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Enterprise Systems, How it Works and Its Uses

What is an Enterprise System?

Enterprise systems (ES) are referred to as large-scale application software packages which reinforce business processes, reporting, information inflows, as well as data analytics within the complex organizations. Whereas ES are generally packaged enterprise application software (PEAS) systems, they are considered as bespoke, custom advanced systems established to support particular organizational requirements. The enterprise systems falls under various categories including enterprise planning systems, customer relationship management software, and enterprise resources planning (ERP) systems. Even if business intelligence and data warehousing systems are enterprise-broad package application software commonly sold by ES retailers, they don’t directly support implementation of business processes, but they instead exclude from this terminology. Otherwise, this assignment is aimed at providing essential and sufficient explanation and information concerning enterprise systems (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

Read also Success Criteria for Implementation of Enterprise Systems

How the Enterprise Systems Work

The enterprise system operates in a variety of ways. In several countries, for example, the US, the enterprise system operates in accordance to some five main principles. These include; the profit motive, right to private property, the right to choose a business, customer sovereignty and competition. These principles can be explained individually in the way they operate.

  • Profit motive

The main reason to start an enterprise company is basically to make money. This can be done by earning more money than is spent. The amount of money that is left after the subtraction of the expenses from the business income is thus referred to as the profit. Organizations basically try hard to keep their costs down and increase the income from the business (Vernadat, 2007).

  • Right to private property

A private property is basically a home, a piece of land, a family, a car owned by the individual or a group. It is different from public property, public building and many more which make provision of the government services for the citizens. In the U.S economic system, for example, the people’s right to own or sell property is guaranteed by the law. In the setting up of the computer systems for the customers, one has no right to make an interference with the telephone, electrical or the computer systems of other persons.

  • Right to choose a business

In many countries, it is up to a person to make a decision as to whether or not they venture into computer services or even other types of businesses.They as well make a decision of the amount of fees they need to charge and the working hours as well. They are however controlled by the law which prevents the business owner from harming or cheating their consumers and employees(Vernadat, 2007). They will however be left to feel free to run their business as they deem fit.

  • Customer sovereignty

At the end, it is consumers who make a determination as to whether a business will succeed or fail. The consumers have the final say. The consumers have the right to choose whether they can spend their money on either product X or Y. If they prefer one over the other, then the owner has no right to stand in their way.

  • Competition

Just as one is free to start a particular business, so is someone else. The rivalry that exists between the sellers who are in the same field is termed as competition. If your business is profitable, there are chances that another person may enter into the same field. Thus, the competition will exist for the same product (Vernadat, 2007).

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Current Use of Enterprise Systems

            Enterprise systems (ES) are confirmed to be industry-specific and customizable software package which integrate business and information process within an organization. Based on this, ES has attracted the interest of explorers hence resulting to a proliferation concerning implementation of literature. Recently, ES has been employed in various firms thus leading to great transparency and accountability. For instance, this software has promised the seamless integration of the entire information circulating within the company’s accounting and financial information, supply chain information, human resource information as well as customers’ details (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007).

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To be specific, the application of SE has lead to increase of sales in the largest vendor, Germany’s SAP through making it to score from 500 million dollars to 3.3 billion dollars from 2013 to 2014, hence making it emerge as the fastest growing software firm in global view. This is due to the fact that it has aided various management tasks within the organization including planning, controlling, and directing immense daily activities. For instance, SE employs an integrated database hence being able to bring about resolutions concerning multi-module application model in the general information system. Afar from point elucidation that depend on multiple databases which stresses IT resources, ES explanations standardizes usage of single application during the process of monitoring the whole business (Seethamraju, 2007).

Common Attitudes and Personal Attitudes towards Enterprise Systems

            Generally, it has been confirmed that almost all individuals are endowed with common attitude concerning enterprise attitudes. At this juncture, implementation and management of Enterprise systems is considered being expensive particularly when used by small and medium-sized businesses (SMBs). Accordingly, these miniature firms are unable to gather enough money and resources for facilitating effectual and effective performance of this software. Exemplarily, companies require the right individuals to ensure that their information is secured, hence subjecting majority of companies to pressure since they cannot afford to recruits consultants who dedicate themselves to this area (Shang & Seddon, 2002).

Moreover, the cost of installing the ES for various corporations and the expense associated with getting license are extremely high. The firms also face cost particularly when the enterprise systems are unable to integrate with organizational legacy systems. This is a situation where the legacy systems are older that computer or applications systems that the enterprise has been employing for a long duration. Since the initial applications and computer systems are contained with essential information, then for the enterprise system to work with inheritance application, the company shall be forced to buy new servers, applications or computers (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

Personally, I also consider ES to be contained with some assaults which will affect efficiency and effectiveness of the organization primarily in the long-tem view. Indeed, ES are confirmed to have a lifespan of 10-20 years where they can be effectual, after which they require to be upgraded. Despite this appearing as a longer duration, organizational data usually accumulates exponentially and this may prove some difficulties during management and storage predominantly while using single software system. To be specific, information overflow and succeeding slowdown within a single department shall certainly be comprised with ripple impact in other tasks of the company (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007).

Fundamental Advantages and Disadvantages of Enterprise System

The Enterprise systems plays significant role in large companies hence leading to productivity and also heightening efficiency of the organization. Foremost, these systems are confirmed to aid companies to conduct crucial tasks, including determining the best means of manufacturing products, tracking orders, and also supporting incorporation of revenues, costs and profits. Secondly, they also act as large-scale application facilitating the companies to incorporate and organize their business operations.  Actually, these systems can ascertain that all the company’s departments are able to share crucial information with each other.

Moreover, the organizations are chanced to implement enterprise systems with purpose of synchronizing the tasks of various departments (Hendricks, Singhal & Stratman, 2007). At this point, an integrated system helps in reduction of the time employed while processing documents including payrolls as well as external documents. Additionally, managers’ tasks for overseeing operations are being eased since the system ensures that major business goals are attained through ES. Since the managers are able to get information from centralized server, then the process of making decision becomes more informed thus yielding better outcomes (Seddon, Calvert & Yang, 2010).

On the other hand, the ES is also considered to be affected by various challenges. Firstly, the tailoring of the ES based on the organizational preferences can be tricky. It is very unusual that firms shall accept enterprise systems the way they are. Eventually, consultants or employees can spend a huge amount of time while programming or conversing to the enterprise system’s technical support so as to satisfy the clients’ needs. Moreover, the company needs to encounter extra costs so as to provide comprehensive training to employees who are using ES. Similarly, this system requires the company to change policies and operations that are not in line with ES hence leading to complication of company’s activities and also subjecting the firm to higher expenses (Soja, 2008).

Experts Views Concerning Likely Future of Enterprise Systems

            There are various technology based experts who have indicated that enterprise systems are backed with great future. Foremost, Siddhesh Bhobe, a special gamification and social media-centered client’s engagement platform has proved that the ES is endowed with longer span. During his exploration of application of enterprise systems, he stated that advancement of big data explorer and social tools is heightening engagement betwixt managers, workers and customers (Seethamraju, 2007). Moreover, Andrew Osborn, the system management expert has also backed the idea that ES is emerging as amongst applications which have eased management practices within the organization.

In particular, this gentleman has confirmed that the managers are capable of accessing all information concerning the entire company through the servers hence leading to improvement of transparency and accountability within the organization. While summing up, James Cox, a solution architect in Allstate has also provided confidential information backing stability of the ES. In his argument, James state that this software is capable of securing the organization’s data since it is contained with sufficient space and it is hard to be hacked or interfered with by strangers (Sedera, Gable & Chan, 2004).

The Use of Data Analytics in Amazon

Introduction to Data Analytics

Data analytics is referred to as a science of evaluating raw data with the intention of making conclusions regarding that information. Data analytics is employed in various industries to permit organization and companies to make improved business decisions and in science to disprove and verify existing theories or models. It is the quantitative and qualitative processes and techniques used to improve business gain and productivity. Data is categorize and extracted to analyze and identify behavioral patterns and data, and techniques vary based on the requirements of an organization (Grossman & Siegel, 2014).

