Using Telehealth to Overcome Emerging Barriers to Healthcare

Telehealth Overview and its Role in Healthcare

Healthcare providers routinely play a leading and often prominent role in the operationalization of schemes geared towards overcoming emerging barriers to healthcare delivery. Their participation in complex evidence-based practice (EBP programs is now credited for the extensive assimilation of information technology (IT) systems in healthcare and the adoption of telecommunication technologies such as telehealth. Within the past decade, telehealth has developed gradually as a valuable healthcare tool due to its convenience and potential to improve access to high-quality and affordable care. Today, telehealth covers key medical advances such as the Integrated Delivery Remote ICU Monitoring System (IDS) and Online Neonatal Integrated Delivery Intensive Care Units (NICU) Systems that currently function as a multifaceted component of the wider healthcare system (Muzammil, 2020). Telehealth aims to improve access to data, services, and administrative activities to boost health-related efficiency.

Read also Utilization of Telehealth on a Global Scale

Telehealth’s Potential for Improving Access to Care and Promoting Patient Safety and Quality

            Telehealth is, typically, touted as one of the most influential healthcare innovations yet due to its potential to promote patient safety, improve access to high-quality care, and an increased likelihood of better care outcome. Its application targets persistent healthcare delivery challenges such as the disproportional geographic distribution of medical resources, high cost of care, and insufficient medical resources. Combining telehealth with computer networking has made it possible for healthcare experts to provide vital medical care to patients in remote regions and well over distant geographic locations.

Read also Emerging Health Care Technology with Potential to Overcome Current or Emerging Barriers to Care

Furthermore, telehealth also promotes patient safety through their participation in care plans by means of real-time high-definition video and audio correspondence and monitoring. Patients can also access essential healthcare services through a combination of remote diagnostic consultations, referrals, and advice on home-based care. According to Moghbeli & Langarizadeh (2020), telehealth’s potential for improving healthcare is apparent today; as nation-states contend with the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Telehealth has made it possible thousands of patients to access healthcare services; ultimately collecting beneficial health promotion advice on early presenting signs associated with the virus and effective preventative strategies while, all the while,  minimizing the risk of transmission.

Read also Difference between Telehealth and Telemedicine

Ethical and Legal Implications of incorporating Telehealth

Telehealth is fundamentally based on the exchange of patient’s private data between with respective healthcare providers through intricate electronic systems of communication. However, detractors of this groundbreaking innovation express serious concerns over the ethical and legal implications of telehealth integration in the long run. While physicians are ethically obligated to foster face-to-face clinical meetings with patients due to its time-honored therapeutic value, telehealth technology severely precludes this classic patient-physician relationship.

Read also How Patient Education and Technology Impacts the Delivery of Healthcare and Nursing Care

This may, eventually, have far-reaching healthcare consequences since these modalities are normally linked to patient satisfaction and improved care outcomes. Furthermore, telehealth’s electronic system of communication also raises serious privacy concerns. Computer network encryption systems are fallible and prone to security breaches; during which patient’s personal health records may be compromised. Telehealth is also predisposed to new forms of physician malpractice such as “telenegligence” and a high likelihood errors associated with miscommunication (Kluge, 2020). This may eventually render physicians and hospital administrators legally liable in case of a telehealth-related adverse medical event.

Read also Remote Patient Monitoring – Technologies Supporting Applied Practice and Optimal Patient Outcomes

Role of Nurse Informaticist in Telehealth

Nurse informaticists play an essential role in telehealth due to an elevated demand in the effective management of healthcare data. For instance, nurse practitioners (NPs) and physicians are expected to partner with nurse informaticists to guarantee precise cataloguing of patient charts in a care facility’s electronic health record (EHR) database. For that reason, they ensure patients are routinely monitored to evaluate their compliance to care plans while also conduct regular follow-ups. Moreover, a nurse informaticist’s grasp of computer science, information technology (IT) and nursing practice often means that they are better placed to offer technical support to healthcare providers and clients alike (Bashir & Bastola, 2018). Nurse informaticists are also crucial as a conduit for the dissemination of telehealth and the training of fellow nurses on the use of telehealth technology.

Read also Interaction between Nurse Informaticists and other Specialists

Read also Evidence-based Proposal to Support Need for a Nurse Informaticist in an Organization

Read also Can The Nursing Informaticists Role Be Justified?

Role of Workflow Analysis, Human Factors, and User-Centered Design Concepts in Telehealth

            Workflow analysis, human factors, and user-centered design concepts are all central to telehealth and its application. Workflow analysis is central to the success of telehealth services due to its bearing on sound scheduling systems and the documentation of specific healthcare experts expected to provide clinical care specific clients. Clinical staff can, therefore, identify target clients beforehand, complete informed consent, and ultimately proceed with the systematic recording of patient healthcare data based on observations. Human factors (HFs) influence the specific telehealth design adopted by a healthcare provider. They provide a detailed catalogue of client needs, behavior, and communication style which then influences the design of telehealth applications. Similarly, user-centered designs (UCDs) propose frameworks for the implementation of customized telehealth systems (Pirtle et al., 2019). In the long run, UCDs are responsible for the development of user-friendly telehealth systems for clients and medical staff.

Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” Article Summary and Critique

Clash of Civilizations By Huntington

In the “Clash of Civilizations” Huntington  (1993) discusses world civilization transition from what was known in the past to something new and different. Initially, world civilization was based on economic and political systems or the degree of economic development. During the Cold War, the world was divided into first, second, and third worlds. Huntington claims that this kind of grouping is no longer relevant as the modern civilization is culturally based. To him, civilization can be measured based on ethnic groups, villages, religious groups, regions, and nationalities, among other varying levels of cultural heterogeneity. Although the cultural boundaries are not as clear as political and economic boundaries, Huntington claims that they are basic and real. In his perspective, civilization identity will be highly significant in the future, as the world will be highly measured by the associations among eight or seven civilizations. They will include Latin American, Western, Slavic-Orthodox, Confucian, African, Japanese, Hindu, and Islamic civilizations.  Consequently, the most essential future conflicts will happen along the cultural fault line, dividing these civilizations. Civilization will be distinguished from each other by traditions, history, culture, religion, and language, that are centuries old (Huntington, 1993).

Read also Huntington’s Argument – Clash of Civilizations

Huntington expects future civilization clash for several reasons some being increase in economic regionalism, difficulty in resolving and compromising cultural differences and characteristics as they are less mutable, the civilization-consciousness growth, people separation from longstanding local identities by the processes of social change, and economic modernization in the world, and increase in interaction among individuals of various civilization making the world smaller and increasing civilization awareness and consciousness. As a result, each civilization group will focus on developing its own identity to distinguish itself from others. This according to Huntington will create civilization conflict among various civilization groups, making it hard for any civilization to gain enough power to control the world (Huntington, 1993). 

Huntington’s Argument’s Plausibility or Rational Defensibility

According to Huntington, the future clash of civilizations will be along the cultural ground, as each group tries to maintain its history, religion, language, and other cultural aspects. However, this claim has been discredited by various phenomena that happened before and after his publication. According to the data, civilization conflict was initiated by the Cold War, implying that civilization is not a novel phenomenon as Huntington proposes. Also, the statistics demonstrate that there have been more conflicts within civilizations in the past, than between them. Critics have agreed that in the recent past, conflicts have happened in states, usually between rival ethnic or communal groups for various reasons (Osborn, 2006). Internal conflicts have been facilitated by various factors including political objectives like in Liberia, Somalia, and among various Islamic countries during Arab Appraisal (Keshefi, 2013). Huntington also ignored other external factors that can initiate conflict within and outside a civilization. According to Osborn (2006), natural resources scarcity can easily result in conflict. This is probable to be witnessed in the near future with the increase of the world population. Competition of scarce resources has been the main cause of conflicts, and the subsequent polarization of competing parties along the ethnic or religious line is only a product of the significance of those social separations in society. This implies that there could be a conflict between cultural-based civilizations in the future as Huntington stated, though not due to cultural differences by due to other factors such as economic, social, or geopolitical interests.

Huntington’s “Clash of Civilizations” Article Critique

 Huntington analyzes international relationships in the post-Cold War period. His theory seems to be highly supported by events that happened in the early 2000s and late 1990s when the U.S. and other western nations were focused on fighting terrorism. During this period, there was what seems like a clear cultural-based conflict between the U.S. and Islamic radicals. This was a new world conflict that seems to support cultural civilization-based conflict (Fox, 2005). Nevertheless, it was shortly discredited by the episode of Arab Appraisal and civil war in Sudan, Syria, and Iraq among other Arabic (Islamic) countries. Huntington failed to identify the possibility of internal conflict within people of the same culture, the possibility of external conflict due to global warming and natural resources scarcity, and issues like organized crimes that seem to impact different civilizations concurrently.

Huntington also failed to recognize that there are other factors that can unit different civilizations despite what separates them such as hunger, diseases (especially communicable diseases), terrorism, and organized crimes. Such incidences have helped in the creation of alliances between developed countries and developing nations, especially between the U.S., and Africa to fight challenges despite having different cultures (Tyushka & Czechowska, 2019).

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This demonstrates how hard it is to draw a clear line between humans despite their similarities or differences. The analysis shows a possibility of conflict among people of the same culture, and collaboration between people of different cultures. This challenges Huntington’s theory of clashing of civilization based on the cultural ground. Though it can happen, it is not an all-time phenomenon that can only be witnessed in the future. It is just an occurrence that can fade as other occurrences dominate the world based on the time, situation, and other factors that determine people’s behavior or reaction.

