the logic behind suicide terrorism.

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Invasive species are categorized under biological weapons. WMDs terrorism associated with biological weapons is referred to as bioterrorism. This form of terrorism ranges from strategic and tactical military acts or state-supported terrorism to isolated acts by individuals against individuals such as rogue scientists to inflict mass casualties to humans, plants or animals (Chomel & Sun, 2010). Invasive species involves the introduction of exotic organisms such as animals or plants to foreign ecosystems to destroy the biotic or abiotic factors within such an ecosystem (Curley, 2012). When used as a bioweapon, the motive might be to sabotage staple foods of a certain region or a country to cause starvation or kill an important source of income within an economy. Also, invasive species such as Anthrax or tularemia poses a great danger to animals leading mass deaths if not contained. Although acts of bioterrorism are rare, their potential to cause devastating repercussions remains a matter of great concern.

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The use of invasive species in bioterrorism can lead to an epidemic. The probability of an epidemic arises from the fact that most pathogenic organisms that are likely to be used by bioterrorists can spread easily through direct contact, flying insects, or aerosol (Chomel & Sun, 2010). From past occurrences, two viruses have been manifested their potential to cause enormous harm to livestock and human beings. These viruses are Foot and mouth disease (FMD) as well as Rift Valley fever (RVF) (Chomel & Sun, 2010). FMD has been reported to be one of the most contagious viruses on earth and if introduced on livestock, it can lead to millions of deaths. For instance, the United Kingdom experienced an FMD outbreak in 2001 which claimed the lives of 11 million livestock causing huge financial losses to those who depended on livestock farming. This outbreak was attributed to the illegal importation of meat. Furthermore, RVF can be introduced to a place through the dispersion of the virus to a major breeding ground for ruminants where such vectors as mosquitoes are plentiful. Mosquito carriers can spread the virus far and wide infecting multitudes of livestock. The major health impact of the virus is that it can end up in humans through the consumption of infected livestock. Bioterrorists can use such pathogenic organisms to undermine food security in an area of interest intending to cause hunger and great suffering to the occupants of such an area.

Invasive species can be one of the most effective bioweapons because in many cases, it is difficult to trace the perpetrator. This difficulty results from the general assumption that invasive species originates from natural disasters (Chomel & Sun, 2010). Besides, most investigations that have been conducted in the past concerning incidences of biological invasions have failed to come up with evidence suggesting the likelihood of deliberate human intervention. Preventive measures do not prioritize stopping future acts of bioterrorism but only focus on eradicating the species giving the perpetrators a chance to attack again and again. Thus, invasive species pose a serious threat if used by terrorists to advance their agendas.

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Biological threats from WMDs terrorism can be highly disastrous to plants, animals and human beings with both immediate and long-term effects. WMDs mostly associated with biological threats are chemical and biological weapons although nuclear weapons cannot be excluded from the list (Curley, 2012). The use of chemical weapons is characterized by various chemical agents such as blood, blister and, nerve agents. Chemical agents are linked to numerous short-term health risks such as skin blisters, respiratory problems, paralysis, convulsions, and dyspnea amongst many others (Gosden & Gardener, 2005). Long-term health impacts include cancers, damage to reproductive and immune systems as well as blindness. On the other hand, bioweapons are used in form invasive species that may carry bacteria, toxins, or viruses (Gosden & Gardener, 2005). Such biological agents are catastrophic as they are highly infectious and can spread over a large area leaving a trail of casualties and deaths. The risks are grave in the absence of effective treatments or vaccines.

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Still, on biological threats, WMDs can lead to the destruction of basic resources leading to devastating epidemiological impacts on numerous living organisms. The major primary natural resources that are prone to biological threats are air, water, and food (Gosden & Gardener, 2005). Air can be contaminated through various germs that are mostly used in bioweapons. For instance, the air that is contaminated with fungi can lead to widespread infections of healthy plants leading to numerous harms or permanent extinction of targeted plants. Subsequently, water is can be contaminated with various lethal agents which can cause serious injuries to aquatic life and humans. For example, water contaminated with a gram of the poisonous Clostridium tetani is capable of killing an estimated 8 million individuals within 6 hours. Furthermore, food represents one of the most effective techniques that can be used in WMDs terrorism especially in biowarfare. Various lethal food contaminants such as lead and aflatoxins can kill millions of people and animals within a few hours after consumption. Thus, biological threats of WMDs terrorism cannot be underestimated due to their life-threatening impacts through the destruction of fundamental resources.

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Past attacks have proven beyond a reasonable doubt that WMDs terrorism poses far-reaching biological threats to humans and their surroundings. For example, the Iraqi government once attacked its deviant civilians in Halabja with a mixture of nerve agents and mustard gas which left 5000 civilians dead and scores others with long-term bodily defects and diseases such as hematological malignancies, infertility, and tumors of the head and neck (Gosden & Gardener, 2005). Besides, some chemical agents such as nerve agents have been linked with lifetime health conditions such as cardiac arrhythmias, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Also, WMDs have been linked with blood cancers such as leukemia. It is documented that the victims of the Hiroshima atomic bomb attack in Japan have reported high leukemia cases after the attack (Gosden & Gardener, 2005). With the advancement of technology, there is a higher risk that terrorists might develop WMDs that can cause major biological threats to both living and non-living things. Besides, WMDs have proven the potential of wiping an entire population if used for malicious purposes, especially on non-armed civilians.

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Suicide terrorism is so far the most effective and lethal technique that has been used and tested by terrorists. From the definition of WMDs, the weapons are connected to either of two major consequences; mass deaths or multiple casualties. Thus, suicide terrorism fits the definition of WMDs due to its potential to cause many deaths and casualties at the same time. In other words, a suicide terrorist is equal to a WMD only that one is a living thing and the other is a non-living thing. Experts argue that suicide terrorism is by far the worst weapon used by terrorists because it is hard to detect a suicide terrorist than it is to detect an improvised explosive device (IED) (Horowitz, 2015). Suicide terrorism has been used in the past by terrorist and the consequences have been fatal. One of the most infamous acts of suicide terrorism happened in the U.S during the 9/11 attack that left more 2000 people dead and hundreds of others injured due to both direct and indirect impacts of the attack (Horowitz, 2015). From an inner perspective of WMDs terrorism, there is a high likelihood that suicide terrorists can advance to more lethal techniques such as injecting themselves with bioweapons such as highly contagious viruses and traveling to targeted to cause a pandemic.