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Data analytics permits businesses to evaluate large sets of data to respond to current needs in individual industry of operation. With data being continuously produced by machines and humans, the sheer available data amount is much more massive as compared to the past. Data analytic technique is normally employed in organizations dealing with big data. Big data is the data whose variety, velocity, and volume make it hard for organization to extract, analyze, and manage value using conventional or current systems and methods. In this case, the term analytics is employed as the process which extracts value from data by distributing and creating reports, deploying and building data-mining and statistical models, visualizing and exploring data, sense-making, as well as other associated techniques. The organizational data might be external or internal, processing might be batch, near real-time, or real-time, and any of these combination is probable (Grossman & Siegel, 2014).

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Data analytics in business started in 1950s during business intelligence era where analytics 1.0 was introduced. This was a time of progress since data regarding customer interactions, sales, and production processes among others were analyzed, aggregated and recorded for the first time. New competencies were needed to manage data. Sets of data were small in volume and static in velocity to be segregated for analysis in warehouses. More time was spent in data preparation than in analysis. This was followed by analytic two which was introduced through big data era. This was established with establishment of internet and increase in the volume of customers created data.

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More and more data were created and there was a great need of developing a new way to handle large volumes of data. This increased the need for effective data analysis to enable the organizations to use the received data to make right decisions in business. This was followed by analytic 3.0 which is data-enriched offerings era. This era focuses on employing analytics to support customer-facing features, services, and products. This is commonly used by companies such as Amazon that trade online, since they receive a huge volume of data from their customer. The main aim of the analytic 3.0 is to enhance customer’s decision making experience while using these sites (Davenport, 2013).

Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Data Analytics in Amazon

In 2013, Amazon employed Redshift form of data analytics. The main advantage to this form of data analytics include (Linthicum, 2013):

  • Improvement in performance when blending data with huge data sets which a number of analysts use to make decisions regarding customer analysis, marketing campaign optimization, financial transactions, inventory levels and customer analysis.
  • The aptitude to offer huge data as required, without experiencing a slow and costly process of procurement to acquire software and hardware.

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  • Provide the aptitude to scale to manage huge databases, probable well past the petabyte range.
  • The ability to employ an elastic resources set to return result sets containing sufficient speed to be relevant when managing a business
  • It provide the ability to save large amount of money with time as compared to the cost of utilizing own software and hardware.

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Among the presented disadvantages include:

  • The probability of outages since any cloud computing failure will public and thus creating a bad reputation for the company.
  • The data integration and migration cost is high and one may require a large bandwidth for internal data transmission.
  • Another major disadvantage is lack of the best practice since this technology is still new in the market.

Challenges to Business Management in Amazon for Data Analytic Implementation

One of the major challenges that that managers experience when implementing data analytic in organization include selecting the right individuals. The new data analytic evolution is still new and thus it is in its incubation stage. Thus there is still a big knowledge gap that organizations need to cover to enhance effective implementation of data analytics. Data analytic is currently scarce an expensive. Another major challenge encountered is handling unstructured data. The implementation of analytic data requires to establish relevant data and thus, the management is required to establish ways for noise filtering to be able to acquire the best. The other major challenge experienced in implementation of data analytic is competition. Different organizations are employing different strategies to create changes and to promote their level of services (McKenzie, 2014).

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Amazon need to consider using the available resources to obtain the right individuals to handle the problem. Using the right individuals will enhance the company profitability and increase its return. It creates the surety for the employed data analytics and save the company from future problems. Thus, Amazon should consider paying the best data analytics for to enhance the best outcome. This will also give the company a good ground to compete with others. This will allow the company to employ the best software since it will be working with assistance of the best experts in the market. To deal with unstructured data, the company will employ feedback loop to create highly targeted data for over time examination (McKenzie, 2014).

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Amazon Transformation by Data Analytics

Data analytics in Amazon provides customers with a simple, cost efficient technique to analyze and store huge volume of data. The integration of Amazon Redshift in-database blending with Alteryx Analytics 10.0’s offers analysts in line-of-business with unique chance to respond faster to critical questions and with availability of all data sets unlike before.  This increases the level of responsiveness and eventually the level of customer’s satisfaction (Regional Business News, 2015).

Trend Speculation

Amazon is among the companies that have taken the initiative of employing the most recent form of data analytics. The company is currently using Redshift which is a form of cloud data analytic. Moreover, Amazon is among a few companies that keep on receiving data in large volumes. In this regard, the company is still anticipated to employ the most modern data analytic measures and in the next 10 years it is anticipated to be the leading company in the biggest thing in the data analytics field. Data analytics can also be used in collecting data regarding the number of sales made and the customers flow in the website. This allows the company to analyze the business trend and its general performance of the company (Vertex, 2015).

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Building, Buying space or Leasing a Building

Introduction

Service lines are businesses that have proven to offer great help in the health care by providing specialized services. The orthopedic services need enough space and the current establishment does not have enough space. As such, various options exist, that can be employed in finding a new establishment. The options to be weighed in moving to a new establishment include building, buying space and leasing a building. All of these options have their difficulties. It is therefore crucial to weigh the various options, which are as below.

Building Space

Advantages of Building Space

Building a space for a new orthopedic line is one of the options. The building costs amount to £600000 without adding the operation capital and the equipment for use. One advantages of building the orthopedic service line it that it will give the hospital ownership of the establishment and is not affected by payment of rent every month or having to be thrown out should they default on payment. A service line is usually specialized to offer various services and having one’s establishment provides an important link to the customers who easily access the facility because it uses its name and its location is definite (Zelman et al., 2009). Building space means that the company can choose how it will use the space to its advantage. It can establish another space adjacent to increase. As a result, the orthopedic service can have more space for improvement when compared to a rented space. Therefore, there are few or no limitations about building a space for one’s facility.

Disadvantage of Building

The high cost of construction amounting to £600000 when compared to buying space especially the building at £575000 and the operation capital at £125000, which is a cheaper option for the service line. The disadvantages of building a new service line are that it would be costly since it is an establishment that needs to be designed in such a way that it suits all people who come into it especially the patient. Building a new establishment may take more time and may face various hurdles and challenges associated with the building like the price of materials, weather among many others. The operations, therefore, have to delay until the whole hospitals are built (Birnbaum & Zimmerman, 2011). As such some doctors attached such a project will not earn anything from that project and have to wait until the project is finished. The doctors will not benefit from the people who need their help, as they will have to wait until the establishment is finished or access other hospitals. The hospitals during the period of a building will, therefore, miss customers and hence the establishment if not completed on time will make the establishment miss the much-needed revenue.

Leasing of Space

Advantages of Leasing

Leasing of space amounts to £1000000 and it is a triple lease that goes up to twenty years. The advantage of leasing of space can prove beneficial to the business. The leasing includes the initial costs that are not as expensive as building the space and inputting the various equipment and facilities that will be needed in the establishment. The establishment can start the business as quickly as possible. The healthcare facility can lease a space today and start its operation on the morrow or the day after. Leasing, therefore, enables the orthopedic facility to starts operations as quickly as possible when compared to building the facility first. Leasing also ensures that the patients who were being treated are not delayed and taken care of as soon as possible (Zelman et al., 2009). The facility is thus up and running and the various specialist working there can start earning without having to wait for the establishment to be built. Leases help reduce the payment on the taxable income because release amount is an expense. Another advantage is that the one who leases does not have to pay for maintenance of the building or space. Such maintenance tasks need a lot of time and expenses to make sure the building is maintained properly. Obtaining a lease is not complex is it does not need any requirements like a credit report. The process of leasing takes the little time, and one can take over space and start operations. Very many establishments that can be leased as compared to those can be sold putting the lease method at an advantage in regards to variability.

Disadvantages of Leasing

The disadvantages of leasing are that the establishment does own the property. The company can therefore not make any improvements due to the restrictions laid out by the owners. Also, the facility cannot be expanded to fit the needs of the health facility. Leasing also may introduce uncertainty since the owner may opt to change the premises at any time and usually needs to give notice to the occupants so that they can vacate. As such, the orthopedic service will not operate as specified in a free manner.

Leasing in the end can prove expensive since the many times one leases the more one uses that would otherwise have been saved if the management sought to build the space. The costly nature of the leases is further worsened by the annual increments, which increase the lease, and one had to dig deeper into his or her pockets to finance the lease. Since there is not ownership of the building as increments of the lease, do not provide the further increment in a capital. As such, the capital growth on the investment is not there. Using the space is very advantageous to the business. The business, in this case, has some money or can get additional funds to buy a premise that is already built and ready for use. Buying space provides a good location for the service line since the space is located near the hospital. It will cost a total of £700000 to completely build and start operations.