Israel Lobby – Analyzing Institutions and Processes

The article “The Israel Lobby and U.S. Foreign Policy” describes the role of the Israel Lobby in influencing U.S. Foreign Policy, especially toward the Middle East. In this article, Mearsheimer and Walt (2007) define the lobby as a loose coalition of organizations and people who work actively to steer the U.S. foreign policy in a pro-Israel way. The article centers on how the lobby influences the U.S. foreign policy and its destructive impact on the interests of Americans, and Israel as well. According to Mearsheimer and Walt (2007), America has a long record of supporting Israel. Although the majority think that the support is justified on the shared moral values or strategic ground, this is not the case. In the authors’ view, the support is due to the extraordinary power of the Israel lobby that is shaping the greatest part of the U.S. foreign policy. This argument has been highly rebutted by other political scholars, claiming that although Mearsheimer and Walt demonstrated basic knowledge of the Israel lobby and its power revolution, they fail accurately reflect the extent of the lobby’s power, and the U.S-Israel relationship realities.

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The article demonstrates the authors’ basic knowledge of the operations of the Israel lobby. They acknowledged the American Israel Public Affairs committee’s central role in lobbying Congress and the executive branch to a lesser extent. They acknowledged the participation of a huge array of Zionist Christian groups and other Jewish organizations. They also identified the substantial political contributions levels that originate from American Jews. They also demonstrated considerable comprehension of how the lobbying power has evolved and grown over the past 60 years (Mearsheimer & Walt, 2007). The article also gives an extensive review of both the English-language press and the American Jewish press, demonstrating deep familiarity with the internal Jewish communities’ arguments in both Israel and the United States. However, despite showing a great understanding of Jewish community political organization, they seem to fully misunderstand the lobby’s power limits. Particularly they seem to misunderstand a narrow, laser-like focus on the relationship between the Israel and United States is what enhances the power of the lobby.

Read also Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant and United States Containment Policy

According to Silva (2007) it is true that the ability of the American Jewish community to impact the U.S. policy toward Israel is sharply enhanced due to the unique Congress role in American democracy. Unlike in parliamentary systems representatives, Members of Congress are extremely sensitive to interest groups and voter opinion. Therefore, the political strength of the Jewish together with the opposition weaknesses and the Israel general public support permits the lobby to influence the U.S. policy toward Israel strongly. However, Silva (2007) argues that, as soon as a minority community attempts to extend the power of its organization to other public policy arenas, its ability to impact policy is reduced significantly since it must compete with other strong interest groups. This can be demonstrated by Lobby Reform Bill battle in 2007.  According to Mearsheimer and Walt, the AIPAC won the above legislative fight, a claim that is strongly refuted. Silva (2007) claims that although the position of AIPAC on third-party funded congressional travel was indeed embraced, the lobby group failed in its efforts to permit congressional lobbyists to join the members of Congress on those trips. AIPAC was unable to stand against the public opinion setting where the congressional and lobbyist travel was equated to a scandal. Similarly, the lobby has never had an essential influence on finance reform legislation campaigns. This implied that while demonstrating the power of AIPAC and influence on the U.S. policy formation, Mearsheimer and Walt failed to understand that such congressional behavior subtleties or the ethnic group power limits.

In McGlinchey (2010) views, Mearsheimer and Walt made the enormous accusation that the lobby has substantial responsibility for the Iraq war, by demonstrating how a neoconservative group conspired to push for the Iraq war, and combine these neocons with the Israel lobby. The authors significantly blame the Israel lobby for Iraq’s chaos and also warn that any Iran’s future military action must unavoidably be laid at the lobby’s door. In the authors’ view, the lobby and Israel were the central forces behind all Capital Hill and Bush Administration talks regarding the application of military power to destroy nuclear facilities in Iran. Despite this claim, Stephens (2007) confirms that successive Israel governments and lobby have still not gotten clear U.S. support for unwavering desire to urgently and forcibly terminate Iran’s nuclear program that is often regarded as an existential threat to the existence of Israel.  Moreover, the commentary of neoconservative publication published a reaction to Mearsheimer and Walt’s article rejecting their thesis on the ground that it lacked original, and rather depended on crass generalizations and secondary sources, and it also anti-semantic stereotypes. In Gorenberg’s (2008) views, arguing that the largely Jewish neocons gang was able to bully Bush, Rumsfeld, and Powell into a war against their interest and will is Illogical. Worse is the idea that the Israel lobby was these neocons. According to McGlinchey (2010) Mearsheimer and Walt at the start of the article describe the Israel lobby as a loose coalition of people and organizations. Therefore in their ideology, diverse organizations such as the Zionist organization of America and Israel Policy Forum are part of the Israel lobby. Also, people as diverse as John Bolton; the former UN ambassador, Tom Friedman; the New York Times columnist, Tom DeLay; the former Senate Majority Leader and Senator Russ Feingold were part of this great lobby. This means these individuals participated in pursuing the American government into a war in the Middle East for Israel, against the government will, which is similar to impossible (Silva, 2007).

