Evolution Of Political Science


Politics involves the exercise of power especially in making decision collectively in the running and managing of nations interests and needs by elected representatives. Political science traces its origin from the earliest creek philosophers that included Aristotle, Plato and Socrates. The instance political science in the United States was initiated in 1880 in Columbia University. The American political science association was later formed in 1903. Traditionalists had different views on political science, which further changed after the introduction of behaviorism in political science. Here various scientific methodologies were used to define politics and thus brought a whole change to the political science arena. Political science as a discipline began in the 19th century. In the traditional approach, the focus was on the organization, nature and purpose of the state with an emphasis on philosophical, ethical and humanistic perspectives.  The traditionalists mostly focused on qualitative research since they did not buy into the idea that politics can be explains naturally in scientific terms. As such, they did not believe that science would contribute in any way the understanding of human behavior.

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Political science has tended to focus on studying human behavior using empirical methods connected to natural sciences in studying politics and sciences. From then on, it has changed from focusing on legal codes, formal institutions and political history to the behavior of political groups or individuals. A t present the science has borrowed greatly from psychology in defining behavior in politics. Charles Merriam was one initiator of traditional politics who wanted people to not only focus on the law the politicians would abide on but their behavior also.

Comparative politics focuses on determine the operation of different political systems. It usually entails the comparisons of systems at both micro and macro levels. Comparative politics can examine the way campaigns are run in different country or the systems of government in the respective countries. Various scholars like Tenahau and Somit have spoken on the emergence of behavioralism. Behavioralist spoke of the political science scene as being related to mood, revolution, protest or persuasion to elucidate on the research involving political behavior.

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American political scientists came with up with liberal pluralism which was a new democratic theory. Though behavioralism is distinct from pluralism, it in political science it can be considered as a part of behavioralism. America hacker pointed out the difference between American behavioralism and that of Britain because in Britain they were judged by their positions and not what they did which was the converse in America. McCathysm molded academic freedom greatly (Price, 2004). It affected behavioralism was viewed by different scholars as a means of escape from the pressures in the academic domain because mostly he or she focused on not surfaced to bear the pressure about on limited himself to a small audience. Such behavior was termed timid and untoward (Easton, 1985; Farr, 1995).

Easton commented on social problems in 1969 and stated that they are subtle since they do not come in a way that one can readily notice like   political social and economic problems. The problems come because of the individual behaviors of the persons in the leadership positions (Easton 1960). Alan Abramowitz focused the electorate and in their voting. He dealt extensively with political parties, elections and American politics in America. He spoke about the polarized voters and the dysfunctional government in the United States.

Easton is a scholar who helped the political science field in that he had the view that behavioralism was more preoccupied with methodology than in finding out answers to public policy and substance orientation. His approach was to come up with scientific methodologies that were geared to problem solving and thus benefiting the public. Public Easton helped greatly in coming up with post behavioralism that focused on problem and changing improving life in the society. Therefore, service to the society was stressed more in the new approach as compared to the older approach than only focused on the use of methodologies that did not yield much to the public.

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