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To get a better understanding of suicide terrorism, there is a need to first investigate the logic behind suicide terrorism. The main reason for trying to get into the mind of a suicide terrorist is to know the underlying factors that motivate such individuals to sacrifice their lives. Various explanations have been developed to explain the motives behind suicide terrorism but the world is yet to come up with a standard explanation. While it is true that suicide attackers might be motivated by religious reasons, psychologists and experts provided a variety of arguments about the matter. Horowitz (2015) argues that suicide terrorism originated from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a rebel group that fought for Sri Lanka’s independence between 1980 and 2001. During this time, suicide attacks amounted to 75 which is so far the highest number of attacks of a similar nature conducted by a single group. The motive of the LTTE attackers can be attributed to fighting for freedom because all the attacks were directed towards military targets unlike in Islamic group suicide attacks which are targeted to both government forces and unarmed civilians.

Some suicide bombings have been connected to economic motives. Psychologists believe that some terrorist organizations lure people into suicide terrorism on grounds that once they commit the offense, they shall be paid a lumpsum amount that will go to their next of kin. Potential candidates have been identified to be poor, uneducated, unemployed, or college/university graduates who have lost hope of getting a job (Horowitz, 2015). These groups of people are likely to be highly desperate to do anything that can ensure that their families are provided with basic requirements. Economic motives are used to refute the notion that suicide terrorism is perpetrated by Islamic believers. In essence, the main aim of the argument is indicating suicide terrorists come from a range of cultural and spiritual teachings provided that they are desperate enough to sacrifice themselves to better the lives of their next of kin.

While many explanations have been used to demystify suicide terrorism, it is quite essential to note that modern terrorism applies coercive logic. Crucially, it is a strategy meant to send a message to the target that there is no turning back until the demands of the terrorist are met (Horowitz, 2015). The first aim is to cause as many deaths as possible especially to innocent civilians to cause panic and fear among citizens and push the target government to heed to the requirements of the terrorist organization responsible for such attacks. Secondly, terrorist groups use suicide attackers to coerce the target based on the accuracy and fatality of the attack. A suicide terrorist is a reliable weapon because someone ready to die is likely to achieve a mission and cause the greatest damage possible (Horowitz, 2015). Moreover, suicide attackers can reach guarded targets as they do not require an escape plan. Thus, the main logic behind suicide terrorism appears to be coercive to intimidate the target to surrender.

In summary, WMDs have been proven to have catastrophic impacts when used against innocent or un-armed civilians. The weapons become even dangerous when they are used by terrorists or states that are allied to terrorists. Terrorists can go to the extent of introducing invasive species as bioweapons against the target. This weapon can be effective because it can cause great damage to its origin going undetected. Besides, WMDs terrorism is capable of causing biological threats that are disastrous to both living and non-living things. Moreover, suicide terrorism has the potential of advancing from the use of explosives to the use of WMDs. This possibility is evidenced by the coercive logic behind terrorism whose desire is to cause maximum harm to the target. Thus, there is a need to ensure that WMDs do not end up in the hands of terrorists and people of such caliber as it can be disastrous to the world.

An Analysis of the Civil War in Yemen – Law and Terrorism Final Paper

Introduction and Evaluation of the War’s Effects

The civil war in Yemen has birthed one of the most serious man-made humanitarian disasters ever recorded in modern history. Within a period of four years, deadly clashes between the Saudi supported Yemeni Government and the Iran-aligned Ansar Allah (Houthi) rebels has resulted in unimaginable misery inside the Arabian Peninsula nation.  Current estimates of the death toll from both sides is 50,000, a figure that is expected to rise if the parties involved fail to arrive at an amicable political settlement (“World Report 2019: Rights Trends in Yemen,” 2019). The situation is further exacerbated by the fact that the Yemeni population is now on the brink of famine owing to a Saudi-led blockade on the country’s port cities.  The conflict has created optimum conditions for depravation and abuse all too common during strife.   

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Yemeni women and children are now regarded as a vulnerable segment of the population due to the civil war. The anarchy and lawlessness witnessed around the country is now linked to elaborate human trafficking rings targeting the aforementioned population. The United Nation (UN) recently highlighted the increased susceptibility of Yemeni women and children to human bondage (Blumi, 2018, p. 76). Criminal organizations have taken advantage of this turmoil, using at-risk victims from poor families as sex workers locally and abroad. In addition to this, warring factions are now recruiting children to fill the ranks of various military outfits. These children are often coerced into joining these groups and threatened if they harbor any reservations. As new entrants to the war, they further contribute to the destabilization that usually follows, now linked to the malnutrition that women and children face.  Constant air strikes by the Saudi-led coalition have also destroyed homes in rebel strongholds with a majority of the victims being women and children.

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The civil war in Yemen has also affected the country’s education system and degraded the government’s ability to provide this essential service to its people. Children are, for the most part, out of school in regions affected by the war.  A majority of Yemeni parents intentionally prevented their children from attending school as a precautionary measure. 69, of the 3600 schools were occupied by armed groups which increased the likelihood of them being targeted by airstrikes (UN Children’s Fund, 2015). In addition to this, schools were periodically bombed during the conflict. Those that survive the onslaught were then used as temporary shelters to house thousands of refugees fleeing the war.  The Yemeni government has conceded that its limited manpower has worsened the situation in the country (Phillips, 2017). Government officials cannot solve emerging problems in the education system owing to inadequate financial resources. Schools remain closed since the government has been unable to reconstruct damaged facilities, provide supplies and pay teacher salaries.

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            The quality of life has also been affected as a result of the civil war. Hardships are now typical in Yemen. The indiscriminate nature of the war leaves opposing forces with no option other than to use unconventional techniques to win the war. For instance, the use of anti-personnel improvised explosive devices (IEDs) has been rampant in Houthi strongholds. Even though these mines originally target Yemeni government forces, civilians also fall victim when they accidentally step them.  Mines have maimed a large section of the population in Aden and Sa’naa, with thousands more grappling with serious injuries resulting from these accidents. Additionally, civilians also face constant danger due to an increased frequency in airstrikes by Saudi-led coalition. These precision strikes target Houthi command and control centers to destroy critical military hardware, but also end up impacting civilians.

