Social Anxiety Disorder Research Paper


For persons unacquainted with phobias, it is common for them to assume that they are mere irrational fears capable of being controlled by respective victims. However, individuals grappling with such conditions acknowledge their gravity and impact on their quality of life. According to the 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), phobias differ greatly from common fears given that they are more severe and often persistent (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Persons suffering from a specific type of phobia every so often describe them as an uncontrollable and overwhelming desire to avoid specific stimuli responsible for triggering them.  Social anxiety disorder or social phobia one such disorder, primarily characterized by extreme distress during social interaction and an irrational fear of prejudgment and public embarrassment. It is, therefore, fundamental to describe this problem in detail, major characteristics associated with the disorder, at-risk populations and comorbidities, and the types of interventions available today.

Read also Anxiety Specific Phobias Research Paper

Social Anxiety Disorder, DSM-5 300.23 (F40.10)

            Social anxiety disorder is a phobia characterized by extreme distress during social interactions. Persons suffering from the condition are overly concerned with their standing in public and frequently preoccupied by the fear of humiliation or being judged by others. According to Comer & Comer (2017), social anxiety may also encompass an irrational fear of scrutiny by others in performance scenarios, the fear of eating in front of others or registering poor results at school or within an occupational capacity. As a consequence, persons suffering from this disorder inadvertently end up being excessively judgmental of their ability to perform and thrive in public. This may, eventually, impede personal success presently and in the future.

Read also Agoraphobia, Symptoms, Treatment and Potential Impact at Workplace

Among one of the most common consequences of social phobia is a general inability, by competent individuals, to discharge important duties and responsibilities due to the condition. Since social anxiety disorder is normally an uncomfortable subject to broach; which explains why sufferers may end up failing to honor social invitations and obligations. This response might, therefore, be misconstrued as pride, arrogance, disinterest, or hostility towards well-meaning individuals and can have a negative impact on interpersonal relationships shared with close friends and family. Social anxiety disorder has increasingly become a major focal point in mental health owing to its severity and the very fact that this disabling fear can incapacitate sufferers to the point of inhibiting the possibility of future social contact.

Characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder

            Several diagnostic characteristics distinguish social anxiety disorder from other mental health conditions listed in DSM-5.  Furthermore, these specific characteristics are also utilized as a benchmark in the evaluation of whether presenting cases satisfy the prevailing standard diagnostic criteria. The most common distinguishing attribute associated with social anxiety disorder is an extreme irrational fear and apprehension in social settings. Persons suffering from the condition may, therefore, wrongly assume that they are the center of attention, therefore warranting an urgent need to remain unnoticed in a “hostile” environment (Koyuncu et al., 2019). Such attitudes then hinder social interaction in social settings or exercising public speaking; fearing their avoidant behavior may manifest when least expected. Persons suffering from social anxiety disorder are also likely to experience extreme irrational distress over social interactions and even resort to crying or experience panic attacks. Furthermore, social phobia is also characterized by the fear of social rejection due to perceived inadequacies associated with their condition. Individuals suffering from social anxiety disorder are exceedingly self-conscious and may exhibit disproportionate anxiety over perceived physical blemishes or character traits (Lee & Lee, 2018). The condition may also impair subjects from optimal functioning in an occupational capacity resulting in strained interpersonal relationships with coworkers and fellow team members. Initially, social phobia may appear as extreme “shyness” during social interactions but later progress to avoidant behavior.

Prevalence and Comorbidities

            Since SAD frequently affects a considerable cross-section of the general population at any given point in their lives, the condition is designated a “lifetime prevalence” label. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), under the patronage of the National Institute of Mental Health Disorders, estimates that 7.1% of the adult population in the U.S. experienced social phobia within the past year (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020). Epidemiological studies also indicate that, if left untreated, both generalized and non-generalized SAD may become a lifelong problem for vulnerable segments of the population predisposed to developing the condition.  Since the onset often begins between late childhood and early adolescence, parents are strongly advised to seek professional help from their respective healthcare providers to address the condition during its formative stages using first-line interventions approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Although SAD’s gender distribution is relatively equal during the pre-adolescence, the condition later affects more females (8.0%) than it does males (6.1%) at a ratio of 2.5:1.2 respective (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020). This gender ratio disparity is mostly attributed to women’s propensity to express greater fear in a wide array social situations comparative to men and further cemented by existing cross-cultural variations. However, a study by Koyuncu et al., (2019) concluded that major psychiatric comorbidities associated with SAD include bipolar disorder, major depression, alcohol use disorder, and personality disorder. Their presence may, therefore, have a major impact on disease progression and ultimately impact care-seeking behavior.

Possible Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder

Pharmacological Treatment

            Pharmacological intervention is typically recommended for patients experiencing severe bouts of social phobia. According to (Rowa et al., (2018), first-line pharmacological interventions for SAD include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and benzodiazepine. The intention of exploiting this intervention is to improve sufferer’s quality of life and enable them to function optimally in public.

Psychological Interventions

            The application of psychological interventions is a popular and highly efficient solution in managing SAD. Some of the most common psychological interventions range from methods such as exposure in vivo, social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy (Rowa et al., 2018). The rationale informing their use is in their ability to equip sufferers with sufficient psychological tools to address their respective phobias on a self-help basis.

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Research Paper on Why Adolescents Use Drugs

Why do Adolescents Use Drugs?

The usage of drugs by adolescents can range from exploratory to pathological. Adolescents who use substances regularly are more likely to have short-term problems such as automobile accidents, conflicts, unwanted sexual activity, and overdose. Substance abuse harms teenage brain development. According to Das et al. (2016), adolescents who regularly use alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, or other substances are more likely to develop long-term problems such as mental health problems, educational underachievement, substance abuse, and addiction as adults. Taking risks and looking for thrills is a normal aspect of modern adolescent development. By the time they graduate from high school, approximately 70 percent of adolescents will have experimented with drugs or alcohol at some point (Das et al., 2016).

Read also Why do Adolescents Use Drugs?

Adults should not denigrate, disregard, or tolerate even the most infrequent use of illicit substances. It is difficult to overstate the importance of parental views and behavior when it comes to substance abuse, especially when using alcohol, cigarettes, prescription medicines, and other substances themselves. According to national polls, Novacek et al. (2018) among 12th-graders, the percentage who say they have never taken any substances has consistently increased over the past 40 years. Prescription opiates and high-potency marijuana are among the more potent and deadly items now readily available. These goods increase the risk of both short- and long-term repercussions for teenagers who begin using substances due to these products (Novacek et al., 2018).

Read also Drug Abuse in Teenagers – Research Paper

Other risk factors for adolescent smoking include poor academic performance, extreme dieting, especially among females, physical fighting and drunk driving, especially among guys, and the use of alcohol or other substances, which is more common among boys (Novacek et al., 2018).