Buying Space

Advantages of Buying Space

The advantages of buying space are that one would not need to pay rent for the premises. Paying using a mortgage may include beneficial times like reduced monthly pay, which reduces on costs. When the final payments are made the business will not have to pay monthly (Swayne et al., 2008). One can benefit for tax deductions due to depreciation and the interests earned by the mortgages. One can further improve the premises and thereby reduce tax payments as a result. Buying space gives the owner more entitlement in an improvement of the establishment. One can make the various improvement at the present or in future without any hindrance. Another advantage is capital gains. The property gains as times go on and the value thereby increases. One can sell the building later at a higher price than he can, or she bought initially. One is not limited to the improvements he or she makes to attract customers and further improve service delivery. One therefore has total control over the premises.

Disadvantages of Buying Space

Buying the whole building is costly. The business in place should have more money and not use that which was intended for the daily operations of the company. The mortgage down payment is usually high and, therefore, require that one have enough money to continue further operations. When one owns a building, he takes on more responsibilities like maintaining the building and especially working on repairs, which can take additional time that would have been used in various operations as some of the rooms used for treatment are out of bounds during such operations.

The insurance and property tax usually rise leading to an eventual increase in cost. Such expenses can greatly decrease the cash flows in the business. Some locations cannot have a smooth flow of customers into the establishment and since the building cannot be, moved one has to do with the available but little inflow of customers. Getting the right building is another challenge since not all buildings will suit the plans of the business especially in provide unique settings and improvements that may further cost the owner.

For the facility to function well it needs to buy its space. It is better to buy space to ensure that the business is not limited in the options of having more space. The business can look at the market and find out a building that will provide the needed space for its operations. Buying an establishment is, therefore, an important step that will enable the business to own the business and further ensure that it reduces on the leasing expenses and the building. Expenses.

Recommendation

The building will take more money and time, in this case £600000, which deny the business time and energy in dealing with its normal operations. Leasing will cost £1000000, which will be for twenty years, and it will surpass the cost of both building and buying.  Buying will be a better option because it will enable the business to continue its operations smoothly without stopping as the facilities are ready to be used immediately. Leasing in the end will prove more expensive and affect the cash flows of the business. The owners should, therefore, venture in ensuring that they consider buying since it has the more benefits as explained above.

Global Warming Cause and Mitigation

The public debate on global warming has become so common that some scientist do not even recognize that there is an argument going on. Climate change refers to variations in global temperatures, and an increase in average global temperatures is known as global warming (Joos and Spahni, 2008). The rate of climate change determines the impact of global warming on socioeconomic and natural systems. Therefore, it is important to examine the causes of global warming in order to identify the best mitigation strategies for the protection of natural and socioeconomic systems. According to Joos and Spahni (2008), global warming occurs as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes. Natural causes of global warming refer to natural forces that contribute to an increase in global temperatures, while anthropogenic causes of global warming refer to human activities that lead to an increase in global temperatures.

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Changes to the Earth’s orbit and solar variations are the two major natural forces that cause global warming. According to Joos and Spahni (2008), a tilt in the Earth’s orbital is likely to bring about major changes to the world’s climate. The best example of climate change that occurred as a result of a tilt in the Earth’s orbital is transformation of the Sahara desert from fertile grassland to a desert. Additionally, solar changes have a great impact on the world’s climate. For instance, an increase in solar energy increases global temperatures, leading to global warming (Joos and Spahni, 2008).

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Anthropogenic causes of global warming include build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, accumulation of aerosols in the atmosphere, and changes in land use. For instance, human activity during industrial revolution increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere which has directly led to an increase in global temperatures. In addition, human activities, such as biomass burning leads to accumulation of aerosols in the atmosphere and a subsequent rise in global temperatures. Moreover, as human beings cut down trees to create space for agricultural activities and for settlement, they increase the amount of sunlight that reflected from the ground back into space, which causes global warming (Joos and Spahni, 2008).

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Personally, I think that global warming is really taking place. This position is supported by three evidences namely continued rise in global temperatures, shrinking ice sheets, and ocean acidification. Global temperatures have been increasing since 1880 with the largest rise being observed in 1970s. Even though slightly low global temperatures were observed in 2000s, surface temperatures were extremely high between 2007 and 2009. It is anticipated that global temperatures will still continue to increase over the coming years (Shaftel, 2015).

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According to NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have been decreasing over the past decade, with the largest drop being observes between 2002 and 2006. Since global temperatures continue to increase, it is anticipated that Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will continue to decrease over the coming years. The acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by approximately 30 percent since the beginning of the industrial revolution. This indicates that human activities continue to emit more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which are being absorbed into the oceans (Shaftel, 2015).

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Considering the negative impacts of global warming on natural and socioeconomic systems, the government should take immediate action to implement relevant mitigation strategies. The two current mitigation strategies that the government should consider implementing are carbon sequestration and clean coal technology. Carbon sequestration refers to long-term storage of carbon dioxide to mitigate global warming and prevent climate change. The process involves capturing of carbon dioxide from exhausts of fossil fuel power plants before injecting it below the land surface. According to the United States Geological Survey (2008), the rate of carbon dioxide emission into the atmosphere is likely to double by 2050. There is therefore great need to come up with strategies that can help reduce the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

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Carbon sequestration is an effective mitigation strategy for global warming because it will help to stabilize levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thereby preventing severe impacts of climate change. The only challenge is that methods of trapping carbon dioxide are costly to implement and the government must put aside enough finances before starting to implement carbon sequestration strategy. In order to ensure that proper actions are taken to trap carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the government needs to formulate relevant policies to govern the process of carbon sequestration (United States Geological Survey, 2008).

Coal is likely to dominate the global energy sector and there is great need to ensure that the atmosphere is cleaner than ever before. Clean coal technology refers to a combination of technologies that are implemented to ensure improved environmental performance of coal-based electricity plants. Clean coal technology is effective in mitigating global warming because it intends to reduce emissions of coal-based electricity plants, and to improve their operational efficiency (American Coalition for Clean Coal Technology, 2015). This is a very costly strategy to implement because it requires the United States government to invest close to 145 billion United States dollars for it to reduce significant air emissions by 2016. Furthermore, the growth of clean technology will only thrive if it is supported by reasonable regulations. For instance, the New Source Performance Standards for coal-fueled power plants issued by the Environmental Protection Agency is intended to ban new coal-fueled power plants by overlying stringent limits on carbon dioxide emissions (American Coalition for Clean Coal Technology, 2015).

The problem of global warming can effectively be addressed if policies that seek to reduce the amount of heat-trapping emissions are implemented. The good thing is that, possible policies that can help reduce carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere are easy to apply. One of the policies that can help solve the problem of global warming is expansion of the use of renewable energy by transforming the current energy system to one that is independent on coal and fossil fuels. In addition, the government should place limits on the amount of carbon that companies and motor vehicle owners are allowed to emit into the atmosphere. Furthermore, the government should invest in efficient energy industries and technologies to help reduce the release of heat-trapping emissions into the atmosphere. Suppose these policies are implemented, more strict standards should be placed on business sectors that contribute to the largest amount of carbon dioxide emissions. These include the energy sector, industrial sector, transport sector, and technology sector.

Emergency Policy Making Process – Case of Plainsville Colorado

Plainsville Colorado Annex

The purpose of this emergency operations plan is to enable the state of Plainsville Colorado in collaboration with the community members to be able to respond positively to emergencies. In this case, the emergency will mostly rise from those caused by the derailment of the rail system or a spill of the chemicals transported during such times. Such responses will be executed with the primary purpose being the rescue and execution of measures that ensures the safety of the community members. The EOP will be promulgated by the mayor in collaboration with other government agencies. They will all have a responsibility of ensuring that this EOP is integrated into their efforts so that all procedures go through the correct testing procedures.

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Phase 1: Readiness and Preparedness

Readiness means that the town council of Colorado will be in a position to respond effectively to emergencies in the event that they occur at any time. For instance, if there is a rail derailment within the town, then the response should come in handy in real time. For that to happen effectively, it means that the teams responsible for such moves should be trained effectively. Plans for such trainings should always be carried out in advance and executed properly for the procedures to bear fruit.  It will therefore be the responsibility of the leadership of the town council to ensure that the teams can be able to execute their duties effectively as required. Preparedness means that the teams should be able to respond effectively before, and even after the occurrence of the emergency.

