Juveniles Offenders Should Be Sentenced in Adult Courts

Research Paper Instructions

Although the original goal of the juvenile court was to care for the wayward child through therapeutic interventions, there are many individuals calling for juveniles to be treated as adult offenders. The current debate between those pushing for harsher juvenile punishment and those asking for treatment may lead to a shift in the way juveniles are processed in juvenile courts and the type of disposition or sentences they will receive.

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Using the course materials, textbook, library, and Web resources, research juvenile justice, and comment on the following statement:

  • Juvenile delinquents should be treated and sentenced like adult offenders.

Identify and discuss 4 different reasons that support your argument.

Read also Law Article Review – Juveniles in Court

Assignment Guidelines:

  • Research the different perspectives on juvenile justice and sentencing.
  • In 4–6 paragraphs, address the following:
    • Identify and discuss 4 different reasons that support your argument of whether or not juveniles should be treated and sentenced like adults.
      • Use research to support your argument.
  • Comment on at least 2 other students’ posts, and explain to them why they could be wrong in their analysis of juvenile justice and sentencing.

Sentencing Juveniles Offenders in Adult Courts

Thousands of children have been sentenced as adults throughout the U.S. In addition, approximately 3000 children have been sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole. Thousands of children, some who are as young as 13 years old, have been condemned to a life where they would die in prison. The courts disregard the age of the children in issuing the sentences due to the gravity of the crimes the children have committed. Various parties claim that sentencing children to life in prison without the possibility of parole is unconstitutional. Indeed, the Supreme Court banned death-in-prison sentences to children who are convicted for non-homicide crimes. Courts have to consider various life circumstances of the child before deciding on the most appropriate sentence. Parties that oppose death-in-prison sentences to children cite children’s diminished culpability and high capacity to change. They claim that other measures may be more effective than the harsh punishments.

Read also Using Delinquency Theories To Explain Delinquent Behavior Among Juveniles

However, in some instances, failure to waiver the children to adult courts where they would face harsh punishments would result in a miscarriage of justice (Kurlychek & Johnson, 2004). Some of the crimes the children commit are so horrific that they should not given the chance to interact with normal, law abiding citizens.  A child who intentionally torches his house with the full knowledge that his family members are in the house should not be tried in a juvenile court. In addition, a child who takes a concealed weapon to school and randomly shoots his school mates should not be tried in a juvenile court.

Read also Should Juveniles Be Sentenced To Life For Heinous Crimes?

Since the inception of the juvenile justice system, various parties have argued on when it is applicable to transfer juveniles to adult courts. Currently, various states have various laws that stipulate when juveniles should be tried in adult courts. Generally, state statutes define set of crimes that warrant juveniles to be tried in adult courts. In addition, states have a mechanism for returning cases to juvenile courts whenever appropriate. Since the formation of the juvenile justice system in 1899, several heinous crimes have warranted the sentencing of juveniles in adult courts. The sharp rise in violent crimes committed by juveniles during the late 1980s and early 1990s has increased focus on the issue. During this period, the number of juveniles in adult correctional facilities increased significantly. Transfer of juveniles to adult courts automatically without the normal judicial review is one of the issues affecting juvenile justice. In addition, various parties claim that transferring juveniles to adult courts interferes with their personal development. Various parties also claim that transferring juveniles to adult courts makes them be influenced by antisocial peers in correctional facilities (Griffin, 2003).

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The increased in the rates of crimes committed by juveniles in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to the increase in the practice of automatically sentencing juveniles who commit serious crimes in adult courts. This practice helped in reducing the time it took to sentencing the juveniles. It is a fact that the judicial review that was necessary to transfer juveniles in adult courts generally took a long period to come up with a decision. In some instances, the juveniles were already adults when they were transferred to adult courts. However, various parties claimed that sentencing juveniles to adult courts automatically without the judicial review exposed them to a process where they are disadvantaged from the start. This increases their risk of receiving harsh punishments (Redding, 2003). However, there is no need of a judicial review if there is evidence that the juvenile committed a serious crime. Doing so would only be delaying justice. And as the old adage goes, ‘justice delayed is justice denied.’

Read also Treatment of Juvenile Offenders in the American Criminal System

It is a fact that sentencing any individual to prison disrupts the development of the individual. As such, sentencing juveniles in adult courts increases the risk of disruptions in their personal development. It affects their identity formation and relationships. Parties that oppose sentencing of juveniles in adult courts cite this to support their views. They claim that it hinders their positive movement into adulthood. However, it is a fact that it is hard for juveniles who commit serious crimes to positively move into adulthood. Therefore, sentencing them in adult courts would have minimal impact. In fact, the reverse may be true (Redding, 2003).

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Juveniles who are sentenced in adult crimes exhibit varying levels of adjustment when they rejoin to the community. Antisocial peers in correctional facilities may influence their behavior. Their socialization may make them be prone to commit crimes in the future. Therefore, parties that oppose sentencing juveniles in adult courts has a negative impact on the well-being of the community. However, nothing can be further from the truth. It is a fact that people are more influenced by friends of the same age. Therefore, sentencing juveniles who have committed serious crimes together with other juveniles who have committed minor crimes may make them the juveniles who have committed serious crimes influence other juveniles. This increases the recidivism of juveniles. However, when they are sentenced to adult courts, they may finally realize the real repercussions of their crimes. This may make them deter from engaging in crimes in the future (Redding, 2003).

Juveniles who commit serious crimes should be tried in adult courts. However, the justice system should ensure that juveniles who commit minor offenses are sentenced in the juvenile justice system. This is due to the fact that juveniles who commit minor offenses can be more easily integrated back to the community than juveniles who commit serious crimes.

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Eutrophication Environmental Issue – Baltic Sea Case Study


            Eutrophication is described as the accumulation of excessive algal and plantgrowth due to increased availability of one or more limiting growth factors required for photosynthesis such as nutrient fertilizers, carbon dioxide and sunlight. The accumulation of phosphorus and nitrogen in a water bodies such as lakes and seas leads to the excessive growth of phytoplankton and short-lived macro algae(Chislock, et al., 2013). The excess nutrients reaching water bodies are attributed to anthropogenic activities such as agricultural activities, water treatment plants and effluent from industries. The nutrients that causes eutrophication originate from diffuse sources such as agriculture and point sources such as water treatment and industries discharging waste water into rivers that leads to the lake or seas.

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In the case study of Baltic Sea, the findings indicated that nitrogen contributes to 71 % of the total nutrient load and originate from diffuse sources mainly agriculture which contributes to 80 % of the nitrogen load. On the hand, the major sources of phosphorus are the municipalities which contributes 90 % of the total point source discharge. The nitrogen and phosphorus arrives into the lakes and seas through direct discharge or through rivers(Chislock, et al., 2013). In some cases, pond managers and aquaculture scientists intentionally add fertilizers into the water body to increase primary productivity, hence enhancing biomass and density and increases fish productivity. Naturally, eutrophication occurs when lakes or seas are filled with sediments. The natural eutrophication process occurs over a long period of time as compared to the human causes. In addition, natural causes of eutrophication takes place in a very slow process since it requires enough sediments to settle at the bottom of the sea or lake to supply enough nutrients for phytoplankton and algae to grow.

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Effects of eutrophication

            The notable consequence of eutrophication is the emergence of noxious dense algal bloom, foul-smelling phytoplankton which leads to the reduction of water quality and clarity. The dense growth of algal bloom reduces the penetration of light which is needed for photosynthesis process to take place. As a result, it reduces the growth and subsequently leads to die-offs of plants in the littoral zones(Chislock, et al., 2013). Limited penetration of light into the littoral zones also reduces the success rate of predators to catch the prey. The other effect of eutrophication is the elevation of pH due to the depletion of dissolved inorganic carbon caused by increased rate of photosynthesis. Increased pH limits the chemosensory abilities of the aquatic life that depends on perception of dissolved chemical cues to go about their daily activities. This phenomenon is described as blinding.

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Eventually, the dense algal blooms dies and the microbial decomposition process begins thus significantly depleting dissolve oxygen. This condition creates anoxic or hypoxic dead zone with limited dissolve oxygen hence leading to death of fish. Studies also indicated that some algal bloom produce noxious toxins which causes public health risks(Chislock, et al., 2013). In addition, toxigenic cyanobacteria such as Cylindrospermopsis and Anabaena dominate nutrient-rich water bodies. This can lead to poisoning of humans, wildlife and domesticated animals. Further findings indicated eutrophication leads to the accumulation of off-flavor compounds such as geosmin and methylisoborneal which is attributed to cyanobacteria. This affects the quality of fish and drinking water especially the municipal drinking water.

Eutrophication leads to changes in aquatic community structure. For instance, cyanobacterial blooms favor the growth of small-bodied zooplankton which in turn dominates the plankton communities. This condition is attributed to the fact that cyanobacteria possesses anti-herbivore characteristics such as poor food quality, morphology and toxicity(Minaudo, et al., 2015). It also affects the fish composition in the affected waters because planktivorous fishes such as bream and shad prefer nutrient rich waters while piscivorous fishes such as pike and bass prefer oligotrophic lakes which is nutrient-poor.