Teenagers with low self-esteem, poor problem-solving skills, and easy access to cigarettes may use tobacco in various ways. About 3.5 percent of high school students have used smokeless tobacco in the last decade, according to (Santrock, 2005) . People above the age of 12 are less likely to smoke cigarettes than a few years ago. Parents can help prevent their children from smoking or using smokeless tobacco products by providing positive role models, addressing the hazards of tobacco, and assisting teenagers who already smoke or chew to stop using it (Novacek et al., 2018).

Read also Drug and Substance Abuse Among School Aged Youth

Randall & York (2020) demonstrate that 39 percent of people between the ages of 18 and 25 use drugs, compared to 34 percent of people between 26 and 29. Within seven years, 70% of individuals who try an illegal drug before their thirteenth birthday have developed a substance dependence disorder; just 27% of those who try it after their seventeenth birthday do so. Opioid use problems affect 29.5 million people worldwide, with opioids being the most dangerous. According to a NACADA study, 11.7% of males and 5.4% of girls in high school use illicit drugs, and the majority of these students begin their drug and alcohol usage during their youth (Randall & York, 2020).

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Males and girls use virtually all illicit drugs in dramatically different ways, and boys are statistically more likely than females to attend an emergency room or die due to an overdose. Drunk driving is considered “illicit,” and marijuana use and prescription medication abuse. Men are significantly more likely than women to use or get addicted to illicit drugs and alcohol throughout the great majority of age groups (Randall & York, 2020). It is a problem that affects women just as much as men when it comes to drug usage. According to research, women are more likely than men to experience the craving16–19 and relapse20,21 phases of the addiction cycle. Regarding drug treatment, women face unique problems, such as getting child care or being provided medicine that has not been thoroughly studied in female patients before being prescribed.

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Adolescents with mental health issues are more likely to engage in substance addiction, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, inhalants, and other illicit substances. Special care and therapy are needed since substance abuse frequently begins during this formative time. Substance use disorder not otherwise specified (SUDNOS) may be diagnosed in adolescents experiencing signs of substance dependency but are not yet at the point where they fit the criteria for substance dependence. Anxiety and depression are typical comorbidities among teenagers who use drugs, as are bipolar illness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Randall & York, 2020). A person’s substance use issue is often helped by treatment for their mental illness.

Unfortunately, the root of substance use often goes far deeper than “experimentation” for many teens and young people entangled with substances. Parents and caregivers, behavioral and mental health issues, deprivation, lack of opportunities, support networks, and parental supervision are just some of the things that could affect the path to drug and substance abuse at an early age (Randall & York, 2020). Parents who do not keep an eye on their kids, do not communicate well with their kids, do not set clear rules against drugs and alcohol, and do not use alcohol or drugs themselves are all risk factors for adolescent substance abuse, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

In addition to school-based preventive programs, research has indicated that family-based intensive interventions, which usually emphasize family functioning, effectively reduce smoking. According to Das et al. (2016), students’ academic performance improved as a result of a “Smoke-Free Class Competition,” according to the findings of a different study (SFC). This program, implemented in schools across the country, includes a promise to quit smoking, contract management, and monetary awards as part of its overall strategy to reduce smoking. According to the findings of this study, the involvement of the SFC helps decrease the number of students who are currently smoking cigarettes in their dorm rooms. When studies of school-based smoking prevention programs were examined by Das et al. (2016), it was determined that they varied in terms of intensity, the number of booster sessions they included, the duration of their follow-up periods, and the percentage of students who participated. Furthermore, Das et al. (2016) showed just a little evidence that school-based smoking reduction programs had a long-term impact. Effective mass media campaigns have an acceptable level of intensity over a long period of time.

Adolescents who get school-based alcohol prevention programs are less likely to drink frequently, whereas those who receive these programs through their families are less likely to drink frequently. Interventions based on social competency and social influence implemented in schools have been demonstrated to be effective in preventing drug misuse, including marijuana usage (Novacek et al., 2018). Prevention of smoking through family-based interventions is critical in reducing smoking rates. Novacek et al. (2018) indicate that children between the ages of 11 and 14 were subjected to intense interventions to improve family functioning. School-based primary prevention programs are among the most effective strategies for preventing mixed substance misuse. A greater amount of research is needed to establish the effectiveness and impact of internet-based therapies and legislative measures and financial incentives.

Substance abuse in teenagers can have devastating impacts on the community. Addiction has the potential to inflict havoc on a family. Substance-abusing adolescents generally isolate themselves from their parents and siblings, engage in antisocial behavior, and cause havoc in the home. Anger and damaged feelings are possible outcomes. There may also be disciplinary concerns or troubles at school. Santrock, (2005) show that parents may be terrified or in denial, depending on the situation. When parents are worried about their children’s well-being, it is not uncommon for them to take their frustrations out on one another. There is nothing like a drug or alcohol addiction to bring down an otherwise content family dynamic. Physical and emotional abuse are also possibilities; some children go so far as to harm their parents physically. When family members resort to violence as a way of dealing with stress, it’s an indication that the family is in desperate need of counseling (Randall & York, 2020). In conclusion, among the causes of teen drug addiction in adolescents include experimental curiosity, peer pressure, low socio-economic conditions at home, and the desire for extra energy for daily tasks. Drug misuse can harm a teenager’s physical and mental health. Some medications cause sleepiness, while others cause insomnia, paranoia, or hallucinations. Chronic drug usage causes heart, kidney, and liver problems.

Evolution of Healthcare in the United States Since Postindustrial Period

Since the postindustrial period, health care in the US has evolved from a simple system of itinerant doctors with relatively little training to a complex system. Medical science, technology, and authority of the medical professionals undergird the complex system. This paper examines how health care in the US has evolved since the post-industrial period. It will also explore how the evolution of medical technology, graduate medical education, and professionalization of medical and nursing staff have influenced the delivery of care. Lastly, the paper investigates why the US has been unsuccessful in evolving the current health care system into a national health care system.

Read also Evolution of US Healthcare System since Post Industrial Period

Evolution of the US Health Care Since Postindustrial Period

In the pre-industrial era (the 1700s to 1800s), home remedies and itinerant physicians characterized health care in the US. Medical practice was in disarray as it was viewed as a trade rather than a profession. Additionally, health care involved primitive medical practices such as emetics and purgatives. The health care system also missed institutional core whereby hospitals served social welfare and custodial function. Substandard medical education also characterized health care, whereby medical education was via apprenticeship and not universities (Magner & Kim, 2017). Since the postindustrial era, health care in the US has significantly evolved, whereby it has morphed from a simple system to a complex system.

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The post-industrial period (the late 1800s to mid-1900s) saw American physicians gain professional sovereignty. The physicians started many of the early hospitals in the US, with financial support from philanthropists. Various factors including urbanization, advancements in science and technology, institutionalization, licensing, and educational reform fueled the transformation of health care in the post-industrial period. Since the postindustrial era, health care in the US has also seen the introduction of public health, health insurance, the birth of patient safety and quality improvement, patient-centered care, et cetera. Today, three main features define the US healthcare system: (1) corporatization, (2) professionalism, and (3) reliance on science and technology (Magner & Kim, 2017). Health care has become a domain of large corporations, which provide professionalized care and rely on science and technology to provide the best care to patients.