Analysis of the Civil War in Yemen

Background and Perspective on the Conflict

            The Yemeni Civil War is a fragmentary war pitting the Addrabbuh Hadi-led government against Ansar Allah group (Houthis) for control of the country. The Houthi armed group first emerged in 2004 when their Zaidi Shia leader, Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, was assassinated for fomenting anti-government sentiments in Sa’dah Governorate (Brandt, 2017). He openly opposed government policies and was constantly at odds with the ruling class. Although a government military crackdown managed to calm the situation albeit momentarily, clashes soon emerged when peace agreements were disregarded. The group later emerged in 2011 during the Yemeni Revolution when they openly called for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh. By 2014, the group was linked to the Houthi-Sunni conflict that emerged in the country which soon spread to Sana’a Governorate. A decisive battle was later fought between Yemen Army forces and the Houthis in which culminated in the later sizing control of the Yemeni Capital Sa’naa in late September of the same year. Their influence as a political outfit also surfaced during this period when they forced the government to resign power and cede power to their opponents. However, things escalated in January when the presidential compound in the capital Sa’naa was overrun by Houthi fighters. In a press statement prepared by the group’s communications wings, the primary reason for this course of action was the suggestion that the country would be administered better of it was divided into six federal regions. It later prompted President Hadi’s government to resign prompting dissolution of the national assembly. Later, the Revolutionary Committee was formed to administer the region and began its operations by first placing Hadi under house arrests. After quietly slipping from the compound on 21st January, he gave a televised address in which he described the Houthi’s as unconstitutional usurpers. He was later publicly denounced by his predecessor, Ali Abdullah Saleh, who urged him to go into exile.     

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            Putting this conflict into perspective first requires a comprehensive understanding of all the factions directly involved in the conflict. The most prominent are the Yemeni government and the Houthi rebels from the mountainous Sa’dah Governorate. The Yemeni government views the Houthi armed movement as a ragtag terrorist group hell-bent on deposing democratically elected leaders. On the other hand, the Houthi armed movement strongly believes that the current Yemeni government is illegitimate and has actively participated in the persecuting its own people. President Hadi currently administers his government from Aden while Houthi forces occupy the capital Sa’naa and assert that they are Yemen’s official government. In the midst of this chaos, terrorist groups such as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) and Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) have taken this opportunity to capture territories in the west of the country. Gulf regional powers are aware of the power that the Houthi armed movement wields and are keen to ensure that their attempts to consolidate power within Yemen are thwarted. To this end, the Saudi-led coalition launched military operations deep into Yemeni territory with the main aim being the destabilization of the Houthi armed movement.  Throughout the conflict, the Houthis have been accused of being Iran’s proxies aiming to spread its Shia influence in the region. Although unconfirmed, these allegations prompted the United States and Gulf powers to support the Yemeni government’s efforts to quell the Houthi insurgency. The United States has actively provided military support to the Yemeni government and also carried out drone strikes in the region during the reign of President Hadi.

Laws of War In Relation to the Yemeni Civil War          

Laws of war were designed to govern the demeanor of warring parties during conflict. They are constituents of international law concerned with the declaration of war, terms of surrender, types of weapons allowed in the conflict and the treatment of enemy combatants and prisoners of war. It is critical to acknowledge that the International Humanitarian Law (ILH) does not consider the Yemeni Civil War as an international conflict (The Geneva Academy, 2019).  This conclusion is drawn from the Geneva Conventions of 1949 which classifies a conflict as either being international or non-international.   International states involve two warring states while non-international conflicts of armed forces fighting a state. There are a number of conditions that must be satisfied for a conflict such as the Yemeni Civil War to be regarded as a non-international conflict under International Humanitarian Law (ILH).

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            The foremost indicator in this respect is the intensity of the hostilities. A conflict’s intensity is usually determined by assessing its duration, number of direct skirmishes, weapons used, caliber of munitions, number of casualties and civilians fleeing the war zone. A conflict’s situation may also be considered dire when the United Nations Security Council becomes directly involved in an effort to bring an end to the hostilities. The presence of an elaborate command structure and an organized fighting force are also issues that come into play when deciding whether to classify conflict as a non-international skirmish (Phillips, 2017). Moreover, the control of vast swathes of land and the possession of sophisticated weaponry is a factor that comes into play when assessing whether a conflict has attained the thresholds provided. This group must also an ability to acquire a vast array of its weaponry and use it with precision. The presence of a highly trained outfit that uses military tactics and strategy also comes into play. A group that indicates such a high level of organization is usually open to negotiations as a viable option seeking to cease hostilities.  The only way that a non-international conflict becomes an international one is if a third States emerges as a principle player in the conflict and exerting control over an armed group.

            The Yemeni Civil War is regarded as a non-international as per International Humanitarian Law (ILH) regulations. The Ansar Allah group (Houthis) is an armed movement that is in conflict with the Yemeni government. The Houthis have displayed their militaristic capabilities that have allowed them to overrun government installations and control vast territories. Their capabilities were in full display when the managed to include the capital Sa’naa within its sphere of influence. Government officials have claimed time and again that Iran is allied to the Houthis. However, no concrete evidence has emerged linking Iran to the Houthis or their role as chief financiers. According to a UN Panel of Experts report on the conflict in Yemen, Iran does not wield sufficient control over the Ansar Allah group for the war to be regarded as an international conflict (United Nations Security Council, 2019). The Common Article 3 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocol II are both applied in reference to the Yemeni Civil War.  It is now quite apparent that the Houthis are under an efficient command and control infrastructure making it possible for them to conduct a sustained military campaign.

The application of the Additional Protocol II also means that the conflict is evaluated for breach of customary international law. The breach of stipulations clearly spelled out in the 1949 Geneva Conventions and the 1977 Additional Protocol II may warrant prosecutors to refer the case to the International Criminal Court.  Armed groups are expected to take responsibility when credible allegations surface pointing to direct violations of International Humanitarian Law (ILH).  Human rights laws apply unequivocally in armed conflict where an infringement on this provision may lead to dire conflicts. However, the Yemeni conflict presents a complex situation for laws of war.  States involved in the conflict such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia are not listed as signatories under the human rights charter and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR).  Prosecuting them for supposed violations of human rights treatise will be an uphill task for bodies seeking to apply customary international law.