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Phase 2: Activation and Relocation

This phase will include the activation of all the processes and the plans required for the continuation of all the essential functions of the team. It will be necessary for the council to be in a position to maintain all the records and the database of all the town council. Activation may include procedures such as receiving information about a real threat to the community within real time. The leadership of the mayor should therefore demonstrate its capability of handling such threats in a competitive manner. In the event that those affected needs to be evacuated, then the council in collaboration with the agencies will be responsible for doing that. Relocating the affected from one place to another will require advance good planning skills so that such moves are executed with minimal mistakes.

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There is a big possibility that the chemical being transported through the rail line has massive negative effects on the surrounding environment as well as the livestock that exist in that region (Spraggins, 2010). For instance, there is a chance that chemical spills off during transportation and it negatively affect the growth of the natural grass and food that the animals rely on for their survival. Such a case may be considered to detrimental to both the animals and the humanity that cohabit in such an environment.

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Apart from that, the railway may also be able to have experienced such massive destruction through other related weather disruptions. One of the weather hazards that could have resulted in the destruction of the rail system is the massive heat waves that are experienced between the two regions of Plainsville and South town (Branscomb, 2010). Similarly, the destruction of the rail line could be attributed to the old age of the same. The rail has been in existence for a very long period, since time immemorial. As had been mentioned, the system was first laid during the 1800s and that alone could be a factor to consider in the commissions discussions.

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One of the representatives that should be present in the mayors commission that will be discussing the importance of having the rail system should be from the ICF international. The named organization is well known for its consulting services as well as its provisions of technological solutions to various government agencies across the region. The organization also offers its services to other commercial clients across the regions who deal in technology. The representative from the organization will therefore bring in new ideas on how the commission can adopt various technological solutions. The future of the rail system as well as the surrounding communities living alone the rail line may as well be saved through the various technological solutions that ICF will provide.

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The primary focus of the ICF has always been to create a change in the areas where they insert their influence as well as opening new markets through bringing new concepts. Another reason as to why a representative from ICF should be present in the commission is because the organization has undoubtedly expertise in handling such issues. The number of years that the organization has been offering its services to its customers is one of the major factors that should be taken into consideration. We all know that experience is normally gained when one does the job over a given period. The organization also boasts of solving a number of complicated challenges that were facing their clients over time. It is a fact that the organization has massive experience in what it does, considering that it has been in the industry since 1969. CIF is proud of not only giving professional advice to their various clients but also coming up with very innovative ways of executing their various strategies and solutions.

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One of the primary motto and goals of the organization is trying to help their clients through all means possible so that they achieve success in their endeavors. Finally, it remains a fact that ICF is an international organization that boats of having a presence in more than seventy countries across the world. Its records and reputations across the world speak for themselves. This should be one of the organizations that the commission should be dying to include in its discussion table.

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Another representative who should be present in the commission should be from the U.S Department of labor that is responsible for defending the rights of all the workers in The United States. The representative will ensure that the workers who work in the industry in South town will be subjected to the correct working conditions (Department of Labor). The chemicals that are routinely transported to South town have been declared to be hazardous and may therefore be dangerous even to the workers. It has not yet been established the type of dangers that it exposes the workers who work in the manufacturing industry. It is possible that the workers are not subjected to one of the best working environments considering the negative effects of the chemical. It is therefore important for a representative to be picked from the department of labor.

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The representative will give a detailed breakdown of all the requirements that will be expected from the company. Moreover, all the laws related to the governing of employees in such an environment will also be elaborated by the representative (Labor department). The representative will also give an insight on the important rights of the employees such as the right to file a confidential complaint in case of an infringement on their rights.

Kevin Mitnick – World’s Most Wanted Hacker Research Paper

Kevin Mitnick: Background Information

Kevin Mitnick is an American computer security consultant, hacker, and author. In the mid-nineties, the 6th August 1963 born was the “the World’s Most Wanted hacker.” Since, the year 2000, Kevin has been a successful public speaker, security consultant, and author. Kevin offer security consulting services to Fortune 500 companies, undertakes penetration testing services for the largest companies across the world and teaches Social Engineering classes to a number of government agencies and companies.

Having more than fifteen years of experience in exploration of computer security, Mitnick became a largely self- taught expert in putting into exposure the degree of vulnerability of the complex operating systems and the telecommunications devices. At adolescent his hobbies were in studying methods, strategies and tactics used in circumventing computer security, and to learn more on how telecommunications and computer systems work (Goodell, 2006).

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Kevin and the Global Ghost Team currently maintain a 100% successful track record on capability of penetrating the security of any system they are hired to hack into by use of a combination of social engineering and technical exploits. As a CEO and the chief “white hat” at an advanced boutique security firms, Kevin mentors executive, leaders and staff on both the practice and theory of social engineering, topics on which he is considerable the leading global authority. He further helps consumer –from retirees to students, learn on how to protect themselves and their information from harm, by use of a friendly and understandable terms and approach.

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The Leading Specialist on Social Engineering

The platform on which Kevin has explored heavily in his undertakings and provision of information security has been more on social engineering. Kevin’s approach of social engineering penetration testing is the principal standard for the security industry (Goodell, 2006). Kevin’s bestselling and groundbreaking work, “The Art of Deception: Controlling the Human Element of Security,”- a book many institutions and organizations require. The book entails explanations by Kevin on the easiest ways to penetrate into high-tech systems is done through people who operate, manage, and put them into use. He demonstrates that the weakest link to security is humans. Therefore, Mitnick Security –a company he founded uses his proprietary composite of information reconnaissance, technology and social engineers he’s personally mentored to offer unparalleled social engineering on penetration testing through all the attack vectors, including web, phone, social media onsite infiltration and e-mails.

Attacks through Social engineering, currently are the most serious cyber threat that organizations face. When an organization has undergone Social Engineering Penetration Testing, it learns how vulnerable it is to bad decisions, particularly with regard to security best practices, that are usually widespread and are unaddressed on every level of an organization.  A number of the organization’s staff will easily be convinced to unwittingly to give critical information (Hafner, & Markoff, 2012). The attacks on the Social Engineering platform are the most difficult to defend and detect against.

The Mitnick Security’s revolutionary social engineering penetration testing helps identify which people are likely to be compromised and their degree of susceptibility to social engineering attacks. They are capable of recommending inoculation and training exercises such people should receive. Moreover, they are capable of putting in place a new (or rather adjust the old ones) security policies to redirect the new realities of those threats brought by social engineering today. The company recommends a repetitive social engineering penetration testing program, to ensure enforcement of new security policies and keeping of the staff in a constant state of alertness.

Arrest, Conviction, and Incarceration

The world most notorious hacker has brushed shoulders with the law on a number of occasions. Kevin has been a major thorn to a number of companies computer network from the beginning. A major “crack” he first ever did was in 1979. This happened when a friend brought him the phone number for the Ark, a computer system at the Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) which the company used to develop their RSTS/E operating system software. He eventually broke into the computer system of DEC and ended up copying the DEC’s software (Goodell, 2006). As a result of this he could make free phone calls and could also listen in and eavesdrop on any person he could please.

Kevin’s first brushed shoulders with the law when he physically broke into one of the biggest U.S. Computer System for the Mainframe operations, a database which is used by many of the nation’s phone companies for the control of the phone system’s basic record keeping purposes. He stole several lists of computer passwords, which included the combinations to the locks of doors at the nine Pacific Bell central offices besides getting a number of operating manuals for the COSMOS system. Kevin was sentenced to a juvenile correction center for three months alongside being given a year’s probation.

After a few years, Kevin was busted when he was using one of the University of South California’s computers in hacking into a computer at pentagon by use of the ARPA net (Hafner, & Markoff, 2012). The Advanced Research projects Agency Network (ARPANET) developed by DARPA of the United States Department of Defense, which was the first world’s operational packet switching network, and also the predecessor of the global internet. Before Mitnick could cause any harm he was busted by the university campus enforcement.