How has the evolution of medical technology, graduate medical education, and the professionalization of medical and nursing staff affected the delivery of care?

The evolution of medical technology, graduate medical education, and professionalization of medical and nursing staff have tremendously affected the delivery of health care. Besides directly improving the delivery of health care, advancements in technology have influenced other factors such as the growth of institutions, medical education, and urban development allowing health care in the US to evolve to a professional entity (Salmon, 2020). According to Salmon, health care in the US did not emerge as a professional entity until the beginning of the 20th century. Notably, technological advancements characterizing the 20th century fueled the evolution. Some of the groundbreaking medical discoveries of the 20th century include aseptic techniques, sterilization techniques, X-ray imaging, et cetera. Thus, technology made advanced treatment available.

Before the postindustrial period, physicians received their education via apprenticeship. The post-industrial era saw physicians receive graduate education, which led to the professionalization of health care delivery. The evolution improved the standard of care by requiring that medical practices require science-based education, skills, and expertise. This allowed for the institutionalization of the hospital whereby it became the institution core of health care delivery (Salmon, 2020). Thus, graduate education improved physicians’ competence leading to improved patient outcomes.

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The professionalization of medical and nursing staff influenced the delivery of care by facilitating the legitimacy and acceptance of professional care. Consequently, this improved the demand for professional services. The professionalization also affected medical education by information reforms such as laboratory instruction and science addition to the curriculum. Moreover, the professionalization facilitated organized medicine through licensure (Salmon, 2020). Therefore, professionalization enhanced the desirability of medical treatments.

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Why the US has Been Unsuccessful in Evolving the Current Health Care System into a National Health Care System           

Since the 20th century, the US has been striving to evolve its health care system into a national health care system. However, it has not succeeded due to the increased rise of private insurance since the mid-1990s. The private insurance coverages have proven costly for low-income Americans. Efforts to implement national health insurance have faced challenges ranging from public resistance to problems with receiving services. Polls conducted in the 1980s pointed out significant fear of loss of coverage and problems with receiving services as the main reasons why the US has been unsuccessful in evolving its current health care system to a national health care system. The main impediment to the evolution of the US health care system into a national health care system in the 20th and 21st century is the ever-rising cost of care which makes medical care unaffordable to all Americans (Dickman, Himmelstein, & Woolhandler, 2017). Thus, the federal government needs to devise ways to lower the cost of care and cultivate public trust to make the national healthcare system successful.

Causes of Police Brutality and their Remedies

Police Brutality

Law and order are essential for any civilized society; the lack of the two leads to anarchy. Hence, police are an integral function of any civilized society. Typically, police are responsible for enforcing the law, maintaining public order and safety, and detecting, preventing, and investigating criminal activities. Unfortunately, in the United States, the police have a longstanding history of abusing the power the public has entrusted them with, as demonstrated by the alarming prevalence of police brutality. According to Holmes (2017), police brutality refers to a police officer using force that exceeds the level required to control a situation, avoid injury, or sustain life. Holmes elucidates that police brutality has historically been a prevalent issue in the US. This paper seeks to examine the causes of police brutality to unearth perspectives that can inform lasting solutions to the problem. Notably, the use of excessive force by police against Americans is unjustifiable, and the government needs to treat it as a public safety issue. Developing clear and consistent standards for police officers’ training, involving mental health experts, and emphasizing accountability can help remedy the issue of police brutality in the US.

Read also Police Brutality In The USA – Sample Research Paper

Causes of Police Brutality and their Remedies


One of the causes of police brutality is the lack of sufficient training. According to Holmes (2017), most contemporary instances of police brutality indicate inadequate training. Holmes explains that police academies have adopted military approaches in their training programs. For instance, in the 1960s and mid-1970s, police academies began adopting aggressive military approaches to their training amid civil wars and the war on drugs. In the 1990s, they embraced a shift toward community policing. However, this did not last long since the 9/11 attacks reinvigorated the aggressive military training approach. Due to this type of training, police tend to rely on their military training when a situation escalates, even if it is mildly.

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Notably, police academies need to update their training programs regularly to ensure that police have the required knowledge and skills to police diverse populations. The academies should emphasize training prospects on focusing on safe containment to ensure they restrain from using unnecessary force when they graduate. When police do not have the proper training, they do not see anything wrong with their actions, even if they involve excessive force (Albrecht, 2017). Consequently, this leads to an increased prevalence of police brutality.

Over the years, there have been many reforms seeking to improve police training. However, they never seem to achieve the desired outcome effectively. For instance, in 2014, after the police brutality that caused the death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, the then president, Obama, established a task force that was to investigate the issue of police brutality and make necessary recommendations. The task force proposed several changes encouraging the state boards to oversee police training to ensure the training thoroughly tackles topics, such as crisis intervention, cultural responsiveness, indirect bias, and mental health, among others. The consequences of these recommendations are not viewable or are insignificant. Tracey Meares, a professor at Yale Law School, insists that it is impossible to know much about what the police departments across the US are doing to implement the changes since the federal government does not have many facts on policing (Preston, 2021).

Thus, whereas the government may have invested in the theoretical aspect of solving the training issue, the implementation part remains wanting. John DeCarlo, a former police chief, who now watches over the master’s program in Criminal Justice at the University of New Haven, emphasizes a need to revise the police training program curriculum. DeCarlo also proposes that state and federal governments need to invest in ensuring that police officers achieve higher levels of education so that they incline more towards community policing instead of the aggressive military approach. This should involve the police academy having criminal justice scholars and experts teaching the community policing aspect instead of police officers (Preston, 2021). Thus, improving the training programs can prove a crucial step toward combating police brutality.

Read also Reasons Police Officers Engage in Misconduct – Discussion


Another cause of police brutality is an infirm accountability process. The criminal justice system does not hold accountable most police officers who use excessive force. According to Holmes (2017), in approximately 98 percent of unwarranted police killing cases, the police officers responsible do not face any consequences. When the criminal justice system fails to hold these officers accountable for their brutality, it indirectly encourages them to use excessive force. When a nation has effective processes for holding police accountable for their actions, it deters police officers from using excessive force, as they are afraid of the repercussions.

Read also Police Defectiveness In Constitutional Due Process

Ehrenfeld and Harris (2020) explain that in the US, the standard processes for holding police officers accountable, rehiring fired officers, and issuing civil compensations to victims of police brutality are some of the key factors fueling police brutality. The US criminal justice system has set the barometer for charging police officers with criminal conduct extremely high. The perception that if an officer uses force is for the greater good of the society largely mislead the accountability process. As a result, the bar for charging and convicting police officers is extremely high compared to regular citizens. The officer who killed George Floyd in 2020, Derek Chauvin, was involved in at least 18 misconduct cases before he brutally murdered Floyd (Ray, 2020). Notably, if the criminal justice system effectively holds police officers accountable many deaths caused by police brutality, such as Floyd’s, can be avoided.