Negotiations Aimed at Pacifying the Yemeni Civil War

Regional and international powers have expressed their desire to see immediate end to hostilities in Yemen. The death toll currently stands at 56,000 with 1.4 million Yemenis currently facing starvation (Orkaby, 2019). Any proposals and negotiations discussed thus far are first aimed at addressing these issues to ensure that there is a return to normalcy in the country. Additionally, discussions focusing on appropriate power transfer schemes are critical when attempting to formulate a lasting political solution to the conflict. Reconciliation attempts were bore fruit when warring parties agreed on a proposal to hold presidential elections in February 2012. Nevertheless, heavy fighting continued during this period before the Ansar Allah group seized Sa’naa, Yemen’s political capital.

Attempts to end the turmoil in Yemen have their roots in the 2011 failed mediation attempts by the Gulf Co-operation council. Its main aim was to charter a course towards the transition of power in Yemen. President Saleh had initially indicated that he would be signing a deal to relinquish power but soon backtracked. After months of political posturing over this particular deal, no solution was arrived at and the country erupted in sporadic violence. He later   flew with his close advisors to Riyadh, Saudi Arabia where he signed the proposed proposal for political transition. Abbu-Rabbo Mansour al-Hadi took power under the new agreement with former President Saleh being granted immunity by the Assembly of Representatives of Yemen (Orkaby, 2017). Negotiations began officially in May 2015 when Saudi Arabia proposed a cease fire for a period of five days. Ansar Allah and their allies accepted these terms. The cease-fire was proposed as the only viable way through which humanitarian aid could enter the Yemeni hinterland.  Essential supplies and medical aid could now be transported around the country to aid those in need.  In that same year Oman emerged as a major peace broker in the conflict when it presented its plan to both Saudi Arabia and Iran.

            The December 2018 negotiations in Sweden were a high profile affair that attempted to   de-escalate and end the conflict in Yemen. The 10-day talks were convened under the United Nation’s auspices to formulate a clear plan that would end the war. Both parties agreed to allow the United Nations to lead efforts to formulate a workable political settlement. The killing of the journalist Jamal Khashoggi was widely cited as the reason for Saudi Arabia’s censure on this matter in favor of the United Nations. In addition to this, both the Obama and Trump Administrations have actively campaigned for negotiations as the only feasible solution that would bring peace to the region (Ulrichsen, 2018, p. 23). Secretary of State Mike Pompeo has, within the past one year urged warring parties to engage in talks as a precursor to a peace deal. Confidence building dealings are an important ingredient to successful negotiations since they are an indication of a willingness to follow through on specific accords. The December 2018 negotiations are the most successful thus far where the evacuation of injured Ansar Allah fighters, guaranteed safe passage to the negotiations and prisoner exchange were all agreed upon. De-escalation was an integral part of the negotiations. The Saudi-led blockade on the port city of Hudaydah has affected the country’s population negatively and the chief reason why the Yemeni population faces the risk of starvation.

Conclusion

The Yemeni Civil War is a modern-day that threatens to the peace and security of the gulf region in the Middle East. Conflict between the Yemeni government supported by the Saudi-led coalition and the Ansar Allah (Houthi) armed movement has resulted in a humanitarian crisis the likes of which has never been witnessed in the region. International Humanitarian Law (ILH) classifies the conflict as a non-international skirmish that can be solved using negotiations aimed at pacifying Yemen and introducing a lasting political solution.

Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper

Introduction

Since the United States terrorist attack of 2001, international non-governmental organizations have had a significant impact on the fight against terrorism globally. After recognizing the crucial role that international, non-governmental organizations play in fighting terrorism, the United Nations General Assembly agreed to support a global strategy that permits different stakeholders, including international non-governmental organizations, to work in collaboration to counter terrorism . Since 2006, the United Nations General Assembly in particular has been encouraging international, non-governmental organizations to join hands with governments of different nations in combating terrorism. A number of authors have documented the importance of involving international non-governmental organizations in addressing terrorism threats. While working together with governments to counter terrorist activities, international, non-governmental organizations are advised to observe the rule of law and human rights. International, non-governmental organizations play a significant role in combating terrorism which has become a common threat in many countries today2 . This research paper explores the role of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The research method that has been applied in this research is theoretical study through a comprehensive review of available literature.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

The research questions and hypotheses that guide this study are listed below;

  1. To what extent are international, non-governmental organizations involved in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations are extensively involved in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations are not involved in combating terrorism
  2. Do international, non-governmental organizations play any important roles in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations play very important roles in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations do not play any important roles in combating terrorism

Review Of Literature

In March 2007, the Office for Democratic Institution and Human Right identified specific roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in countering terrorism. Some of the identified roles include legal roles, community roles, advisory and educational roles, as well as advocacy and research roles3 . International, non-governmental organizations provide advice and educate institutions on how they can prevent terrorism.The expertise and policy that international, non-governmental organizations give to institutions cannot be provided by the government. In certain instances, individuals may find it difficult to combat terrorism due to lack of proper language that they can use to address the problem. International, non-governmental organizations provide public officials with appropriate terminology and language that they can use address issues related to terrorism.

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International, non-governmental organizations normally encourage public officers to stick to the law as they attempt to counter terrorism. As they do so, these organizations always understand that they must comply with the government laws of countries within which they operate. Similarly, public officers should obey laws of different nations as they continue to engage in activities that are aimed at combating terrorism. International, non-governmental organizations also provide advisory roles by guiding public officers and individuals to avoid supporting policies and measures that terrorists may use for their own benefits. It is important to remember that non-state actors should obtain detailed information concerning the extent of terrorism threat for them to provide sufficient and effective response.

Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations play very crucial community functions which are related to combating terrorism. They push for the development of strong groups in the community where people can share ideas and opinions on how they can effectively deal with terrorism threat. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations create forms where communities can meet to discuss their differences at a personal level. This helps to minimize tensions that may fuel terrorism activities.These organizations take quick and appropriate actions that are aimed at addressing the root cause of tensions among different communities. In this manner, they play a crucial role in creating strong societies who will resort to solve their differences peacefully by not through acts of terrorism .

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As far as educational role is concerned, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize human rights as a very important factor when it comes to section of the most appropriate counter-terrorism strategies. These organizations take their time to explain to school children, law-enforcement officers, and the police about the importance of human rights in implementation of counter-terrorism strategies. International, non-governmental organizations enter into partnerships with law enforcement agencies with the aim of increasing awareness concerning effective diversity management strategies. For instance, to promote an understanding of understanding cultural diversity among law enforcement officers, the Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee worked in collaboration with the Office of Civil Liberties in the United States.

