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Juvenile Delinquency Prevention – Research Paper


Juvenile delinquency prevention is a concept that focuses in safeguarding children and teenagers from being involved in crime before they consider engaging in crime. According to Greenwood (2008), there are various reasons to prevent young people from being involved in crime or from continuing to be involved in delinquent behavior. One of the most apparent reasons is that delinquency subjects a youth at risk for injury, drug dependency and use, early pregnancy, school drop-out, adult criminality and incarceration. Redeeming youths from crime saves them from wasting their life. In addition to this, it has been established that majority of adult criminals start their criminal career as children. Thus, preventing delinquency blocks the adult criminal career onset and thus, lowering the crime burden on society and on crime victims.

Read also Juvenile Blueprint Programs – Big Brothers Big Sisters of America

Both adult and delinquent offenders take a hefty toll both emotionally and financially on taxpayers and victims who have to share the costs. To fight this cost, most criminal justice systems have been working hard to define the most effective delinquency prevention and treatment programs, after high level of inefficiency in the past programs such as DARE among others. The prevention programs focus on addressing biological and environmental factors that influence youths’ tendency to engage in crime. The treatment programs try on addressing acquired or/and biological behaviors and traits to prevent past offenders from reoffending. The main challenges experienced by most of these programs is that some of these factors are hard to change or control, especially without community support (Greenwood, 2008). This paper reviews fundamental principles in delinquency prevention and treatment. It also assesses different delinquency prevention and treatment programs, evaluating their level of effectiveness.

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention

Delinquency prevention can take place in two levels which include primary and secondary delinquency prevention. Primary delinquency prevention is based on the principle of identifying environments or individuals at danger for delinquent activity prior to the occurrence of the behavior and then either strengthening the risk factor resistance or removing risk factors. The effect of this kind of an approach is established by the accuracy of risk factors identification process and the choice of where and when to direct the intervention. The primary delinquency prevention programs target the youth general population and they include efforts to prevent teen pregnancy, drug use and smoking. The program application in this case need to determine at what stage of life of the targeted individual will be the prevention program is likely to be more viable and hence successful. To establish high level of accuracy, one needs to balance the accessible knowledge regarding the extant approaches efficacy, the practical constraints of specific intervention strategies, and the policy and ethical constraints of centering on specific social institutions or groups (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Read also Recent Trends in Juvenile Delinquency

The secondary prevention are programs which try to rehabilitate youth that have demonstrated early behavioral problems indications, though they have not been formally grouped as delinquent yet, or those who have not demonstrated a longstanding antisocial behavior pattern. In most situations, youths who have had a single or more encounters with the police though have not yet been arbitrated by the juvenile court.  These programs also target teenagers at high risk for a specific outcome such as violence or delinquency, a group which may include individuals in disadvantaged neighborhood, those who are experiencing violence and abuse at home, and those struggling in class (Greenwood, 2008). Rather than being troubled by the early risk predictors for later delinquency, secondary prevention programs normally rely on a comprehension of factors which distinguish between children that show temporary behavior issues and those who are probable to persist in taking part in antisocial behavior. The programs stress on changing the current behavior issues before resulting to more grave criminal behaviors (Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993).    

Different forms of Delinquency Prevention Programs and their Efficiency

There are a number of delinquency prevention programs in both primary and secondary levels, but with different levels of efficiency. This section reviews a few examples and their level of efficiency.

Perry Preschool Program

This is an early childhood intervention program that helps in protecting children at high risk of delinquency from becoming criminals in the future. The program involved 1 to 4 years old children from low socioeconomic families, majority being black Americans. Every child participant was offered about 12 hours of per week of preschool education for a period of seven and half months every year for two years. The educators were in addition needed to carry out weekly home visits which would last 90 minutes (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014). The home visits focuses on both the child and their parents, especially mothers. The participants were then given a follow-up at different ages in life which included 40, 27, 19 and 14 years. When contrasted with those who did not take part in the program, participants of Perry Preschool Program demonstrated a substantial reduction in life time and adult criminality at all-time based on the research results. The follow up at the age of 40 demonstrated that just 28% of the program participants had been jailed compared to 52% of the control group. The model of Perry Preschool Program thus became the base model for developing curriculums targeting low-income families by Head Start programs. The Perry Preschool program was also found to be cost effective. The individual cost in this program is $14716, resulting to $ 105000 saving per participant (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions

Cognitive-behavior interventions (CBI) are founded on the notion that behavioral disorder that include substance abuse and juvenile delinquency can yield from an inability to maintain and develop positive social associations as a result of social skills deficits. CBI can either be described as behavioral social-skills-training (BSST) and interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) programs. ICPS programs center on processes that include social cues interpretation and intentions of others, creating alternate solutions to situations of social problems, and assessing the possible results of various solutions, as well as means-end thinking. BSST programs center on teaching a particular behaviors that include fighting peer pressure joining a peer group, giving compliments and accepting criticism. However, majority of programs integrate both aspects of BSST and ICCPS. The two are introduced in school curriculums and offered in small groups of students ( Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993). With regard to efficiency cognitive behavioral intervention or therapy has been approved after demonstrating exceptional performance in around 58 studies conducted to investigate its effectiveness.  CBI has been found to lower the rate of offending for the participants by 25% which is significantly high compared to other methods (Greenwood, 2008).

Family Support Intervention

One of the delinquency risk factor is unstable family where the child is subjected to violence and abuse, or in a family with very poor socioeconomic status. In such situation, a child is likely to develop emotional and behavioral problems due to psychological distress and life pressure. In this regard, family based intervention is one of the most effective measures that can be employed to prevent delinquency. Family support intervention entails offering an extensive range of social support services that include counseling, medical care, day care, referrals to other agencies of social services and family needs assessment. Family intervention program may start at birth up to 30 months of growth for children born of low income families. This includes 30 months of psychological services to the mothers especially those who get their first born in a low income families, child care pediatric care and social work (Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993). A follow up program for children taken in from birth up to 30 months five and 10 years after demonstrated positive effect on both children and parents involve, in contrast to a matched comparison group. The program boys at age 12.5 were less probable to demonstrate pre-delinquent behavior issues such as truancy and negative teacher rating, compared to other boys.  Family based intervention and therapy programs are said to reduce the rate of committing crime by 12.2%.  This implies their application is highly significant (Greenwood, 2008)

Juvenile Delinquency Treatment

Juvenile delinquency treatment focuses on teenage who have already had an encounter with the police and been convicted from ever going back to the criminal justice system. The main aim is to try and change their behaviors, their perspective of the world, and their ability to survive in the community without thinking of criminal ways to survive. The main principle behind juvenile treatment the character, behavior or whatever reason propagated committing of crime in the first place and focus on neutralizing it to ensure that this does not push released youths into reoffending. The program thus range from anger management for those in jails or probation to reduce working in impulse, behavioral control, feeling the painful consequences of own act among other thing. Below is a review of some of the measures employed to treat juvenile who are already engaged in crime for the first time to avoid reoffending.

Read also Difference Between Female And Male Delinquency

Multisystemic Therapy (MST)

MST is an intensive community- and family-based intervention for notorious juvenile offenders wherein young offenders get to have weekly meeting with two to four therapists, together with their families at school or home for three to five months. MST centers on community, individual, school, family and peer risk factors which contribute to development and growth of youth antisocial behaviors. MST needs measurable, concrete effort from both families and youths, and builds on strengths of youths in lives while changing problematic interaction with peers and family. The program keeps the serious juvenile offenders in the community but under strict supervision. Based on the research, MST is one of the most effective programs in treatment of juvenile offenders (Henggeler, Clingempeel, Brondino & Pickrel, 2002). A research conducted to assess the rate of recidivism among juvenile offenders four years after being treated using MST demonstrated that low rate of reoffending, around 22.1%. This is regarded to be significant especially when compared to individual therapy group of participants who were said to have 71.4% rate of recidivism. The most interesting part about MST is that even participants who were engage in a practical program were able to reduce their recidivism rate to 46.6% which is still lower than those who went through individual therapy program. Based on these results, it is thus more effective to initiate MST intervention to juvenile offenders while still in the community than incarcerating them. In addition MST is found to be cost effective where by the net MST program cost was $4743 per participant, saving a total of $131 918 for every participants. Its level of efficiency is thus considerably high (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Restorative Justice

Restorative justice is a program used to treat juvenile delinquency. The program in based on two competing juvenile delinquent treatment theories; restoration and punishment.  One of the main goals of this program is to reinstate justice to the community and victim by confronting or punishing the offender to make him or her feel the consequence of his or her actions. The structure permits for some therapeutic measures for juvenile delinquent, which includes talking responsibility for committed crime and accountability (Weatherburn & Macadam, 2013). Nevertheless, the approach is said to be single-dimensional, to be short with each participant only being offered just a single session with facilitator of the program.

Read also Concept and Purpose of Restorative Justice and Restitution

As a result, juvenile delinquent learns very little regarding being pro-social. The program only focuses on the crime, giving higher priority to the victim rather than focusing on addressing delinquent behavior. The main critique of this program is that it might fail to reduce the rate of reoffending in all kind of crimes and hence it does not play any tangible role in reducing the rate of crimes in the society. RJ program is only said to result to a significant future criminality reduction amongst first-time, male offenders who were below 14 years of age. Chances of reoffending were highly influencing on the initial age an offender was while being introduced to RJ.  This means older children will likely reoffend even after taking RJ program. Nevertheless, the program is said to be much better compared to detention (Weatherburn & Macadam, 2013).

Community-Based Treatment       

Community based treatment is one of the most effective and feasible juvenile delinquency treatment approach discovered in the last few decades. Juvenile offenders’ community based programs has increased since the development of juvenile delinquency prevention act and initiatives.  Some of community based treatment approaches include different degrees of community probation, which can range from residential placements to minimal supervision and which may slightly differ with regards to community access from placements institution and atmosphere. A dispositional alternative is restitution which has become popular recently. Restitution entails either the accused young offender paying directly to the victim as a way of compensating the victim for the loss, or carrying out an equivalent measure of public service.  Restitution programs sometimes entail direct mediation between victim and the offender. The restitution popularity mirrors three main justice systems trends which include centering on personal responsibility for the crime, a developing concern on victim’s right and obscuring of variation between civil and criminal law (Araki, Braunschweig, Conant & Dabel, 2003). Restitution program are regarded to be effective since they leave a victim more satisfied for the punishment given or compensation received. The research also shows that two of four restitution programs lower recidivism by two to three years following the treatment as contrasted to control group. However, research has revealed other important data such as lack of any significant difference between restitution conditions with counseling and without. Those who refuse restitution to probation were also found to have same rate of recidivism compared to restitution offenders.  The performance of community based in terms of efficiency can thus be regarded as fair.