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Considering the threats associated with eutrophication in terms of the quality of recreational, fisheries and potable drinking water sources. Despite enactment of legislation to control point-source of pollution that leads to eutrophication, algal bloom and cyanobacteria remain one of the challenge of surface water globally. Five major methods can be used to control eutrophication:

  • Application of potent herbicides and algaecides
  • Covering water bodies with water-based stain or opaque liners
  • Mechanical mixing
  • Changing nutrients ratios
  • Diversion of excess nutrients

However, these control strategies are costly and ineffective especially in large complex ecosystem. Therefore, the most appropriate control method is to reduce the amount of nutrient reaching water bodies especially those from point-sources. Bio-manipulation is used to control nutrient loading originating from diffuse sources. Some of the legislation enacted include urban waste treatment directive and nitrates directive(Haahti, et al., 2010). Education serves as the most effective control method. Municipalities and farmers are educated on methods of reducing nutrients loading in water bodies. The municipalities are educated on the importance of collecting, treating and discharge of waste water. In the other hand, farmers are educated on good farming practices that protect both surface and ground water from fertilizers pollutions. It is important to integrate the control methods in order to ensure that eutrophication is reduced in surface water.

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Agoraphobia, Symptoms, Treatment and Potential Impact at Workplace


This is an anxiety disorder that raises perceptions of fear towards the environment. Individuals suffering from this disorder perceive the environment as dangerous be it open places, shopping areas, public transit etc. Such individuals only consider their homes as the only safe place they can be. In serious cases individuals suffering from agoraphobia may not leave their homes at all and this may last for more than six months. Agoraphobia is categorized as a phobia under social phobia. Affected individuals are susceptible to depression and substance use. It is a combination of genetic and environmental factors (Robert, 2008).

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Agoraphobia Symptoms

This conditions subjects victims to fear in unfamiliar environments. It arouses feelings of anxiety and sufferers have little control over themselves when exposed to their external environment. The following are the signs and symptoms of agoraphobia

  • Fear of social embarrassment
  • Fear of death
  • Distraught in public places
  • Victims may suffer from temporary separation anxiety disorder
  • Susceptibility to panic attacks

Individuals with this disorder always want to dissociate themselves from people just to satisfy their emotional comfort. Short panic attacks are common for victims of agoraphobia and they can hardly control themselves during such attacks. Their fear of public embarrassment may trigger temporary separation disorder where they resort to solitude.

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Agoraphobia affects adults and it begins ate early adulthood and ends at old age. It is more common in women than in men. Women are affected twice as much as men. Children are hardly affected by agoraphobia. About 3.2 million adults in the United States aged between 18 and 55 suffer from agoraphobia. This translates to 2.2 percent of the population of this age group. This statistic is derived from the annual diagnosis rate of agoraphobia (American Psychiatric Association, 2013).

Read also Anxiety Specific Phobias Research Paper

Potential impact at workplace

It is a general tendency for victims of agoraphobia to abscond their work and sometimes for long periods of time. It is difficult to manage such employees because one cannot predict their future within an organization. Additionally, after agoraphobia attack, it is very unlikely for such individuals to re-establish contact at the places of work. It is therefore important for employers to keep in touch with such employees and make adjustments in their working environments to suit their conditions.

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More often than not, individuals suffer from agoraphobia after a panic attack. It is the subsequent anxiety and fear after a panic attack that triggers agoraphobia. This means that treating panic disorder can prevent agoraphobia. The most common treatment method of this disorder is therapy. Exposure treatment and systematic desensitization may also be used to treat agoraphobia. However, most patients are likely to recover faster under exposure treatment as compared to other forms of treatment. This treatment method works best when the victim is in the company of their trusted friend. The treatment method that that has proved successful is cognitive restructuring. This involves psychological therapy whereby victims are taken through dianoetic discussion with the aim of replacing irrational beliefs with rational and factual beliefs. This cognitive restructuring has proved to be a successful method of treatment because it changes the mindset of agoraphobia victims and brings them back to normalcy.

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Impact of The Immigrants in The USA – Research Paper


America has ever been branded as “a country of immigrants”, and this problem has been compounded further by globalization, which makes terrorism and migration easier (Tim Kane and Kirk A. Johnson). There are various impacts of immigrants in US on both economy and other development parameters.

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Percentage Number of Immigrants in the USA

Throughout the American history, it is clear that immigration has played a key role in the vitality of the country’s economy as well as enrichment of culture and demographic dynamism. On an economic perspective, immigrants are job creators, consumers, taxpayers and entrepreneurs, (CAP Immigration Team). Many pundits, however, argue that immigration system in the US is broken and needs an overall overhaul. They argue further that although the borders of the country are much secure now, there is need to enact laws to provide mechanism for citizenship for many immigrants living in the country and level playing ground for all the Americans.

Read also Enforcement of Immigration Laws at the Local, State, and Federal Level

Latest statistics on the number of immigrants in the country shows a substantial number of immigrants in the country. There has been a general rise in the number of immigrants in the US since 2000-2012. During this span of time, the foreign population grew in the country from 31.1- 40.8 million people and this translates to 31.2% increase in number of immigrants.

Although there has been a steady rise in the number of immigrants in the US, the percentages are yet to hit a record high of 14.8% recorded in the country in 1890. In 1960, the population of foreign immigrants was 5.4% of the entire population in the country. This has since risen and the new numbers recorded in 2012 shows that the number of immigrants in the country constitutes 13% of the entire population of the country. The composition of the immigrants can be broken further. The 40.8 million immigrants consist of 18.6 million naturalized US citizens, and these are the foreign population born in the country. The remaining percentage constituted of 1.9 million of immigrants on temporary visas, 11.3 million unauthorized migrants and 13.3 legal permanent residents.

Impact of the Immigrants in the USA

There are many views that have been put forth regarding the impact that immigrants have on the economy of the country. However, many economists argue that immigrants have more benefits to the country than its negative effects. Although there are some negative impacts of the immigrants in the country’s economy, for instance states and localities spend more in educating them, the cumulative benefits outweigh the negative impacts.

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Impact of the Immigrants on Education

The large number immigrants that are naturalized as citizens owing to their birth, drains a lot of money from the states and localities who have to educate them (Amuedo-Dorantes and Sparber). In addition, many of the illegal immigrants and those who posses temporary visas make use of the educational facilities and these drain a lot from the economy. The ruling of the supreme court of the US, in 1982, in case, Plyler v. Doe, ruled out that the undocumented immigrant children have a right to access to education in the US public schools.

Some of these immigrants go back to their countries of origin after their education and this represents a brain drain for the country. Not only do immigrants come as mature people, there are many Mexican children, who illegally cross the border into the country. The immigrants who are not born in the country do not speak fluent English and this adds more cost to their education

Read also Obstacles Faced By the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS).

The impact of immigrants on the economy and education is more compelling on individuals who are educated and possess skills in the fields of Information Technology, Science and Engineering. If such individuals are allowed to work in the country, the likelihood of outsourcing such jobs is eliminated and the same individuals are retained and hired, pay taxes and thus adds to the economy.

Impact of the Immigrants on Healthcare Provision

Unauthorized immigrants have a great impact on the healthcare in the US. Most of these illegal immigrants access healthcare yet no one will pay for them in form of insurance and other forms of tax. This forms a great burden to the federal government since these costs will then be absorbed by the healthcare institutions and the government. The rates of “uninsurance” in the country drive costs of healthcare (‘Elderly Immigrants: Emerging Challenge for the U.S. Healthcare System’).

Most of the cases that create a major challenge include pregnancy and the elderly immigrants. These groups of immigrants create a big challenge in terms of costs that such hospitals, healthcare institutions and public entities have to shoulder. The costs of treating and nursing the elderly immigrants are high since most of them do not have any form of repaying for the services. Similarly, maternity and delivery services are more expensive and costly to such institutions. These cause a major cause of concern to the economy of the country. The undocumented immigrants have the right to use emergency services since hospitals are mandated to provide these services regardless of the ability to pay or immigration status (Wolbert). The users of such services include mothers who want to deliver. The long-term impact of the costs of the healthcare services to the state, undocumented by immigrants, has been estimated to be in the regions of $6-$10 billion per year.

Impact of the Immigrants on Housing

The international convention that seeks to protect the rights of the migrants and the universal declaration on human rights, advocates for the rights of the migrants to adequate and good housing, social housing schemes and against exploitation in payment of rents. Although the immigrants have a lower homeownership rates compared to the natives, these rates have improved drastically from 1990’s onwards. The immigrants live in less adequate houses than the native in the US does.