Additional examples that demonstrate how international, non-governmental organizations fight to counter terrorism by advocating for human rights are the partnerships that have been formed between governments and non-governmental organizations which have been extremely effective in countering terrorism. The IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism (ICPAT), works closely with partners to help counter terrorism at both local and global levels. Many countries become victims of terrorism because they lack adequate resources to effectively counter such activities before they can cause serious harm. ICPAT strives to ensure that relevant resources are supplied to various countries across the world where terrorism poses the biggest threat. International, non-governmental organizations appreciate the role they play in providing technical support to nations that face serious terrorism threats .

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The advocacy role of international, non-governmental organizations is evidenced in the manner these organizations engage with the media as they try to influence the public’s perception concerning terrorism concept. As the media and the entertainment industry may spread information that encourages terrorism activities, they can as well be utilized to inform the public about the negative consequences of terrorism and to encourage people not to engage in such inhumane act. International, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration with the media and the entertainment industry in general with the aim of influencing them to spread information that support respect for human rights and that encourage the public to promote national security10. Of the most importance as far as advocacy role is concerned is the effort that international, non-governmental organizations have put in supporting the media to encourage minority groups to always remain on the forefront in connection with fighting terrorism. These organizations work with the media to help minority groups understand their responsibility in avoiding stereotypes and prejudices that may heighten terrorism activities.

Moreover, international, non-governmental organizations carry out meaningful research in order to identify factors that encourage terrorism activities as well as the most appropriate ways to address them. High quality research is very important when fighting terrorism because it provides vital information that that can positively influence prevention efforts. These organizations extensively conduct surveys and studies which generate results that have brought about significant impacts on counter-terrorism measures. International, non-governmental organizations also engage in dialogues with governments in order to monitor the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures that have already been implemented. This may include an evaluation of funds have been spent as well as how tangible resources have been utilized.

One counter-terrorism role that has for a long time been performed better by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in dialogue with groups or individuals who are believed to perpetuate acts of terrorism. It is always more difficult for the government to engage in dialogue with such groups than it is for international, non-governmental organizations. When trying to influence groups and individuals to avoid terrorism activities, international, nongovernmental organizations should use human rights-based approach which involves maintenance of high levels of neutrality. This is because taking sides when engaging in such dialogue may encourage even more harsh terrorism activities instead of minimizing them. A valuable example that shows how international, non-governmental organizations have successful utilized dialogue to counter terrorism is the peace process that took place in Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland, international, non-governmental organizations engaged the government in dialogue to condemn all forms of terrorism acts irrespective of their motivation.

These organizations work very hard to minimize psychological and emotional effects of terrorism by encouraging victims of unlawful counter-terrorism and terrorism activities to report address their concerns through human rights agencies . International, non-governmental organizations are actively involved in activities which are aimed at addressing conditions that encourage the spread of terrorism. For instance, the United Nations works with Civil Society Organizations to prevent and manage conflicts among communities, fight for human rights, provide humanitarian relief to terrorism victims, and to expand group and individual participation on countering terrorism . In a specific example, IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism recently worked with an Indonesian artist to create an album that supports are promotes Islamic religion. This works contributes greatly towards minimization of terrorist activities by attempting to counter the negative thoughts that tend to associate all Muslims with terrorism acts. Although some people may view this work as a way of branding Islamic religion with terrorism, it is important to acknowledge its relevance in minimization of terrorism activities. Basically, international, non-governmental organizations work to stabilize warring communities especially in situations where the government is not providing any relevant support.

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International, non-governmental organizations also promote good governance across nations in order to increase the ease with which various nations can handle terrorism threats. This is because these organizations believe that nations that are properly governed are always united and top leaders can easily come up with solutions that can help them to curb terrorism threats.This role is built upon the premise that lack of good governance provides a very conducive environment that encourages the spread of terrorism. Notable examples concerning how lack of good governance can lead to the spread of terrorism include; the rise of Hamas in Palestine, the growth of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, and the popularity of the terrorist groups in Somalia. This explains why international, non-governmental organizations are focused on promotion of democracy. They also demand accountability from politicians as a strategy towards promotion of stable governments.

Terrorism threat compels nations to make changes on their security policies to allow them to effectively prevent deadly attacks. International, non-governmental organizations assist different nations in making meaningful and relevant security reforms that can enable to properly combat terrorism. These organizations guide governments to make security reforms based on their abilities and with reference to other successful counter-terrorism measures which have successfully been utilized in the past. Some international, non-governmental organizations often foster cooperative initiatives that are aimed at stakeholder involvement in order to improve awareness of terrorism threat as well as the specific actions that can be taken to address vulnerabilities.

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These initiatives are chosen and implemented as per the opinions and views of the United Kingdom Department for International Development. According to the United Kingdom Department for International Development, the initial point for improving a country’s security forces in order to effectively address terrorism threat is improvement of civic awareness of security issues. International, non-governmental organizations play a very crucial role in expressing their opinions regarding the status and strengths of national security policies. These opinions are extremely useful when the government lacks the capacity to effectively analyze its security issues and to make appropriate changes on security policy to help curb terrorism threat.

International, non-governmental organizations provide technical expertise that help with the implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives. For a long period of time, international, nongovernmental organizations have provided counterterrorism related assistance to nations that want to implement strategies to combat terrorism threat. The implementation and capacity building assistance that it offered by international, non-governmental organizations have more advantageous as compared to those offered by government institutions. For instance, when international, non-governmental organizations push for implementation of security initiatives to curb terrorism, their efforts are rarely thwarted by political sensitivities which are very common when such implementations are supported by national governments.

Another reason that makes international, non-governmental institutions better than national governments as far as implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives is concerned is the presence of a diverse pool of individuals with good knowledge and linguistic expertise. As compared to state organizations, international, non-government organizations are better suited to manage language and cultural barrier that may hamper successful implementation of counterterrorism initiatives.

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Although majority of international, non-governmental organizations play roles that are directly involved in combating terrorism, some of them are engaged in activities that indirectly influence terrorism but which are of great importance in combating terrorism. For example, the Terrorism Prevention Branch enhances international cooperation as well as a coordinated government approach both of which enhance response to terrorism. The Terrorism Prevention Branch establishes links with national and international governments to come up with a law enforcement framework that can help them to handle terrorism threat. This agency teaches governments to how they can detect and do away with money laundering activities which is widely used by organizations and individuals to finance terrorism activities. The practice of advising governments to cut financial support for terrorism activities is a good example of an indirect role played by international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism.

The roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism which have been discussed in this section are well demonstrated in Afghanistan terrorism case. According to the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy documented in 2006, nongovernmental organizations have a positive influence on how nations respond to terrorism threats. As part of implementation of the 2006 United Nations strategy, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and UNESCO, all joined hands to help address the terrorism problem in Afghanistan. Other Afghan-based nongovernmental organizations worked together with these international agencies to provide counter-terrorism services in the region.

In the Afghanistan case, international, non-governmental organizations worked in collaboration with the United Nations to educate public officers, monitor human rights issues, and to improve governance. The strength of the relationship between the United Nations and international, non-governmental organizations helped to control the Afghanistan situation. The performance of international, non-governmental organizations was enhanced by counterterrorism-related subsidiary bodies of the Security Council. International, non-governmental organizations require detailed information from state governments for them to effectively combat terrorism. The United Nations provided the agencies involved with relevant information that remained helpful during their entire period of struggle against terrorism in Afghanistan.

International, non-governmental organizations require more space to interact independently without any interference from the national government. At the same time, they need to acknowledge the fact that good governance will determine the nature of information they can receive from state governments which will also determine the outcome of the actions in combating terrorism. To some extent, international, non-governmental organizations must be cautious about how they associate with national governments to prevent the governments from undermining their own legitimacy.

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When developing the 2006 strategy, the United Nations decided to create a boundary between international, non-governmental organizations to give states an opportunity to view these organizations as extremely relevant. In Afghanistan, international, non-governmental organizations are working in an extremely difficult environment which is characterized by lack of sufficient information from the government.This is happening because the Afghanistan’s security situation is highly dangerous and complicated. This has greatly interfered with good governance which makes exchange of relevant information between the international, non-governmental organizations and the government difficult.

To a large extent, numerous international, non-governmental organizations have worked together to control the Afghanistan situation. They are working by delivering healthcare and counseling services, offering basic community needs, and providing women’s education. The United States as a country has greatly acknowledged the important role that international, nongovernmental organizations are playing to reduce terrorism-related violence in Afghanistan. For this reason, the United States government is always interested in giving support to international, non-governmental organizations with the aim of strengthening their capabilities and to help them establish self-sufficiency at the community level. This support has highly encouraged the development of several pathways that the international agencies can use to resist Taliban and other forces which are trying to destabilize Afghanistan. The United States however has a new plan to allow local populations to work together with international, non-governmental organizations. The biggest challenge that this will bring to the international agencies is how they can organize their activities without being compromised by intimidation and violence

Findings And Discussion

A large volume of international documents have stressed on the important roles that are played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The need to involve international, non-governmental organizations by states in the fight against terrorism was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 and was documented in the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. The main reason for involving international, non-governmental organizations in fighting terrorism threat is because the United Nations believed that these organizations will bring about great contributions in finding common political grounds and in addressing human rights issues, which would eventually result into prevention of terrorism.

Out of the articles reviewed, the authors support that international, non-governmental organizations have very crucial and meaningful roles to play on combating terrorism. It is widely agreed that international, non-governmental organizations have valuable expertise and experience that work best to address issues that encourage the spread of terrorism. Many authors have given specific examples concerning how international, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration to strengthen respect for the rule of law and the human rights. In addition, many documents support that the response initiated towards terrorism threat depends on genuine partnerships between the state governments and international, non-governmental organizations. They have further stressed on the effort that international, non-governmental organizations are putting in promoting diversity inclusion and democratic accountability. Although the existing literature has documented numerous roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism, this paper has summarized the roles into broad categories to enhance clarity.The possible roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, educative roles, and advisory roles.

Roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism

Research roles

From the literature review, it has been revealed that international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that enable them to come up with appropriate strategies that they can use to best counter terrorism. These organizations often conduct high quality research in several areas including the political situation, the root-cause of violence, the motive of terrorism attack, and the most appropriate prevention strategies that can be applied to generate positive results . Additional research that international, non-governmental organizations always concerns factors that may result into spread of terrorism, the impact of possible counter-terrorism measures on the current situation, and how the adversaries involved in the violence would respond following successful implementation of counter-terrorism measures. By conducting comprehensive research when faced with a terrorism-related violence, international, nongovernmental organizations find an opportunity to utilize a practical approach to counter terrorism. A practical approach has been found to be more effective than a theoretical approach in generating meaningful results that can be used by international, non-governmental organizations to execute the best counter-terrorism approach.

By conducting empirical and statistical research, international, non-governmental organizations are able to examine the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures in generating the desired results. These organizations can use the information gathered through research to know the type of data that they should request from governments. When requesting for this data from the government, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize the fact that public security issues are a matter of concern and should not only be left to the security experts alone. For this reason, it is important to treat the government and any other security agencies that may be interested in joining hands to fight terrorism. Consequently, international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that determine the effectiveness with which a counterterrorism response is executed.

Advocacy roles

International, non-governmental organizations strive to condemn all forms of violence that go against human rights irrespective of its root cause. These organizations act as advocates for human rights by writing letters addressed to terrorist groups informing them about how their activities are a violation of human rights. International, non-governmental organizations normally communicate the correct human rights standards to the armed terrorists groups while stressing on the applicability of those standards. Another advocacy role performed by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in activities that allow terrorism victims to report any acts that go against human rights, either by terrorists or agencies that pretend to be engaged in combating terrorism. In this manner, these organizations help to reduce the psychological and emotional effects of terrorism activities on citizens.

Another issue related to advocacy roles that have been discussed in the reviewed articles is working in collaboration with the media to help reduce terrorism. International, nongovernmental organizations work to shape the public’s perception around terrorism. By forming constructive relationships with the media, these organizations play a crucial role in creating a balance in a community that had a negative perception about terrorism and in initiating a public debate to address matters that pertain to human rights and public security. Debate that is encouraged through media sources is extensively used by international, non-governmental organizations to encourage minority groups not to spread violence but to spread a message of peace. By playing their advocacy roles effectively, international, non-governmental organizations have managed to successfully implement counter-terrorism activities.