Aspect of Prevention and Treatment are Similar and Different

The main similarity between prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency is that they are both driven by similar goals. The two aim at streamlining the life of the probable juvenile offender or an offender to prevent them from being entangled to crime and destroying their life. They both also focus on reducing the cost burden of supporting a youth offender in the criminal justice and correction center to adulthood, which is quite expensive. However, prevention does so by preventing those at risk from being vulnerable while treatment does so by trying to ensure that those who have already been in the crime trap do not reoffend (OJJDP, 2000). The two programs center on similar approaches which are based on individual, families and community intervention measures and they are all defined based on identified risk factors.

The main difference between delinquent treatment and prevention deprograms is that, prevention can target children even in their early childhood, while treatment normally focuses on older children, who have the strength and courage to commit a crime. While prevention can take place at the targeted audience own setting, treatment may be restricted by the laws of criminal justice, and the mostly happen at an authorized place, sometimes with supervision or restriction of the delinquent youth. Justice system laws and restrictions must be considered and they highly guide on the measure to employ.  Another major difference is that the efficiency in prevention program is measured based on the rate of first involvement with police while treatment efficiency is measured based on the chances of re-involvement with the police or justice system.

General Importance of Prevention and Treatment, why they are necessary and their Level of Inter-Relation The research has identified that there are risk factors which increase chances of children being involved with justice system today or in the future. These factors mostly include things beyond a child control for instance abusive family, poor socioeconomic status, birth characters, and the neighborhood. This simply means the rate of crime would reduce if all children are born in a good, stable home environment, with enough income to cater for all child’s needs and rights. However, this is not possible and as a result most of children involved in crime are forced by their current or previous life situation. It is therefore logical to help such children from wasting their life as prisoners in criminal justice system, by helping them to cope with their situation and acquire skills to help them survive without engaging in crime. It is also important to ensure children with emotional and behavioral issues associated to their birth or history are able to control them so ensure that they live well with others and to protect them from encountering with police. Thus prevention and treatment are important since they help disadvantaged children from being dominated by their circumstance and offer them a way to have a better future. They also help in preventing losses in the government revenue due to high maintenance of people in the justice system and also in developing a crime free society. The juvenile delinquency prevention and treatment program are interrelated in that they both aim at correcting youths with intention of protecting them from crime.

Church and State, Formation of Laws, Public Policy, and Political Activity

Religion has consistently played a significant role in shaping and underpinning the United States, as demonstrated in the Pledge of Alliance to the Flag, specifically by the phrase “…one nation under God…” However, the appropriate relationship between the institutions of Church and State, especially in matters regarding the formation of laws, public policy, and political activity, has been a longstanding subject of debate. This post emphasizes that there should exist a clear separation of the Church and the State to ensure protection of individual freedoms.

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The founding fathers desired for the separation of Church and State. This is well encapsulated in Thomas Jefferson’s letter to the Danbury Baptists in 1802, whereby he called this distinction “a wall of separation between Church and State” (Fraser, 2016). The First Amendment of the US Constitution also asserts that State shall not make any law regarding establishing religion or prohibiting the free exercise of the same (Batalla & Baring, 2019). Notably, this means that the State should not interfere with the Church or limit people’s freedom to practice their religion of choice either in implementing laws, public policies, or political activities.

Read also Comparing The Founding Documents and Jefferson’s Letter

In recent decades, there have been arguments that the wall separating Church and State is eroding. This regards to the claims that the current regime is extending special privileges to religious organizations. The Payment Protection Program of 2020 is an example of events cited, whereby the State has infringed the separation of Church and State (Soucek, 2020). This alludes to the need for the State to re-evaluate its adherence to the separation of the two. Separation of Church and State not only ensures freedom of religion but also seeks to make certain that religion does not unfairly influence laws, public policies, and political activities and vice versa.

Christian Coalition – Research Paper

The Christian Coalition of America (CCA)

            The rise of religious interest groups within the American political landscape is generally considered one of the most ostensible expressions of democracy. Within their capacity, these groups lobby and petition the federal government whenever specific issues of interest emerge with the ultimate objective of introducing positive alterations. Religious interest groups are now part and parcel of the political structure within the United States and have gradually morphed into influential associations. They operate with the primary intention of identifying controversial issues in society, becoming cognizant of their member’s opinion, and guiding policy makers on the application of biblical principles The Christian Coalition is a 501(c) (4) organization and a major conservative religious association in the United States which adheres to a set of strict Christian principles. Over the past decade, the group has expressed its unwavering stance on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights and the raging debate on abortion. The organization has made it its life’s work to promote decency in the United States in an attempt to uphold morality within society. An evaluation of its history, stated purpose, philosophy, techniques of operation and biblical foundation for its activities is, thus, fundamental in addition to the group’s activities at the national, state and local levels, current legislative agenda, overall effectiveness and recommendations on how to improve its efficacy. 

History of The Christian Coalition of America

The Christian Coalition was formed in 1989 as a religious interest group headed by Marion “Pat” Robertson. Membership within the organization was open to members from all Christian denominations across continental America. The main aim of applying this policy was to strive for inclusivity among adherents of the Christian faith and banding together under a unified advocacy banner. Robertson had initially been presented to the American people as a presidential hopeful with strong Christian ideals but later lost. The remainder of the vast resources from his presidential campaign was then channeled towards the creation of the Christian Coalition as an advocacy group with special focus on voter education.   Robertson particularly targeted conservative Christians in the United States as a promising support base from which to lobby the federal government in various policy issues. He also functioned as the overall head and created the Americans for Robertson mailing list to introduce the Christian Coalition Americans2. Robertson’s larger vision for the organization was it attaining the social-welfare status which would considerably improve its capacity and ability to serve the American people.  By 1992, the organizations had chapters in nearly all across the United States tasked with disseminating important information regarding its role within society in relation tom political involvement. The organization is currently vocal in its criticism of the LGBT agenda in the United States; viewing it as an affront on the Christian faith, the institution of marriage, and the family.

The Christian Coalition of America Stated Purpose, Philosophy, and Techniques of Operation

The Christian Coalition was initially established with the primary aim of promoting voter-mobilization within the United States. Paterson regarded this role as fundamental since it would improve the organizations access to the citizens. It was from this base that the organization later morphed and developed a new mission which now included seeking the implementation of Christian values and principles within society.  This was viewed as the organization’s Christian role and an indication of its dedication to supporting the church.  The principles espoused by the organization’s founded are based on God’s absolute truth and living in accordance to his laws. By so doing, the organization took a lead role in influencing the behavior of the American people for posterity by re-introducing Christian values to the mainstream. The Christian Coalition’s philosophy is grounded in absolute truth and a guiding principle in society. Adherence to this stipulation is meant to bring people closer to God through obedience and service to others while remaining cognizant of his authority over man. This was also meant to promote the application of Biblical law in modern-day America with the chief intention of improving the quality of life within society. It is through the execution of this policy that the organization aspired to highlight the importance of applying scripture in everyday life and a clear understanding of Christ’s grace. This would then inspire Americans to take a definite stance on key moral issues, with the organization targeting the institution of marriage, the LGBT agenda, abortion, ethics, morality, and media transparency. The organizations operations beginning in the 1990s were centered on the development of non-partisan voter guides to raise political awareness among members of the organization within the United States and Christian Churches. The organization also sought to hold influential powers accountable for endorsing and promoting campaigns which threatened the position of traditional Christian values within the American society. Political correctness currently takes precedence within the organization as a way of ensuring that key issues of concern are addressed promptly.

Read also Essential Elements of Christian Worldview

Biblical Foundations for  the Christian Coalition’s Purpose and Activities

Within its role as a religious interest group, the Christian coalition refers to Biblical foundations to inform its purpose and guide its activities. It is through this particular approach that Christians become acutely aware of scripture and its relevance in contemporary society. Thus, Paterson envisioned a society where God’s word took precedence and guided the activities of man. The Holy Trinity is then meant to serve as a guide during the decision-making process, upholding the biblical idea of marriage while opposing homosexuality and adultery as the major forms of sexual sin prevalent in the United States today.

Assessment of CCA’s Activities at the National, State and Local Level

The breadth of Christian Coalition activities comprise the national, state and local level with the aim of improving its ability to lobby. Political involvement soon became apparent after 1998 when Representative Randy Tate took the helm of leadership as the new executive director4. Through his leadership, the organization attempted to develop an elaborate activity scheme spanning national, state, and local levels. The organization’s initial activities have involved boycotts which aim to restore Christian values in the United States. Conservatism is generally regarded as the most ideal approach to be adopted in the United States by the organization’s head since it would guide it to a positive future.  The organization’s activities vehemently criticize abortion, homosexuality, and moral corruption while regarding them as an existential threat to the American way of life.  The promotion of the LGBT agenda by Ikea and Target has, in the most recent past, prompted the Christian Coalition to call for a total boycott of their products5. Such activities and the reliance on letter-writing campaign are meant to push for the restoration of a conservative society.

Christian Coalition’s Current Legislative Agenda       

          The Christian Coalition has transformed lobbying in the United States through its involvement in policy making and the formulation of legislations. The organization’s current legislative agenda involves criticism of the Equality Act for the introduction of sexual inclusivity clauses a special provision for persons identifying as LGBT. The Equality Act is at the frontline of the LGBT agenda by opposing all forms of discrimination against individuals based on their sexual orientation and gender. However, the Christian Coalition disagrees with this assertion and regards its introduction as a direct threat to the ethical and moral fabric of the United States.

Overall Effectiveness

The Christian Coalition is arguably one of the most notable and influential religious rights groups currently operating within the United States.  Its effectiveness is a direct result of using protest, boycotts, and petitions as suitable tools in lobbying government to introduce important changes hinging upon questions of morality. This has enabled the organization to influence the federal government and the private sector alike to remain cognizant of values espoused by the organization.

Recommendations on how CCA can improve Effectiveness

The Christian Coalition is an influential and successful religious interest group which has proven its efficacy over the past two decades. However, it is wise for the organization to remain aware of its vulnerabilities as a practical safeguard to guarantee future improvements. The organization should halt is abrasive rhetoric since it is bound to create friction within the American culture. This would also avert the possibility of being classified as a hate group based on its opinions regarding the LBGT agenda and topical issues such as abortion.


The Christian Coalition is the epitome of religious interest groups in the United States. Although originally formed to address voter-mobilization in 1989, the organization now seeks to protect the American society from moral decadence apparent in its criticism of the LGBT agenda and abortion campaign. Boycotts, letter-writing campaigns, and petitions have enabled the organization to make cumulative gains in lobbying for the introduction of appropriate legislations within various levels of government. Yet, the organization should avoid provocative stance and work towards influencing policy for posterity.

Significance of Drug Courts in the United States – CJUS 230 Final Research Paper

CJUS 230 Research Project – Final Research Paper Instructions

You must select a criminal justice topic of your choosing. You will then compose a thesis statement on this topic as you work toward your Final Research Paper.

The thesis statement must include the paper’s topic and an explanation of the position the paper will take in analyzing the subject. The thesis statement must clearly identify the major points of support for your position. The selected criminal justice topic must be sufficiently limited for the substantive content of a 4–6-page paper by presenting only 2–3 major points.