There is also a loophole in some of the findings demonstrated in this article. According to Silva (2007) some claims are not supported with evidence. For instance, although a lobby is perceived as a loose coalition, to some extend it needs some level of information sharing and coordination toward specific policy and legislative goals. There is no evidence that this happened about discussing U.S. military involvement in Iran. According to McGlinchey (2010) the actual Israel lobby did not participate meaningfully in the Iraq debate as it does not have the power to implicitly influence that debate. Especially not when huge arrays of powerful ideological and interest groups clashed over the issue of America’s engagement in a war. In addition, there are Mearsheimer and Walt portions of the narrative that failed to mirror the domestic political realities behind the U.S. – Israel relationship. For instance, there is a part where the authors try to show that the Israel lobby shoe the public relations battle. According to Silva (2007), if Mearsheimer and Walt had considered interviewing any Jewish communal leader, they would have established that the Jewish community does not have public relations strategy on Israel’s behalf, and this has been a source of dispute for years. Other paper errors include 50% inflation of part of Jewish in the U.S. population.

Generally, the authors demonstrate good scholarship as they have highly supported their work with footnotes. They have also demonstrated a considerable level of knowledge about the Israel lobby and its basic duties. However, they have overvalued the lobby role and contribution in the formation of U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East. Although the Israeli government indeed has sure support from the U.S. government despite who is ruling, this cannot be purely based on strong Israel lobby power. America is a country that only invests where it is out to benefit. If it invests in Middle East military engagement, it is not because it wants to please Israel but for its interest and good. Although the Israel lobby has some influence on some decisions, it cannot convince the disinterested United States government to join in war for Israel benefits only. Moreover, the members of the Israel lobby, as defined by the authors, do not seem to be interested in such activities. If the United States is constantly in support of Israel maybe for other reasons, rather than just the power of the Israel lobby. Although we cannot completely rule out its contribution to the U.S. engagement decision in the Middle East, it cannot be pointed out as the only force that influences U.S. behavior in this issue.

Low Leukocyte Count, Antimicrobial and Tooth Extraction

Why A Person Whose Blood Test Shows An Abnormally Low Leukocyte Count Should Be Given An Antimicrobial Drug Before A Tooth Extraction.

The main objective of white blood cells (WBC) is to protect the body continuously by fighting infections. Blood tests are sometimes conducted to assess an individual’s complete blood count (CBC) and to determine whether their body is capable of fighting infection. An abnormally low leukocyte count is, therefore, a cause for concern since it may be an indication of an underlying medical problem which may expose patients to the risk of infection.  According to Skalak et al., (2016), low leucocyte count refers to a WBC count below 4,000 and an indication that the body might be unable to fight off infection in case of an attack. Surgical procedures often expose individuals with a low WBC count to increased risk of an adverse healthcare outcome due to the inability of the leucocytes to fight invaders in the system.

Read also The Evolutionary Change of Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Usage towards Treatment of Diseases

A low leucocyte count can be attributed to several causes but is extricable linked to bone marrow problems. The bone marrow is tasked with the continuous production of WBCs to maintain optimum levels of in the blood. However, damage to the bone marrow due to exposure to certain chemicals or radiation may hinder its ability to produce a sufficient amount of WBC required to fight infections. WBCs may be also be destroyed by autoimmune disease  such as lupus, which drastically reduces the levels of leucocytes required to maintain a healthy immune system. Severe viral infections may also disrupt the marrow’s normal functioning, ultimately diminishing its capabilities.

Read also Antibiotic Resistance and how to avoid it in a Community

            Typically, a person whose blood test indicates an abnormally low leukocyte count should be given an antimicrobial drug before minor surgical procedures such as tooth extraction. This is mainly due to the fact that tooth extraction is an invasive dental procedure known for increasing the likelihood of infection with transient bacteremia such as Streptococcus Viridans. Although periodontal pathogenic bacteria are a common feature of the oral microbiota, they pose a significant risk to persons with a compromised immune system or low WBC count. Levels of bacteria generally peak after tooth extraction. A healthy immune system can eliminate any such bacteria shorty after detection. However, individuals with an abnormally low leucocyte count risk serious infection and may even result in the spread atheromatous plagues into the cardiovascular system (Sastry and Janagond, 2016). Administering antimicrobial drugs during routine tooth extractions for any individual with a low leucocyte count, therefore, seeks to reduce their susceptibility to infection by bacterial colonies

            Prophylaxis would be indicated for a person with a condition such as HIV/AIDs which known for having a negative impact on the immune system. The condition is known for its aggressive nature in destroying leucocytes faster than they can be replenished by the bone marrow (Oswald et al., 2016). Persons with the condition are, therefore, prime candidates for prophylaxis before conducting a routine tooth extraction. It serves as a contingency measure after tooth extraction to reduce the chances of an adverse event where the body is unable to effectively defend itself from emerging infections. Furthermore, prophylaxis increases the probability of positive patient outcomes after an invasive dental procedure among vulnerable populations in the long run.