Another incident happened during 1988 when Kevin and his friend, Lenny DiCicco, were fighting a battle of a pitched electronic against the scientists at Digital Equipment’s Palo Alto research laboratory (Littman, 2010). Kevin became obsessed with getting a copy of the Digital’s VMS microcomputer operating system, and he was trying this through accessing entry into the company’s corporate computer network, called Easynet. Computers at Digital Palo Alto laboratory were easy to break through, therefore, every night DiCicco and Mitnick persistently launched their modem attacks from a small Calabasas –a California Company in which DiCicco had a computer support job. Even though Reid discovered the attacks just immediately, he had not known where the attacks were coming from, nor did the FBI or the local police, because Kevin was manipulating the network switches of the telephone calls to disguise the source of the modem calls. This was Kevin’s biggest crime, he hit the headlines by even hacking into the company’s data base and manipulating the address the modem presented. This act dumbfounded the FBI and resulted to addition of a new charge to wrap the sheet, “Evading the FBI.” It turned out that Kevin became his own enemy, being cursed with a big ego and a sense of humor Kevin decided to prank DiCicco by repeatedly phoning his boss making claims that, “DiCicco was having a problem with the Internal Revenue Service.” The continuous harassment made DiCicco to confess and consequently Kevin was busted too. He found himself in court facing severe charges of count computer fraud and on one count he was accused of being in possession of illegal long-distance access codes. But in a controversial and unlikely turn of events, Kevin was sentenced to six months in a counselling program and a one year in prison for his computer addiction (Long, & Mitnick, 2011).

Mitnick’s Warrant of Arrest

On finishing his rehabilitation in 1990 he secured a job through a friend to his father at Tel Tec Detective Agency. After sometime at the job, it was discovered that someone was illegally putting into use a commercial database system on behalf of the agency, and this made Kevin to once again be the subject of the FBI investigation (Long & Mitnick, 2008).The Bureau searched his apartment in September, as well as the workplace and home of another member of the initial phone phreak gang. In a period of two months later a federal judge issued a warrant of arrest on Kevin for violating the terms stated in his 1989 probation. These were rounded up in two charges: firstly illegal access to a phone company computer, and secondly is the act of associating with a member of that gang he was originally arrested with in 1981. A group of his friends claimed that Kevin had been set up by the detective firm, whether it was true or not, he had vanished by the time the FBI came to arrest him (Hadnagy, 2011).

In 1992 he reappeared by using hacked law enforcement requester codes to get licenses photos of a police informer from Los Angeles D.M.V. There rose suspicion which made the FBI to be called in. The detectives made a trace of the fax numbers and realized that it was belonging to a local copy shop. Then they staked out this particular copy shop which involved the detectives in a foot-chase against Mitnick but he ended up escaping. Soon after Mitnick got arrested again.

The Irony of Mitnick’s Hacking

Mitnick was never malicious in his hacking. He never performed his hacking for any personal gain or even to cause any damage to the systems he broke into. In his pursuit of hacking he was purely seeking to satisfy his intellectual curiosity in contrary to a number of inaccurate reports. Mitnick never destroyed any organization’s or institution’s data or even benefited from such exploits.

Unluckily enough, the government could not understand who was merely motivated by a personal quest for a good challenge and knowledge (Goodell, 2006). Due to the fact that computer crime seemed relatively a new challenge to the government way back in the mid -1990’s, there were huge efforts to get funding for the new crime-fighting programs. In order for the programs to have been successful, there was inevitable need for the public support. The combination for the drive for funding and the sensationalist media reports which would depict Kevin as the most wanted hacker across the globe, was everything that the government needed in order to make Kevin Be their prime target.

The Mitnick Security Consulting

The Mitnick Security Consulting is a computer security company founded by Kevin Mitnick. The company gives world leaders in technology, industry and governments technical and human based security controls which have the capability of controlling a sophisticated attack on the organization’s information system (Grand, Russell& Syngress Media Inc, 2014). The services of the company relies on the Mitnick Security’s 100% success track record of ensuring penetration of systems by use of technical exploits with a combination of social engineering to expose vulnerabilities. The company’s unique positioning in the industry make them able to provide the most comprehensive and advanced analysis, recommendations and available support services on computer security.

Mitnick Security Consulting deploys a team of the most advanced security experts with an aim of maximizing the results. The company undertakes its service provision depending on the clients’ requirements. That is, they tea or deploy a manner specific to each engagement, which includes augmenting their security specialists and a heavily trusted situational-specific blend of resources (Shimomura & Markoff, 2009). After which they employ a composite of methodologies and proprietary technology, and then test multiple attack vectors besides simulating sophisticated hackers in analyzing the company’s attack surface.

Can you hire Kevin Mitnick?

Absolutely yes, I would want to hire him. The enormous experience and self-initiated exploration on the computer and telecommunications systems risks and threat vulnerabilities is a great build up for offering computer security services. Based on the fact the Kevin’s Mitnick Security Consulting Company operates so hugely in offering security services to companies, institutions, organizations and even government agencies, my company would wish to be in that endless list of groups seeking his team’s and his personal systems security services.

Moreover, having been convinced that his pursuit to hack into other system was never malicious but a self-inflicted call on wanting to explore is a major boost in his reputation, trust and reliability to offer computer and telecommunications systems security services.

Women’s Roles in Science – Research Paper

From medieval times, women have played considerable scientific roles. Diverse historians with research interests in science along with gender focus on women’s scientific attainments and endeavors. As well, the historians concentrate on the challenges faced by women in pursuing the endeavors. The sociological, critical, as well as historical, consideration of the challenges is now an established academic discipline (Greenstadt, 2010; Whaley, 2003). There are records of women’s involvement in science stretching from the times of several early civilizations, including medieval Egypt. Merit-Ptah is the earliest recognized female physician, or scientist, globally. In about 2700 BC, she was the chief physician of medieval Egypt. Over time, women have had increasing roles in the advancement of scientific research as well as development. Even then, their scientific contributions only started getting ample recognition in the latter decades of the 20th century. Regardless of the challenges female scientists face even in contemporary times, more and more of them are venturing into science (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). This paper explores the roles played by females in science, particularly in the 18th century and in contemporary times.

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Women’s Roles in 18th Century’s Scientific Revolution

For the most part of the 18th century, there were three general perspectives regarding women. First, women were taken as socially, as well as intellectually, subservient to men. Second, women and men were seen as different while equal. Third, women and men were viewed as potentially having equal intellectual abilities (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other Jacobin Club philosophers appeared convinced that all women’s functions were restricted to serving men and motherhood. Even then, the Enlightenment era saw the scientific roles of women expand significantly. Notably, Rousseau’s political persuasions and philosophy led to the general evolution of the contemporary educational, sociological, as well as political, thought (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993).

The development of the European salon culture saw the rise of platforms where women met men to debate, as well as discuss, contemporary scientific along with socio-political subjects. They met in inspiring salon settings to enhance their collective scientific proficiency via conversations. Notably, Italians invented the settings in mid-16th century. In the 18th century, the culture flourished across France. Women developed salon etiquette rules to guide the conversations (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). Such rules took after the earlier Italian chivalry codes. Rousseau criticized the salons, especially the ones dominated by women, as generating men who were evidently effeminate. He asserted that such men stifled objective scientific discourse. Even then, more and more men continued to frequent the salons. The salons enabled women to have increasing influence on philosophy, mathematics, botany as well as physics (Whaley, 2003).

In mid-18th century, the growing role of female scientists was recognized by the then leading scientific academies, including the RSAS (Royal Swedish Academy of Science). The RSAS inducted the first female scientist, Eva Ekeblad, in early 1748 (Whaley, 2003). Notably, the RSAS had in the preceding seven years published the first female historian, Charlotta Frölich (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). In its entire history, the RSAS has remained a non-governmental and autonomous scientific organization. It promotes mathematics and natural sciences. It focuses on knowledge that is practically helpful (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003).

Sibylla Maria Merian founded contemporary zoology along with botany. She explored nature keenly, recording her observations in a diary-like study book. Natural philosophy stemmed from her recorded observations and investigations. In her publications, Merian catalogued insect and plant lives using imagery (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). Following the demise of her husband, she moved to Paramaribo where she studied the amphibians, birds, reptiles, and insects inhabiting the area.

Given that the majority of scientific studies and experiments happened at home, many women, including Pierrette Marie-Anne Paulze, assisted their spouses and other family members perform them. Paulze assisted her husband, Antoine Lavoisier, in his domestic laboratory. Lavoisier is credited with oxygen’s discovery. Paulze was a prolific English speaker (Whaley, 2003). She helped translate Lavoisier’s communications with English-speaking chemists. She helped translate one of Richard Kirwan’s most controversial essays on heat’s nature in reactions between various chemicals. As well, she helped Lavoisier draw diagrams for his publications (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). She had an inspiring salon and extensive conversations with France-based naturalists along with scientists.