The thesis statement must be no more than 2 sentences long and must be a declarative statement rather than asking a question. The thesis statement must be simple and direct. The statement must take a position on a narrowly focused criminal justice topic. The Final Research Paper must develop an argument that is highlighted in the thesis statement and supported with solid academic research and analysis. Each facet of the thesis statement must be addressed and analyzed throughout the paper.

The body of the Final Research Paper must be comprised of 4–6 pages of content. The Title Page, Abstract, and Reference Page are not included in the page count. The introduction must include background information on the criminal justice topic, a well-written thesis statement, and a preview of points. The body must thoroughly support the assertions made in the thesis statement with the use of analysis and comprehensively developed subpoints and academic research. Each paragraph must address one issue and directly relate it to the thesis. The body must also be well-organized and use properly formatted headings. Information must clearly relate to the main topic. The conclusion must summarize the main headings of the paper.

Significance of Drug Courts in the United States – CJUS 230 Final Sample Research Paper

Since the turn of the 20th century, addictive drugs have posed an ever-looming threat to American society. Years of policy change initially failed to introduce positive change which then prompted legislators and government officials to lobby the introduction of fresh programs to address this crisis. Consequently, the so-called “war on drugs” was incepted in 1971 by the Nixon administration to combat the production, supply, and use of psychoactive drugs. The primary aim of this seemingly noble campaign was to avert the illegal drug trade that had permeated the United States and prevent new addicts from mushrooming in society. 

Nevertheless, the war on drugs is regarded as one of the biggest fiascos in American history. The campaign was largely unsuccessful, with most of its detractors placing the blame squarely on the interdiction and mass incarceration policy. This was further confirmed by the Obama administration after a public admission that the campaign had been counter-productive for failing to view addiction as a disease. The war on drugs also resulted in the disproportionate arrest of ethnic minorities from drug-infested inner-city neighborhoods resulting in a 60 percent increase in the number of inmates within the first 10 years of its implementation (Tiger, 2018, p. 24). Mandatory minimum penalties often meant that individuals found guilty of possessing or using controlled substances were sentenced to lengthy prison sentences which resulted in overcrowding. It is a well-documented fact overcrowding has a negative impact on inmates’ mental and physical health. Thus, drug courts were introduced to aid in the introduction of new criminal justice schemes which would ultimately work to reduce overcrowding in prisons. An evaluation of drug courts, their history, efficacy, and the wants vs. needs debate is critical to understanding their significance.

Defining Characteristics

           Drug courts within the United States are specialized divisions of the criminal justice system which implement a public health approach when dealing with drug offenders. Its scheme of operation is based on a model combining mental health wellbeing, social services with addiction treatment for drug offenders. Drug courts seek to introduce long-term recovery as a viable option for this select group of individuals to enable them integrate into society and avoid run-ins with the law. These judicially supervised dockets espouse treatment as a solution to the drug epidemic in the United States.

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Drug courts also include elements of parole where individuals who commit to participate in an addiction recovery program are monitored to determine their compliance. Persons who participate partially or fail to adhere to stipulation may be subjected to additional sanctions imposed by a presiding judge. Random drug tests and incarceration stints are common for individuals found guilty of contravening the program’s basic tenets. Subsequently, drug courts pursue a philosophy informed by the importance of breaking the addiction cycle while ensuring that participants do not become repeat offenders. Their presence is regarded as a welcome addition since it aids in the reduction of substance abuse, criminal activities and mass incarceration.

Historical Background of Drug Courts in the United States

           The idea behind the introduction of drug courts was first conceived during the 1980s at the height of the war on drugs. Within 10 years of its inception, caused a 60 percent increase in the number of individuals incarcerated across the United States for drug offenses (Nolan, 2017). The Regan administration was the first government to introduce drug courts back in 1989 to combat the crack cocaine epidemic in Miami. Any non-violent offender arraigned before these courts was offered treatment as one of the available options during sentencing. Drug courts have now been adopted across the United States and mainly situated in communities ravaged by drugs and substance abuse. Their increase has also been linked to a drastic reduction in drug-related crimes across state lines. This form of intervention aims to ensure that long-term change becomes a reality for offenders instead of subjecting them to punishment. Drug courts also seek to right the disastrous socio-economic effects of substance abuse. The productivity of addicts often dips as the federal government struggles to fund correctional facilities. Addicts are referred to treatment facilities as one of the main ways in which to reduce the recidivism rate. Offenders with a high likelihood of transforming their lives are identified during court proceedings and offered a guilty plea deal. Successful completion of this program assures offenders of a new slate devoid of previous drug-related charges. Originators of this intervention previously foresaw a future where children would no longer be separated from their families, vulnerable individuals face criminal charges and communities affected by drug addiction. 

The Efficacy of Drug Courts

           Drug courts have been hailed for their role in reducing the incarceration rate and prison population across the United States. Offenders are offered an alternative with the primary objective of allowing them to avoid serving time and improve their lives. The Drug Courts Program Office was among the first federal agency to acknowledge the impact of drug courts to the criminal justice system

           Drug courts have been instrumental in reducing the recidivism rate across the United States. Their success lies in the treatment programs which use a public health approach to cure addicts of substance abuse. According to Cooper, Peters, & Kushner (2014), drug courts were responsible for a 7.5 percent reduction rate of recidivism across the United States. Former drug users who successfully graduate from drug court programs eventually seek gainful employment and are rarely rearrested for similar offenses. Non-participants often end up continuing with the same behavior that landed them in prison in the first place and, therefore, increases the chances of being a rearrested exponentially

            Substance abuse has also reduced in the United States after the introduction of drug courts. Participants in drug court recovery programs gain an understanding of their habits and drug use as the origin of their problems with the law. Individuals who arrive at this realization are typically ready to transform their lives by kicking their destructive habits. Drug use reduces considerably after the intervention by drug courts which then goes a long way in reducing recidivism.

           Drug courts are relatively cheaper and bound to benefit the justice system in the long run. Costs associated with the actual arrest, booking, processing, and probation are virtually non-existent in drug courts which makes them an affordable option. Therefore, law enforcement, paralegals and attorneys save a substantial amount of money that would have been spent on court proceedings. The Washington State Institute for Public Policy even estimates that drug courts save the federal government approximately $12,000 annually (Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 2017). These savings would be better spent on efforts to improve the condition of participants during the recovery process and providing them with opportunities for self-improvement.

Wants vs. Needs in the Drug Court System 

           The specialized status of drug courts often means that they are capable of superseding an offender’s request and place them in a recovery program. This is because officials are aware of the impact of substance abuse on individuals and their connection to criminal activity. For instance, Barry A. Hazle Jr.’s no-contest plea was rejected in 2006 after being found guilty of possessing methamphetamines, after which he was placed in a residential drug treatment program (Winston/RNS, 2017). Although the offender was strongly opposed to this particular option, the court went ahead and put him in a religious-based recovery program for his wellbeing.  

           Furthermore, the relative success of drug courts is attributed to its unorthodox intervention strategy. Drug courts follow a unique protocol that requires the participation of offenders in a collaborative effort to attain the desired goal. They strive to serve offenders best interest while, simultaneously, making certain that the community remains safe. Frequent drug testing keeps former offenders grounded which is critical to the program’s overall success. Non-compliance is dealt with swiftly and judicially, which reminds other offenders of consequences for every action. Graduates who succeed in overcoming their addiction soon become models who are then used by the courts to inspire others to effect long-term change. A transformation in behavior and attitudes is critical to the court’s success, eventually putting former offenders in a position to transform their lives. 


Drug courts are an integral part of the criminal justice system and praised for lowering incarceration rates in the United States. They offer a workable alternative for offenders with mental health issues and substance abuse to ensure they recover from their affliction. Drug courts are an effective alternative which ultimately reduces criminal activities, arrests, and recidivism among at-risk individuals.

Michael Bloomberg – Transformational Leader Profile Research Paper

Michael Rubens Bloomberg

 In the world of business, Michael Bloomberg stands out as one of the most phenomenal transformational leaders of our time. Bloomberg is an author, entrepreneur, and politician with a lengthy stint as mayor of New York City. He has always made it his lifelong objective to improve conditions in society using the wealth he has accumulated over the years. Bloomberg’s successful career began at Salomon Brothers brokerage firm where he dabbled in securities before deciding to move on to new endeavors and start his own private enterprise (Bloomberg 88).

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To many, he is known for his role as the chief executive officer (CEO) of Bloomberg L.P which is renowned globally as a major player in the business sector. Bloomberg now dabbles in providing financial services and computer software systems to firms in the financial sector. Apart from being a leader, he has also played a major philanthropic role in society and has even gone as far as pledging to give half of his wealth to charity. However, Bloomberg is better known for being a transformational leader who has always strived to improve the field of business. It is therefore critical to review Bloomberg’s communication abilities and how it supports his transformational leadership capabilities.

Bloomberg as a Transformational Leader

 One of the most evident transformational leadership traits that Bloomberg espouses is his ability to embrace self-management and lead by example. He is perhaps best known for holding numerous conferences for staff members with the primary objective of educating them on the importance of self-management in business. Apart from hosting leader speakers such as Aaron Levie and Alexander Osterwalder, Bloomberg also plays a major role in these meetings by participating directly and interacting with those in attendance.  Furthermore, it is during these meetings that he communicates important information regarding self-management to his audience and the best techniques to apply when seeking to improve abilities. Bloomberg has always embraced his talkative nature which he now uses to reach his audience when imparting important knowledge (Avolio). His use of open-ended questions during routine meetings allows him to have an intimate session with participants who are always encouraged to share their ideas. It is through this model of communication and interaction that important knowledge on self-management is shared in addition to its benefits.

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Bloomberg asserts that it is only through self-management that a business team can create a consumer good that people require before going on to monetize the product. This model has worked for him over the past two decades and the primary reason why he is ranked among one of the richest men in the United States. A thorough analysis of the market allows the company to create a product that is in popular demand before going on to reap the benefits. The profits made from this investment improve the product and goes on to create opportunities for the company.

            Bloomberg has also mastered the art of developing and sharing a collective conscience in an organization. He does this by focusing on Bloomberg L.P’s primary objectives and how it can begin by developing from within. The creation of a functioning internal operating system is linked to a clear collective conscience where central attitudes are shared between team members (Rosen and Swann 246). It allows each group member to develop a sense of belonging and work to achieve goals that have been set by top management. It impacts all participants and challenges them to develop a new mentality that will ultimately catapult them to greatness. Additionally, a greater sense of connection develops between staff members within the organization which then fosters the development of a new mentality. Progress then becomes a reality especially since the organization soon expresses a high degree of consistency when embracing positive changes. The prevailing attitude is also fine-tuned to develop a new perspective centered on all members and their ability to acquire assets. The final result of this framework is the decentralization of the decision-making process where teams are empowered to make executive decisions. It, therefore, builds confidence levels in staff members which then allow them to make important decisions while becoming more accountable to the organization. Insight is also shared between members and functions a way of expanding the organization’s wider network. The use of cross-functional teams has been the highlight of Bloomberg’s career. He has used these individuals to equip staff members with diverse skills that make it possible to develop solutions to a variety of problems. Bloomberg’s communication skills and particularly his ability to compliment his employees for their contribution is also one of the reasons why his company has maintained a steady growth rate. Employees eventually develop a sense of fitting which results in improved outcomes.