Elements of Notetaking and Completing a Thorough Offense or Case Report

Notetaking is an important practice in police case investigations. Police are encouraged to always carry a notebook where they document facts and other important details of the case during investigation. The main essence of having a notebook is to ensure nothing passes unnoticed and that the investigative officer can always refer to the notes to understand the case progress, identify investigation gaps, or even get a new direction on the case. Notes are taken to ensure no details are forgotten. This demonstrates good investigative skills that are likely to uncover the truth behind every case. With notes, it is easy to note changes of accounts among those interviewed, unknown information that may need further analysis, or even identify untruthful accounts that do not align with other case finding. Notes play an essential role in accurate case report writing, by ensuring all case details are recorded accurately. Good notes translate to a good case report and thorough and successful investigation. This paper research the importance of note-taking in case report writing. Based on the analysis, having good note-taking skills is the first step to a successful investigation.

The Role of Note-Taking in Completing a Case/Offense Report

Notes-taking is one of the most important and main actions of an investor at a crime scene. Notes taking is done for various reasons one being that notes need to be available in all cases to ensure that there are ready entries and clear documentation of action taken at the crime scene when the court or investigator needs to know or clarify something. Notes should include information of other data including scene description, physical evidence, and traces found at the crime scene. Taking notes starts after receiving a call for a particular case. The investigator starts taking notes on the date, and the time of the call, the information source, and instructions offered for scene storing. More notes are taken after the arrival at the crime scene including time of arrival, location and its description, the form of the crime, and all actions taken at the crime scene by who and when.

This can include who took photographs and fingerprints, who made the sketch, and who found or seek clues and material evidence (Arifi, 2015). The investigator also notes about all evidence or items or things found at the crime scene, their actual position. It focuses on noting objects, tracks, and material evidence in the crime scene, distinguishing evidence from trace which is relevant material associated with the event. Anything that can be randomly found at the crime scene is noted. It also notes all interrogated witnesses and what they said, the victim description and statement if arriving, and notes on other investigative experts’ comments or conclusions (Arifi, 2015).

Taking notes play an important role in assisting police or investigators to write a report about a crime. It also acts as a reference point during the investigation. Note-taking starts from the beginning of the case, at the reporting stage, and ends after its conclusion. The notebook thus has all small details about the case. This makes it an important document in writing case report and making references. Consequently, investigation notes need to be very accurate, detailed, and very specific in offering recommendations (Yu & Monas, 2020). 

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Language Required to Complete a Case / Offense Report

A case report is a legal document that needs to give clear communication of the cases. Like other legal documents, case reports need to be precise and to avoid ambiguity. The police language needs to explicit as possible as their report presents significant evidence in criminal proceedings. Case report writing needs to avoid using pronouns. Using nouns rather than corresponding pronouns is a unique feature both in police and legal language. Avoiding pronouns is considered an essential instrument for attaining clarity and precision. It is probable for police offers to reuse lexical items rather than using personal pronouns in their report narratives to avoid ambiguity of any form. Police reports also prefer using passive voice over active voice. This is because passive voice is in most cases the only practical option when one wished to prevent arbitrary inferences and avoid ambiguity, particularly about legal documents. Reflexive pronouns are also used frequently as agents of passive sentences in the police report (Cetkovic, 2017).

The Major Components of a Case Report in Detail

A case report is a systematically written document that gives a clear and precise description of the turn of events about the crime being reported. The report writing is highly guided by the notes taken during the investigation from the time the case was reported onwards. It therefore a form of reconstruction of the crime scene with evidence and testimonies to support it. To achieve this, the case report must include all relevant components needed in a police case report. This section describes this in detail.

Face Sheet/Cover Sheet

Each police report contains a face or front page that might comprise of a section for narrative writing or might need a separate page for the narrative section. The face cover comprises blocks where officers input basic information that include location, time, and date, the suspect, witness or victim biographical information and names, the corresponding state statute, and the form of committed crime among others. The face cover reports information is applied not just by the police investigation application. This information is transformed into data that are utilized by criminal justices learners, criminal analysts, researchers, and police managers to study crime trends in a country (, 2021).


The introduction section gives a clear description of the case including the crime involved when it took place and how. The introduction section tries to summarize the case based on the collected evidence and the investigation notes.

Reporting Person/Victim Statements

This section gives a clear introduction to the victim. It includes the victim’s biographic statement including the name, age, race, sex, height, hair and eye color, weight, and any other unique identifier such as the presence of a tattoo. It then gives the victim narrative regarding the crime. The victim may include details such that when the incident happened, the victim’s relationship with the offender, what transpired before and after the incident, and maybe why the offender did it. This only happens if the case does not involve manslaughter or murder. In some cases, the person reporting the case might be the victim of the case.

Witness Statements

This section gives the witness account. It involves providing clear descriptive details about each witness. This includes witness name, sex, race, age, relationship with the victim, and the account of events as the witness experienced. This may be a friend or relative who was observing the incident all along or just a passerby who happened to witness the action unexpectedly.

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Suspect Statements

The section gives the suspect statement based on the investigator’s interview or based on willing confession. The section includes the comprehensive suspect’s identification details, and the suspect’s relationship with the victim if any. It also gives the suspect accounts about the case in detail, without leaving anything out.