Although homeownership and adequacy is low among the immigrants in the US, recent studies show that the immigrants have had positive impact on the growth of the housing sector in the country. For instance, (Poppe), did extensive research on the home ownership among the immigrants in the US and the results revealed that although the immigrants have poor house adequacy, especially those who live in rural areas, there has been an increase in the demand for housing due to influx of immigrants to the US.

Language of Accommodation

Most of the immigrants that move to the US are from Mexico and neighboring Central American Countries. Most of the immigrants have poor English language skills. The naturalized immigrants have better language skills and speak fluent English. The fact that most of the immigrants have poor English language skills tends to impact negatively on their chances of getting employment and their children accessing education since the language of instruction in public schools is English.

Read also Case Study Analysis – Congress, the President, and the INS: Who’s in Charge of U.S. Immigration Policy?

Criminal Activities

Most of the immigrants are in the US illegally and many are from Mexico. Most of them have difficulties getting necessary licenses to like natives. Even those who were born in the country, especially those who studied disciplines related to medicine, have found difficulties accessing the necessary licenses in order to operate as doctors and nurses and most of them are left operating cabs instead of practicing.

However, many studies have revealed that most immigrants are less likely to commit offences compared to Native Americans. Most of the criminal offences are perpetrated by the natives, who are more likely to be incarcerated than the immigrants are (Das).

Read also Impact of Immigration on All Levels of Government In The USA


In conclusion, there is increasing annual number of immigrants in the US and majority come from Mexico and neighboring Central American countries. Many studies and economic reviews have shown that immigrants have positive impact on the economies of developed nations. US has been outmuscled by France and Germany as destination for immigrants as fight for skilled immigrants continues.

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Lupus Erythematosus, Its Causes, Symptoms, Treatment and Medication

Lupus Erythematosus is a kind of a disease that is persistent and chronic besides it causes the infected individual to have inflammation on various parts of his/her body. Lupus as it is commonly known can be mild or severe and it is a systemic kind of a disease. There are two types of the disease namely; discoid lupus that only affects the skin and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which affects mainly the joints, skin and even internal organs like liver , even brain and heart, (Tyndall, A.,2011)

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Systemic lupus erythematosus, as it is commonly referred to, is a kind of a disease that results from the immune system of the body “attacking itself”; it is an autoimmune kind of an ailment. Autoimmunity arises when the body’s disease protecting system mistakenly attacks itself. SLE is mainly prevalent in women than men, having ages between 20 – 40 years, however that does not mean it is age restrictive, it can affect anybody of any age. Although this condition can run in families, studies show that 3 in every 100 children in families having Systemic lupus erythematosus may actually develop the condition. This disease is common with African Americans and the people in Asia. It is believed to result from interplay of a number of factors including genetic, environmental and hormonal interaction with the body antibodies, (Lahita , R. G., 2011).

Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) is actually a mild or benign form of SLE, (Isenberg, D., & Manzi, S. ,2008), which involves body organs like skin and in particular the face. Patients who have DLE may develop SLE in its later stages, though a small percentage of DLE patients actually develop SLE.

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Discoid Lupus Erythematosus is a severe and chronic skin disease causing dermatological destruction as loss in hair, scarring and if not treated at it early stages it may lead to hyper pigmentation of the skin. DLE usually  manifestation of SLE that shows itself in form of plaques and papules with scales, these skin eruptions are usually photosensitive and they can be within a specific area of the skin or just widespread, (Bourgeois, S., 2008).

Causes and Symptoms of Lupus Erythematosus

As pointed out earlier above, SLE is autoimmune disease whereby the immune system of the body tries to attack its self. This presents a unique and complicated situation whereby the mechanism that is supposed to protect the body instead attacks itself, though many research has been done and studies continue, its underlying causes remain largely unknown. However, some research done show that SLE may actually be caused by certain drugs, hereditary genes, and exposure to ultra violet light among other causes.

SLE exhibit a variation in symptoms in the affected individuals, but the common of the symptoms is pain in the joints where some patients may end up to developing arthritis. The symptoms may appear and go. Although, there is variation in symptoms and severity in SLE, generally the patients exhibit a loss in weight and slight fever, (Callen, J., 2011) The other most prevalent symptoms include, pains in joints and muscles, this mainly affects the small joints of the hands and feet meaning, less major joints are affected. Although swellings usually occur in the joints, the damage and arthritis is normally not severe with this disease.

Read also Agoraphobia, Symptoms, Treatment and Potential Impact at Workplace

The other major symptoms of Lupus include rashes that are shaped like butterflies mostly in the cheeks, oval patched rashes and general rushes on parts exposed to the sun. In addition, it manifests itself in form of sores in the mouth, inflammation of the heart or the lungs, also kidney problems are normally apparent with this kind of disease. Apart from the above symptoms, there is general drop in blood cells count, as well as neurological problems.

Lupus Erythematosus Treatment and Medication

There is no well-documented or known cure for LUPUS; however, it is advisable to prevent its symptoms than cure. Such type of treatment is symptoms dependent, (Urowitz , M. B., 2005). The seriousness and extend of the infection is also key in determining how better to handle the ailment.

At its early stage, a number of treatment methods can be employed, for instance, to treat symptoms of joints and pleurisy, NSAIDS is normally used, whereas skin rashes can be treated with creams, specifically Corticosteroid creams. Antimalarial drugs together with corticosteroids of low doses have also been used to treat arthritis and skin symptoms.

It should be noted that severely levels of LUPUS comes with great psychological impact to those whore suffer from the disease, (Wallace,  D. J. ,2002). however, its treatment include; decreasing of immune system response by using high-dose corticosteroids, similarly drugs that block cell growth have proved to be effective, for instance cytotoxic. However, these drugs can have severe side effects on the patient and need to be monitored closely.

A number of drugs have proved successful in the treatment of LUPUS at its chronic or more severe form. The following are the drugs that can be used to manage the disease;

  • Topical Corticosteroids:  Form the mainstay of treating Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, the patients on this medication start with a potent steroid that has to be applied two times a day after which a switch is as soon as possible to a lower potent steroid. The use of less steroids help reduce the side effects, that are normally recognizable for instance atrophy, purpura and striae.
  • Intralesional Steroids: These types of steroids are normally used in treatment of lesions that are chronic. Intralesional steroids are normally associated with cutaneous atrophy as well as dyspigmentation, as its major side effects, though these side effects pose no problems and can easily be handled by experienced medical staff. In the case non-responsive patients, systemic oral agents may be used.
  • Antimalarials: this type of therapy forms first-line treatment for DLE, it can be administered in combination or just singly. Three types of preparations are mostly used which include chloroquine, Mepacrine and hydroxychloroquine. Mepacrine, however, is commercially restricted in some countries like US. Normally the patient has to start with 200mg of hydroxychloroquine per day, for a grown up, and if no side effects for example gastrointestinal ,the dosage is then increased to two times per day.

It should be observed that any clinical improvement can be observed after 4-8 weeks of medication; therefore, patients should be advised accordingly. It is worth noting, however, that dosage be strictly be kept below 6.5g/kg/day and if the patient does not show any response, chloroquine should be administered as this maybe more effective. In some circumstances, patients may not be responsive to either of the above drugs and as such Mepacrine is advisable as an alternative. Other drugs used in the treatment of DLE include Methotrexate, CyclosporinA, Tacrolimus, Mycophenolate mofetil and Azathioprine.

General Measures and Management of Lupus Erythematosus

LUPUS has no treatment; the available measures can be so expensive and will incur considerable expenditures to facilities and individuals. However, its management is less costly and has proven to be successful.

The lesions, which are usually cutaneous, in individuals affected by Lupus are known to be made worse with exposure to ultraviolet light, an approach to manage discoid lupus involves avoiding of direct sun and the application of sunscreens to shield the person suffering, from the ultraviolet light. It is advisable also to educate the patients on the need to apply sunscreens and avoid direct sunlight especially between 10 AM – 4 PM, (Wallace, D. J., 2000).  Care should also be taken against exposure to ultraviolet light that results from reflection from snow hence such places should be avoided, if the patient has had great exposure to light they should apply themselves sunscreen or when they are wet. To sum it up, one needs to be active by having exercises and get to involve him or herself in personal care.


Lupus is an autoimmune disease, which can develop to its chronic form of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, and as such early treatment is necessary. In its chronic stage, it has far much worse effects as it may lead to hair lose and disfiguring of the face as well as permanent scaring. Treatment of chronic form of Lupus can also be so costly and as such proper management of the disease need to done at early stage.

There are several forms of treatment that are effective to a lesser or greater degree than others. There are too few properly conducted randomized trials to enable an informed choice by clinicians. Clinicians at the present time are, therefore, likely to choose their preferred treatment based on their own experience. There is a need for further large randomized, controlled, and possibly multinational trials to be conducted that compare the effectiveness and safety of one form of treatment compared with another.