Two major policies can help remedy the accountability issue, consequently combating police brutality. First, there is a need to establish a body specifically designed to investigate cases of police brutality. Currently, states have to invite the Department of Justice to investigate cases of police brutality. Given the many cases of police brutality that occur nationwide, it is arguably impossible for the Department to investigate all the cases thoroughly (Ray, 2020). The proposed body/agency should have a department in every state to ensure effectiveness. Second, officers who have received termination due to brutality should not work in law enforcement again. The proposed agency should conduct thorough investigations to ensure that the evidence it provides for job termination due to the use of excessive force is beyond reproach. Hence, police officers fired following the investigations become unsuitable to hold any job that entails law enforcement. Notably, these policies law will serve as an effective deterrence measure for police brutality. According to the deterrence theory, criminal penalties not only punish the violators but also discourage potential criminals from committing similar offenses (Donner et al., 2021). Police brutality is criminal misconduct; as such, the criminal justice system should it as so to ensure the deterrence of potential offenders. Thus, the criminal justice system must hold police officers guilty of brutality accountable for their actions.

Psychological Perspective

It is worth noting that no matter the training an individual receives and the deterrence measures put in place to deter them from committing a crime, if there are underlying individual problems, such as mental health issues, they are likely to commit police brutality. Albrecht (2017) elucidates that the mental health of police officers plays a significant role in determining their conduct. A 2019 study established that police officers with high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to engage in abusive police practices. The study found that the probability for an officer with PTSD from job-related stressors to exhibit tendencies toward suspicion, have an increased startle response, and experience problems with aggression are considerably high (Velazquez & Hernandez, 2019).

The traits render an officer more likely to overreact and use excessive force, leading to severe harm or death. Some researchers have also theorized that antisocial personality disorder traits (psychopathy) can cause a police officer to exhibit brutality. Officers with the disorder have traits such as fearless dominance and cold-heartedness, which can cause them to use excessive force (Albrecht, 2017). Even the overall stress of the job can cause an officer to become aggressive when in tense situations. According to Albrecht, if a police officer views a suspect as unsympathetic or hostile to their job, they may act brutally due to the stress. Therefore, mental health is a considerable cause of police brutality.

State and federal governments need to invest in police mental health. This should entail having a psychologist/mental coach in police stations to provide the police officers with the psychological help they need. The psychologist should also assess the officers’ mental health state to determine if they are fit to be on the streets. Notably, giving police officers time off from the streets to work through their mental health issues can prove worthwhile. The police psychologists can also provide counseling services aiming to address the needs of law enforcement; hence, mentally coaching the police officers to use only the necessary force required to restrain a suspect or control a situation.

Read also Criminal Justice Policing Awareness Report – North Providence Police Department


To sum up, police brutality is a longstanding problem that needs to be addressed urgently and in a conclusive manner. The major causes of police brutality include inadequate training, an ineffective accountability process, and mental health issues. Implementing a framework geared toward addressing the three factors can help combat police brutality. The system should incorporate measures to improve police training programs, enhance the accountability processes, and invest in police officers’ mental health. The holistic approach will ensure smothering of the identified causes of police brutality; consequently promoting effective policing that upholds the law and due process.

Huntington Oil Spill Impact on Wider Environmental Movement and COP26

Oil spills have a wide range of environmental and economic impacts. Streams, marine life, plants, and animals on land will all be harmed by oil spills. Oil spills can have long-term effects on infrastructure and a region’s economy, lasting for decades. Eliminating an oil leak will cost a lot of money. That money will be divided among several different government agencies, non-profit organizations, and the oil transport corporation itself. Following each oil spill, the general public loses confidence in the oil industry’s ability to handle this potentially fatal but necessary product safely. The paper looks at the recent oil spill on Huntington Beach’s impact on the wider environmental movement and how it can influence the COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference.

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 Hiltzik (2021) notes that President Joe Biden is among the global leaders sitting in the environmental movement of the COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference. Biden has urged other world leaders to start on a revolutionary shift to renewable energy, but doubts persist over President Biden’s own ability to achieve this goal at home. This is due to the oil spill off Huntington Beach has made other global leaders question the United States’ efforts to combat environmental pollution. The recent oil spill off the coast of Huntington Beach may be the beginning of a decade of ingenuity and ambition to protect our future. Scientists have warned that the world is far off course to avoid catastrophic climate change, and leaders of poorer, more vulnerable countries have used the discussions to warn their audiences that tragedy is nearing. When Huntington Beach’s oil leak gets fixed, environmentalists can message that the United States is not just back at the negotiating table but also hopes to lead by example.

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There is a difficulty for environmentalists in the United States on how to respond to an oil spill off the coast of Huntington Beach. Human existence as we know it is in jeopardy, and the cost of inaction is rising with each passing day. Some leading emitters could use the oil spill off Huntington Beach as an opportunity to point the finger at the environmental movement. After a senator with ties to fossil fuels snatched away a bill that would be “the greatest substantial investment to cope with climate calamity that any advanced nation has made ever,” the bill is still stalled in Congress. These are among the risks bedeviling the functionality of the environmental movement.

Read also Oil Spillage in Niger Delta Area of Nigeria

Oil spill off Huntington Beach impacts the broader environmental movement because other countries question America’s position and commitment to end pollution on earth. For example, Biden’s failure to significantly restrict U.S. oil and gas production has triggered an uproar to save the world from pollution (Hiltzik 2021). So, the oil spill off Huntington Beach may make other advocates reduce their commitment to combat environmental pollution.

Read also The BP Gulf of Mexico Oil spill Essay

Environmental disasters like the oil spill off Huntington Beach should impact the COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference. The world leaders on ecological conservation should use this case to create awareness for other leaders to be vigilant about similar oil spills. According to environmentalists, the safety of offshore oil infrastructure is designed to be protected by devices that inform authorities when anomalies that could suggest a spill are detected (Larson 2021). An example of this is devices that can see sudden drops in pipeline pressure.

Read also The Oil Pollution Act of 1990

Both crude oil and dispersants chemicals used in clean-up attempt to break down oil into smaller droplets can be harmful. The COP26 should use the case of oil spill off Huntington Beach to discuss the dangers that clean-up employees may encounter, including skin rashes and eye, nose, and ear discomfort depending on how long they are exposed to the toxins and in what areas of their body. The COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference should also release the particulate particles and carbon monoxide into the atmosphere during the breakdown of crude oil slicks by the ocean waves and dispersants used in the process. People are at risk of inhaling these toxic particles, which can cause lung damage.

