In the United States there are 31 supermax prisons where prisoners who are escape-prone, violet, and disruptive from other state prison get held. Supermaxprisonersbarely ever leave their prison cell since generally they are given one hour a day as out-of-cell time (Haney, 2003). They get not permitted to any group or social activity and theyconsume all of their meals unaccompanied in the cells. Generally, supermax prisoners can survive for many years detached from the natural world surrounding them.
Given the extraordinary degree of seclusion and absence of activities, supermax prisoners are greatly affected by long-term pathologies. Supermax prisoners have worsening social skills and have the trend to become mentally ill over time.Therefore, this form of confinement plays a role in aggravating mental illness in prison since it affects psychology and self-perception of inmates (Lorna, 2005).
However, this is believed to be the contradictoryoutcome of what the communitydesires from prisons. Additionally, the nonexistence of environmental and socialencouragement has been established to result to a variety of mental health complications, stretching from restlessness and misperception to hallucinations and psychosis (Haney, 2003). On the other hand, insufficiency of access to sunlight and fresh air and extended days of idleness are probable also to have physical issues such as back and other joint pains, worsening of eyesight, deprivedhunger, weight loss, fatigue, shaking, and exacerbation of pre-existing medical complications.