Early effective treatment may lead to total clearing of skin lesions, but failure of treatment results in permanent scarring; the depressed scars, hair loss, and pigmentary changes are often extremely disfiguring, particularly in darker-skinned people. The treatment of Discoid Lupus Erythematosus would in most instances be initiated at a dermatology department, but before instituting treatment for discoid lupus patients should be assessed for systemic involvement. This should include a full history and physical examination, full blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation.

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Filipino Culture and Its Impact on Nursing and Healthcare

The Filipino Culture

The culture of the people from the Philippines is a perfect example of a combination of values from the West and those that already existed in the East. Before the arrival of the Spanish, the culture was initially heavily influenced by the Malay heritage which was common in South East Asia. It was after the colonization of the islands by the Spanish, that the Hispanic influence spread and impacted the country, with Roman Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. After being under the Spanish and Mexican rule for nearly three decades, the United States of America (USA) took the island nation as part of their sphere of influence for 50 years a result of which is the English language that is presently widely used in this territory(Tan, 2009, p. 10).  The purpose of this research paper is to study the Filipino culture in relation to how individuals share thoughts ideas, taboo subjects in conversations, touch (between members of a family, the opposite sex, friends, healthcare providers) , gestures, acceptable ways of an individual standing while greeting people, temporal relation of the culture and the impact of the culture on health care and nursing.

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Sharing thoughts, ideas and taboos subjects in the Filipino Culture

            In the Filipino culture, the family is treated as the center of the complex social structure which includes grandparents, aunts, uncles, cousins, sponsors, honorary relations (god-parents) and the nuclear family. The general idea behind such a structure is to ensure that there is a support system for a family, with the raising of a child becoming a communal task taken seriously by all. In the Filipino setting, strength within a family is derived from this structure that seeks to maintain stability for the young children growing up in this society. A person’s extended family acts as their patronage umbrella in situations of social importance such as when an individual is seeking an employment opportunity. It is from this premise that we elucidate the willingness to share of thoughts, feelings, and ideas within this culture, not forgetting areas of discussion that would be considered taboo. As mentioned earlier, the people in this culture happen to be highly family-oriented essentially making family the most important aspect of the life of any individual in this culture(Manuel & Philippineasian Society, 1995, p. 14). There is constant sharing of communication between family members who more often than not harbor feelings of love and care for their keen. The main reason why the sharing of information and feelings is important in the Filipino culture is to first to check whether or not the individuals I s experiencing an equilibrium or might be in dire need of assistance.

In the Filipino culture, it is common for family members to chat each other up, even if it means instituting small talk. Family comes first to all those who are from this culture, which means that the communication that takes place between members of the family is at times a precautionary measure meant to ensure that there is no weak link. If an individual seems distressed or expresses seems depressed throughout an interactive session between family members, an intervention is usually in the offing. It is the duty of the family to use the information gathered from the conversation to seek practical solutions to the debacles that a family member might be experiencing. Moreover, the Filipino culture is quite accepting of new ideas. In a family setting, the ideas that a family member might be having is put under discussion and subjected to an analysis mainly aimed to understand this point of view. Decades of foreign rule in the Philippines brought these people into direct contact with foreigners who also brought Roman Catholicism to these people(Manuel & Philippineasian Society, 1995, p. 14). Having said that, there are a couple of subjects that remain taboo in this society, most notably sex and death. Sex is a taboo subject that does not feature in most discourses, especially those involving the family members. There are many occasions in this culture where parents avoid the “sex talk” altogether as it is a lewd subject that is better left untouched. Children are thus expected not to bring this subject up in family conversation, lest they suffer disparagement from family members. Furthermore, death is a subject that is frowned upon by most individuals in this culture as the aspect of its inevitability is often ignored. Family members thus rarely share conversations that have death as a subject matter refusing to acknowledge that death always lurks in the corner, ready to rob individuals of their lives.

Personal spatial, distancing strategies and eye contact in the Filipino culture

In the Filipino culture, an individual’s personal space is considered quite vital. It is only during family interactions that this barrier is broken as members often interact cordially with each other in their quest tom ensure that the family members are of sound mental and physical health. The Filipino culture also brings forth a people that make friends easily and are hospitable and warm to any stranger with whom they might cross paths. Filipinos often strike up conversations with strangers or foreigners that they might come into contact with making a good impression with their humorous ways that show genuine kindness and modesty. However, it is important to note that in this culture, members maintain a reasonable distance between them and strangers as these are usually people they are not well conversant with. It is out of the respect that the accord a stranger’s personal space that they decide it is prudent to maintain a pragmatic distance between them and an individual that they have met. During interaction with strangers, it is typical of them to consider a seated position as most suitable as there is no difference in height between the two parties interacting. Additionally, the eye contact is also an important tenet of the Filipino culture. If the conversation taking place is between age-mates it is common for these individuals to maintain direct eye contact throughout the conversation to ensure that a level of involvement is established(Manuel & Philippineasian Society, 1995, p. 14). When holding a conversation with strangers, the Filipino culture requires that the individuals involved maintain frequent and brief eye contact. Older individuals often look down or away when talking to a person from a higher class or an authority figure as a sign of respect. Prolonged eye contact, can, however, be misinterpreted. For instance, if a Filipino male patient who is older maintains eye contact with a younger female nurse the interpretation often points to flirtation.

Gestures and Facial Expressions

One of the most common gestures in the Filipino culture is the paguma mano which is a usually a way of receiving blessings from the elders or a sign of respect. To add to this, the Filipino culture also features hand-kissing with the individual giving the greeting having to bow in the direction of the hand that has been offered by the elder while pressing their forehead onto the elder’s hand. An individual may request the recipient of the greeting to return the favor.  The younger generations in this culture often believe that it is the elders that are the custodians of the society’s wisdom and thus treat them with the utmost respect. Additionally, older family members can also be greeted using the paguma mano gesture as a sign of deference to their age. Facial expression also features greatly in the Filipina culture and is typically used to convey a specific message. To a foreigner, a smile might seem ambiguous, but to a seasoned Filipina eye, a smile can carry a lot of hidden messages that need to be decoded. It is common, for example, to encounter Filipinos who use their upper lip to point at something without using their hands. Similarly, raising one’s eyebrows with the head slightly leaning backward will be interpreted as a greeting with the recipient replying with a similar facial expression. Over the years, individuals in this intricate close-knit society, have incorporated the use of gestures to communicate and even express a wide range of emotions from one individual to another.

Greetings in the Filipino culture

In the Filipino culture, the most common form of greeting is the handshake. It cuts through individuals of all ages and can vary from soft to strong handshakes. Strong handshakes are often used to assert one’s self and indicate the higher position that they intend to take in a situation. When greeting another person, Filipino culture requires that one stand, especially when shaking hands. Standing is a sign of mutual respect between the two parties that have just met and it goes to show that both individuals are ready to act in a modest fashion. A pat on the back or shoulder is a common supplementary feature of these handshakes and is often used to reinforce the greeting(Ting-Toomey, 2002, p. 112). It is nonetheless dependent on the personal relationship that the two individuals share as it would be deemed rude by a stranger.

Filipino Culture’s Worldview

            The Filipino culture finds itself in a debacle; choosing the new western ways that were introduced by the foreign powers or holding on to their traditional Filipino culture. What is evident is the fact that these values and the culture as a whole cannot be discarded due to how deeply etched it is in the society. It is therefore very unlikely that the Filipino culture will be discarded altogether by this society owing to its deep-seated roots. The only likely outcome in future is the culture accepting some of the positive attributes of modern Western culture and incorporating them into the traditional one to forge a hybrid(Miranda-Feliciano, 1988). It is a culture that values personal interaction, particularism, a tolerance for ambiguity while valuing cooperation. Moreover, time in this society is considered fluid, which means deadlines and scheduling can be flexible( paki gs ama)- going with the flow.

Impacts of the Filipino culture on Nursing and Healthcare

As per the Filipino culture, health is mostly based on two principles; harmony and balance. In this culture, health is a result of balance in the body and illness is as a result of an imbalance in an individual’s body. They also believe that keeping the human body under warm conditions promotes health while a change of condition from cold to warm promotes illness and disease(Lopez, 2006, p. 350). The Filipino people normally have immense feelings of responsibility towards their families, which is a major reason why they seek health care. During the formative days of this culture, health would be maintained by following a strict diet while following a strict exercise routine. As it was the responsibility of the family to maintain the health of the all the individuals, a strong belief in Western medicine also developed amongst strict adherents of the Filipino culture to restore the body to its earlier form. It is their belief in Western medicine that has improved the health of people in this nation and lowered the mortality rate since its introduction. In the Filipino culture, decisions that center on the patient’s health, especially when death and dying are involved in healthcare centers is based on the family’s decision(Becker & Gay, n.d., p. 112). The Filipino culture requires information about a terminally ill individual being kept from them to avoid despair and make a last attempt at maintaining hope. As a result, it has been noted with great concern that this might be the main reason behind low hospice use in this culture. To provide care that is competent, all health care providers have to put all these points in consideration and be cognizant with the culture of those they are caring for. If health care providers respect the values and beliefs of those they are treating, a culturally competent care will be given ultimately.

