The unexpected rise in inflation causes wealth to be redistributed in a random manner between groups such as borrowers and lenders. I would rather be a borrower during an unanticipated period of rising inflation since this period allows borrowers to repay lenders with money that is worth less than it was when the money was borrowed, which is beneficial to both borrowers and lenders. As Tinoco et al. (2018) point out, when inflation results in higher prices, there is a stronger demand for borrowing, which leads to higher interest rates charged by lenders. Individuals who borrow or lend money typically consider the rate of inflation when making their decisions. It is certain that the amount of interest paid or collected will exceed expectations if inflation continues to outpace predictions. Lenders suffer as a result of unexpected inflation since the money they receive as repayment has less purchasing power than the money they loaned out in the first place.
Due to unforeseen inflation, borrowers benefit from their loans because the money they repay is worth less than the money they borrowed in the first place. For example, if salaries rise in lockstep with inflation and the borrower was already in debt before the inflation, the inflation will be beneficial to the borrower and the lender. This is due to the fact that the borrower’s debt stays unchanged, but they now have additional money in their paycheck to utilize to pay it down. If the borrower utilizes the additional funds to pay off their debt early, the lender will charge less interest as a result of the early repayment. When a business takes out a loan, the money it obtains today will be returned with money produced later on in the business’s life. Inflation, by definition, is the process by which the value of a currency decreases over time. To put it another way, currency is currently more valuable than it will be in the future. Consequently, inflation allows borrowers to repay lenders with money that is less valuable than it was when the money was originally borrowed (Tinoco et al. 2018).
Inflation can be advantageous to lenders in a variety of ways, the most notable of which being the ability to provide new credit. As a start, increased costs lead to more people seeking loans to acquire large-ticket items, particularly if their salaries have remained stagnant. As a result, new customers for lending institutions are created. In addition, the increased pricing of those items results in a higher rate of interest for the lending institution. During an unexpected period of falling inflation, I would like to be a lender rather than a borrower because when inflation is lower than expected (or even negative), the consequence is the polar opposite of unexpected inflation: lenders benefit while borrowers suffer. As a result, I wish to take advantage of the current situation.
In the event of an unanticipated disinflation or deflation, the money lenders receive back has greater purchasing power than the money they put out initially (Klinefelter et al. 2020). Those who borrow money suffer the most from deflation because they are compelled to pay it back with money that is worth more than what they borrowed it for in the first place. The vast majority of inflation-targeting policies are intended to keep inflation low and predictable as long as possible. Inflation that is too close to zero increases the likelihood of deflation. Deflation is tremendously harmful to an economy, and it is frequently associated with severe recessions and depressions, as well as other economic problems. Instead of talking about deflation, when policymakers talk about “lowering inflation,” they are referring to slowing the rate of inflation (also known as disinflation).