Stages of Group Development
Group development is typically defined as a lifecycle typified by a system of developmental stages. One popular model that can be used to describe the group development stages is the Tuckman Model. This model defines four main stages that include performing, forming, norming and storming. The five stages of group formation as outlined by Tuckman are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning.
Forming is a group’s life early stage as team members come together and start to establish ways to share common purpose and interact. At this stage, team member should try to communicate as they try to know each other where they would share personal details such as name, information about culture, achievements, focus, career development stage, life goals and focus, their strengths, and weaknesses among others (Frances, 2008).
The second stage is storming where the values, relationships and roles of the group are negotiated and contested. This includes defining the group control and leadership. This stage involves a lot of communication through asking questions. Conflict is anticipated especially in aspects related to defining leadership and control. It would be necessary for the members to use simple language that can be understood by all. A contribution strategy should be adopted to ensure all members can comfortably speak up to give their view. This is also important to eliminate chaos or dominance by some members while others remain quite. Members should employ self-control as they try to understand each other’s views, beliefs and priorities. A strategic process should be used in identifying the group’s roles, goals and voting for the right leaders.
The third stage is norming which involves establishment of the group’s expectations, norms and roles. This can be achieved by understanding individual members’ strength and weaknesses and defining roles based on individual strengths. High level of cooperation, communication and collaboration will be needed, such that members will be unified by the set goals and be determined to work toward attaining them.
The fourth stage is performing which involves establishment of the group processes and ability to function within the define limitations in a reasonably effective way. This will involve division of work, setting milestones, time schedule and sharing of resources (Frances, 2008). A high level of determination, expertise and efficiency will be needed to ensure that the project does not take longer than anticipated, and that it does not go past the budget. This will help the group to get to the stage of adjournment which is the last stage where the group is dismissed after accomplishing its goals and purpose.
Tuckman’s Five Stages of Group Formation Review
Tuckman documented five stages that groups must pass through to be considered fully developed. The five stages of group formation as outlined by Tuckman are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. During forming stage, all team members desired to be accepted in the group and be assured of its safety. Members try to gather the similarities and differences among themselves while avoiding serious topics. Here, the team leader is responsible for directing the team towards the right direction. In the second stage called storming, conflict and competition among team members is very common. Team members struggle to mold their feelings, beliefs, and ideas, but the most important thing is to have a problem-solving mentality and move forward (Tukman, 1965).
In Norming stage, team members begin to come together and acknowledge the contribution of each member. Members demonstrate willingness to change their beliefs and opinions. The main task during norming stage is to try and share feelings and be ready to give feedback when any member of the team needs it. The fourth stage of group development which is known as performing is characterized by independent work among team members where they adjust their roles to meet the needs of all members of the group. During performing stage, members remain task oriented and focused on problem solving. Tuckman’s final stage of group development, adjourning, involves finalization of tasks and withdrawal from initially formed relationships. It is at this stage when the team leader recognizes participants and gives members the opportunity to say personal goodbye (Tukman, 1965).