The Fact of the Case

The section involves detailed information of what the investigator has gathered about the case. This includes a description of the crime scene, a description of the victim’s condition at the crime scene including the presence of cuts or other injuries and the place they were inflicted, and forensic results after the analysis. It gives a general description of the damage caused to the victim. Considering all that has been gathered, the report writer gives the experts’ conclusion about the case. The fact of the case also include whether there is enough evidence to incriminate the suspect, and fine details on the motive of conducting the crime, evidence recovered, and the connection of the evidence with the victim or the suspect. It also gives the investigation final remarks about the case.

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The Elements Significance to Both the Completion of the Report and Any Further Investigation

Each of the above-described elements has a significant value in writing a case report and in aid for further investigation. The fact sheet helps in introducing or summarizing the case. This makes it easy to preserve and find the file. It is also used to create the country’s crimes statistics. The introduction part gives a clear picture of what the case is all about, who is involved, and what transpired. The victim and witness accounts are used to direct the case by helping in recreating the crime scene and understanding the motive of the crime. The suspect statement helps in challenging the case, creating new possibilities, or affirming what is already known. The case facts help in presenting the case based on gathered supportive evidence, and testimonies, and identifying possible loopholes or unidentified facts about the case. All these play a supportive role in the completion of the report. They also hold important details that can aid in the further investigation based on what is already known and considered fact and what is still unclear or unknown. 

Strengths and Weaknesses of Procedural Democracy Compared to Deliberative Democracy

Procedural Democracy and Deliberative Democracy

Over the past century, the rapid spread of ideas on democracy has improved knowledge of democracy as a system of governance steep in pluralism and a rich tradition clustered around a set of values addressing key positions such as public participation, decision-making, and the rights of citizens. According to Connolly (1995), proponents of pluralism often underscore its focus on promoting diversity, tolerance and the significance of modern societies being a confluence of new ideas on governance. Today, procedural democracy and deliberative democracy represents two distinct schools of thought in democracy and characteristic of pluralism.  Each of these systems proposes its own unique model of governance, the setting up of mechanisms of governance, administrative intervention and practices of government.  It is, therefore, fundamental to explore procedural democracy and deliberative democracy, key strengths and weaknesses, and a discussion of my preferences.

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Procedural Democracy

A procedural democracy is a type of democracy known for its on focus processes such as citizen’s right to vote in free and fair elections held regularly as a necessary precondition for a legitimate government. However, the reality is that citizens have less influence on governance and the actual decision-making process in a procedural democracy. Elected representatives are tasked with presenting views, opinions, and concerns on their behalf which ultimately limits direct involvement in governance.

Read also Substantive Law, Procedural Laws and Judicial Review – USA and UK

A widely-held assumption by supporters of procedural democracy is the idea that an ideal governing authority can only be achieved through the electoral process. Its main aim is to uphold procedural virtues such as regular elections and a pluralistic political participation within the context of universal suffrage. The idea of having a procedural democracy as a system of governance is widely accepted today, especially in industrially advanced nations. This is mainly due to provisions that underpin its mode of operation and the fact that it fosters and fosters diversity in a rapidly-transforming society (Saffon & González-Bertomeu, 2017). Procedural democracy now functions as a confluence of democratic and liberal ideals as a solution to the political strife and tension that often grips nations confronting challenges associated with embracing diversity.

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Procedural democracy also strives to uphold citizen’s political rights by presenting the idea of a “protective democracy” where electing the right individuals in elective office safeguards the citizens from bad governance. These attitudes also embrace the multiculturalism as an idea that has come of age and a reality which should be readily embraced in modern-day societies. Furthermore, it is based on inferred social contract which guarantees that the rights of citizens are always upheld as one of the only reliable safeguards from a tyranny.

Procedural Democracy Strengths

            The foremost strength of procedural democracy is the fact that it measures popular views within a given nation state. It is generally assumed that elected representatives are a mirror of the wider population. Therefore, the views they espouse in legislative bodies such parliaments and the senate are taken a popular sentiments from the majority. Citizens under this form of political dispensation greatly benefit from government action and policies given that they are specifically tailored to address the needs of the majority. As a consequence, the prevailing sentiments within such a nation are those of satisfaction with the governing bodies since a considerable majority of popular concerns are addressed and recommendations from the public are routinely instituted.

            Procedural democracy facilitates regime change. This is mainly due to its focus on creating structures that allow an orderly transition from one government dispensation to the next while maintaining a sense of continuity.  At the heart of procedural democracy is its focus on creating and maintaining an electorally-legitimated government through universal suffrage and regular elections (Payne & Wellesley College, 2005). Furthermore, it also guarantees that governments and figures in such political structures will always change through the introduction of term limits for any government and the political outfit they represent. Citizens are now able to bank on new leaders with fresh ideas who are likely to identify the pitfalls of previous regimes and scenarios where the popular views were not acted upon with the aim of maintaining the fidelity of procedural democracy.

Procedural Democracy Weaknesses

            The ignorance of the electorate is a major pitfall of a procedural democracy. Typically this form of governance is grounded in the idea that popular views espoused by the public should always take precedence are associated polices routinely implemented. In this form of representative democracy, citizens have complete trust in their leaders in advancing the views and concerns at any given moment. However, a common loophole in this type of structure is that leaders may instead present their own individual interests and views at the expense of the wishes and aspirations of the general public. This is possible since a majority of elected representatives are aware of the ignorance of the archetypal voter and are, therefore, able to exploit this flaw to their own individual advantage.