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Splinter Urbanism and its Role in a City Architectural Landscape

What is Splinter Urbanism?

Splinter urbanism is a term invented by geographers Simon Marvin and Steve Graham to refer to the fragmentation of one’s experience in the city using infrastructure (including communication and information technologies). The primary focus in this subject is infrastructure networks that span the globe with information drawn from professionals in Communications, Geography, Sociology and, most importantly, architecture. It is important to acknowledge that networked infrastructure systems have a direct impact on the urban environment through systematic changes in privatization and technological infrastructure. In the global circulation of vital resources, cities act as physical nodes facilitating the flow within it by using an intricate web of infrastructure (Gandelsonas, 1999, p. 23). Experts in architecture argue that there is a sense of cohesion created within the city itself through its networked infrastructure systems that forms complex machinery where inter-reliance exists between different levels to create a working urban environment. It is for this reason that networked infrastructure has been lauded for playing a key role in the social and physical formation of cities even with the ever-changing advances that play a major role in redesigning the management of infrastructure. In this essay, I will provide an in-depth elucidation of splinter urbanism, what it entails, and why it plays a major role in the architectural landscape of a city.

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What Does Splintering urbanism Entail?

The 21st century marked the beginning of infrastructure systems that were now open to the elements of market forces which have acted as movers of global capital. In this new-fangled market form, the provision of infrastructure happened to favor specific groups. As a result, social distancing within the society increases within racial, economic and social spheres. Splintering urbanism thus entails the dismantling of these multifaceted systems, a problematic undertaking as the networks do not develop crop up in seclusion. Such is the case due to the pathways and physical synergies in the midst of diverse networks. Western urbanism (1920-60), in particular, was popular for its endeavor endeavors in trying to create coherence and a caste system using ubiquitous development and standardization of power, transport, communication, and water infrastructure in the topography of cities. It was the paradigm shift of nations from capitalist modernization (Keynesianism) and mass production (Fordism) that the splintering modernism largely draws from in delivering public goods through public or private monopolies  (Stephen & McFarlane, 2015). In the formation of welfare states, these policies are prevalent and often utilized as instruments for reinventing urban centers as sanitized and highly functional areas. Even with this apparent normalization of the vast networked infrastructure, the normative aspirations aimed at reaching a “good city” status is placed in the hands of modernizers and planners hindering its universality.

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Why splintering Urbanism Plays a Major Role in the Architectural Landscape of a City

With the decline of the aforementioned standardized integrated ideal, splintering urbanism offers a new planning logic with provisions for regional and urban spaces. One important feature of this recent trend is the surfacing of infrastructural projects that are geared towards the provision of high quality and reliable services to selected powerful spaces. Consequently, users in this area are able to gradually withdraw from standardized, communal monopolistic networks that were commonplace in before. These “premium network spaces” have taken place in cities across the globe. Technocrats and architects, therefore, come to terms with the importance of understanding this new reconfiguration within infrastructural networks together with its effect on urban restructuring and change. In order to gain a full grasp of splinter urbanism, one requires an analytical prism that allows individuals to view cities as evolving entities that have been entrenched in a transformative geometry of links with the storing, channeling redistributing connections.

Read also The City is a Key Site and Target for the Elaboration of Political Projects – Discussion

In using infrastructure to investigate splintering urbanism, it is also important to bring the urban infrastructure and architecture to shed more light on the subject. Graham and Marvin (2001) are of the opinion that individuals need to acquire a more dynamic way of viewing urban areas and cities.

“When our analytical focus centers on how the wires, ducts, tunnels, conduits, streets, highways and technical networks that interlace and infuse cities are constructed and used, modern urbanism emerges as an extraordinarily complex and dynamic socio-technical process”  (Graham & Marvin, 2001, p. 8)

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A perspective such as the one quoted above refers to the infrastructure in the networks as an entity as opposed to viewing it as only having “impacts” on the architecture of the city. In this case, infrastructure is defined as the technologies and material objects that are woven into values, meanings and social practice that make up the fabric of modern-day urban cities. Furthermore, urban infrastructure is both social and technical, a perspective that leads splintering urbanism to conceive cities in as co-evolving, overlays that play a vital role in the organizing of complex articulation and the urban culture that is dynamic in their occurrence. The presence of national infrastructure privatization and progressive liberalization as the pivotal policies behind splinter urbanism has seen the rise in opening up of monopolies, international trade agreements and the materialization of new forms of competition. A consequence of this is that it draws global finance capital that is in search of high-profit, low-risk development schemes that involve fragments of the infrastructure networks (Coutard & Olivier, n.d., p. 12). Contrary to popular belief, these premium networked spaces that have been created do not always thrive in seceding and becoming autonomous. It is a progression that is highly contested by a myriad of players that include the social movements.

Splintering urbanism is an important phenomenon that is still extensively discussed in architectural circles presently. It acts as the first analytical geography of how the network society is formed and has inspired waves of ambitious researchers to undertake empirical studies on social mobility, inequality, and urban infrastructure. In the splintering urbanism thesis, lays great emphasis on the universal nature of a modern integral ideal and viewing it from a global perspective. It is this restructuring process that ultimately leads to the incorporation of territories such as the Caribbean Islands into various spatial dynamics of sophisticated metropolitan localities such as New York City.  Inquiring the material culture in architecture using the available infrastructure, we become aware of its history, development and how various aspects that make it are still changing. Splintering urbanization also comes with “globalization”, the construction of innovative networks amongst privileged members of the society who now have an opportunity to use state-of-the-art infrastructure.

The new millennium offered dwellers of urban enclaves he opportunity to experience a change in their architectural landscape that was mainly driven by the changes in infrastructure that covered its whole expanse. Through the implementation of a pragmatic focus on city planning and selective interventions to respond to the immediate political and social demands, splintering urbanism has emerge as a top contender in providing an organized system. Nonetheless, the ubiquitous model of a high-modern integrated city will still remain a defining element in the cultural transformation of urban centers.

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Impact of Parental Divorce on Adolescents – Literature Analysis


In analyzing the literature on divorce and adolescence, this paper will dwell on four major themes: first, the impact of divorce on adolescents; two the impact of divorce on adolescents’ adjustment into early adulthood; three, the impact of divorce on relationships in adolescents; and fourth, the impact of parental divorce on adolescents’ cognitive development. There are various forms of families that exist in the contemporary society. These forms of families include stepfamilies, single families, non-intact and intact families, and many other forms of families. However, in considering these various other forms of families, there is usually a single incident, which can induce a lot of change in the structure of the family. This incident is divorce, which is usually an unplanned incident that may come in due course of the life of a family.

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Divorce simply means failure of the original family to survive as a viable entity. In fact, many children and adolescents regard divorce as the death of the family. Divorce is an incident so powerful that whenever it occurs, it affects every member of the family in different ways and at different times. According to the findings of Farrell (2006), approximately half of all marriage unions are likely to end up in divorce and this would subject more than one million children to dealing with divorce process every year. In the context of the United States; for instance, the same finding of Farrell (2006) indicate that rates of divorce began rising during the time of the civil war, they reduced slightly during the great depression and recording the highest peak in 1980, they have since remained at the rate of 50 percent.

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Parental divorce as well as its effects on adolescents has, for the last two decades, been the main issue in the context of social science research. This is because of its significant ramifications and relevance on society, culture and policy (Hair & Moore, 2009). The extensive social science research has led to the emergence of literature that explores the effects that divorce has on children and especially on adolescents. On average, this literature indicates that there is a substantial level of negative impact that divorce has on the psychological well-being of adults. In spite of all these attempts, a large portion of research has not yet recognized the fit of families inside the complex social contexts that shape individuals and control the impact that life events may bring. Therefore, accounting for various community characteristics including socioeconomic status can offer a comprehensive picture of the relationship that exists between parental divorce and the psychosocial well-being of dependents (Hair & Moore, 2009). Divorce damages society through consumption of human and social capital whereby, it leads to substantial cost to the taxpayer substantially while decreasing the portion of the society that pays taxes. Besides, most researchers concur that divorce affects the future competence of children in all institutions or major tasks of the society: government, marketplace, religion, school and family. It was only a few years ago; for instance, when the American culture condemned divorce and referred to it as scandalous. In the modern era; however, it is evident that culture, behavior, and law embrace and rejoice it.