Bloomberg is also the epitome of keeping one’s ego in check. It is a technique that has benefitted him over the years and taught him that human beings are fallible. Bloomberg has, therefore, always been open to criticism from members of staff and his inner circle. Legitimate concerns are always listened to before designing an appropriate intervention technique bound to rectify any misdoings. Bloomberg now embraces failure readily in a bid to improve himself and his organization’s overall standing in the market. He does this by embracing failure and trying out new approaches in a bid to make noticeable changes that will eventually benefit the organization. It is only through sheer boldness that a business executive can expect positive results that will aid a firm in making headway in the business sector.

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Bloomberg honed his skills through trial and error before developing workable solutions to specific issues confronting a company (Randolph). In particular, he is against the finger-pointing culture common in leading companies when disaster strikes. Instead, Bloomberg embraces a culture of forgiveness where every member acknowledges their part in the fiasco and cooperate with each other to introduce corrective measures. Moreover, success is shared by all members to create a clear understanding of strategies that work and capitalizing on them. Bloomberg has, time and again, displayed his professional listening skills and his ability to act on his employees’ proposals. Listening skills have allowed Bloomberg to pick important and accurate facts from his advisors with the objective of growing his brand.  

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Michael Bloomberg is one of the most influential transformational leaders of our time. His communication abilities have contributed greatly to bolstering his leadership capabilities in a dynamic business environment. Self-management and embracing a conferencing culture has allowed Bloomberg to come to insightful conclusions that have influenced his decision. Collective consciousness has allowed him to compliment company employees while the art of collective consciousness has been instrumental in fostering his listening skills and applying fresh ideas in the company.

Breast Cancer – Detailed Research Paper


Breast cancer is among the most common causes of cancer among women and among the main cause of cancer related death in the world. Breast cancer is named after the organ where cancer originated, though it may spread to other parts of the body surrounding the breast. Breast cancer affects both men and women, though it is more common to women than men. Women can get breast cancer at any age, though it is more common among older women from age 50 to 74. Women of this age are thus needed to take breast screen after every two years to enhance its early diagnosis and effective treatment.

Read also Human Breast Anatomy – Detailed Research Paper

Breast Cancer Types/ Forms

Breast cancers can be groups as non-invasive and invasive. Non-invasive breast cancer refers to a form of cancer where the cancer cells are limited to the ducts and hence they do not invade surrounding breast connective and fatty tissues. There are two main forms of non-invasive breast cancers which include ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) which is the most popular form of non-invasive breast cancer, accounting for about 90% of non-invasive cancer cases in the world. The other form is lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS).  Invasive breast cancer cells on the other hand break through the lobular wall and duct and attack the surrounding breast connective and fatty tissues.

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The most common form of invasive cancer is infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC) that starts in breast milk ducts and penetrates the duct walls invading breast fatty tissues and other probable areas of the body. This cancer accounts for 80% all cases of diagnosed breast cancer. Another form of invasive breast cancer is infiltrating lobular carcinoma which starts at the milk glands and metastasizes to other body areas. This accounts to 10-15% of all cases of breast cancer.  The least frequently occurring forms of breast cancers include medullary carcinoma which is a form of invasive cancer, mutinous carcinoma which a rare kind of breast cancer created by mucus-producing cancer cell, and tubular carcinoma which is an invasive breast cancer. Others include inflammatory breast cancer which starts as inflamed breast with thick ridges or dimples initiated by cancer cells blocking lymph channels or vessels over the breast skin. There is also the nipple paget’s disease which is a rear kind of breast cancer that starts at the milk duct and spreads to areola and nipple skin, and finally phylloides tumor that can be either malignant or benign. Phylloides tumors generate in the breast connective tissues and might be treated through surgical removal. This form of cancer is quite rare.  


Breast cancer affects both men and women, though the cancer is more common to women and quite rare in men. Breast cancer is the most popular reason of cancer death among women in about 140 out of 184 countries in the world. Breast cancer is the most often diagnosed form of cancer among women, and it currently represents a quarter of all cancers in women. Breast cancer is the main reason for women death in ages 40 to 59. Cases of breast cancer are high in developing countries compared to developed countries, but still remain the leading cause of women death in both situations. The women lifetime risk of getting invasive breast cancer is 12.6%, and one out of eight women in the United States will develop breast cancer at a certain stage in her lifetime.

Risk Factors

The risk factors for breast cancer include environmental factors which include being exposed to ionizing radiation as a result of therapeutic procedures, medical diagnostic procedures, gadgets use or nuclear war increase breast cancer development risks. Another risk factor is sociobiological factors that include age and gender. Breast cancer is more common to women aged 50 and above. Thus being a female and at older age increases risk of developing breast cancer. Nutrition is another factor where by high fats, red meat and caffeine intake increases breast cancer developing risks, while high consumption of vegetables and fruits might reduce breast cancer development risks. Other factors include physiological factors where moderate physical exercise or activities reduce breast cancer risks. Genetic factor where 5 of  6% of occurring cases of cancers are regarded to be hereditary and also family risk factor where cancer history in the family create a possibility of cancer development among other family members. Alcohol is also said to increase breast cancer risks. Individual history of breast cancer increase risks of developing second case of breast cancer. Hormonal history of a woman is also a risk factor where risk increase with number of individual menstrual cycle in a lifetime2. Other risk factors include poor immune system, use of oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy, exposure to carcinogens, use of tobacco, the breast pathogenic diseases, chronic breast inflammation, conducting induced abortion, not breastfeeding or breastfeeding for a shorter period, and number of life birth where the more the life birth are the lower the risk of developing breast cancer.   


Breast cancer pathobiology is complex compared to other cancers. Mammary disseminated tumor cells have the ability to remain dormant for a number of years. Nevertheless, the systematic growth of tumor resumes eventually, resulting to clinically recurrent disease. Breast cancer possibly includes over 20 subsets of tumor that affect the disease course. Such subsets of tumor are typified by specific immunological, hormonal and biochemical features.  Subclinical metastasis exists already in most patients during diagnosis time. Cancer cells hematogenous dissemination probably starts after doubling of 20 tumors. 

Molecular Basis of the Cancer

The molecular mechanisms fundamental to the breast cancer development in general and associated breast carcinogenesis in specific are not well understood. It breast cancer initiation is generally believed to emanate from aberrant programmed apoptosis or death of cell or/and uncontrolled proliferation of cell due to collective genetic damages which result to changes of genetics that yield to proto activation which implies inactivation and oncogenes of tumor suppressor genes. Genetic changes in turn can be attained as somatic mutations or be inherited as mutation of gremlin. The somatic mutations may happen due to exposure to biological, chemical or physical environmental carcinogens.

Clinical Manifestation

The breast cancer clinical manifestation include swelling or thickening of some breast parts, new lump underarm or in the breast, and dimpling or irritation of breast skin. Others include flaky skin or redness of the breast or nipple area, pain in the area of the nipple or nipple pulling in. Other signs include other nipple discharge than milk which include blood, change in the breast shape or size or breast pain. Other than visible changes, the presence of breast cancer can be determined by conducting various tests which include mammogram screening, breast biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), molecular breast imaging, and blood-based essay. 

Biomarkers and Cytogenetic Laboratory Features

Biomaker analysis in breast cancer is a routine practice. It initially focused on hormone receptor expression testing to guide tamoxifen therapy. It then advanced to human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2) target treatment. Biomaker testing has also been integrated in genetic platform dsigned to hhelp prognosis and chemotherapy response prediction in patient with hormone receptors tumor but without lymph-node metastases.

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Other biomarker tests in breast cancer include ki-67 that determines breast cancer proliferative activity, and progesterone and estrogen receptors which predict hormone therapy response (Colomer et al., 2017). Complex karyotypes have been related with unfavorable breast cancer result. Modern methods that include relative genomic hybridization (CGH) and cDNA microarrays have additionally identified complex defects of genetics related with adverse prognosis. 


Metastasis is mechanically described as tumor cells migration from the primary tumor, subsequent by extravasation, survival, intravasation of circulatory system and advanced colonization of a detached site. Tumor cells thus spread extensively through the body, though only grow in supportive location. Breast cancer metastasis is also denoted by pathways redundancy that mediates its component steps or process. Genes enhancing flourishing of breast cancer metastasis include IDI, ERBB2, MET, CTNNBU, SNAI2, KRAS, SNAI1, PI3KCA, TWIST1, EGFR and MMYC. Metastasis complicates the cancer treatment process due to its innate or acquired resistance to therapies. In breast cancer metastasis occurs at the last stages of the cancer and is regarded as the leading cause of death among breast cancer patients.


Breast cancer can either be in situ or not invasive or invasive. In situ is the first stage of breast cancer and it is denoted by stage O. From there the cancer can be in stage I where the tumor diameter is about 2 cm and is confined within the breast. Stage IIA the tumor diameter is about 2cm and has spread to not more than three armpit lymph nodes. Stage IIB tumor diameter is less than 2 inches and has spread to not more than three armpit lymph nodes or the tumor diameter is more than 2 inches though still confined in the breast. Stage IIIA the tumor diameter is about 2 inches and has spread to not more than nine armpit lymph nodes. Stage IIIB the tumor has spread to the skin or chest wall or initiated breast inflammation, or has spread to 10 and above armpit lymph nodes. Stage IIIC, The tumor has reached lymph nodes above or below collar bone or it has enlarged in one lymph node  to the same size as the tumor in the breast.

Screening/ Prevention

Women at high risk of getting breast cancer who include women aged between 50 and 75 years should have mammogram screening once per every two years. Women at all ages are also encouraged to engage in physical activities, check on their weight, eat healthy by avoiding fats, caffeine and red meat and increasing vegetables and fruits in their diet. Women are also encouraged to avoid oral contraceptive and hormonal therapies, to consider breastfeeding their children for long and to minimize exposure to carcinogens.

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Cancer Therapy

Breast cancer can be treated using various methods based on the stage of development. Surgery may be done to remove the tumor or the entire breast and surrounding tissues based on the level of development. Radiation therapy can also be used where high X-ray energy or other forms of radiation are used to suppress the growth or kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may also be used where drugs are used to stop cancer cells growth, either through killing them or preventing their division. Hormonal therapy may also be used to block hormones actions or remove them and stop growth of cancer cells. Target therapy may also be applied where drugs are applied to attack and identify particular cancer cells without damaging normal cells.