Even though women registered considerable scientific attainments in the 18th century, most of them were dissuaded by their communities from studying plant reproduction. Carl Linnaeus developed a plant categorization system hinged on sexual attributes. The system increased communities’ focus on botanical decadence (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Communities were afraid that female scientists would get dishonorable knowledge from the examples set by nature. Communities projected women as intrinsically unable to reason objectively frequently. As well, communities projected women as intrinsically emotional generally. Women were taken as innate mothers charged with the reproduction of moral and natural societies frequently.

Notably, such definitions of women did not dim the scientific endeavors of some female scientists, including Lady Wortley Mary Montagu (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Montagu was a prolific author. She observed the inoculation of smallpox, variolation, keenly while on an ambassadorial visit to the then extensive Ottoman Empire (Whaley, 2003). She recorded her observations and feelings about the variolation comprehensively before returning to England, where she pioneered it. Variolation entails the usage of live viruses of smallpox drawn from the blisters on the bodies of patients with mild smallpox infections (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). The viruses were transported in nutshells. Notably, as a scientist, Montagu defied several of the then established conventions and characterizations regarding female scientists. She passionately promoted variolation in her home country against marked resistance from the then established medics. The medics were opposed to variolation since they deemed it to be an Oriental invention (Greenstadt, 2010; Whaley, 2003).

Women made considerable strides as scientific scholars in the 18th century. Laura Bassi was the foremost women to be granted professorship. She was an active member of the well-regarded IAIS (Italian Academy of the Institute of Sciences). As well, she chaired the IEP (Institute of Experimental Physics) for a considerable duration (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). Other leading female scientific scholars in the century were Margaret Cavendish along with Caroline Herschel. Herschel made various astronomical discoveries, including several comets, in own research works as well as William Herschel’s assistant. King George III offered her a scientific office role. In mid-1798, she became the foremost woman to present a scientific paper to the then male-dominated Royal Society (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993).

Cavendish wrote lengthily about philosophy, nature, as well as science, to promote the interest of women in scientific discourse. She criticized various scientific applications, including microscopes and animal tests, as flawed (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). The subjects featuring in her writings commonly included Aristotelianism, scientific methods, philosophy, gender, manners, power, and romance. Even though gender-linked roles were markedly characterized within the century, female scientists experienced and realized considerable scientific attainments. They made considerable progress towards gender-linked equality among scientists. Such equality is now quite evident in the world of science (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993).

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Women’s Roles in Modern Science 

In present times, women are getting ample recognition for the contributions they make to science (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993). Following the Second World War, many of the challenges that female scientists faced priory disappeared. Out of inevitability, or necessity, women rose to scientific positions that were seen as the preserve of men traditionally. The majority of such positions rely on technological and scientific abilities. Following the war, the feminist movement led to the increased societal approval of females into the positions. For instance, in 2009, Baroness Greenfield got an appointment to the position of the Royal Institution’s director. The institution serves and promotes various scientific interests.

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Women have made significant progress in fighting the stereotypes that limit their access to scholarships made for promising, young scientists (Kass-Simon & Farnes, 1993; Whaley, 2003). They have fought the stereotypes significantly by ensuring that as many of them as possible populate the panels that award the scholarships. The women in the panels project female applicants for the scholarships as confident and decisive as the male applicants. That has seen more and more females move into science in recent years. In countries like the UK, girls often outperform boys in science tests. Female-dominated organizations like WISE and global firms like the L’Oreal-UNESCO’s FWS (For Women in Science) encourage girls to view science as a field where they can excel as much as the boys. The FWS rewards females who register exceptional attainments in science.

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Women play considerable functions in promoting science and related research online. Online resources have afforded women a stronger public influence on science. Female bloggers like Christie Wilcox, Karen Vancampenhout, and Jennifer Rohn, who focus on scientific subjects, help shape the general direction of scientific research in present times. The media as well helps shape the general direction of scientific research in present times. Female media personalities like Sheril Kirshenbaum, who focuses on scientific subjects, now influence the direction significantly. They help set the overall agenda for scientific studies along with researches. There are many scientific researches that are driven by women presently. As well, there are more women partnering with males in scientific researches than in the past years.

Conclusion

This paper has explored the roles played by females in science, particularly in the 18th century and in current times. Historians with research interests in science along with gender have zero in on women’s scientific attainments. For the most part of the 18th century, women were taken as socially, as well as intellectually, second-rate to men. Even the, the salons the women put up allowed them increased influence on scientific developments. Many women assisted their spouses execute various scientific experiments at home. Women made considerable progress towards gender-linked equality among scientists. Such equality is now apparent. In present times, women are getting ample recognition for the contributions they make to science. Women play considerable functions in promoting science and related research online. Female bloggers and media personalities focusing on scientific subjects help shape the general direction of scientific research in present times.

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School Bullying In US – Research Paper

Introduction

The psychological concept of bullying is not a new phenomenon among school children. It’s certainly a very old phenomenon. Schools are perceived to be places of dignity where the students should feel free and secure, but the prevalence of bullying has been the order of the day in these institutions. A significant number of students becomes the target of bullying. Even though bullying is an old phenomenon, it’s a widespread and a worldwide problem with the learning institutions. It is of worry that in the days, bullying has been viewed from a common perception that it was relatively harmless experience that students had to go through, but until recently that a different perception is rolling out over the school bullying.

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school bullying in the US
School bullying in the US

Different definitions of bullying has been given from different sources and by different researchers. The definition this paper finds appropriately fit is the definition by O’Connell, Pepler & Craig (2009), that bullying occurs when a person repeatedly and willfully exercise power over another with malicious or hostile intent. This encompasses a big range of verbal or physical behaviors of an antisocial or an aggressive nature. These include, teasing, insulting, physical or verbal abuse, mobbing, harassing, humiliating, spreading rumors, exclusion from a group, and threatening.

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Thesis statement

Concern over the concept of bullying has resulted into documentation of extensive research work from different bodies over the recent decades because of the concept is a potential damaging form of violence among youths and children. Therefore, being that bullying is not a new phenomenon, the fact which is new is the growing awareness of the serious damaging effects of bullying on victims, bullies, communities and the schools.

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Reasons why Schooling bullying is a major issue in the U.S.

The U.S. authorities’ research on victimization shows a strict course of action on bullying as there is overwhelming negative impact of the act as there poor psychological functioning among the adolescents and the children (Nasel et al., 2001).

The acknowledgement of the studies depicting facts which present serious threat to healthy development when a child undertakes his/her schooling career. This exhibits that bullies are at risk of being involved in alcohol abuse, crime and delinquency.

Social psychology concepts addressed in bullying

Peer cluster and involvement in bullying-A classroom where bullying takes place differ from several social groups in some significant aspects (Rigby, 2008). This makes bullying to be of some related behaviors and attitudes among other characteristics that the clique members share among themselves.

Aggressive interactions- the bullying concept fuels above the psychological aspect of aggressive interaction between the bullies and the bullies, but a mere social role among the group.

Challenges in handling bullying

Intervening over bullying situation appear challenging as the aspect of resolving this would only be easy when many people are witnessing a potentially harmful or dangerous situation. This is due to diffusion of responsibility, in that, no person feels personally responsible and perhaps expects another person else to action.

Secondly, the perception of the fact that bullies are powerful and popular makes it to be so involving to thwart their behavior. Instead, it seems adaptive for the students to distance themselves from low-status victims, for instance, avoid their company and then appear more like the bullies (Salivalli, Kaukiainen & Lagerspetz, 2010).

Lastly, another challenge in tackling bullying effectively comes in due to the fact that the target of bullying may just be one or two students, making the act efficient and less risky. In a case where there are only one victim bullying might seem justifiable and appear to be the fault of the victims, because the victims are selected on the basis of being rejected and kind of have few, if any friends.

Arguments in agreement with the concept of bullying

The impact of bullying is one agreed upon by several scholars. For instance, Bank (2000), provide that victims often have fear to go to school, considering it unhappy and unsafe place to be.The rate of drop outs and absenteeism among victimized students are high as depicted from the studies of Salivalli, Kaukiainen & Lagerspetz (2010). Repeated bullying results to low self-esteem, anxiety and depression problems. The students targeted by bullies often find it difficult to concentrate on their school work and this results to poor performance in their academics. Those students who are bullied thereby feeling anxious may consequently experience various emotional and physical ailments.

The impact of bullying spreads well beyond the victim and the bully, to the school, the peer group and the community. The category of individuals who are not involved into this act, but regularly witness it happen in schools, experience a feeling of less secure learning environment, the feeling that the bully might target them next and the knowledge that adults and teachers are either unwilling or unable to control the bullies’ behavior (Rigby, 2008).

