Similarities and differences between Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Taxonomy of Learning Outcomes
Bloom’s Taxonomy is somehow similar to Gagne’s taxonomy of learning outcomes. The main similarity centers in how the two theorists view human learning outcomes. Both Bloom and Gagne believe that it is relevant to split the learned capabilities of humans into domains or categories. For this reason, Bloom has broken down the learned capabilities of humans into three categories of learning outcomes namely; cognitive, affective and psychomotor outcomes while Gagne has broken down humans’ learned capabilities into five domains of learning outcomes namely verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, attitudes, and motor skills. Both Gagne and Bloom believe that each and every domain of learning outcomes results into a special class of human performance (Corry, 1996).
However, Bloom’s Taxonomy and Gagne’s Taxonomy of learning outcomes are somewhat different. According to Gagne, learning outcomes require various conditions of learning that are classified as internal and external conditions (Driscoll, 1994). The internal conditions focus on learned capabilities that the learner possessed prior to the instruction, while the external conditions are concerned with the instruction that is provided to the leaner by the instructor. On the contrary, Bloom believes that learning outcomes are mainly concerned with intellectual impacts (Corry, 1996).
Examples of designed elements that might reflect Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction within instructional design
According to Corry (1996), the first stage of learning as far as Gagne’s theory is concerned is determination of the objectives of instruction by the instructor. This is followed by categorization of the objectives into the best domain of learning outcomes that fit it. A standard verb that is linked with a specific learning outcome must be used to state each of the objectives (Driscoll, 1994). The conditions of learning for the specific learning outcome are then used by the instructor to identify the necessary conditions for learning. Finally, the instructor then chooses the events of instruction that are needed to enhance the internal process of learning. The chosen events are eventually used as the framework of developing a lesson plan (Corry, 1996).
The instructor must use the appropriate designed elements to reflect Gagne’s nine events of instruction within instructional design. In the first step, the instructor should assist the student to gain attention. For example, the learner can be asked to explain personal understanding of a given topic. This form of designed element assists the instructor to ground the lesson and to motivate the learner (Driscoll, 1994). In the second step, the instructor needs to describe the goal of instruction. For instance, the instructor can state what the learner should be able to accomplish at the end of the lesson. This enables the learner to frame information effectively. In the third step, the teacher should stimulate recall of previous knowledge. For instance, he or she can remind the learner about what was learnt in the previous lesson. This enables the student to establish a connection between prior knowledge and the current lesson (Corry, 1996).
In the fourth step, the teacher needs to present the material that is to be learnt to the student. For example, the students can be shown graphic and pictures that are relevant to the current lesson. This is important because it helps the learner to have a visual view of what is theoretically presented to him or her by the instructor (Driscoll, 1994). In step five, the instructor should provide guidance for learning. For instance, the teacher can present content that is to be learnt in a PowerPoint presentation. Step six involves allowing the students to practice what has already been learnt. For instance, the teacher can let the learner to summarize in writing what has just been taught (Corry, 1996).
In step seven, the instructor needs to provide feedback to the learner. For instance, the teacher can go through the response that has been presented by the learner. He or she should then take the learner through the response while identifying correct responses and presenting the best solution. Step eight involved assessing the learner’s performance. For example, the instructor can give the learner some test questions and allow the student to answer before grading him or her. The ninth step involves enhancing retention and transfer. For instance, instructor can inform the learner about real life problems that are similar to what has just been learnt in class. This gives the learner the opportunity to review and internalize the lesson, and transfer the acquired knowledge into practice (Corry, 1996).
How the use of an instructional design model might ensure that societal, cultural, and diversity needs are included in an instructional event
When using an instructional design model, the instructor must ensure that an instructional event takes care of societal, cultural, and diversity needs. These considerations must be applied in all phases of instructional design model. When giving instruction, the learner needs to recognize that learners have got different needs and preferences. In order to take care of all societal, cultural, and diversity issues, the instructor can design an instruction event that supports variations in language and learning styles. In addition, the teacher can create multiple communication channels that allows for easy communication between the tutor and the learner. Again, learning activities must be built of diversity and create a bridge between the student’s society and his or her culture (McLoughlin and Oliver, 2000).
Additionally, the instructor must ensure inclusivity and flexibility when offering choices in classroom and when delivering assessments. This will give learners the opportunity to choose their own pathways and modes of tacking different tasks. The tutor must also remember to design motivating tasks that allow learners from different cultural backgrounds to share ideas. When instructors are designing instructional events, they must avoid about cultural expectations and stereotypes. This enables learners to integrate new knowledge and be able to apply the knowledge in a culturally diverse environment (McLoughlin and Oliver, 2000).
A culturally appropriate instructional design must use design elements that match constructivism principles. The instructional events must acknowledge multicultural realities and maintain social justice and equality. Essentially, an instructional event that is culturally inclusive must allow flexibility and variability while at the same time enabling learners to discover new things through interaction with materials (McLoughlin and Oliver, 2000). For an instructor to be able to design an instructional event that takes care of societal, cultural and diversity issues, he or she must understand the different ways in which culture influences learning. This will help them to determine the pedagogical and philosophical goals that must be achieved when offering instructions to learners. In order to evaluate whether a design in culturally inclusive, the instructor should allow a member of the minority group in the classroom to review the design for appropriateness before it can be presented to the learners (McLoughlin and Oliver, 2000).
Differences between program evaluation and learner assessment
Investigating how well students have performed is a very important part of instruction. While information obtained from such investigations may be used in assigning grades, the same information can be used to develop or improve a learning program. In order to determine the purpose of the information obtained, it is important to understand the difference between program evaluation and learner assessment. Program evaluation and learner assessment differ in terms of their purposes. Program evaluation is the process through which the worth of a curriculum is examined and it facilitates planning, implementation and improvements of a program’s outcomes (Baehr, 2012).
Conversely, learner assessment refers to the process through which skill levels of the learner are identified using a number of variables such as computational skill, reading skills, writing skills, social skills and many others. Learner assessment is always carried out with the aim of improving future performance and students’ learning outcomes. Instructional design models ensure that both program evaluation and design assessment are included during the design process by focusing on both the learning program and the learner in all phases of the models (Baehr, 2012).