            Emotional ploys have a strong and noteworthy impact on procedural democracy coupled with the likelihood of policies implemented to advance popular views at the expense of the minority. The external appearance of procedural democracy is a system that promotes free and fair elections, promotes the idea of universal suffrages, freedom of speech, and equality for all. Yet, procedural democracy is based on a governing structure where the majority’s opinions, views, concerns, and recommendations always take precedence over those expressed by the minority. Procedural standards of democracy are today blamed for the systematic exclusion of minority groups such as Jews and Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina from elective representation (Saffon & González-Bertomeu, 2017). This may set the stage for human rights violations in the future and disproportionate inequality in society.

Deliberative Democracy

            Deliberative democracy is one of the most recent models of democracy which often aspires to provide a solution to the dominant aggregative perspective. Its aim is to advance a unique brand of normative rationality where a liberal democracy can thrive and liberal institutions defended.  According to Held (2006), deliberative democracy was first used By Joseph Bessette and has morphed into an approach whose primary concern is improving the quality of democracy. Some of the main concerns targeted by this model include the political participation of the public with the sole aim of creating an informed populace capable of advancing an impartial pursuit of truth.

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            Moreover, deliberative democracy acknowledges the deficits of other models with the intention of addressing these shortfalls while improving its quality in the long run. It essentially concedes that elective representation does not always guarantee participation in the decision-making process. Deliberative democracy, therefore, aspires to create useful frameworks for collective decision-making and a system of checks-and-balances for any such resolution. It also acknowledges the danger posed by a system of governance voted in by a simple majority; therefore, proposing a new inclusive approach which always guarantees equal participation to address various manifestations of conflict and policy complexity.

Deliberative Democracy Strengths

            Deliberative democracy raises awareness on the plight of the minority in democracies with the aim of advancing states’ commitment to promoting the fundamental individual rights of all citizens within a particular jurisdiction while upholding popular sovereignty. This is also coupled with its commitment to maintaining a reasonable political judgment where democracy and associated institutions are built around the public and decisions meant to improve their overall wellbeing (Held, 2006).  By so doing, it promotes the ignorance of voters and promotes a fact-regarding futuristic doctrine that is more inclusive and other-regarding. Deliberative democracy also promotes meaningful debates on the rationality and legitimacy of the majority’s preferences within the context of impartiality.

Moreover, deliberative democracy supports freedom and equality through civic education and open sharing of information necessary in identifying incidences of impartiality. It acknowledges the flaws of the decision-making process advanced by legitimate governing bodies and introduces the idea of always providing defensible reasons to defend a position taken by the government.  This also promotes public participation in discussing major concerns and an opportunity to propose a feasible course of action. The deliberative approach applied in this model of democracy is often credited with revelations of sectional interests in government policy and in causes advanced by a dominant political order (Lafont, 2019). This ultimately improves collective judgment in the long run and a political environment where dissenting views are considered and evaluated based on their merit.

Deliberative Democracy Weaknesses

            One of the most notable weaknesses of deliberative democracy is the fact that it is limited to a nation state at any given moment. It can, therefore, only succeed in identifying instances where sectional interests are advanced within their own nation and are highly unlikely to succeed in advancing greater formal equality beyond their borders. Furthermore, those who risk extending elements and ideas underpinned under their version of deliberative democracy risk being accused of attempting to meddle in the internal affairs of another country.

            Deliberative democracy is sometimes viewed as an instrument employed by the minority to block or undo policies based on poplar views. This is mainly due to the fact that the deliberative approach may succeed in identifying scenarios where sectional interests are advanced resulting in a reevaluation of such decisions (Mouffe, 2000). The subsequent success of deliberative democracy may inadvertently result in disinterest in governance among the majority while fuelling non-participation demonstrated by voter apathy.


            Procedural and deliberative democracies represent unique models of democracy today. Yet, I prefer deliberative democracy over procedural democracy. Deliberative democracy is more likely to be beneficial in the long run since it promotes equality by addressing risks posed by the dominant aggregative perspective. Its implementation will promote parity and impartiality through a framework that precludes sectional interests within a democratic state. Consequently, nations will enjoy greater unity among their populations if they opt for deliberative democracy since it promotes equity by advancing the cause of both the minority and majority in a given jurisdiction

Comparison between The Populist Democracy and Liberal Democracy Traditions

Populist Democracy and Liberal Democracy Traditions       

In the recent past, events within the global political landscape have been responsible for shaping democracy and the subsequent emergence of modern traditions of democracy. This new reality is largely responsible for the predominant perception of each of these versions of democracy as political systems with highly competitive multi-party systems (Esping-Andersen, 2017). However, modern traditions of democracy now incorporate new conceptions such as administrative intervention, popular sovereignty, and practices of government. Today, the most popular of these traditions include the Populist Democracy, Liberal Democracy, and Social Democracy. This discussion will center primarily on Populist Democracy and Liberal Democracy, in addition to providing a comprehensive comparison of their respective strengths and weaknesses.