Advisory roles

The choice of the best response depends on knowledge of the right approach that will help address a given terrorism situation. International, non-governmental organizations provide expertise and policy advice that can help nations to determine the most appropriate counterterrorism response. In order to perform meaningful advisory roles to properly counter terrorism, international, non-governmental organizations must be allowed to have a sense of ownership of the situation at hand. Furthermore, addressing a security issue should be a common concern to both international, non-governmental organizations and the government. For this reason, these organizations are not allowed to take sides as this may interfere with the process of violence reduction. Majority of reviewed literature have documented how governments can interfere with the role of international, non-governmental organizations in providing valuable assistance. For instance, pressure from the government demanding for a quick response from international organizations may make it difficult for these organizations to offer meaningful counter-terrorism response.

Legal roles

International, non-governmental organizations extensively work on the legal issues related to counter-terrorism. In this manner, these organizations contribute greatly to the strengthening of legal frameworks which are concerned with counter-terrorism particularly those laws related to strengthening the rule of law and human rights. The main challenge that international, non-governmental organizations face as they attempt to perform their legal roles is the actual act that qualifies to be referred to as “terrorist act.” Additionally, international, nongovernmental organizations have formulated international human rights standards that are used as a reference when prosecuting terrorists and other criminals who have been arrested for getting involved in violence related to terrorism activities.

Although criminal investigation institutions have the power to perform their roles independently without interference from external organizations, international, non-governmental organizations often require courts to adhere to internationally set human rights laws to conduct criminal proceedings involving perpetrator of terrorism-related activities. Furthermore, substantial volume of literature have documented the role that international, non-governmental organizations play in setting laws that are used to reduce and even prevent youth radicalization.In order to allow international, non-governmental organizations to effectively perform their legal roles related to reduction of terrorism-related violence, criminal justice systems have sufficient provisions that define how it should work with these organizations in fighting terrorism. This demonstrates the degree of commitment that the criminal justice has in working with nongovernmental organizations to create productive laws that are aimed at addressing terrorism threat.

Community roles

Various authors of reviewed literature support that international, non-governmental organizations take part in providing opinions and ideas that are used to build strong communities. Fighting terrorisms can be very difficult in a community that is filled with fear all the time. International, non-governmental organizations try to create safe space for citizens and organize discussion programs where community members can share their experiences at a personal level . Therefore, these organizations play a very important role in reducing tensions that occur in the community as a result of terrorism activities. Furthermore, existing literature has documented that international, non-governmental organizations take active steps to determine community factors that might result into terrorism-related violence. They also carry out outreach activities in the community which are aimed at strengthening the rule of law and human rights. From the research, it has been discovered that when international, non-governmental organizations fight for the support of the rule of law and human rights, they contribute to building of a stable democratic society which allows citizens to actively participate in social and democratic activities.

As part of their community roles, international, non-governmental organizations organize dialogue sessions with victims and perpetrators of terrorism. When compared with the response received from dialogue sessions conducted by international, non-governmental organizations, those conducted by the government do very little in reducing terrorism-related violence. International, non-governmental organizations utilize rights-based approach when interacting with people in the community as this is extremely essential for development of positive relationships.

Educative roles

Another important role played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism as per the literature review is educative role. These organizations adequately recognize the significance of using proper language to address communities which are involved in terrorism-related violence. For this reason, international, non-governmental organizations take an active part in educating public officials on the right language that they should use to address communities that are involved in terrorism-related violence. Furthermore, international, nongovernmental organizations offer guidance to governments on how they should approach different terrorism situations without spreading the violence.

International, non-governmental organizations also take their time to explain to armed bodies and citizens about the importance of demonstrating respect for human rights in all their activities. They also inform warring communities about the negative impacts of choosing war instead of peaceful negotiations as a method of resolving disputes. The specific activities obtained from the reviewed literature and that define the educative roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; teaching students, youths, and police officers about the negative impacts of terrorism-related violence; informing public officers about the importance of involving people from diverse cultural in decision making to combat terrorism; and working in collaboration with warring communities to explain to them the positive impacts of resolving their conflicts using available methods of alternative conflict resolution.

Challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations when combating terrorism

Implementation of counter-terrorism strategies is not such an easy task, and international, non-governmental organizations have to be prepared to mitigate a number of challenges that they are likely to encounter as they perform their roles. Challenges that international, nongovernmental organizations face as they attempt to combat terrorism tend to interfere with their capacity to effectively prevent terrorism-related violence. This is because international, nongovernmental organizations require relevant information from the government in order to execute their terrorism-prevention roles effectively. This information is always difficult to obtain in countries with broken government or political structures. One of the major challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations is poor governance. Poor governance in a country results into disintegrated civil organization structures that create room for tremendous terrorism recruitment.

Another big challenge that faced by international, non-governmental organizations as they perform their counter-terrorism roles is convincing governments and public officials about the effectiveness of their strategies in combating terrorism. Public officers in the community may fail to understand the significance of the counter-terrorism activities being implemented due to limited knowledge and lack of access to information sources. When they come across such communities, international, non-governmental organizations are compelled to find a way through which they can disseminate relevant information before they can proceed with their counterterrorism initiatives. This presents a very big challenge to international, non-governmental organizations especially when there are limited resources available for implementation of counter-terrorism strategies.

Although criminal justice organizations have found human rights standards formulated by international, non-governmental organization useful in prosecuting criminals of terrorism-related crimes, these organizations are faced with the challenge of coming up with common standards that would be applicable for all nations globally. This is due to the variations in the way people define terrorisms and terrorist acts that qualify as crimes. With the absence of a common standard from which counter-terrorism policies can be formed, international, non-governmental organizations find it difficult to come up with relevant universal policies that can guide implementation on counter-terrorism strategies.

The claim that some countries feel that international, non-governmental organizations prevent governments from successfully combating terrorism acts as an obstacle to organizations that may want to fight terrorism.As international, non-governmental organizations strive to play its role of fighting for human rights and the rule of law, some governments argue that they are supporting terrorists. In certain countries, international, non-governments institutions are not paid their salaries in full because they believe that these organizations are offering financial support to terrorism groups. It is quite a big challenge for international, non-governmental organizations to work with governments which are opposing their activities, especially if these organizations feel that the rights of citizens are being violated.

International, non-governmental organizations that operate in countries where a large percentage of the population belongs to one ethnic group mostly face harassment in the hands of governments which do not support their activities. These are countries where minority groups are being mistreated due to terrorism-related violence. As they perform their roles of combating terrorism in these countries, international, non-governmental organizations are often chased away by governments that do not see the significance of their in these countries. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations face the challenge of implementing counterterrorism policies in countries whose governments do not have clear provisions communication their involvement in activities that are aimed at fighting terrorism.