Breast cancer is the leading cause of malignancy death among women. Individual survival rate depend on the type of breast cancer on is suffering from; invasive or non-invasive, where those diagnosed with non-invasive or in situ cancer have a higher survival rate. Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer death, thus those diagnosed by cancer at its advance stages have lower chances of survival; mostly less than 3 years. However, some may survive with the tumor for over 10 years when in situ. The survival rate decrease with young age diagnosis; women below 40 years have higher death risk than women diagnose at older age. Early diagnosis; at early cancer stage increases chances of survival, while late diagnosis reduces survival rate. In addition, survival rate of women with BRCA2 mutation is lower compared to those without BRCA2 mutation.

Current/ Future Research

A lot has been done in trying to understand breast cancer. There has been research on the main risk factors and how to reduce them, different types of breast cancer and how they manifest themselves, best form of treatment, cancer stages and the best treatment based on the stage among other things. However, there is little understanding on the molecular basis of the breast cancer which is said to be considerably complex. Understanding this may play a great role in treating and preventing breast cancer and hence this topic needs to be given extra consideration in future research.

Reasons Behind Failed States – Research Paper

The Reasons Underlying Failed States – Written Assignment

Use the Internet to research one developing nation of your choice. Your research should include an examination of the effects that issues such as bad governance, civil war and corruption have on the creation of states that have failed.

Write a six- to eight-page paper in which you:

  1. Identify the factors that contribute to a state’s failure to deliver good governance to its people.  Support your response with concrete examples of each of the results that you have cited.
  2. Analyze why the specific actions taken by the leadership of the selected country have failed.
  3. Discuss the prospects for success in the selected country and support your response with examples.
  4. Use at least seven quality academic resources in this assignment.

Reasons Behind Failed States – Sample Research Paper


The reason why states fail is because they are convulsed by internal violence to the point where they are no longer in a position to deliver positive political influences to the inhabitants. The legitimacy of the governments becomes destroyed, and the nature of the nation state becomes illegitimate in the eyes of its growing number of citizens. The rise and fall of states is not a new phenomenon; however in this modern era states constitute an important building block of a legitimate world order. Therefore, violent disintegration of some of the selected states may threaten the very foundation of the world order. International organizations consequently become drawn into the conflicts and the not so smooth humanitarian relief. It is difficult to achieve stability and predictability when so many of the newly formed states are wavering between weakness and failure, with some truly failing (Patrick, 2011). This paper features the identification and analysis of the reasons behind failed states.

Factors That Contribute to a State’s Failure to Deliver Good Governance to Its People

No single definition of governance has been accepted. Its meaning varies between conservatives and the liberals, and between socialists and the communists. For example, the World Bank has sought to take a neutral position by defining it as “the traditions and the institutions by which authority in a country is exercised.” (Gurfinkiel, 2014) This includes (i) the procedure followed when selecting governments, monitoring and replacing them; (ii) the ability of the selected government to effectively develop and implement sound policies; and lastly (iii) the respect which citizens and the state has for the institutions meant to govern their economic and social communications. In this paper, the meaning of the word governance will be confined to the public domain only. This is because the type of governance being featured in this paper is the one which serves citizens by offering them security of the state integrity, as well as safeguarding their individual security, rule of law, and also service delivery (Kumar & Narain, 2014).

There are two major factors that contribute to a state’s failure to deliver good governance to its people. These include; the criminalization of politics and corruption.

Criminalization of Politics

The criminalization of the political process and the poor relationship between politicians, civil servants, and business organizations are two factors that are greatly influencing the public policy formulation and governance negatively (Ezrow & Frantz, 2013). The political class is no longer respected as it should be. For example, the Indian State is facing great challenges due to these factors. Its authority is being threatened from lawless elements. The jehadi terrorism in Jammu & Kashmir that started slow, but then spread to other parts of the state; insurgency in the North-East region; and even the rapidly expanding naxalite movement base in the state are some of the things that are greatly challenging the democratic governance of the state. Fortunately, such criminal movements are being addressed by all citizens, and their effects on the state are being contained. This, however, is because the movements are known to be wrong as they pose a threat to the life and property of the people living in India.

The more insidious threat to the democratic governance of this state is from the criminals in sheep clothing, who manage to enter into state legislative assemblies and even national parliament in big numbers (Kumar & Narain, 2014). Politics is the new criminal movement that is yet to be uncovered. This is because criminals view the state offices as an opportunity for them to carry out their illegal activities and still be able to get away without punishment. Here, “no arm of the law is above you.” Unfortunately, despite the fact that both the media and the public are not mute to this phenomenon, the criminals still manage to devise new methods that will allow them to fiddle away with the requirements of the law (Singh, 2014). Only a few are actually sent to jail to serve their term once they are exposed. Others seem to get away for free through threats and other illegal activities imposed on the people who are willing to make them pay. Therefore, the criminalization of politics is a factor that affects good governance as it interferes with the real intentions of office.


This is a factor that acts as a major obstacle in any attempts to improve governance quality. Good governance cannot be achieved when criminals who pose a threat to the values that need protection are left to walk free every day. For example, India suffers from its high level of corruption which sees to it that its quality of governance is not improved.

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For instance, the state has been forced to keep up with a rather complex and non-transparent command and control system, the underdeveloped legal frameworks, the uninformed citizens and a weak notion of their citizens’ rights (Singh, Sharma & Jha, 2014). These are all factors that contribute to corruption as the citizens remain in the dark as to what is actually happening in parliament and how state resources are being spent. Therefore, corruption stands in the way of good governance as it prevents the implementation of any positive changes that are essential to a state (Gurfinkiel, 2014).

Why Specific Actions Taken By the Leadership of India Failed

Despite the presence of criminals in leadership, the state has some genuine leaders who try to ensure that the failure of state is avoided at all costs by trying to control corruption and poor governance. Unfortunately for India, such actions have failed due to the fact that the state is being ruled by criminals who are only in office for their own personal benefits. The main objective of the political class is not to improve the quality of governance or advance national interests, but to acquire power (Patrick, 2011). The ideology of democracy is only used to blindfold citizens, who are thirsty for change and improvements, to elect the criminals into office. However, after being sworn in, the focus becomes to extract perks from both the public and private sectors, and to act as each other’s shields from accountability (Gurfinkiel, 2014). This is why it is always difficult to note any missing money or resources when an audit is performed.

The Prospects for Success in India

The challenges of criminalization of politics and corruption in India can be addressed through various ways to ensure change is finally achieved, and that India is resuscitated. The first step is to ensure that the citizens of this state are educated on their rights. For example, the right to information is very important, but still not many understand it. Any individual in India has a right to demand to know how their resources are being used, the past of their leaders and so on (Agrawal, 2012). Second, a new policy that prevents individuals with a criminal past from entering into office should be implemented. This is important as it will be more effective in filtering out the criminals from the true leaders who want to bring about change. Third, the government should not be involved in bodies like CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation) and CVC (Central Vigilance Commission) (Das & Kurtz, 2015). These bodies are responsible for looking into high official cases that link them to corruption and other criminal activities. Lastly, civil servants need to be trained further on how to carry out activities such as auditing, accountancy and other legal matters.

How Funding In the Form of Aid, Investment, and Loans Moves from Industrialized Nations to the Developing World to Alleviate the Problems Caused By Warfare

When a developing country is challenged by warfare, industrialized nations frequently provide funding to help alleviate the problems caused. This may happen through various ways such as sending aid, offering investments and even loans to the country. Aid moves from industrialized countries to the suffering destination through transportation such as air, road or sea. It is usually in form of the things which the country needs. For instance, food, shelter, clothes and so on. Organizations such as the UN are responsible for this movement. Investments are done directly from the industrialized country. A country affected by warfare faces financial challenges due to losses gained from destroyed property and businesses. Investments offer help as the country will be able to maintain its economy through investors who bring in funds for running businesses. Lastly, the country may need loans to pick up from the effects of the war. An industrialized country may offer the government loans to be able to keep its economy afloat.


In conclusion, the main factors influencing the failure of states lie within the government itself. With the availability of reliable leaders in office, a government can be able to offer its required service to the people, thus enhancing development. The case of India is a good example of how government officials are causing the failure of their states simply because they are greedy and selfish. The citizens of a country also have a responsibility towards triggering change. They just need to be able to understand their rights as stipulated in various laws and policies.

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Human Breast Anatomy – Detailed Research Paper


Breast refers to an endocrine gland positioned on the front of the chest, comprising of glandular acini which is covered by cells which contain the features of securing milk under hormones influence. Breast in the adult women is comprised of adipose tissues, connective tissue, and glandular tissues which determine the organ texture, shape and size. At the breast apex is mammary areola which is a skin area that is pigmented with improved sebaceous glands which have the role of making nipple elastic and soft. This paper analyses the anatomy of human breast.

Size, Dimensions, Shape

The shape and size of women breast differ considerably where by some women contain a large volume of breast tissue and thus bigger breasts compared to others. In most cases human breast is predominantly circular, apart from slight oblong part that further extends into axillary area. However, women breasts are hardly symmetrical. Normally one breast is slightly large, lower, or differently shaped. The characteristics and size of the nipple also differ greatly from one person to another. Nipples can be cylindrical, round or flat in shape. In addition the breast appearance and shape undergo various modifications as a woman ages.   

Surface Anatomy/ Landmarks

The areole and nipple epidermis is highly pigmented and a bit wrinkled. The nipple skin has various apocrine and sebaceous sweat glands and comparatively little hair. The nipple base has 15 to 25 milk duct that enters in it, which dilate to create the milk sinuses. The sinuses terminate a little below the surface of the nipple in cone-shaped ampullae. The nipple is surrounded by circular areola and differes in diameter between 15 and 60 mm. Its skin has lanigo montgomery’s glands, sebaceous glands,, sweat glansd, and lanugo hair, that are improved sebaceous gland with small milk ducts which opens into the tubercles of morgagni in the areola epidermis.

Boundaries/ Relations

Human breast is positioned on the anterior wall of the chest covering pectoralis minor and major muscles. The breast inferior border is at 6th rib, superior border is at 2nd rib, medial border is at sternum edge, while lateral border is at the mid axillary line. The breast deep margin is positioned at fascia major muscle of pectoralis. Normally, breast tissues extend into axilla.

Parts/ Divisions/ Layers/ Composition

Human breast has mammary ridges or milk line which runs between inguinal and axilla region where tissue of breast might be formed. Sonographically breast has got six identified tissues layers. They include chest wall, skin layer, muscle layer, premammary layer, retromammary layer and mammary layer. The skin layer consists of epidermal cells, hair follicles, and sebaceous glands. It covers the breast tissue subcutaneous layer1. Premammary layer has varied degrees of fat associated to pregnancy, obesity and age. Mammary layer is the only layer which has glandular tissues, stromal and epithelia tissues and contains 15-20 glandular tissues lobes organized in a radial fashion. Retromammary layer is situated posterial to the layer of mammary, and has different fat levels based on age, pregnancy, and obesity and deep fascia in the retrommary space.