Read also Effect of Divorce on Families

Impact of Parental Divorce on Adolescents Literature Review

In regard to the effects of divorce on adolescents, it is clear according to the findings of Hair and Moore (2009) that divorce is a painful experience for parents, children, family and close friends. People in these circle respond to pain in different ways depending on who they are as well their stages in life. The most essential thing to consider is that adolescents are not immune to divorce and that every teenager or adolescent and each family is unique. It is because of these reasons that dynamics of each divorce are different. This means that it is not easy to prescribe or predict the manner in which adolescents will respond to divorce or separation between their parents. The studies by Fagan and Churchill (2012) indicate that there are a number of risk factors that adolescents are left to deal with following their parental divorce. In comparing with adolescents who did not come from families that are divorced, the research found that adolescents from divorced families: are usually more aggressive, tend to have higher rates of school dropout, are more anxious, tend to have higher delinquency rates, tend to become sexually active at inappropriately earlier age, and tend to have higher rates of alcohol and drug addiction. It is; however, significant to note that the findings do not indicate that all adolescents from families that  are divorced will experience all these issues that have just been mentioned in the preceding sections of this paper. The research only indicates that adolescents whose parents are divorce are predisposed to most of the earlier mentioned risks.

In building on the same study i.e. the effects of divorce on adolescents, Lansford (2009) found that divorce interrupts adolescent process. As teens undergo adolescence, they require gaining a sense of autonomy, which is an identity that makes them become less dependent on their parents. In other words, adolescence is the process that requires separating teens from their parents. However, the occurrence of divorce during this process makes teenagers develop an impression that their parents are separating from them. Even as the adolescent process tries to separate teenagers from their parents, they are still vulnerable enough to the extent of needing the relational safety from healthy and secure relationship that only their parents can provide. During divorce, self-destruction or absorption reigns on parents thereby making them reduce the attention they need to give to their children. As a result, adolescents become insecure about their relationship with parents making them feel anxious or isolated.

In investigating the effect of divorce adolescent adjustment into adulthood, Hair and Moore (2009) conducted a study, which involved 168 participants. The participants were 22 males and 146 female students from a huge metropolitan high school. The age range was between 11 and 17 years where the mean age was 14 years. 12 males and 64 females came from divorced families while 10 males and 64 females came from intact families. The materials that were included in the study included inter-parental conflict, level of satisfaction, and intimacy with parents, self-description, depression, stress and anxiety. The study showed that the young adolescents had poor adjustments in regard to: same sex relations, anxiety, and life satisfaction. This finding receives a lot support from a different literature that emerged from the findings of Fagan and Churchill (2012), which reported differences for the three mentioned adjustment domains.

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Hair and Moore (2009) further insist that divorce makes adolescents feel the guilt thinking that it is their fault that their parents have divorced. Naturally, it is hard for children to blame their parents whom they care so much care about for doing something hurtful or wrong. Consequently, most adolescents take the blame upon themselves for the behavior of their parents. As an emotional way of dealing with the situation between their parents, adolescents begin developing beliefs or ideas regarding the manner in which their behavior could be the reason for divorce between their parents. Such ideas or beliefs can influence adolescents to become angry at themselves and in the process become extra helpful or compliant to either both or one of the parents as a way of correcting the mistakes they believe they may have caused.

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The findings of other researchers such as Farrell (2006) and Ottaway (2010) indicate that divorce forcefully influences adolescents to grow up quickly. These findings contend that divorce makes teenagers and adolescents feel that the time they need in order to grow up has been shortened. To support this philosophy of accelerated growth among adolescents, Ottaway (2010) developed a number of reasons to explain this. These include:

  • Adolescents being expected to begin performing extra adult tasks in the home as a result of losing one of the parents such taking care of the siblings.
  • Parents making use of their adolescent children as confidants thereby exposing them to the adult world sooner than they expected.
  • Parents become incapacitated to offer the previous level of nurturing or support following fatigue or depression thereby leaving their adolescent children to navigate life on their own.

In this way, as emphasized by Farrell (2006), adolescents’ quality of life becomes disrupted following occurrence of divorce. It should be clear that divorce initiates new costs in many different ways. For instance, the moment a household becomes split into two, it raises the cost of living, which usually leads to reduced standards of living for all the people that are involved. Regarding the financial aspect, parents will no longer enjoy the disposable income they may have been having. Mostly, either both parents or one of them may experience the financial pressure thereby resulting into longer hours of work, little time with their children, and an increase in the levels of stress. These are some of the effects that result into teenagers noticing a significant interference in their living standard, which may leave them feeling angry and resentful.

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Research by Kristjansson, Sigfusdottir, Allegrante and Helgason (2009) shows that parental divorce may initiate negative changes among adolescents. Just like there are many impacts of divorce that are common, there are several behavioral traits that are likely to emerge. Adolescents whose parents are undergoing divorce are likely portray a number of behavioral traits that include:

  • Being frequently angry and critical of the decisions of their parents. In most cases, there is a noticeable verbal expression of this anger, which can either be directed at both or one of the parents.
  • Adolescents undergo depression and become withdrawn from of the parents as a way of punishing them. This may, also, be exhibited by some adolescents remaining in support of one of the parents.
  • Adolescents experience the desire to spend much of their time with peers. There will, also, be a noticeable tendency to become aggressive or argumentative whenever they are prevented from staying with their peers.
  • Due to depression and withdrawal from their parents, adolescents increasingly spend their time away from their homes or even remain locked in their rooms.
  • There is a noticeable increase in risk taking behavioral traits such as sexual promiscuity, illicit drug use, and binge drinking.
  • Adolescents will portray a drop in academic performance, which may include increasingly disruptive behavioral traits at school i.e. lack of interest in school work.
  • Adolescents may, also, in a surprising manner, become exceedingly well-behaved. By employing this strategy, they hope that they can save the collapsing marriage of their parents.

In considering the impact of parental divorce on parental relationship and the kinds of relationships that adolescents are likely to develop amongst themselves, studies conducted by Lansford (2009) indicate that parental divorce can put adolescents in situations that can result in a form of triangulation among members of the family. These findings further indicated that formation of alliances between one of the parents against the other parent, or the parent to child and parent to parent relationships become unclear. In a similar study conducted by Hair and Moore (2009), it became clear that such a form of relationship subjects the adolescents to active conflicts, tension and parent negotiation thereby impacting negatively on their relationships. The manner in which the two parents interact can influence adolescents to develop mixed feeling regarding which one of the two parents they require siding with. This is the theory of triangulation and as asserted by Farrell (2006), it is, also, referred to as the family systems theory and it is a theory that has proved to be of much significance in considering the various forms of relationships that develop thereafter parental divorce. The way parents relate with their children, especially adolescents is representative of the way such children perceive relationships, not only limited to their friends, but with their romantic partners. It should; however be clear that the impact that parental divorce may have on adolescent relationships is influenced by a number of factors. It is easy for adolescents to recall the anger, loneliness, unhappiness, and shock that are influenced by divorce.

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Building on the research conducted by Hair and Moore (2009), Fagan and Churchill (2012), also, introduced a much more advanced perspective of divorce. In his studies he equated divorce to a life transforming experience for adolescents to navigate into adulthood. The experiences that are brought by divorce influence adolescents to develop their own perspectives regarding future relationships, marriage and divorce. In his research, Lansford (2009) revealed that adolescents whose parents are divorced tend to have more marital discord, lower marital satisfaction, and more thoughts of divorce and have high tendencies of getting a divorce later in life. In more advanced studies conducted by Fagan and Churchill (2012), similar results were found indicating lower satisfaction in relationships, hesitancy toward commitment, earlier involvement in relationships, poor interpretation skills, and increased likelihood of accepting divorce.

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In considering the impact of divorce on cognitive development of adolescents, multiple studies have emphasized the difficulties that relate to the endogeneity of parental divorce. Kristjansson et al. (2009) in their study presented and interpreted the various estimates relating to the effect that family structure has on high school graduation. These estimates were obtained under varying assumptions regarding the process from which family structure is generated and high school outcomes. Fagan and Churchill (2012), in their empirical study tried to demonstrate the way parental divorce possibly correlates with unnoticed family characteristics that may have immense influence on the outcomes of children. In their research Fagan and Churchill (2012) utilized a difference-in-differences model, which relies on observing the outcomes of children before and after divorce. The findings that resulted from this research indicated that cognitive development of teenagers and adolescents is not adversely affected by parental divorce. The findings clarified that adolescents who came from divorced families tended to perform poorer than their counterparts who came from intact families before the actual divorce occurred.

Impact of Parental Divorce on Adolescents Future Research

The present front-line research on the issue of divorce and its effects on various social aspects has been stemming from new or current research questions and, also, from the utilization of new data, viewpoints, and techniques to respond to old questions. The current and the near future studies should be more interested in clarifying the effects of premarital cohabitation on the later marital stability. In this regard, the future research requires addressing the causes and consequences of various family transitions, particularly regarding the ambiguous situation of not being married and the same time not divorced (Ottaway, 2010). In this regard, there is need for more research in order to increase clarity about diversity that exists in responses to parental divorce or separation. Besides, future research requires addressing the enormous gaps that exist in the present research, especially interventions for separating or divorcing couples. In this regard, it would be essential for future research to transform the current social science research regarding the causes and effects of divorce into interventions that are empirically supported and, which can alleviate the social, academic and psychological impairments associated with parental divorce.