Following a medical study conducted by environmentalist’s clean-up experts, breathing crude oil fumes can induce coughing, irritation of the throat and nose, and dizziness, headache, and nausea. This should change the approach of the COP26 from discussing other global matters and concentrating on the issues associated with oil spills. For example, children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions like asthma or COPD are, particularly at risk. People’s reactions to airborne contaminants are likely to vary depending on their proximity to the source and the time since the spill. The risk of exposure can be reduced by wearing protective clothing and using masks or respirators, which needs the attention of the COP26 conference (Milman and Lakhani 2021).

The COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference should notice that this and similar spills can have a devastating effect on wildlife in the area. As well as damaging these organisms, pollution can travel up the food chain and harm the availability of seafood. The NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) advises against consuming seafood from areas around the oil leak until it has been tested for contamination (Rosenberg 2021). Oil can contaminate drinking water sources like rivers, streams, and groundwater over time. However, scientists do not yet know how ingesting these chemicals can impair human health. Environment and human health are intricately linked. While we may not observe immediate effects on people who live further away than the employees, we are worried nonetheless.

Conservancy, which manages 127 acres of shoreline wetlands, is appalling to an extent. Bird species vulnerable to extinction, such as the least tern, were severely damaged by the leak. It is a major worry about what will happen to them. The conservancy is still assessing the damage. Animals drenched in oil can cause many illnesses, from hypothermia to poisoning, and scientists are now rushing to uncover and cure them. As of October 4, the Oiled Wildlife Care Network had rescued eight birds, one of which had to be euthanized because of injuries unrelated to the 1990 spill near Huntington Beach (Rosenberg 2021). Oil-coated birds and other creatures receive the most attention following a disaster, but experts argue the most severe consequences can be far more subtle and long-lasting. Phytoplankton, a type of marine algae, can be killed by oil slicks, disrupting entire food chains.

In conclusion, the COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference should change its focus to address oil spills in the world to avoid the physical health consequences, knowing that engaging in oil spills can harm an individual’s mental, physical, and financial well-being. When compared to the Exxon Valdez oil disaster in 1989, which resulted in the spill of 11 million gallons of crude oil off the Alaskan coast, and the DWH oil spill in 2010, which resulted in the spill of 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico, the COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference should address the recent oil spill off Huntington Beach with the seriousness it deserves. People’s recreation and natural space options are limited when beaches are closed to the public and the whole world depends on the environmental movements and COP26 United Nations Climate Change Conference for protection.

Python Programming Language Research Paper

Programming Language Research Paper

Python is regarded to be among the most in-demand and popular programming languages. The latest survey on Stack Overflow demonstrates that Python has overtaken languages such as C++, C, and Java and has managed to secure the top position. Python programming language popularity is attributed to several factors that include that the language is easy and simple to learn as it is similar to the English language. Python has been operation for at least three decades. During this time the language has managed to establish a well-developed supportive community that plays an important role in language growth. Python learners of all skill levels and ages can learn using tutorials, YouTube, and documents that offer the support required to enhance knowledge improvement in python programming. The language is also popular since it supports web development where programmers get various choices as the language contains a framework array for developing websites. Python contains different frameworks that include pylon, flask, and Django. Python is mostly utilized in web development. The language is also employed in machine learning and big data. The two are currently computer since hottest trends, assisting enterprises to transform their processes and workflows. Python has been extensively developed and researched. As one of the most popular data science and analytics tools, Python powers uncountable data processing workloads in organizations across the globe. Moreover, Python libraries that include OpenCV for TensorFlow and computer vision for the neural network are employed in thousands of projects in machine learning daily. Python’s popularity is also fueled by its high level of efficiency. Python stands for a different programming paradigm compared to older languages that include C++ and Java. Nevertheless, this pythonic manner of doing things frequently allows developers to accomplish more with less work, mostly with just a few lines of code. Moreover, Python versatility permits a programmer to employ language across several environments including hardware programming, desktop application, mobile development, and web development.  

Python Programming Language History

Python emerged in the mid-1980s when Guido van Rossum, a Dutchman was working on an educational project to develop a new coder a language known as ABC. While working on this project, Rossum gained interest in language design and began working on Python. Rossum made some rare decisions that separated python from the zeitgeist during that time, and that have continued to make this programming language special even today. One of such decisions was to give meaning to indentation, an unusual move in programming languages. Although critics thought the move would complicate the language, this feature is among the main reasons python is both popular and readable. Python development process continued from mid -1980s to early 1990s, in the Netherlands at the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science. Python is derived from several different languages that include Unix Shell, ABC, Small Talk, Module-3, Algol-68, C++, and C as well as other scripting languages. The language is copyrighted, and like Perl, the language source code is now accessible under the GNU General Public License (GPL). Although Rossum still holds a crucial role in guiding python progress, language is currently upheld by the central development team at the institute. The first version of Python 1.0 was released in 1994 November, followed by the second version of python 2.0 in 2000. The third version of python was released in 2008 which does not offer backward compatibility with its second version. Python 3 stressed the elimination of duplicate programming modules and constructs to leave just one way of handling it. The latest python version is python 3.9.6 which was released in 2021 June [7]. The language is being used by tech giants that include Qualcomm, Cisco, Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Quora, Google, and Mozilla owing to its elegance and simplicity. Most developers prefer the language over programming languages plethora due to its stress on efficiency and readability. 

Python Programming Language Strengths

Python lacks security attributes such as protected, private, or public, and thus the program is shorter and simpler, understandable, and extra strict. The language is also very dynamic such that attributes or fields can be generated on the fly which cannot be achieved in C++ or JAVA. Python class and functions methods are polymorphism in nature, different from C++ non-virtual or virtual functions. It permits operator overloading that gives its object extra power since it can be utilized for any natural expression, different from restricted JAVA syntax [2]. Moreover, Python programming indentation plays an essential role in the structure of the program since it makes any Python program easy to understand and read. Also, Python contains magnificent algorithms in its built-in libraries. Therefore, learners are not required to comprehend long arithmetic to do huge computations as the majority already exists in the libraries. The language also contains good tools to join, sort, slice, and find any data sequence. Python contains its unique way to use and store variables. Therefore programmers do not need to define variable types as this will be done by the values stored by the variables. This means learners can learn variable storage theory in the lecture, but it is easier to skip data type information in practice. Besides this, Python contains an intuitive and adaptive set of commands and keywords that impressively assist learners in learning python programming.

Python is an open-source language, such that it has no limitation in distributing, changing, and using, although the program rights are reserved for the python institution. One can freely distribute and use Python even for commercial purposes. A programmer can freely distribute and use software developed in it and even modify its source code. Python is also portable, such that its script can be utilized on various operating systems including Mac OS, Windows, Amigo, Linux, and UNIX among others. Python programs can be moved from one platform to another and executed without making any modifications. Python executes seamlessly on about all platforms. Besides this, the language also supports other technologies including .Net and.Com among other objects. Python is also embeddable and extensible such that one can integrate python with pieces of C++ or C among other languages to achieve higher performance that is unattainable with the use of any single language. Different from C++ or C, one has to think about intimidating tasks such as garbage collection, and memory management among others. Also, when Python code is executed, it automatically converts the code to the language understood by the computer, eliminating the lower-level operations concerns.