Supporting Structures

The breast has ligaments and tissue that offer its support and provide its shape. It also has layers of fats which are located right under the skin, whose main role is protected and surround the milk making lobules. It also contains muscle which links breast ribs, upper arm and collarbone. 

Surgical Access to Organ

The breast surgical access can be done for breast reconstruction due to various health conditions including cancer. Breast conserving surgery (BCS) is the proposed optional approach for majority of breast cancer patients in early stage.

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BCS comprised of local breast tissues resection regarded as segmental mastectomy. Brest reconstruction surgery may also be done after the BCS, with options such as implant reconstruction or autologous tissues. In case IBR is conducted nipple sparing or skin sparing mastectomy are probable.

Blood Supply/ Drainage

The breast blood supply is a rich anastomotic system resulting from the intercostal arteries, internal thoracic, and axillary. The biggest vessels originated from artery of the internal thoracic, the pricking branches that pierce the wall of the chest that is next to the sternal edge in the first four intercostal spaces. The four axillary artery branches include subscapular, superior thoracic, lateral thoracic and the acromiothoracic pectoral branch.  The arteries are accompanied by the matching veins.


The breast is innervated by the anterior and lateral cutaneous branches of the 2nd to 6th intercostal nerves. The branches of lateral cutaneous pierce the intercostal muscles and the profound fascia in the midaxillary line and assume an inferomedial course. The 2nd lateral cutaneous brunch ends in the breast axillary tail. The 3rd to the 6th lateral cutaneous branches stretch on the serratus anterios surface for 3-5 cm. They then divide at the pectoral muscle border into superficial and deep branch. The course of deep branch within or below the pectrol fascia to the midclavicualr line, where make an almost 90o turn to enter the glands releasing a number of branches. The superficial branches stretch in the subcutaneous tissues and ends in the lateral breast skin. The anterior cutaneous branches innervate the breast medial portion. They divide into a medial and lateral branch after penetrating the fascia. The lateral branch separate again various small branches as the medial branch transverse the sternum lateral border, that assume an inferolateral course over he subcutaneous tissue. They turn to be continuously superficial on their way and end at the edge or areolar or in the skin of the breast. The superclavicular nerves end in the superior breast part in the skin.

Lymphatic Drainage

The axillary lymph nodes are separated into five not entirely unique anatomical groups and differ in quantity from 20 to 30. They move away from the apical nodes and join at the subclavian trunk. This trunk normally directly drain into the thoracic duct on the left side,, while subclavian truck on the right side might empty into a joint right lymphatic duct or directly into the junction of jugulosubclavian. A small number of efferent channels normally directly attain the inferior nodes of deep cervical.

Histology/ Microscopic Anatomy

Human breast contains nipple which is covered by squamous epithelium that are pigmented. It also has ducts which dilate to create lactiferous sinus under the nipple. Duct basement membrane is continuous with skin basement membrane. It also has keratin producing epidermis squamous cells which spread for 1-2mm in major duct. Human breast microscopy anatomy comprises of skin appendages which comprises of Montgomery tubercles, eccrine sweat ducts and glands, and apocrine sweat ducts and glands. There are also large systems of duct comprising of 15 to 20 major systems of duct which are empty at the nipple. These ducts ramify to an extent of creating multiple round acinis (TDLUs). The systems of ductal differ considerably in extent and size and they do overlap in most cases. Finally there is lobules which are created after branching of terminal ducts into multiple round acini. Lobulocentric has an architecture that contains duct enclosed by multiple acini. TDLU can develop with acini coalescene to create structures similar to ducts, with about half of glandular tissues situated at the outer upper quadrant.

Embryology; Developmental Anatomy

Human breast starts its development at the 5th week of fetus where an ectodermal milk streak grows along the truck on each side to the groin from axilla. From birth up to puberty, human breast contains lactiferous ducts. The ducts beings to multiply where they are terminated from solid cells masses. During pregnancy there is appearance of secreting alveoli where by in early weeks of pregnancy lobular proliferation and ductal sprouting happen, with increases oreolar pigmentation and increased nipple. In the last pregnancy days, colostrum is secreted which is later replaced by milk. At menopause, the breast atrophies glandular tissues turns to be less cellular and level of collegen reduces.

Normal and Pathologic Variants

Human breast can vary in size and shape based on person age, breast tissue volume, weight gain and loss, family history, lactation and pregnancies history, elasticity and thickness of the breast skin, menopause and level of progesterone and estrogen hormones influence. The pathological variation can be caused by various conditions for instance congenital hypoplasia is condition typified by breast underdevelopment. The condition is related to turner syndrome, Poland syndrome, ulnar-mammary syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Others include amastia which is a rare congenital illness typified by the breast tissues, areola and nipple absence. Amazia is another condition which is identified by glandular parenchyma absence in either both or one breast. Supernumarary nipple is a minor malformation characterized by accessory nipple.

Normal Organ Physiology

There are no apparent structural or functional variations between female and male breast before puberty. During this time both female and male breast contains multiple rudimentary ducts organized converging and circumferentially towards the nipple. They are also poorly developed and the blind end of every rudimentary duct, though possibly secretory acini. With puberty onset, the female breast experiences function and morphology changes due to distinctive response of the breast to different normal influences of hormones that include progesterone and estrogen.

Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper


Since the United States terrorist attack of 2001, international non-governmental organizations have had a significant impact on the fight against terrorism globally. After recognizing the crucial role that international, non-governmental organizations play in fighting terrorism, the United Nations General Assembly agreed to support a global strategy that permits different stakeholders, including international non-governmental organizations, to work in collaboration to counter terrorism . Since 2006, the United Nations General Assembly in particular has been encouraging international, non-governmental organizations to join hands with governments of different nations in combating terrorism. A number of authors have documented the importance of involving international non-governmental organizations in addressing terrorism threats. While working together with governments to counter terrorist activities, international, non-governmental organizations are advised to observe the rule of law and human rights. International, non-governmental organizations play a significant role in combating terrorism which has become a common threat in many countries today2 . This research paper explores the role of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The research method that has been applied in this research is theoretical study through a comprehensive review of available literature.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

The research questions and hypotheses that guide this study are listed below;

  1. To what extent are international, non-governmental organizations involved in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations are extensively involved in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations are not involved in combating terrorism
  2. Do international, non-governmental organizations play any important roles in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations play very important roles in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations do not play any important roles in combating terrorism

Review Of Literature

In March 2007, the Office for Democratic Institution and Human Right identified specific roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in countering terrorism. Some of the identified roles include legal roles, community roles, advisory and educational roles, as well as advocacy and research roles3 . International, non-governmental organizations provide advice and educate institutions on how they can prevent terrorism.The expertise and policy that international, non-governmental organizations give to institutions cannot be provided by the government. In certain instances, individuals may find it difficult to combat terrorism due to lack of proper language that they can use to address the problem. International, non-governmental organizations provide public officials with appropriate terminology and language that they can use address issues related to terrorism.

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International, non-governmental organizations normally encourage public officers to stick to the law as they attempt to counter terrorism. As they do so, these organizations always understand that they must comply with the government laws of countries within which they operate. Similarly, public officers should obey laws of different nations as they continue to engage in activities that are aimed at combating terrorism. International, non-governmental organizations also provide advisory roles by guiding public officers and individuals to avoid supporting policies and measures that terrorists may use for their own benefits. It is important to remember that non-state actors should obtain detailed information concerning the extent of terrorism threat for them to provide sufficient and effective response.

Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations play very crucial community functions which are related to combating terrorism. They push for the development of strong groups in the community where people can share ideas and opinions on how they can effectively deal with terrorism threat. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations create forms where communities can meet to discuss their differences at a personal level. This helps to minimize tensions that may fuel terrorism activities.These organizations take quick and appropriate actions that are aimed at addressing the root cause of tensions among different communities. In this manner, they play a crucial role in creating strong societies who will resort to solve their differences peacefully by not through acts of terrorism .

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As far as educational role is concerned, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize human rights as a very important factor when it comes to section of the most appropriate counter-terrorism strategies. These organizations take their time to explain to school children, law-enforcement officers, and the police about the importance of human rights in implementation of counter-terrorism strategies. International, non-governmental organizations enter into partnerships with law enforcement agencies with the aim of increasing awareness concerning effective diversity management strategies. For instance, to promote an understanding of understanding cultural diversity among law enforcement officers, the Arab-American Anti-Discrimination Committee worked in collaboration with the Office of Civil Liberties in the United States.

Additional examples that demonstrate how international, non-governmental organizations fight to counter terrorism by advocating for human rights are the partnerships that have been formed between governments and non-governmental organizations which have been extremely effective in countering terrorism. The IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism (ICPAT), works closely with partners to help counter terrorism at both local and global levels. Many countries become victims of terrorism because they lack adequate resources to effectively counter such activities before they can cause serious harm. ICPAT strives to ensure that relevant resources are supplied to various countries across the world where terrorism poses the biggest threat. International, non-governmental organizations appreciate the role they play in providing technical support to nations that face serious terrorism threats .

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The advocacy role of international, non-governmental organizations is evidenced in the manner these organizations engage with the media as they try to influence the public’s perception concerning terrorism concept. As the media and the entertainment industry may spread information that encourages terrorism activities, they can as well be utilized to inform the public about the negative consequences of terrorism and to encourage people not to engage in such inhumane act. International, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration with the media and the entertainment industry in general with the aim of influencing them to spread information that support respect for human rights and that encourage the public to promote national security10. Of the most importance as far as advocacy role is concerned is the effort that international, non-governmental organizations have put in supporting the media to encourage minority groups to always remain on the forefront in connection with fighting terrorism. These organizations work with the media to help minority groups understand their responsibility in avoiding stereotypes and prejudices that may heighten terrorism activities.

Moreover, international, non-governmental organizations carry out meaningful research in order to identify factors that encourage terrorism activities as well as the most appropriate ways to address them. High quality research is very important when fighting terrorism because it provides vital information that that can positively influence prevention efforts. These organizations extensively conduct surveys and studies which generate results that have brought about significant impacts on counter-terrorism measures. International, non-governmental organizations also engage in dialogues with governments in order to monitor the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures that have already been implemented. This may include an evaluation of funds have been spent as well as how tangible resources have been utilized.

One counter-terrorism role that has for a long time been performed better by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in dialogue with groups or individuals who are believed to perpetuate acts of terrorism. It is always more difficult for the government to engage in dialogue with such groups than it is for international, non-governmental organizations. When trying to influence groups and individuals to avoid terrorism activities, international, nongovernmental organizations should use human rights-based approach which involves maintenance of high levels of neutrality. This is because taking sides when engaging in such dialogue may encourage even more harsh terrorism activities instead of minimizing them. A valuable example that shows how international, non-governmental organizations have successful utilized dialogue to counter terrorism is the peace process that took place in Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland, international, non-governmental organizations engaged the government in dialogue to condemn all forms of terrorism acts irrespective of their motivation.