            In analyzing the literature on divorce and adolescence, this paper considered four major themes: first, the impact of divorce on adolescents; two the impact of divorce on adolescents’ adjustment into early adulthood; three, the impact of divorce on relationships in adolescents; and fourth, the impact of parental divorce on adolescents’ cognitive development. Parental divorce as well as its effects on adolescents has, for the last two decades, been the main issue in the context of social science research. This is because of its significant ramifications and relevance on society, culture and policy (Fagan & Churchill, 2012). In comparing with adolescents who did not come from families that are divorced, the research found that adolescents from divorced families: are usually more aggressive, tend to have higher rates of school dropout, are more anxious, tend to have higher delinquency rates, tend to become sexually active at inappropriately earlier age, and tend to have higher rates of alcohol and drug addiction. In considering the impact of parental divorce on parental relationship and the kinds of relationships that adolescents are likely to develop amongst themselves, studies conducted by Ottaway (2010) indicate that parental divorce can put adolescents in situations that can result in a form of triangulation among members of the family. In considering the impact of divorce on cognitive development of adolescents, multiple studies have emphasized the difficulties that relate to the endogeneity of parental divorce.  

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Brazil as an Emerging Market Research Paper

 Brazil as an Emerging Market

  • This presentation discusses Brazil; the leading emerging market going by the Business Perspectives for Emerging Markets 2012-2017 Report.
  • Emerging markets refer to nations such as Brazil, India, China, Turkey and Mexico, which as compared to developed economies, are undergoing rapid modernization, industrialization and economic growth.

In most cases, a growing middle class and young people characterize majority of the growing markets. Even though emerging markets are usually characterized by low cost manufacturing bases and attractive markets, they, also, happen to signify a high risk business environment, evolving legal systems, and inadequate commercial infrastructure. However, despite, these drawbacks, Cohn (2012) contends that emerging markets have been on the front line of producing global challengers. These are top companies that the world market is largely recognizing for becoming the main contenders.

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Overview of the Nation -Brief History

  • Official discovery of Brazil happened in 1500 when Pedro Alvas Cabral, a Portuguese diplomat landed in Porto Seguro while on his way to India with a fleet.
  • Tupinamba Indians are the people whom the first colonizers of Brazil met.
  • Brazil became independent 1822, 22nd September (Cohn, 2012).
  • The Lucrative trade that involved pau-brasil (the red wood) was the first point of contact between the Indians and the Portuguese traders.

The Portuguese agenda while entering Brazil entailed two things: monopolizing the lucrative trade of pau-brasil and establishing permanent settlements. However, pau-brasil ­later became less desirable when the Portuguese developed to move further into the forested inlands. Dom Jao VI ruled Brazil for a while, but returned to Portugal following the fall of Napoleon (Guillen, 2012). This prompted him to leave Brazil in the hands of his young son Pedro I and who has his ideas. Pedro I announced Brazil’s independence 22nd Sept, 1822.

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  • The nation of Brazil covers almost half of South America, neighboring the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The nation covers a total surface area of 8,514,215 KM2 of which 8,456,510 km2 is covered by land while 55,455km2 is covered by water (Guillen, 2012).
  • The government of Brazil has the states of the nation into five main statistical and geographic units known as the major Regions(Grandes Regioes): South (Sul), Southeast (Sudeste), Central-West (Centro-Oeste), Northeast (Nordeste), and North (Norte).

The Northeast has almost one-fifth of the nation’s land area and more one-fourth of the nation’s population. This is the region that experiences the nation’s hottest and driest conditions. The Southeast region has the highest concentration of agricultural and industrial production in the nation (Guillen, 2012). The South stretches beyond the Tropic of Capricorn and includes states such as Rio Grande do sul, Santa Catarina and Parana. The Central-West one-fourth of the nation and comprises of vast wetlands, semiarid highlands, and forested valleys.

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People and Society

  • The population of Brazil is a mixture of African, European, and Native American peoples. These are the people that have intermingled over a long time to establish a society that has considerable ethnic complexity.
  • Brazil has a population of roughly 205 million people.
  • In terms of government, Brazil runs under the constitution that was amended in 1988 (Cohn, 2012).
  • The president is both the head of state and government and is elected by popular vote for a four year term.

A lot of urbanization has been experienced in the past years characterized by people moving to urban centers to seek for employment in the expanding industries of the cities.

In regard to government, there is a bicameral legislature that comprises of an upper Federal Senate and a lower Chamber of Deputies (Guillen, 2012). It is worth noting that there are 81 senators who are elected for 8 years while the 513 deputies are elected for four years.

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Economy and Military

  • Brazil has a GDP of 2.25 trillion dollars.
  • Its economic freedom score is 56.6, which makes its economy the 118th freest in the 2015 index (Guillen, 2012).
  • Brazil has emerged as a powerful player in the South American region following its growing economy and expanding military.

Brazil ranked in the 21st position out of the 29 nations in the South and Central/Caribbean region whereby its overall score is less than the world average (Guillen, 2012). Diminished growth expectations and deteriorating international environment have had negative impacts on the economy. More consistent and broad-based reforms will be essential in order to guarantee long-term economic development. Brazil’s military has been seen in significant peacekeeping missions in hardship areas like Congo, and Haiti.

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Detailed Analysis of Brazil

  • Liquidity of debt – the Brazilian domestic government bond market has been experiencing rapid expansions from the mid-1990s and so far has become the largest in Latin America.
  • Equity Markets- the stock market in Brazil reached an all-time high of 73516 Index points in 2008 May, but recorded a low of 0 Index points in Jan 1972. Between 1972 and 2015 the Brazilian stock market averaged at 15677.62 Index points (Cohn, 2012).
  • In terms of some of market exchange, Brazil had Brazilian Mercantile & Futures Exchange (BM&F), which was formerly, the Latin America’s largest derivatives exchange.

The demand for public debt in Brazil, has always had close association with high liquidity. Starting from 2003, the government’s main focus of the debt management policy has been on reducing long-term financing costs, and, at the same time, seeing that risks are maintained at manageable levels. BM&F Bovespa, which is the current exchange, was established in 2008 following the merger between Bovespa Holding SA and BM&F (Cohn, 2012). Currency futures, options, and interest rate dominate trading in the Brazilian market exchange. In regard to the regulatory body, the Brazilian financial systems and capital markets are monitored and regulated by the Brazilian Central Bank, National Monetary Council, and the Brazilian Securities and Exchanges Commission (Serkin, 2015). The collaboration of these three regulatory bodies give details of Brazil as an emerging market.

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Techniques that were used to classify Brazil as an emerging market

  • The first technique was the observed rising economic connections with China.
  • The second technique is the observed social policies of president Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, which saw more than 30 million consumers enter the middle class in the last five years.
  • The third technique was observed in the projection of investment rate, which was likely to hit 21.5% of GDP within a short time of less than five years (Serkin, 2015).

The rising economic connections with China was demonstrated by a trade increase to $36 billion in 2010 (Serkin, 2015). This made Brazil become an attractive investment destination to most investors. These new consumers came with various demands ranging from communication devices to new homes.

Three factors favoring investment in Brazil

  • The first factor is macroeconomic stability
  • The second factor is Huge domestic market
  • The third factor is secure investment framework

The first factor is macroeconomic stability – it is worth noting that Brazil falls second after China among the global emerging markets (Serkin, 2015). The inclusive growth and macroeconomic stability have enabled Brazil to survive the global economic crisis.

The second factor is Huge domestic market – Brazil a population of 205 inhabitants, and this makes it one of the largest consumer markets in the world. In fact, in regard to domestic market, the nation has a desirable ranking in the world market for healthcare and beauty products, medical equipment, TVs, mobile phones and PCs (Serkin, 2015).

The third factor is secure investment framework – Brazil is ranks among the most preferred destinations and largest FDI recipients in Latin America. Multinational corporations operating in the region have seen their profits grow more than 5.5 times over a given period of eight t nine years.


  • This presentation discussed Brazil; the leading emerging market going by the Business Perspectives for Emerging Markets 2012-2017 Report.
  • Even though emerging markets are usually characterized by low cost manufacturing bases and attractive markets, they, also, happen to signify a high risk business environment, evolving legal systems, and inadequate commercial infrastructure.
  • In regard to the regulatory body, the Brazilian financial systems and capital markets are monitored and regulated by the Brazilian Central Bank, National Monetary Council, and the Brazilian Securities and Exchanges Commission (Serkin, 2015).