Python Programming Language Weaknesses

One of the python weaknesses is that it is considerably slow compared to Java in program execution. This is attributed to its high flexibility forcing machines to use a lot of time to do the needed references. The language is also considerably hard to maintain as it is a dynamically typed language. The Python app becomes more complex to maintain as it grows larger due to the increase of errors that are hard to fix and track down. This experience is needed to effectively design a code in a manner that one can write or test units of codes to enhance maintainability [1].

Python Programming Language Application

Python is used in different areas including web development aided by its common frameworks including Bottle, Django, Flask, and Pyramid. These web frameworks are popular for their flexibility, scalability, and security. Python can also be used in games development as it has great games frameworks including PyKyra, Pysoy, and PyGame among others. It is also used in machine learning and artificial intelligence. Python is popular in this field due to its traits of being flexible, secure, and stable and for having numerous tools. Some of the language frameworks and libraries used in this field include Accord.Net, SciPy, Pytorch, Pandas, Scikit-learn, Seaborn, TensorFlow, and Keras among others [5]. Python is also used in data visualization and data science with the aid of packages that include Sci-Kit, Pandas, and NumPy. It is also used in scraping applications using tools such as LXML, Mechanical Soup, and Beautiful Soup. Python is also utilized for desktop applications using GUI frameworks and toolkits that include PySide, PyQt, PyGUI, PyGtk, WxPython, Kivy, and Tkinter [3].

Python Popularity

Based on 2016/2017 data Python was the 5th largest StackOverflow community with more than 85.9 thousand followers and experiencing continuous growth every day.  The programming Question and Answer site used to support programmers especially beginners contains over 500 thousand questions that are highly likely to be answered compared to other programming languages. The language had the 3rd biggest meetup community and the 4th most utilized language at GitHub. In career opportunities, Python was the 2nd most demanded skill in the market and the skill with the highest average salary [1]. These positions have changed since as this programming language continues to grow in demand and popularity, especially due to demand in data science. Python can be integrated easily into web applications to execute tasks that need machine learning. The sharp uptick in data science use is thus fueling the language growth, demand, and popularity in the market.


Python is a programming language that has experienced a high level of growth and development since its development in the late 1980s. Unlike other object-oriented programming languages, Python has a simple syntax that is easy to learn and develop. This among other positive attributes has contributed to its growth and application in a wide range of fields including artificial intelligence and machine learning. Python has managed to develop to be among the most preferred programming language in the market and to be among the best-paid skills. Its flexibility and ability to alter the source code to fit personal requirements give it a better chance to continue growing even in the future. It may soon be recorded as the top programming language overall, surpassing other previously superior languages such as Java.

Homosexuality in Contemporary Culture and the Catholic Church


Whereas homosexuality has been present in the world for centuries, it is not until recent decades that homosexuals openly identified themselves as gays. The recent decades have seen the popularization of the term LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer). Whereas the term was coined in the late 19th century, its popularity grew in the late 20th century and has continued to increasingly grow ever since (Xie & Peng, 2018). Historically, many societies have frowned upon homosexuality. However, the increasingly growing popularization of the LGBTQ community has seen homosexuality attract significant acceptance. Whereas the Catholic Church has made significant efforts to provide inclusive pastoral care to homosexuals, it still considers homosexuality immoral. This paper seeks to explore homosexuality in contemporary culture and the Catholic Church.

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The Contemporary Issue – Homosexuality

            In the past few decades, the conflict between the homosexual community and religious groups has escalated. Traditionally, cultural and religious backgrounds inform most people’s perspectives regarding sexual orientation. Most of the cultural and religious groups have traditionally frowned upon homosexuality and, therefore, considered the practice a taboo. As a result, the recent acceptance of the LGBQ community in the modern world has caused antagonism between religious groups and the homosexual community. Homosexuals believe that their sexual orientation is innate and they have the individual right to do what makes them happy as long as it is not hurting anyone. On the other hand, religious groups, such as the Catholic Church, believe that homosexuality is contrary to the natural law, therefore, immoral.

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Catholic Church Belief Regarding Homosexuality

            The Catholic Church is the largest Christian denomination in the world. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, which is a text consisting of teachings and dogmas of the Church, views homosexuality as intrinsically immoral. The Catechism elucidates that homosexuality is contrary to the natural law and is objectively disordered. Notably, the Catholic Church does not consider homosexuality “sinful.” According to the Church, homosexuality is not particularly a sin but rather a tendency inclined toward an intrinsic moral evil. As such, the Catholic Church views homosexuality as an objective disorder. For this reason, the Catholic Church has not officially approved reparative therapy (“Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Roman Catholic Church”, n.d.). Notably, this view is very different from other Christian denominations which out rightly consider homosexuality a sin.

            The Catechism further asserts that individuals inclined to homosexuality should practice chastity. The doctrine also categorically specifies that society must accept homosexuals with respect and sensitivity. Thus, Catholics should avoid any form of discrimination against homosexuals. In recent years, the Catholic Church established the Catholic Association for Lesbian and Gay Ministry, which is an association of diocesan, parish, and campus-based ministries whose objective is to provide inclusive pastoral care with homosexuals (“Stances of Faiths on LGBTQ Issues: Roman Catholic Church”, n.d.). Urging homosexuals to practice chastity hints that the Catholic Church frowns upon homosexuality. Whereas the Church claims that society should accept homosexuals it urges them to refrain from sexual intercourse.

Pope’s Comments on Homosexuality

On many occasions, Pope Francis has expressed his support for homosexuals. For instance, in a 2013 press conference, when asked about homosexuality, the Pope replied, “If a person is gay and seeks out the Lord and is willing, who am I to judge that person?” On another occasion in a conversation about homosexuality, the Pope commented, “I am glad that we are talking about ‘homosexual people’ because before all else comes the individual person, in his wholeness and dignity. The Pope also added, “People should not be defined only by their sexual tendencies; let us not forget that God loves all his creatures and we are destined to receive his infinite love” (McElwee, 2016). However, the Pope continues to insist that Priests cannot bless same-sex marriages. The Pope insisted that whereas homosexuals have a place in the Catholic Church, Catechism does not permit same-sex unions (Harlan & Bailey, 2021).

Personal Reaction to the Issue

Whereas the Catholic Church has made significant strides towards equality and inclusivity for homosexual persons, it still has not fully embraced homosexuality as an accepted practice. The Catholic Church insists that people should treat homosexual individuals with respect and without any form of discrimination. However, it goes ahead to discriminate against homosexuals by insisting that they should practice chastity. Additionally, the comments by the Pope show that the Catholic Church still frowns upon homosexuality. The Pope insists that he does not judge a person based on their sexual orientation. However, he contradicts himself when he asserts that Priest cannot bless same-sex marriages. To sum up, the Catholic Church has made great strides towards inclusion with regard to homosexuality; however, it is still far from fully embracing homosexuals as it considers homosexuality contrary to the natural law and immoral.

