Definition of organizational effectiveness
Organizational effectiveness is not only achieved by making sure that all operations in an organization are running smoothly. An organization should consider itself successful if it is able to achieve greater performance, efficiency, and productivity within a specified period of time. Understanding organizational effectiveness concept and knowing how to apply its various theories is very important to the management of criminal justice personnel, because it helps managers to determine the most appropriate methods of exerting control (Bisig, Seiler and Tresch, 2009). Organizational effectiveness encompasses diverse aspects of management, and this explains why it has numerous and heterogeneous definitions. Bisig, Seiler and Tresch (2009) define organizational effectiveness as the degree and pace at which an organization achieves its mission by taking into account; effective utilization of resources, the stability of internal systems, and the quality of interactions with the environment. Generally, the term organizational effectiveness describes how well an organization utilizes its resources to effectively meet the set goals in a dynamic business environment. In the criminal justice system, various managers can apply theories of organizational effectiveness in management to ensure that resources are effectively utilized in their departments.
Theories of organizational effectiveness: Management of criminal justice
Several theories have been used to explain the relevance of organizational effectiveness concept to managers. The first model is goal theory or goal approach. Goal approach assumes that organizational achievement is measured in terms of achievement of outcomes. By applying goal approach to measure organizational achievement in the criminal justice system, managers should focus exclusively on achievement of goals, targets, and objectives (Henri, 2015). The second theory is system resource model focuses on the means used to achieve specific outcomes in terms of inputs and resources. System resource approach assumes that organizational effectiveness is achieved when a company is able to obtain the necessary resources from external sources to facilitate achievement of outputs. Managers in the criminal justice department can apply system resources theory by understanding that effective management of resources is very crucial in achievement of positive outcomes (Ashraf and Kadir, 2012).
The third theory is known as strategic constituency model. This theory widens the scope of the first two approaches by focusing on the impact of organization’s activities on stakeholders and their interests. In this respect, an organization is viewed as a set of internal and external components that interact to achieve the desired results. Based on strategic constituency approach, managers in the criminal justice system should define organizational effectiveness based on their ability to serve the interests of stakeholders.
The fourth model is the process theory which mainly pays attention to the change process with reference to resources and products. Process theory views organizational effectiveness as the extent to which resources can be utilized to generate product and services. In this regard, an organization is only considered effective if its internal processes and procedures are efficient and can generate the required products and services (Henri, 2015). Top managers in the criminal justice system can apply process theory in achieving organizational effectiveness by providing efficient and timely information to all executives and workers to ensure that resources are effectively transformed into products ((Ashraf and Kadir, 2012).
Methods for exerting control in an organizational setting
Organizational leaders must be able to exert control in order to achieve organizational effectiveness (Henri, 2015). Top managers, including those working in the criminal justice system, use a number of methods to exert control in their organizations. The method used must align with the corporate mission statement of the organization. One of the methods that managers use to exert control in an organizational setting is through establishment of performance standards that must be achieved within a specific period of time. Top managers normally hold other managers accountable for achieving the set standards. For instance, the top manager in a criminal justice system may document clear job descriptions for new employees. These descriptions must clearly be followed by human resource managers when they are hiring new workers (Henri, 2015).
Additionally, managers exert control in an organizational setting by measuring employee performance. The most commonly used employee assessment tool is performance appraisal which is conducted every six months. Performance measurement assists top managers to find out whether other managers are on track to meet the set goals. Those who do not meet performance standards may either be fired or given additional training and education. Furthermore, some managers exert control in their organizations through creation of an organizational structure that can best control workflow. For instance, the criminal justice system can arrange its corporate structure into different functions, such as police officers and supervisors working in their respective departments, in order to meet goals within the shortest time possible and at reduced cost. Managers can also exert control in an organizational setting by adopting different leadership styles to facilitate easy authorization and monitoring of work (Henri, 2015).
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