Disagreeing views on the concept of bullying

Earlier on explanations of bullies’ behavior give emphasis on the aggressive personality pattern, which make them to aggress against other people in different contexts. Bullying behavior was viewed generally as an aggression, rather stable over some time period and independent of the social context. The earlier description of the personality of bullies were not yet affected with the currently used taxonomy which is based on the functions of an aggressive behavior, that is, the distinguishing factor between proactive and reactive aggression (O’Connell, Pepler, & Craig, 2009). A kind of bullying which is essentially deliberate and unprovoked, would be considered to be a subtype of proactive, and a goal-directed aggression. The conceptualization of bullying in the context of a proactive aggression has enabled acknowledgement of the fact that bullies are not just socially unskilled or emotionally agitated but can tactfully employ bullying to achieve their goals.

Among other fact perceived by the bullies when exercising such behavior is the pursuit of a higher degree of status intentions. That is, struggle to be a powerful being of dominant position among the peers. Status becomes the individual’s relative standing within the peer hierarchy- that is, an evaluation outcome of attributes which produce difference in prominence and respect (Nasel et al., 2001). This pursuit of status makes one have agentic goals including appearing self-confident and being an individual who makes impression on other, other think you are smart and respect you, while others admire you.

Ways to address and improve the social elements involved in bullying

Addressing the age difference among students

In attempt to improve the social relations among the students, age factor should be a factor for consideration. The possibility of having a huge age gap among the students in the same class, creates a scenario in which the older students will tend to bully those who are young (Due et al., 2005). The older students would feel that the younger students are disrespectful and rude while the young students would be teasing the older students because they are in the class. As a result, the older students might bully these young students to intimidate them to show some level of respect to them.

Management skills and control

There is necessity to uphold high skills and knowledge among teachers in respect to classroom management and control. This would ensure there is full capacity control of every undertaking of the students, thereby establishing a student friendly environment in classroom set-up as argued by Asamu (2006)..

Conclusion

The act of bullying has been a challenge that to a greater extent has gone unnoticed in a number of learning institutions. It generally calls for a collective pull of effort among the policymakers, the public, parents, and educators to curb the escalating effects of bullying around the globe as there is an alarming rise in the reported incidents of violence as a result of the established links between violence and bullying. A devoted attention towards stemming the aspects of bullying within our societies would be a prudent was of ensuring reduction in such disastrous act in learning institutions.

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention – Research Paper

Introduction

Juvenile delinquency prevention is a concept that focuses in safeguarding children and teenagers from being involved in crime before they consider engaging in crime. According to Greenwood (2008), there are various reasons to prevent young people from being involved in crime or from continuing to be involved in delinquent behavior. One of the most apparent reasons is that delinquency subjects a youth at risk for injury, drug dependency and use, early pregnancy, school drop-out, adult criminality and incarceration. Redeeming youths from crime saves them from wasting their life. In addition to this, it has been established that majority of adult criminals start their criminal career as children. Thus, preventing delinquency blocks the adult criminal career onset and thus, lowering the crime burden on society and on crime victims.

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Both adult and delinquent offenders take a hefty toll both emotionally and financially on taxpayers and victims who have to share the costs. To fight this cost, most criminal justice systems have been working hard to define the most effective delinquency prevention and treatment programs, after high level of inefficiency in the past programs such as DARE among others. The prevention programs focus on addressing biological and environmental factors that influence youths’ tendency to engage in crime. The treatment programs try on addressing acquired or/and biological behaviors and traits to prevent past offenders from reoffending. The main challenges experienced by most of these programs is that some of these factors are hard to change or control, especially without community support (Greenwood, 2008). This paper reviews fundamental principles in delinquency prevention and treatment. It also assesses different delinquency prevention and treatment programs, evaluating their level of effectiveness.

Juvenile Delinquency Prevention

Delinquency prevention can take place in two levels which include primary and secondary delinquency prevention. Primary delinquency prevention is based on the principle of identifying environments or individuals at danger for delinquent activity prior to the occurrence of the behavior and then either strengthening the risk factor resistance or removing risk factors. The effect of this kind of an approach is established by the accuracy of risk factors identification process and the choice of where and when to direct the intervention. The primary delinquency prevention programs target the youth general population and they include efforts to prevent teen pregnancy, drug use and smoking. The program application in this case need to determine at what stage of life of the targeted individual will be the prevention program is likely to be more viable and hence successful. To establish high level of accuracy, one needs to balance the accessible knowledge regarding the extant approaches efficacy, the practical constraints of specific intervention strategies, and the policy and ethical constraints of centering on specific social institutions or groups (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

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The secondary prevention are programs which try to rehabilitate youth that have demonstrated early behavioral problems indications, though they have not been formally grouped as delinquent yet, or those who have not demonstrated a longstanding antisocial behavior pattern. In most situations, youths who have had a single or more encounters with the police though have not yet been arbitrated by the juvenile court.  These programs also target teenagers at high risk for a specific outcome such as violence or delinquency, a group which may include individuals in disadvantaged neighborhood, those who are experiencing violence and abuse at home, and those struggling in class (Greenwood, 2008). Rather than being troubled by the early risk predictors for later delinquency, secondary prevention programs normally rely on a comprehension of factors which distinguish between children that show temporary behavior issues and those who are probable to persist in taking part in antisocial behavior. The programs stress on changing the current behavior issues before resulting to more grave criminal behaviors (Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993).    

Different forms of Delinquency Prevention Programs and their Efficiency

There are a number of delinquency prevention programs in both primary and secondary levels, but with different levels of efficiency. This section reviews a few examples and their level of efficiency.

Perry Preschool Program

This is an early childhood intervention program that helps in protecting children at high risk of delinquency from becoming criminals in the future. The program involved 1 to 4 years old children from low socioeconomic families, majority being black Americans. Every child participant was offered about 12 hours of per week of preschool education for a period of seven and half months every year for two years. The educators were in addition needed to carry out weekly home visits which would last 90 minutes (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014). The home visits focuses on both the child and their parents, especially mothers. The participants were then given a follow-up at different ages in life which included 40, 27, 19 and 14 years. When contrasted with those who did not take part in the program, participants of Perry Preschool Program demonstrated a substantial reduction in life time and adult criminality at all-time based on the research results. The follow up at the age of 40 demonstrated that just 28% of the program participants had been jailed compared to 52% of the control group. The model of Perry Preschool Program thus became the base model for developing curriculums targeting low-income families by Head Start programs. The Perry Preschool program was also found to be cost effective. The individual cost in this program is $14716, resulting to $ 105000 saving per participant (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions

Cognitive-behavior interventions (CBI) are founded on the notion that behavioral disorder that include substance abuse and juvenile delinquency can yield from an inability to maintain and develop positive social associations as a result of social skills deficits. CBI can either be described as behavioral social-skills-training (BSST) and interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) programs. ICPS programs center on processes that include social cues interpretation and intentions of others, creating alternate solutions to situations of social problems, and assessing the possible results of various solutions, as well as means-end thinking. BSST programs center on teaching a particular behaviors that include fighting peer pressure joining a peer group, giving compliments and accepting criticism. However, majority of programs integrate both aspects of BSST and ICCPS. The two are introduced in school curriculums and offered in small groups of students ( Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993). With regard to efficiency cognitive behavioral intervention or therapy has been approved after demonstrating exceptional performance in around 58 studies conducted to investigate its effectiveness.  CBI has been found to lower the rate of offending for the participants by 25% which is significantly high compared to other methods (Greenwood, 2008).