These organizations work very hard to minimize psychological and emotional effects of terrorism by encouraging victims of unlawful counter-terrorism and terrorism activities to report address their concerns through human rights agencies . International, non-governmental organizations are actively involved in activities which are aimed at addressing conditions that encourage the spread of terrorism. For instance, the United Nations works with Civil Society Organizations to prevent and manage conflicts among communities, fight for human rights, provide humanitarian relief to terrorism victims, and to expand group and individual participation on countering terrorism . In a specific example, IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism recently worked with an Indonesian artist to create an album that supports are promotes Islamic religion. This works contributes greatly towards minimization of terrorist activities by attempting to counter the negative thoughts that tend to associate all Muslims with terrorism acts. Although some people may view this work as a way of branding Islamic religion with terrorism, it is important to acknowledge its relevance in minimization of terrorism activities. Basically, international, non-governmental organizations work to stabilize warring communities especially in situations where the government is not providing any relevant support.

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International, non-governmental organizations also promote good governance across nations in order to increase the ease with which various nations can handle terrorism threats. This is because these organizations believe that nations that are properly governed are always united and top leaders can easily come up with solutions that can help them to curb terrorism threats.This role is built upon the premise that lack of good governance provides a very conducive environment that encourages the spread of terrorism. Notable examples concerning how lack of good governance can lead to the spread of terrorism include; the rise of Hamas in Palestine, the growth of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, and the popularity of the terrorist groups in Somalia. This explains why international, non-governmental organizations are focused on promotion of democracy. They also demand accountability from politicians as a strategy towards promotion of stable governments.

Terrorism threat compels nations to make changes on their security policies to allow them to effectively prevent deadly attacks. International, non-governmental organizations assist different nations in making meaningful and relevant security reforms that can enable to properly combat terrorism. These organizations guide governments to make security reforms based on their abilities and with reference to other successful counter-terrorism measures which have successfully been utilized in the past. Some international, non-governmental organizations often foster cooperative initiatives that are aimed at stakeholder involvement in order to improve awareness of terrorism threat as well as the specific actions that can be taken to address vulnerabilities.

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These initiatives are chosen and implemented as per the opinions and views of the United Kingdom Department for International Development. According to the United Kingdom Department for International Development, the initial point for improving a country’s security forces in order to effectively address terrorism threat is improvement of civic awareness of security issues. International, non-governmental organizations play a very crucial role in expressing their opinions regarding the status and strengths of national security policies. These opinions are extremely useful when the government lacks the capacity to effectively analyze its security issues and to make appropriate changes on security policy to help curb terrorism threat.

International, non-governmental organizations provide technical expertise that help with the implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives. For a long period of time, international, nongovernmental organizations have provided counterterrorism related assistance to nations that want to implement strategies to combat terrorism threat. The implementation and capacity building assistance that it offered by international, non-governmental organizations have more advantageous as compared to those offered by government institutions. For instance, when international, non-governmental organizations push for implementation of security initiatives to curb terrorism, their efforts are rarely thwarted by political sensitivities which are very common when such implementations are supported by national governments.

Another reason that makes international, non-governmental institutions better than national governments as far as implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives is concerned is the presence of a diverse pool of individuals with good knowledge and linguistic expertise. As compared to state organizations, international, non-government organizations are better suited to manage language and cultural barrier that may hamper successful implementation of counterterrorism initiatives.

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Although majority of international, non-governmental organizations play roles that are directly involved in combating terrorism, some of them are engaged in activities that indirectly influence terrorism but which are of great importance in combating terrorism. For example, the Terrorism Prevention Branch enhances international cooperation as well as a coordinated government approach both of which enhance response to terrorism. The Terrorism Prevention Branch establishes links with national and international governments to come up with a law enforcement framework that can help them to handle terrorism threat. This agency teaches governments to how they can detect and do away with money laundering activities which is widely used by organizations and individuals to finance terrorism activities. The practice of advising governments to cut financial support for terrorism activities is a good example of an indirect role played by international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism.

The roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism which have been discussed in this section are well demonstrated in Afghanistan terrorism case. According to the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy documented in 2006, nongovernmental organizations have a positive influence on how nations respond to terrorism threats. As part of implementation of the 2006 United Nations strategy, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and UNESCO, all joined hands to help address the terrorism problem in Afghanistan. Other Afghan-based nongovernmental organizations worked together with these international agencies to provide counter-terrorism services in the region.

In the Afghanistan case, international, non-governmental organizations worked in collaboration with the United Nations to educate public officers, monitor human rights issues, and to improve governance. The strength of the relationship between the United Nations and international, non-governmental organizations helped to control the Afghanistan situation. The performance of international, non-governmental organizations was enhanced by counterterrorism-related subsidiary bodies of the Security Council. International, non-governmental organizations require detailed information from state governments for them to effectively combat terrorism. The United Nations provided the agencies involved with relevant information that remained helpful during their entire period of struggle against terrorism in Afghanistan.

International, non-governmental organizations require more space to interact independently without any interference from the national government. At the same time, they need to acknowledge the fact that good governance will determine the nature of information they can receive from state governments which will also determine the outcome of the actions in combating terrorism. To some extent, international, non-governmental organizations must be cautious about how they associate with national governments to prevent the governments from undermining their own legitimacy.

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When developing the 2006 strategy, the United Nations decided to create a boundary between international, non-governmental organizations to give states an opportunity to view these organizations as extremely relevant. In Afghanistan, international, non-governmental organizations are working in an extremely difficult environment which is characterized by lack of sufficient information from the government.This is happening because the Afghanistan’s security situation is highly dangerous and complicated. This has greatly interfered with good governance which makes exchange of relevant information between the international, non-governmental organizations and the government difficult.

To a large extent, numerous international, non-governmental organizations have worked together to control the Afghanistan situation. They are working by delivering healthcare and counseling services, offering basic community needs, and providing women’s education. The United States as a country has greatly acknowledged the important role that international, nongovernmental organizations are playing to reduce terrorism-related violence in Afghanistan. For this reason, the United States government is always interested in giving support to international, non-governmental organizations with the aim of strengthening their capabilities and to help them establish self-sufficiency at the community level. This support has highly encouraged the development of several pathways that the international agencies can use to resist Taliban and other forces which are trying to destabilize Afghanistan. The United States however has a new plan to allow local populations to work together with international, non-governmental organizations. The biggest challenge that this will bring to the international agencies is how they can organize their activities without being compromised by intimidation and violence

Findings And Discussion

A large volume of international documents have stressed on the important roles that are played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The need to involve international, non-governmental organizations by states in the fight against terrorism was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 and was documented in the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. The main reason for involving international, non-governmental organizations in fighting terrorism threat is because the United Nations believed that these organizations will bring about great contributions in finding common political grounds and in addressing human rights issues, which would eventually result into prevention of terrorism.

Out of the articles reviewed, the authors support that international, non-governmental organizations have very crucial and meaningful roles to play on combating terrorism. It is widely agreed that international, non-governmental organizations have valuable expertise and experience that work best to address issues that encourage the spread of terrorism. Many authors have given specific examples concerning how international, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration to strengthen respect for the rule of law and the human rights. In addition, many documents support that the response initiated towards terrorism threat depends on genuine partnerships between the state governments and international, non-governmental organizations. They have further stressed on the effort that international, non-governmental organizations are putting in promoting diversity inclusion and democratic accountability. Although the existing literature has documented numerous roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism, this paper has summarized the roles into broad categories to enhance clarity.The possible roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, educative roles, and advisory roles.

Roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism

Research roles

From the literature review, it has been revealed that international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that enable them to come up with appropriate strategies that they can use to best counter terrorism. These organizations often conduct high quality research in several areas including the political situation, the root-cause of violence, the motive of terrorism attack, and the most appropriate prevention strategies that can be applied to generate positive results . Additional research that international, non-governmental organizations always concerns factors that may result into spread of terrorism, the impact of possible counter-terrorism measures on the current situation, and how the adversaries involved in the violence would respond following successful implementation of counter-terrorism measures. By conducting comprehensive research when faced with a terrorism-related violence, international, nongovernmental organizations find an opportunity to utilize a practical approach to counter terrorism. A practical approach has been found to be more effective than a theoretical approach in generating meaningful results that can be used by international, non-governmental organizations to execute the best counter-terrorism approach.

By conducting empirical and statistical research, international, non-governmental organizations are able to examine the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures in generating the desired results. These organizations can use the information gathered through research to know the type of data that they should request from governments. When requesting for this data from the government, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize the fact that public security issues are a matter of concern and should not only be left to the security experts alone. For this reason, it is important to treat the government and any other security agencies that may be interested in joining hands to fight terrorism. Consequently, international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that determine the effectiveness with which a counterterrorism response is executed.

Advocacy roles

International, non-governmental organizations strive to condemn all forms of violence that go against human rights irrespective of its root cause. These organizations act as advocates for human rights by writing letters addressed to terrorist groups informing them about how their activities are a violation of human rights. International, non-governmental organizations normally communicate the correct human rights standards to the armed terrorists groups while stressing on the applicability of those standards. Another advocacy role performed by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in activities that allow terrorism victims to report any acts that go against human rights, either by terrorists or agencies that pretend to be engaged in combating terrorism. In this manner, these organizations help to reduce the psychological and emotional effects of terrorism activities on citizens.

Another issue related to advocacy roles that have been discussed in the reviewed articles is working in collaboration with the media to help reduce terrorism. International, nongovernmental organizations work to shape the public’s perception around terrorism. By forming constructive relationships with the media, these organizations play a crucial role in creating a balance in a community that had a negative perception about terrorism and in initiating a public debate to address matters that pertain to human rights and public security. Debate that is encouraged through media sources is extensively used by international, non-governmental organizations to encourage minority groups not to spread violence but to spread a message of peace. By playing their advocacy roles effectively, international, non-governmental organizations have managed to successfully implement counter-terrorism activities.

Advisory roles

The choice of the best response depends on knowledge of the right approach that will help address a given terrorism situation. International, non-governmental organizations provide expertise and policy advice that can help nations to determine the most appropriate counterterrorism response. In order to perform meaningful advisory roles to properly counter terrorism, international, non-governmental organizations must be allowed to have a sense of ownership of the situation at hand. Furthermore, addressing a security issue should be a common concern to both international, non-governmental organizations and the government. For this reason, these organizations are not allowed to take sides as this may interfere with the process of violence reduction. Majority of reviewed literature have documented how governments can interfere with the role of international, non-governmental organizations in providing valuable assistance. For instance, pressure from the government demanding for a quick response from international organizations may make it difficult for these organizations to offer meaningful counter-terrorism response.