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e-Compensation Research Paper

e-Compensation Assignment Instructions

  1. Assess the advantages and disadvantages of using a Web-based compensation tool versus a client-server based or stand-alone PC-based system and then give your opinion on which system would provide the most value to an organization’s stakeholders. Include three (3) facts to support your opinion.
  2. Justify the use of e-Compensation tools in the job-evaluation process from the perspective of HR, management, and the employee.
  3. Evaluate three (3) benefits and three (3) drawbacks of a centralized approach to managing merit pay programs compared to a more decentralized approach.
  4. Suggest three (3) types of integrated analytic features that are needed for compensation planning and decision support in e-Compensation systems.
  5. Assess the barriers that prevent organizations from realizing the potential of Web-based internal equity tools and propose three (3) approaches to overcome those barriers.
  6. Recommend three (3) strategies that HR managers can use to evaluate the quality of market data (surveys, benchmark salary studies, etc.) that they receive from outside sources.
  7. Use at least four (4) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not qualify as academic resources.

e-Compensation Sample Research Paper

Stand-Alone PC-Based or Client-Server Based Versus Web-Based Compensation Systems

One of the most essential HR functions in running organizations’ staff compensation systems and handling related matters. Ideally, staff compensation is executed devoid of errors and at the appropriate times. Over time, various tools, as well as technologies, have been developed to assist organizations with the execution of the function according to Gueutal, Stone and Salas (2005). An elementary compensation system has merit and base pay components. It has long-term, as well as short-term incentive along with perquisite components. Besides, it provides for staff retention, attraction, and recognition awards. Some compensation systems are web-based. Others are based on stand-alone personal computers or client-servers.

The strengths, or advantages, of the web-based ones include that they eliminate the possibility of human errors significantly in the management of staff compensation along with benefits. They do not regularly require human labor regarding their installation and updating. If individuals attended to them regularly, there would be a marked loss of otherwise useful time and manpower. They can be accessed at any given time, as well as from anywhere, provided the systems have internet connectivity. Their users are constrained to particular physical spaces. The systems require quite limited disk spaces. The systems allow stakeholders to share vital information easily and in real time according to Gueutal, Stone and Salas (2005).

Unlike the compensations systems that are web-based, the ones based on client-servers or stand-alone PCs are characterized by a high chance the occurrence of human errors in the management of staff compensation along with benefits. The ones based on client-servers or stand-alone PCs require regular human labor regarding their installation and updating, leading to a significant loss of time and manpower. They are only accessible at the physical locations of the servers or PCs, constraining their users to particular physical spaces. The systems require large disk spaces and do not allow stakeholders to share vital information easily and in real time (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005).

Despite their numerous strengths, the compensation systems that are web-based have various downsides. First, they depend wholly on access to internet resources. They cannot function devoid of internet connectivity. Organizations that use the systems but experience regular internet connection outages suffer various challenges and possible losses. Second, the users of the systems require specialized knowledge on how to use them. Unlike the compensation systems that are web-based, the ones based client-servers or the PCs are not depended on internet resources. They can function devoid of internet connectivity. Besides, their users do not require as much specialized knowledge on how to make use of them as required by users of the web-based ones as amply illustrated by Gueutal, Stone and Salas (2005).

Certainly, the compensation systems based on the web provide organizations with more value than the ones based on stand-alone PCs or client servers owing to diverse reasons. First, the compensation systems based on the web help organizations simplify and streamline their HR processes related to staff compensation, reducing the possibility of human errors in the processes significantly. Second, the systems do not require regular updating or installation, saving organizations time and manpower. Third, the systems do not require physical administrators charged with their administration, maintenance, or development as made clear by Gueutal, Stone and Salas (2005).

Justification of the Utilization of e-Compensation Tools by Job-Evaluators

  • Perspective of HR

In job-evaluation, e-Compensation tools ease the accessibility of the requisite information devoid of any particular knowhow or IT infrastructure. It allows HR personnel fulltime availability of consequential information especially for decision-formulation support in line with their qualifications. The tools help in streamlining the attendant, unwieldy bureaucratic, or routine, tasks via real-time processing of information and use of structured workflow functionalities (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005).

The personnel access the information in an interactive manner with employee as well as managers as demonstrated by Wright (2003). HR professionals prefer to have job appraisals done in ways that allow for interactions between employees and managers. Internet interactivity affords employees and managers many-to-many platforms for communication (Ceccon, 2004; Rynes & Gerhart, 2000).

  • Perspective of Management

Regarding job-evaluation, managers view e-Compensation tools increasing the accessibility of the requisite information devoid of any particular knowhow or IT infrastructure. They support the usage of the tools since they assure them fulltime availability of critical to support their decision-formulation processes. Managers are positive about the usage of the tools in job appraisals by HR departments in streamlining the attendant, unwieldy bureaucratic, or routine, tasks via real-time processing of information along with the utilization of structured workflow functionalities (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005). Managers favor the utilization of the tools as they see them as allowing for the access of the requisite information in ways allow them to interact with job evaluation subjects, the employees (Wright, 2003). Managers, like HR professionals, prefer to have job appraisals done in ways that allow for stakeholder interactions according to Rynes and Gerhart (2000).

  • Perspective of the Employee

Employees support usage of the tools since they view them as convenient since they allow them to partake in job appraisal processes from wherever they are provided there is internet connectivity. They view the tools as simplifying the accessibility of the requisite information devoid of any particular knowhow or IT infrastructure. They view the tools as ensuring that they have fulltime accessibility of consequential information regarding own job appraisals according to Gueutal, Stone and Salas (2005). The tools allow employees to interact with their managers and voice out any concerns that they may have relating to job appraisals directly (Wright, 2003). As noted earlier, internet interactivity affords employees and managers many-to-many platforms for communication (Ceccon, 2004; Rynes & Gerhart, 2000).

Centralized Versus Decentralized Management of Merit Pay Programs

Merit pay programs are managed either in a centralized manner or a decentralized manner. The centralized management of the programs has various advantages over their decentralized management. First, the centralized management allows for top-down decision formulation. It does so by constraining the maneuverability of staffs regarding how they execute own jobs (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005). Employees get to understand their roles thoroughly. As well, no employee is granted preferential treatment, thus eliminating the possibility of hurtful competitions between employees to get the attention of those managing the programs.

Second, the centralized management of the programs ensures the development of homogenous policies to guide the administration and running of the programs. There are homogenous programs that every staff is obligated to follow. Third, the centralized management is much faster than the decentralized one.  In the centralized management, decisions are made pretty fast since those charged with making them are few (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005).

Notably, the downsides of the decentralized management of the programs correspond to the strengths spelt above. First, the decentralized management does not allow for top-down decision formulation (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005).Second, the decentralized management of the programs does not lead to the development of homogenous policies to guide the administration and running of the programs.  Third, the decentralized management is rather slow since those charged with making decisions are many.

Even then, the decentralized management has various strengths. Since line managers are amply represented in the management, the unique realities of each department are taken into consideration in the programs management. In the centralized management, the line managers play rather peripheral roles if any. Besides, unlike in the centralized management, the decentralized one allows for the consideration of input by employees (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005; Wright, 2003).

Compensation Decision Support and Planning Integrated Analytic Features

            In any given e-Compensation system, a number of integrated analytic elements, or features, are required to help in the planning of compensations and formulation of the related decisions. One of the integrated analytic elements is the capability to allow access to competitive market compensation packages, or salaries, in real-time. Another essential integrated analytic element is the capacity to migrate the planning of compensations and formulation of the related decisions. The last of the essential integrated elements is the capability to execute higher-levels roles, or functions, representing activities with marked strategic worth (Gueutal, Stone & Salas, 2005).

Impediments to the Organizational Realization of the Prospects of Web-Based Internal Equity Tools

            There are several hurdles that limit the realization of the whole range of the prospects, or potential, of internal equity tools that are web-based. The first hurdle is lack of stable internet connectivity. Outages in the connectivity prevent the usage of the tools for as long they last. The second hurdle the substandard quality of some of the data accessed by or using the tools. The implementation of the tools is as effective as they quality, or standard, of the data they access. The third hurdle is that in some organizations, the managers who in the end make decisions on the handling, or utilization, of the tools may lack the requisite knowhow or experience as demonstrated sufficiently by Gueutal, Stone and Salas (2005) and Rynes and Gerhart (2000).

The hurdles, or impediments, can be addressed and possibility eliminated through various actions. First, organizations should invest regularly in emerging technologies related to internet connectivity to keep the related outages at a bare minimum. Second, the managers should appraise the quality, or standard, of all data to be accessed by the tools beforehand and take appropriate actions to ensure that they only access quality data according to Gueutal, Stone and Salas (2005) and Rynes and Gerhart (2000). Third, the managers should undergo continuous training to become, as well as remain, adept in the formulation of the related decisions.

How Managers Can Appraise the Quality of Externally Sourced Market Data 

There are various strategies that managers can adopt regarding the appraisal of externally sourced market data. First, they can outsource the function of appraising of the data to firms that specialize in data analysis services. Such firms, owing to the nature of the services, are equipped with the necessary resources for evaluating data quality. Second, the managers can adopt industry best practices with relation to the evaluation of the quality. Third, the managers can establish dedicated teams to carry out the functions within their organizations. The teams should be populated with data analysis specialists who should be obligated within particular quality control provisions.

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