Many scholar have argued that strategy of anti-colonial revolution and politics in the 21st century was the foundation of the modern terrorism. These nationalistic and endemic terror groups sought sympathy from international community, created anti-imperialist wave in the home country voters as well as using terror campaign to target security forces(White, 2014). Example of the a long-term nationalistic and endemic terror group include the anti-colonial terrorism in Cyprus commonly known as EthnikiOrganosisKyprionAgoniston (EOKA) against British, Algerian National Liberation Front (FLN) against France, Kenyan Mau Mau violent movement against British, Chechens rebels against Russian Federation, Kurdish Workers Party (PKK) against the Turkey and Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda among others.
National Organization for Cypriot Fighters, EOKA
British colony occupied Cyprus after the Word War II. As a result, GeorgiosGrivas created national organization for Cypriot fighters (EOKA) and since he had served in the Greek Army who resisted Germany from occupying Cyprus during World War II, he had the experience and determination to resist British from also occupying Cyprus in the similar version. The main objectives of the EOKA was to overthrow the British colonialism and liberating Cyprus people from any oppression(Schneier, 2003). In order to realize these objectives, Grivas drew international attention through clandestine campaign of violence and tying up the British troops in the urban areas. By doing so, EOKA was able to thwart any military offensive that targeted the rebels since the British military was more equipped and powerful than the EOKA.
Therefore, the terrorist group used small groups of EOKA to strike in Cypriot cities.Although British military responded to these terrorism act by increasing the number of military personnel in the island and appointing field marshal to govern the island. This also include increasing the penalties for crimes(French, 2015). However, these action increased the international pressure on British to stop oppressing the Cyprus people as well as EOKA members. Following these development, British government was forced to grant Cyprus it is independence in the year 1959. Cyprus retained its authority over the entire island and allowed British to maintained only two military bases in the island.
This is a long-term nationalistic and endemic terrorism group that was formed against the Russian Federation. The rebel carried out the terrorism activities in the entire North Caucus region. The Chechens rebel groups struggled for autonomy and called for nationalism to fight against the Russian Federation(Falkowski, 2015). However, Russian Federation responded by branding the members of Chechens as Jihadists. Although, Chechens used jihadist tactics and wanted the Chechnya to be seen as a Islamist state, the group has been condemned for using women as suicide bombers commonly known as Black Widows and employing hit-and-run tactics which is commonly described as guerrilla warfare.
These behaviors led to harsh military reprisals and so, the Chechens resorted to psychological warfare, where the hostages were starved water and food and allocating women a leading role(Falkowski, 2015). By isolating the hostage, the Chechens prevented them from forming a formidable bond that would be detrimental to their objectives in the long run. At some point, the Chechens executed few of the hostage publicly at the beginning in order to instill fear to the remaining. Analysis have indicated that all the long-term nationalistic and terrorist groups have employed similar tactics when trying to draw international attention. Although most of them lost the war militarily, they emerged victorious politically because they were able to liberate their countries and gain independences.
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