Assumptions

There are three different assumptions which have been made when developing this research paper. The first assumption is that all international, non-governmental organizations that are being referred to in this paper have got the same motive which is to combat terrorism in different nations of the world. This assumption helps to eliminate questions that may arise concerning the variations that may exist in the missions and visions of international, nongovernmental organization.

The second assumption that has been made in this paper is that the counter-terrorism approaches implemented by international, non-governmental organizations are aimed at achieving similar goals. This assumption makes it easy for the researcher to focus on the same problem with is combating terrorism threat. Third, it has been assumed that all terrorists utilize the same approaches to execute an attack on their adversaries, and these terrorist approaches can be addressed using similar counter-terrorism strategies. This assumption makes it easy to relate the roles of international, non-governmental organizations with terrorism activities and to create a big picture concerning the roles of these organizations in combating terrorism

Study Limitations

This study has only one limitation that may affect validity of information given in this paper. This research has relied solely on information contained in already available literature. Some of the data contained in secondary sources reviewed may not be relevant today due to changes in techniques that are applied by terrorisms and in strategies utilized by contemporary international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism. The validity of conclusions made would have been enhanced had the researcher used statistical and empirical research methods to collect data. Unfortunately, these two approaches could not be used due to limited time and resources that were available for the research.

Recommendations For Governments

Governments should embrace the roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism due to the effectiveness of these roles in reducing terrorism-related violence in the society. It is recommended that governments should give organizations that are interested in combating terrorisms an opportunity to do so and avoid assigning counter-terrorism roles to criminal justice organizations. Moreover, in order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

Furthermore, nations should refrain from portraying international non-governmental organizations as supporters of terrorists and terrorism activities as this may prevent them from engaging in important counter-terrorism activities that may help to reduce impacts of terrorism. Additionally, governments should support international, non-governmental organizations by helping them to investigate the root-cause of terrorism-related violence, and refrain from interfering with their operations to help bring back peace in the community. Governments of various nations will benefit greatly from international, non-governmental organizations by putting these recommendations into consideration because they will easily combat terrorism.

Recommendations For International, Non-Governmental Organizations

International, non-governmental organizations should consider a number of recommendations in order to enhance their effectiveness in combating terrorism. First, international, non-governmental organizations should not have any fear in approaching communities that are affected by terrorism-related violence, but they should gather courage and join hands in combating terrorism in those communities. Second, international, nongovernmental organizations should allow a large number of minority groups to become part of their workforce to limit cultural barriers that they may face in nations where minority groups are the most affected part of the community .

Third, in order to establish the best counter-terrorism strategies, international, nongovernmental organizations should take appropriate steps to identify specific causes of terrorismrelated violence. Fourth, international, non-governmental organizations should take their time to understand how different governments define the terms “security” and “terrorism” to avoid conflicts that may arise whenever they are performing their counter-terrorism roles in different nations of the world

Conclusion

Rapid rise in the rate of terrorism attacks in various countries of the world today has increased the involvement of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. Although it is possible to know the roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in combating terrorism through statistical empirical studies, similar information can be obtained by conducting a comprehensive review of available literature. A comprehensive analysis of secondary sources reveals that international, non-governmental organizations play six distinct roles in combating terrorism. These roles include research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, and educative roles. It can therefore be concluded that international, non-governmental organizations are involved in combating terrorism to a large extent. In addition, from the study, it is evident that international, nongovernmental organizations play very crucial roles in combating terrorism. These roles are extremely effective in reducing terrorism-related violence in different communities. International, non-governmental organizations should be ready to overcome a number of challenges that they are likely to face in the field as they perform their roles of combating terrorism. In order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments with terrorism reduction, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

Terrorism is The War of the Poor, and War is the Terrorism of the Rich

The concept of terrorism is typically dependent upon one’s point of view, as well as which side of the conflict you support. There is a common saying that “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter.” Western nations, to include the United States, have been very reluctant to recognize terrorism in any way that could be construed as legitimate warfare. In fact, terrorism is often described as mindless, senseless, or irrational violence. However, that is not necessarily the case. Terrorism is objective oriented and normally well choreographed to obtain maximum results. Writer and actor Peter Ustinov once famously said that “Terrorism is the war of the poor, and war is the terrorism of the rich.”

Examine this concept in a short paper. There is no right or wrong answer for this assignment as long as you can make a valid argument and support that argument with scholarly facts and resources. The idea here is for you to think about terrorism in the context of warfare and to come up with a logical argument as to whether or not terrorism is mindless, senseless, irrational violence, or legitimate warfare.

State Sponsors of Terrorism – Assignment Instructions

The U.S. Department of State designates and maintains a list of countries that are officially designated as state sponsors of terrorism. There are currently four (4) countries on this list: Cuba, Iran, Sudan, and Syria.

Choose one (1) of the four (4) countries designated as state sponsors of terrorism. Next, use the Internet or Strayer databases to research the terrorist group(s) that your chosen country sponsors.

Write a three to five (2-5) page paper in which you:

  1. Describe the key reasons why your chosen country has been designated by the U.S. Department of State as a state sponsor of terrorism.
  2. Summarize the history of your country’s sponsorship of terrorism.
  3. Examine the terrorist group(s) that your chosen country sponsors and address the following:
    • Identify the major reasons that your chosen country sponsors the group(s).
    • Describe the level and type of support the chosen country gives to the group(s) it sponsors (i.e. money, training, equipment, intelligence, etc.). Assess the severity with which the effectiveness of the group(s) would be impacted if they stopped receiving support from its state sponsor.
    • Summarize any attack(s) carried out by the group(s) being sponsored by your chosen country, as well as the motivation and purpose for the attack(s). Analyze the benefits afforded to state sponsors because of the attack(s).
  4. Identify any public statements regarding their relationship made by the chosen country and / or the terrorist group(s) sponsored. Evaluate the validity of the statement(s) based on known facts.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

  • Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
  • Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Interpret the operational functioning of terrorist groups.
  • Describe the history and development of the major terrorist groups in the world.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in terrorism and antiterrorism.
  • Write clearly and concisely about terrorism and antiterrorism using proper writing mechanics and APA style conventions.