Legal roles

International, non-governmental organizations extensively work on the legal issues related to counter-terrorism. In this manner, these organizations contribute greatly to the strengthening of legal frameworks which are concerned with counter-terrorism particularly those laws related to strengthening the rule of law and human rights. The main challenge that international, non-governmental organizations face as they attempt to perform their legal roles is the actual act that qualifies to be referred to as “terrorist act.” Additionally, international, nongovernmental organizations have formulated international human rights standards that are used as a reference when prosecuting terrorists and other criminals who have been arrested for getting involved in violence related to terrorism activities.

Although criminal investigation institutions have the power to perform their roles independently without interference from external organizations, international, non-governmental organizations often require courts to adhere to internationally set human rights laws to conduct criminal proceedings involving perpetrator of terrorism-related activities. Furthermore, substantial volume of literature have documented the role that international, non-governmental organizations play in setting laws that are used to reduce and even prevent youth radicalization.In order to allow international, non-governmental organizations to effectively perform their legal roles related to reduction of terrorism-related violence, criminal justice systems have sufficient provisions that define how it should work with these organizations in fighting terrorism. This demonstrates the degree of commitment that the criminal justice has in working with nongovernmental organizations to create productive laws that are aimed at addressing terrorism threat.

Community roles

Various authors of reviewed literature support that international, non-governmental organizations take part in providing opinions and ideas that are used to build strong communities. Fighting terrorisms can be very difficult in a community that is filled with fear all the time. International, non-governmental organizations try to create safe space for citizens and organize discussion programs where community members can share their experiences at a personal level . Therefore, these organizations play a very important role in reducing tensions that occur in the community as a result of terrorism activities. Furthermore, existing literature has documented that international, non-governmental organizations take active steps to determine community factors that might result into terrorism-related violence. They also carry out outreach activities in the community which are aimed at strengthening the rule of law and human rights. From the research, it has been discovered that when international, non-governmental organizations fight for the support of the rule of law and human rights, they contribute to building of a stable democratic society which allows citizens to actively participate in social and democratic activities.

As part of their community roles, international, non-governmental organizations organize dialogue sessions with victims and perpetrators of terrorism. When compared with the response received from dialogue sessions conducted by international, non-governmental organizations, those conducted by the government do very little in reducing terrorism-related violence. International, non-governmental organizations utilize rights-based approach when interacting with people in the community as this is extremely essential for development of positive relationships.

Educative roles

Another important role played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism as per the literature review is educative role. These organizations adequately recognize the significance of using proper language to address communities which are involved in terrorism-related violence. For this reason, international, non-governmental organizations take an active part in educating public officials on the right language that they should use to address communities that are involved in terrorism-related violence. Furthermore, international, nongovernmental organizations offer guidance to governments on how they should approach different terrorism situations without spreading the violence.

International, non-governmental organizations also take their time to explain to armed bodies and citizens about the importance of demonstrating respect for human rights in all their activities. They also inform warring communities about the negative impacts of choosing war instead of peaceful negotiations as a method of resolving disputes. The specific activities obtained from the reviewed literature and that define the educative roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; teaching students, youths, and police officers about the negative impacts of terrorism-related violence; informing public officers about the importance of involving people from diverse cultural in decision making to combat terrorism; and working in collaboration with warring communities to explain to them the positive impacts of resolving their conflicts using available methods of alternative conflict resolution.

Challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations when combating terrorism

Implementation of counter-terrorism strategies is not such an easy task, and international, non-governmental organizations have to be prepared to mitigate a number of challenges that they are likely to encounter as they perform their roles. Challenges that international, nongovernmental organizations face as they attempt to combat terrorism tend to interfere with their capacity to effectively prevent terrorism-related violence. This is because international, nongovernmental organizations require relevant information from the government in order to execute their terrorism-prevention roles effectively. This information is always difficult to obtain in countries with broken government or political structures. One of the major challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations is poor governance. Poor governance in a country results into disintegrated civil organization structures that create room for tremendous terrorism recruitment.

Another big challenge that faced by international, non-governmental organizations as they perform their counter-terrorism roles is convincing governments and public officials about the effectiveness of their strategies in combating terrorism. Public officers in the community may fail to understand the significance of the counter-terrorism activities being implemented due to limited knowledge and lack of access to information sources. When they come across such communities, international, non-governmental organizations are compelled to find a way through which they can disseminate relevant information before they can proceed with their counterterrorism initiatives. This presents a very big challenge to international, non-governmental organizations especially when there are limited resources available for implementation of counter-terrorism strategies.

Although criminal justice organizations have found human rights standards formulated by international, non-governmental organization useful in prosecuting criminals of terrorism-related crimes, these organizations are faced with the challenge of coming up with common standards that would be applicable for all nations globally. This is due to the variations in the way people define terrorisms and terrorist acts that qualify as crimes. With the absence of a common standard from which counter-terrorism policies can be formed, international, non-governmental organizations find it difficult to come up with relevant universal policies that can guide implementation on counter-terrorism strategies.

The claim that some countries feel that international, non-governmental organizations prevent governments from successfully combating terrorism acts as an obstacle to organizations that may want to fight terrorism.As international, non-governmental organizations strive to play its role of fighting for human rights and the rule of law, some governments argue that they are supporting terrorists. In certain countries, international, non-governments institutions are not paid their salaries in full because they believe that these organizations are offering financial support to terrorism groups. It is quite a big challenge for international, non-governmental organizations to work with governments which are opposing their activities, especially if these organizations feel that the rights of citizens are being violated.

International, non-governmental organizations that operate in countries where a large percentage of the population belongs to one ethnic group mostly face harassment in the hands of governments which do not support their activities. These are countries where minority groups are being mistreated due to terrorism-related violence. As they perform their roles of combating terrorism in these countries, international, non-governmental organizations are often chased away by governments that do not see the significance of their in these countries. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations face the challenge of implementing counterterrorism policies in countries whose governments do not have clear provisions communication their involvement in activities that are aimed at fighting terrorism.


There are three different assumptions which have been made when developing this research paper. The first assumption is that all international, non-governmental organizations that are being referred to in this paper have got the same motive which is to combat terrorism in different nations of the world. This assumption helps to eliminate questions that may arise concerning the variations that may exist in the missions and visions of international, nongovernmental organization.

The second assumption that has been made in this paper is that the counter-terrorism approaches implemented by international, non-governmental organizations are aimed at achieving similar goals. This assumption makes it easy for the researcher to focus on the same problem with is combating terrorism threat. Third, it has been assumed that all terrorists utilize the same approaches to execute an attack on their adversaries, and these terrorist approaches can be addressed using similar counter-terrorism strategies. This assumption makes it easy to relate the roles of international, non-governmental organizations with terrorism activities and to create a big picture concerning the roles of these organizations in combating terrorism

Study Limitations

This study has only one limitation that may affect validity of information given in this paper. This research has relied solely on information contained in already available literature. Some of the data contained in secondary sources reviewed may not be relevant today due to changes in techniques that are applied by terrorisms and in strategies utilized by contemporary international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism. The validity of conclusions made would have been enhanced had the researcher used statistical and empirical research methods to collect data. Unfortunately, these two approaches could not be used due to limited time and resources that were available for the research.

Recommendations For Governments

Governments should embrace the roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism due to the effectiveness of these roles in reducing terrorism-related violence in the society. It is recommended that governments should give organizations that are interested in combating terrorisms an opportunity to do so and avoid assigning counter-terrorism roles to criminal justice organizations. Moreover, in order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

Furthermore, nations should refrain from portraying international non-governmental organizations as supporters of terrorists and terrorism activities as this may prevent them from engaging in important counter-terrorism activities that may help to reduce impacts of terrorism. Additionally, governments should support international, non-governmental organizations by helping them to investigate the root-cause of terrorism-related violence, and refrain from interfering with their operations to help bring back peace in the community. Governments of various nations will benefit greatly from international, non-governmental organizations by putting these recommendations into consideration because they will easily combat terrorism.

Recommendations For International, Non-Governmental Organizations

International, non-governmental organizations should consider a number of recommendations in order to enhance their effectiveness in combating terrorism. First, international, non-governmental organizations should not have any fear in approaching communities that are affected by terrorism-related violence, but they should gather courage and join hands in combating terrorism in those communities. Second, international, nongovernmental organizations should allow a large number of minority groups to become part of their workforce to limit cultural barriers that they may face in nations where minority groups are the most affected part of the community .

Third, in order to establish the best counter-terrorism strategies, international, nongovernmental organizations should take appropriate steps to identify specific causes of terrorismrelated violence. Fourth, international, non-governmental organizations should take their time to understand how different governments define the terms “security” and “terrorism” to avoid conflicts that may arise whenever they are performing their counter-terrorism roles in different nations of the world


Rapid rise in the rate of terrorism attacks in various countries of the world today has increased the involvement of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. Although it is possible to know the roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in combating terrorism through statistical empirical studies, similar information can be obtained by conducting a comprehensive review of available literature. A comprehensive analysis of secondary sources reveals that international, non-governmental organizations play six distinct roles in combating terrorism. These roles include research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, and educative roles. It can therefore be concluded that international, non-governmental organizations are involved in combating terrorism to a large extent. In addition, from the study, it is evident that international, nongovernmental organizations play very crucial roles in combating terrorism. These roles are extremely effective in reducing terrorism-related violence in different communities. International, non-governmental organizations should be ready to overcome a number of challenges that they are likely to face in the field as they perform their roles of combating terrorism. In order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments with terrorism reduction, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

Concept in Information Systems Research Paper Instructions

Use the Internet or the Library to research one concept in information systems that you have studied in this course. You may select a topic of your choice or you may use one of the following:

  • Computer literacy and information literacy
  • Using information systems and information technologies / management information systems
  • Data warehouses
  • Personal, legal, ethical, and organizational issues of information systems
  • Protecting information resources
  • Mobile and wireless networks / security risks associated with information technologies
  • Computer and network security
  • Security threats / measures & enforcement / comprehensive security guidelines
  • Convergence of voice, video, and data
  • New trends: the Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 eras
  • e-Commerce / B2B e-Commerce / mobile and voice-based e-Commerce
  • Global information systems
  • Building successful information systems
  • Enterprise Systems
  • Management support systems
  • Intelligent information systems
  • Emerging trends technologies, and applications

Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you:

  • Present an overview of the origin and history of the concept that you have chosen.
  • Describe one (1) current use of the concept that you have chosen. Include at least two (2) examples of such use in individuals, organizations, and / or governments to support your response.
  • Discuss common attitudes toward the concept. Next, discuss your own attitudes toward the concept in question. Justify your response.
  • Explain the fundamental strengths and weaknesses–or the advantages and disadvantages–of the concept that you have chosen. Justify your response.
  • Describe the prevailing view that experts hold about the likely future of the concept in question. Include the views of at least three (3) experts to support your response.
  • Use at least six (6) quality references. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Explain the major components of an information systems infrastructure.
  • Identify emerging technologies that enable new forms of communication, collaboration, and partnering.
  • Explain how information systems are enabling new forms of commerce between individuals, organizations, and governments.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in information systems.
  • Write clearly and concisely about management information systems using proper writing mechanics.