Family Support Intervention

One of the delinquency risk factor is unstable family where the child is subjected to violence and abuse, or in a family with very poor socioeconomic status. In such situation, a child is likely to develop emotional and behavioral problems due to psychological distress and life pressure. In this regard, family based intervention is one of the most effective measures that can be employed to prevent delinquency. Family support intervention entails offering an extensive range of social support services that include counseling, medical care, day care, referrals to other agencies of social services and family needs assessment. Family intervention program may start at birth up to 30 months of growth for children born of low income families. This includes 30 months of psychological services to the mothers especially those who get their first born in a low income families, child care pediatric care and social work (Mulvey, Arthur & Reppucci, 1993). A follow up program for children taken in from birth up to 30 months five and 10 years after demonstrated positive effect on both children and parents involve, in contrast to a matched comparison group. The program boys at age 12.5 were less probable to demonstrate pre-delinquent behavior issues such as truancy and negative teacher rating, compared to other boys.  Family based intervention and therapy programs are said to reduce the rate of committing crime by 12.2%.  This implies their application is highly significant (Greenwood, 2008)

Juvenile Delinquency Treatment

Juvenile delinquency treatment focuses on teenage who have already had an encounter with the police and been convicted from ever going back to the criminal justice system. The main aim is to try and change their behaviors, their perspective of the world, and their ability to survive in the community without thinking of criminal ways to survive. The main principle behind juvenile treatment the character, behavior or whatever reason propagated committing of crime in the first place and focus on neutralizing it to ensure that this does not push released youths into reoffending. The program thus range from anger management for those in jails or probation to reduce working in impulse, behavioral control, feeling the painful consequences of own act among other thing. Below is a review of some of the measures employed to treat juvenile who are already engaged in crime for the first time to avoid reoffending.

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Multisystemic Therapy (MST)

MST is an intensive community- and family-based intervention for notorious juvenile offenders wherein young offenders get to have weekly meeting with two to four therapists, together with their families at school or home for three to five months. MST centers on community, individual, school, family and peer risk factors which contribute to development and growth of youth antisocial behaviors. MST needs measurable, concrete effort from both families and youths, and builds on strengths of youths in lives while changing problematic interaction with peers and family. The program keeps the serious juvenile offenders in the community but under strict supervision. Based on the research, MST is one of the most effective programs in treatment of juvenile offenders (Henggeler, Clingempeel, Brondino & Pickrel, 2002). A research conducted to assess the rate of recidivism among juvenile offenders four years after being treated using MST demonstrated that low rate of reoffending, around 22.1%. This is regarded to be significant especially when compared to individual therapy group of participants who were said to have 71.4% rate of recidivism. The most interesting part about MST is that even participants who were engage in a practical program were able to reduce their recidivism rate to 46.6% which is still lower than those who went through individual therapy program. Based on these results, it is thus more effective to initiate MST intervention to juvenile offenders while still in the community than incarcerating them. In addition MST is found to be cost effective where by the net MST program cost was $4743 per participant, saving a total of $131 918 for every participants. Its level of efficiency is thus considerably high (May, Osmond & Billick, 2014).

Restorative Justice

Restorative justice is a program used to treat juvenile delinquency. The program in based on two competing juvenile delinquent treatment theories; restoration and punishment.  One of the main goals of this program is to reinstate justice to the community and victim by confronting or punishing the offender to make him or her feel the consequence of his or her actions. The structure permits for some therapeutic measures for juvenile delinquent, which includes talking responsibility for committed crime and accountability (Weatherburn & Macadam, 2013). Nevertheless, the approach is said to be single-dimensional, to be short with each participant only being offered just a single session with facilitator of the program.

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As a result, juvenile delinquent learns very little regarding being pro-social. The program only focuses on the crime, giving higher priority to the victim rather than focusing on addressing delinquent behavior. The main critique of this program is that it might fail to reduce the rate of reoffending in all kind of crimes and hence it does not play any tangible role in reducing the rate of crimes in the society. RJ program is only said to result to a significant future criminality reduction amongst first-time, male offenders who were below 14 years of age. Chances of reoffending were highly influencing on the initial age an offender was while being introduced to RJ.  This means older children will likely reoffend even after taking RJ program. Nevertheless, the program is said to be much better compared to detention (Weatherburn & Macadam, 2013).

Community-Based Treatment       

Community based treatment is one of the most effective and feasible juvenile delinquency treatment approach discovered in the last few decades. Juvenile offenders’ community based programs has increased since the development of juvenile delinquency prevention act and initiatives.  Some of community based treatment approaches include different degrees of community probation, which can range from residential placements to minimal supervision and which may slightly differ with regards to community access from placements institution and atmosphere. A dispositional alternative is restitution which has become popular recently. Restitution entails either the accused young offender paying directly to the victim as a way of compensating the victim for the loss, or carrying out an equivalent measure of public service.  Restitution programs sometimes entail direct mediation between victim and the offender. The restitution popularity mirrors three main justice systems trends which include centering on personal responsibility for the crime, a developing concern on victim’s right and obscuring of variation between civil and criminal law (Araki, Braunschweig, Conant & Dabel, 2003). Restitution program are regarded to be effective since they leave a victim more satisfied for the punishment given or compensation received. The research also shows that two of four restitution programs lower recidivism by two to three years following the treatment as contrasted to control group. However, research has revealed other important data such as lack of any significant difference between restitution conditions with counseling and without. Those who refuse restitution to probation were also found to have same rate of recidivism compared to restitution offenders.  The performance of community based in terms of efficiency can thus be regarded as fair.

Aspect of Prevention and Treatment are Similar and Different

The main similarity between prevention and treatment of juvenile delinquency is that they are both driven by similar goals. The two aim at streamlining the life of the probable juvenile offender or an offender to prevent them from being entangled to crime and destroying their life. They both also focus on reducing the cost burden of supporting a youth offender in the criminal justice and correction center to adulthood, which is quite expensive. However, prevention does so by preventing those at risk from being vulnerable while treatment does so by trying to ensure that those who have already been in the crime trap do not reoffend (OJJDP, 2000). The two programs center on similar approaches which are based on individual, families and community intervention measures and they are all defined based on identified risk factors.

The main difference between delinquent treatment and prevention deprograms is that, prevention can target children even in their early childhood, while treatment normally focuses on older children, who have the strength and courage to commit a crime. While prevention can take place at the targeted audience own setting, treatment may be restricted by the laws of criminal justice, and the mostly happen at an authorized place, sometimes with supervision or restriction of the delinquent youth. Justice system laws and restrictions must be considered and they highly guide on the measure to employ.  Another major difference is that the efficiency in prevention program is measured based on the rate of first involvement with police while treatment efficiency is measured based on the chances of re-involvement with the police or justice system.

General Importance of Prevention and Treatment, why they are necessary and their Level of Inter-Relation The research has identified that there are risk factors which increase chances of children being involved with justice system today or in the future. These factors mostly include things beyond a child control for instance abusive family, poor socioeconomic status, birth characters, and the neighborhood. This simply means the rate of crime would reduce if all children are born in a good, stable home environment, with enough income to cater for all child’s needs and rights. However, this is not possible and as a result most of children involved in crime are forced by their current or previous life situation. It is therefore logical to help such children from wasting their life as prisoners in criminal justice system, by helping them to cope with their situation and acquire skills to help them survive without engaging in crime. It is also important to ensure children with emotional and behavioral issues associated to their birth or history are able to control them so ensure that they live well with others and to protect them from encountering with police. Thus prevention and treatment are important since they help disadvantaged children from being dominated by their circumstance and offer them a way to have a better future. They also help in preventing losses in the government revenue due to high maintenance of people in the justice system and also in developing a crime free society. The juvenile delinquency prevention and treatment program are interrelated in that they both aim at correcting youths with intention of protecting them from crime.

Church and State, Formation of Laws, Public Policy, and Political Activity

Religion has consistently played a significant role in shaping and underpinning the United States, as demonstrated in the Pledge of Alliance to the Flag, specifically by the phrase “…one nation under God…” However, the appropriate relationship between the institutions of Church and State, especially in matters regarding the formation of laws, public policy, and political activity, has been a longstanding subject of debate. This post emphasizes that there should exist a clear separation of the Church and the State to ensure protection of individual freedoms.

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The founding fathers desired for the separation of Church and State. This is well encapsulated in Thomas Jefferson’s letter to the Danbury Baptists in 1802, whereby he called this distinction “a wall of separation between Church and State” (Fraser, 2016). The First Amendment of the US Constitution also asserts that State shall not make any law regarding establishing religion or prohibiting the free exercise of the same (Batalla & Baring, 2019). Notably, this means that the State should not interfere with the Church or limit people’s freedom to practice their religion of choice either in implementing laws, public policies, or political activities.

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In recent decades, there have been arguments that the wall separating Church and State is eroding. This regards to the claims that the current regime is extending special privileges to religious organizations. The Payment Protection Program of 2020 is an example of events cited, whereby the State has infringed the separation of Church and State (Soucek, 2020). This alludes to the need for the State to re-evaluate its adherence to the separation of the two. Separation of Church and State not only ensures freedom of religion but also seeks to make certain that religion does not unfairly influence laws, public policies, and political activities and vice versa.