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The Matrix Movie Review and How Alienation is Portrayed in the Film

The Matrix Movie Summary

The Matrix is a science fiction action film released in 1999. The movie describes a future in which the reality perceived by humans is a simulated reality created by Machines to pacify and subdue the entire human population.  As humans remain pacified, heat and electrical activities from their bodies serve as an energy source for the Machines. The movie narrates the story of Thomas Anderson who lives a double life. Anderson is a computer programmer by day and a hacker by night known as Neo. For a long time, Neo has questioned his reality. One day while on his computer a stranger, Trinity, contacts Neo and leads him to the legendary hacker, Morpheus. Morpheus helps Neo see the truth, whereby he realizes the world he has known is an elaborate deception embodied in a simulated reality.

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Alienation as Portrayed in the Movie The Matrix

            The Matrix introduces the concept of alienation when Neo meets Morpheus who reveals to him the true real world. Morpheus explains to Neo that many years ago, humans developed artificial intelligence (AI) but lost control of it. In their desperation to control the AI, humans created a nuclear winter as they thought that by blocking the sun they could eliminate the solar power, which is essential for the robots’ survival. Contrarily, the robots adapted to the conditions and they ended up running the ravaged world. They harvested humans for bioelectric food. The robots create a computer-generated simulated world aimed to keep the humans under control. The computer-generated world is what is called the Matrix. In the Matrix, the robots keep the humans sedated where they effectively live a virtual life.

            The Matrix as described by Morpheus closely resembles the world described by Karl Marx’s Theory of Alienation. According to the theory, alienation takes place in a capitalist society. In general, alienation refers to the surrender of control through separation from an essential attribute of the self. According to Karl Marx, alienation entails four key aspects. The first aspect is the alienation of the agent from the product of labor. The second aspect is the alienation of the agent from the activity of labor; in laboring, the agent loses control over their life activity. The third aspect is the alienation of the agent from other agents. The agent, therefore, perform their tasks alone and repetitively. The fourth and last aspect is the alienation from sensuousness. The agent loses the capacity of expressing his/her human potential (Silva, 2017).

            In the Matrix, the robots keep humans pacified and subdued. In their sedated form, the humans serve as energy sources for the Machines. By keeping them in this state, the humans are alienated from the product of their labor. The Machines decide the productive activity that the humans are to engage in; energy generation. The Machines also alienate the humans from the activity of the labor. Once humans have generated the heat, they have no say in what becomes of them. Moreover, the Machines alienate the humans from each other. In the simulated world, the humans are living a lie while in the real true world they are performing tasks alone and repetitively. Lastly, the Machines alienate the humans from sensuousness. In their sedated form, humans are unable to express their human potential. Thus, although it is a fiction action film, the Matrix plausibly portrays the concept of alienation.

Binge Eating Disorder Discussion using Biopsychosocial Model

Binge Eating Disorder

Binge eating disorder is a type of eating disorder that entails recurring episodes of eating considerably more food in a short period than most people would eat under similar circumstances. People with binge eating disorder lose control over their eating and, as such, are characterized by episodes of feeling that they have lost control. People with the disorder may also have feelings of embarrassment, guilt, or disgust and, therefore, may prefer binge eating alone to hide the behavior (American Psychiatric Association, 2015).

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Binge Eating Disorder Signs and Symptoms

  • Eating unusually large amounts of food in short periods, such as a two-hour period.
  • Eating considerably fast during the binge episodes.
  • Eating even when one is full or not hungry.
  • Eating until one is uncomfortably full.
  • Eating in secret or alone to avoid embarrassment.
  • Frequently dieting but not achieving significant weight loss.
  • Feeling ashamed, guilty, or distressed with oneself about the eating habit. (Hilbert, 2019).

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According to Hilbert (2019), the causes of binge eating disorder are not well known but are likely to be a variety of factors including:

Gender. Binge eating is more common in women than men. According to Hilbert (2019), in the US, about 3.6 percent of women experience binge eating at some point in their lives. Comparably, only approximately 2 percent of men experience binge eating at some point in their lives. Hilbert asserts that this may be due to some underlying biological factors.

Genetics. People with binge eating disorder have increased sensitivity to dopamine. Additionally, there is strong evidence pointing out that the disorder is inheritable (Hilbert, 2019).

Changes in the Brain. Studies have indicated that people with binge eating disorder may have experienced certain changes in their brain structure. The alterations result in a heightened response to food and decreased self-control (Hilbert, 2019).

Emotional Trauma. Hilbert (2019) elucidates that stressful life events such as separation from a family member, abuse, death, childhood bullying, et cetera can be risk factors.

Other Psychological Conditions. According to Hilbert (2019), approximately 80 percent of individuals with binge eating disorder have at least one other psychological disorder such as depression, anxiety, substance abuse, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic disorder, or phobias.

Binge Eating Disorder Treatments


Psychotherapy can help teach a patient diagnosed with binge eating disorder how to replace unhealthy habits with healthy ones hence reducing episodes of binge eating. There are three main types of psychotherapy used to treat binge eating. They include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy (McElroy et al., 2015).

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Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) involves efforts geared toward changing thinking patterns. CBT can help an individual diagnosed with binge eating better cope with risk factors that can trigger episodes of binge eating. It may also give the patient a better sense of control over their behavior consequently helping them regulate their eating patterns (McElroy et al., 2015).

Interpersonal therapy focuses on the patient’s relationships with other people. The objective of interpersonal therapy is to improve the patient’s interpersonal skills. This can help the patient reduce binge eating triggered by poor socialization skills (McElroy et al., 2015). For instance, binge eating episodes caused by boredom.

Dialectical Behavior Therapy seeks to help one learn behavioral skills that can help tolerate stress and effectively regulate emotions to improve relationships with others. The ability to tolerate stress and regulate emotions can help a patient reduce the desire to binge eat (McElroy et al., 2015). Thus, it aims to treat binge eating triggered by psychological conditions.


            The most used medication for treating binge eating disorder is Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate (Vyvanse). This is the first FDA-approved drug for treating moderate to severe binge eating disorder. Other types of medication that can help reduce the symptoms of binge eating disorder include Topiramate (Topamax) and antidepressants. Notably, while these drugs can help treat binge eating, they may not have a significant impact on weight reduction (McElroy et al., 2015).

Behavioral Weight Loss Programs

            These programs train individuals how to change their eating and exercise patterns. Notably, many individuals diagnosed with binge-eating disorder have a history of failed attempts to lose weight. Weight loss programs are done under medical supervision to make sure that the patient’s nutritional requirements are met (McElroy et al., 2015). According to McElroy et al., weight loss programs are generally more effective in treating binge-eating disorder when the patient is also receiving cognitive behavior therapy. However, it is worth noting that weight loss programs are generally not recommended until the patient has received treatment; this is because dieting can cause the patient to engage in more binge eating hence proving counterproductive.

Book Nickel and Dimed by Barbara Ehrenreich Reaction Paper

American single mother Barbara Ehrenreich has written a great story. Barbara was poor, but she started saving money. This gave her a leg up on other single moms. I like how she describes how people at the bottom of the social ladder, often working poor, are anxious and agitated by social stratification. The socioeconomic position has been found to substantially affect the level of well-being enjoyed by each social group globally. The working poor in industrialized countries has several challenges in earning a good livelihood and moving up the social ladder. This tale inspired me to research the poor working narrative represented by hundreds of urban populations across the U.S. I like how Barbara acknowledges that the working poor in these places has many obstacles to overcome to advance socially. Most of these issues must be addressed to avert future social degeneration.

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Her research is based on first-hand experience among the poor working class. Her work reflects the situation of millions of Americans living near or below the poverty line. Reading her book, I understand that Ehrenreich’s purpose was to raise awareness of the struggles of the working poor in America among a middle-class audience. Ehrenreich shares her own experiences while investigating whether or not the working poor in America may aspire and work for a better life (Ehrenreich, 38).

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At the book’s publication, Ehrenreich attempted to determine the feasibility of the United States government’s economic reforms, which I recognized. With this project, Ehrenreich sought to determine whether a poor and illiterate American woman could provide for herself and her family while working a minimum wage job. Her goal was considerably more specific in this instance. To see if she could match her income to her spending, like the truly impoverished do daily because Barbara has had “enough unintentional brushes with adversity in her lifetime,” she believes it is not a location she would like to go to for tourism goals. She took on three jobs, which allowed her to get the real-world experience many Americans seek to escape or avoid poverty (38).

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She presents herself as a recently divorced homemaker reentering the workforce to avoid using her actual educational and professional past as a basis for job hunting. Even with this cover, Ehrenreich sees her advantages above the true working poor. Because of her mobility and free lifestyle, she believes she has a better life than most long-term low-wage laborers. She is well aware that her financial condition has temporarily allowed her to live as the working poor in America.

I agree with Barbara that our economy’s dominant structure of low-paying occupations creates poverty, not individuals. That the government’s disinterest in standardizing job conditions and salaries has decreased social mobility is hilarious. Ehrenreich claims that low-wage workers are no less witty or intelligent than writers, proving her claim that low-wage occupations lead to the poorest people in the United States experiencing an economic and social collapse.

I used to think that racial discrimination was a major issue for the working poor. Barbara agrees, stating that racism has always existed in America and exists for millions of individuals regardless of social status. Even among the poor, ignorant whites have an advantage over other races. Barbara is aware of the hazards of racism. She avoids racial prejudice by moving to Portland, Maine, a town with a severe case of population albinism. Aside from ethnicity, I saw Barbara trying to convey that the working poor confront many additional obstacles.

Barbara emphasizes the difficulty of finding and retaining a job. She claims that the American working poor are unable to gain from supply and demand. If so, workers should bargain for pay when demand exceeds supply, unlike in the U.S., where numerous low-end occupations are accessible. This is because the U.S. defies supply and demand, Barbara continues, speaking for the impoverished. Jobs are so cheap that workers are encouraged to take on as many as they can.

Many kinds of research have indicated that the need for the working poor to take on many, if not simply one, of these professions in America often risks their psychological and physical health. Barbara agrees, arguing that paying $5-$6 an hour for demanding jobs with a great danger of repetitive stress damage looks to be a definite way to reject all statistically capable job applicants. Despite the risk of harm, her willingness to labor stems from a sense of necessity: theirs is a world of agony, and Excedrin and Advil are the only medications to alleviate it. Aside from physical hardship, the working poor have several characteristics in common. I agree with Barbara when she says that it takes more than one person to provide for a family in today’s economy.

It is sad to realize from Barbara’s story that a poor working individual in the United States can only pay the minimum living expenditures. Working poor Americans are often obliged to work multiple minimum wage jobs to meet these necessities. This practice typically deteriorates their physical and mental health, affecting their capacity to work and forcing them to work less or abandon the job altogether, contributing to their downward mobility.

I love how Barbara goes about different issues in different places. While in Portland, Ehrenreich investigates one of the numerous challenges that the underclass of working people in America are confronted with: housing. While hunting for work in Portland, the author realizes that housing costs are the impediments that keep the poor poorer in America. According to Ehrenreich, the housing issue is one of the major difficulties facing the poor in America (40). The author sympathizes with the housing condition in the United States of America. This demonstrates how quickly the impoverished in America can get poorer if they do not select the lowest solutions, even if they are dangerous and inadequate in terms of quality.

It is disheartening to learn from the book that a developed nation like the U.S living in motels is one of the alternatives to affordable housing. This is a mess, as Ehrenreich witnessed it and determined that surviving through motels cannot be a viable alternative for anyone trying to balance minimum wage workers with necessities. There are two types of hotel rooms: sterile and clean and those left to fester with cigarette butts, carpet stains, and Dorito crumbs buried under the bed.

Calculating simply the aforementioned monthly expenses, excluding necessities like food, shows that a single parent with two children cannot exist on a job paying the bare minimum. Working full-time minimum wage and part-time minimum wage jobs is what a single parent needs to earn just over the poverty level, but not enough to live comfortably (43).

Reiterating Ehrenreich’s findings in her book, it is clear that the daily struggles of the working poor, especially those from single-parent households, are extremely tough to overcome. Because of these restrictions, not only are the working poor confined to the same social class, but they are also prevented from ever-increasing social standing. I liked Barbara’s tale but was disappointed that she did not spend more time with youngsters. Barbara knew what it was like to be poor, yet she set aside a certain amount of money to start. This offered her an edge over other single mothers. This project gave me a glimpse into the lives of most servers and housekeepers. It is easy to get a waiter or housekeeper job because the work requires no expertise. Barbara struggled to find work owing to a shortage of jobs, not a lack of skills. She says, “I could not do a job as physically demanding as a waiter or a janitor. I admire those who do these jobs.”

Reading about Barbara’s experiences as a waiter was heartbreaking. Barbara’s expenses did not cover daycare or child care. Although there is social support for childcare, it might not be easy to obtain. Barbara seldom had time to herself in the afternoon, and having kids would make it even harder. Barbara met folks with heartfelt stories. From this narration, I learned that it is not always about your work but your effort. Even if your job is not always appreciated, remember you need it to survive. The book also reminds us that a single mother does what she must because things are tough. The moral lesson here is that our tough living situations frequently lead us to condemn lone mothers. But we never know their background. Many single mothers escape abusive marriages with no money. So, their living conditions are less than optimal.

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