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Populist Democracy

A populist democracy tradition is an ideology based on the idea that free association is a fundamental right of each citizen as a foundation for free electoral processes and freedom of political expression. In this tradition, citizens hold the power; among one of the primary reasons why it is regarded as a form of government “by the people”. Furthermore, citizens are often regarded as a force for good based on the idea that they have the interests of the majority at heart as opposed to the elite. The idea underpinning the populist democracy framework is that the majority are better placed to hold power since they are less likely to place their interests above those championed by the majority.

In particular, populist democracies are normally in direct conflict with illegal immigrants, multinational corporations, and opposing nation states often viewed as being self-seeking. Populist democracies have also been hailed and presented globally as a form of popular engagement meant to boost citizen’s participation in making valuable political choices. This is meant to emancipate historically marginalized social forces while also benefitting the majority through the presence of multiple centers of power. Formal political authority is, therefore, placed squarely in the hands of the public who may also choose to subscribe to electoral coalitions. It is, therefore, crucial to also consider the strengths and weaknesses of populist democracy tradition.

Read also Plato’s Criticism of Democracy and His Conception of Justice and Nature

Populist Democracy Strengths

            A major strength of the populist democracy tradition is its recognition of the importance of diversity and the inclusion of marginalized segments of society within the larger political process. This creates a system where citizens can freely associate and clamor for the inclusion of different groups within the prevailing leadership framework. As a consequence, each of the participants represents a specific segment of the population which guarantees the involvement of each of these groups in the political process. The populist democracy tradition also provides interest groups with a unique opportunity to advocate for citizen’s rights, particularly the majority, while highlighting the actual importance of the involvement of professional associations and social institutions in political process. In the long run, each of these institutions is empowered to take on the role as ambassadors of the populist democracy tradition which contributes greatly to the distribution of political power.

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            The populist democracy tradition is also an instrument of political growth and maturity. It, therefore, draws its strength from the ability to encourage marginalized groups to actively participate in the decision-making process and routinely maintaining key primary interests. The political framework established by the populist democracy tradition also provides a degree of stability and faith in the political system and its ability to benefit the citizens in the long run. Whenever conflict emerges, individuals holding power bequeathed upon them by the populist democracy tradition also play an active role in mediation and ultimately paving the way for a system of checks-and-balances. This is essential as a practical solution to preventing authoritarian tendencies such as those witnessed in Italy under Benito Mussolini and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics (USSR) under Josef Stalin.

            A populist democracy is also stable and guarantees true representation of the entire cross-section of society as part of their political involvement. According to Moffitt (2017), citizens who feel heard and included in the political process are more inclined to participate in political matters and make a difference in their societies. Given that political power rests in citizen’s hands in populist democracy, they are more likely to have faith in the electoral process and actively participate in the electoral process. Moreover, it is a true representative of the people since it aspires to convey their wishes and address pertinent issues such as the state of the economy and healthcare which are directly tied to their overall wellbeing. The widespread application of this system also reduces incidences of corruption since individuals elected to occupy any given political are obligated to deliver on promises made to the public and held accountable.

Read also Is Supranational Citizenship an Irreplaceable Factor for EU Democracy?

Read also Lack Of Supranational Citizenship Indicate Deficiency Of Democracy In EU?

Populist Democracy Weaknesses

            One of the main weaknesses of the populist democracy is its inability to acknowledge inequality as a contemporary reality among modern societies. By ignoring this reality, proponents of this school of thought are essentially blindsided from the fact that certain groups are more dominant than others. Within this framework, less influential groups can be overshadowed and controlled by dominant groups; making it quite challenging to ascertain whether they represent the interests of the majority of personal interest. Furthermore, governments operating within the context of a populist democracy routinely fail to practice partiality and often side with dominant groups when mediating conflict. This response is often designed to avoid direct confrontation with the dominant group due to the influence wielded.

            Besides, implementing the populist democracy tradition and ideology is challenging given the difficulty presented by the very act of dispersing political power and the idea of the “empirical” nature of democracy. This is likely to create a sense of confusion within the political establishment and poor coordination. As a consequence, nations that choose to subscribe to the populist democracy tradition may frequently grapple with inefficiency especially in cases involving political bias. This makes it impractical, especially when seeking to implement it on a larger scale, and may ultimately prove to be a slow and time-consuming process. Minorities ultimately find themselves in a situation where they have no say in the political process and unable to participate in the decision-making process or present pertinent issues that are part of their interests. Additionally, it is makes the erroneous assumption that all citizens are literate, capable, and with the educational qualifications to make the right decisions.

Read also American Democracy and The Ancient and Classical Political Theorists

Liberal Democracy

            The liberal democracy tradition is a political ideology grounded in liberalism as the defining principles of representative democracy.  Within this particular context, dissimilar political parties compete against each other in a free and fair electoral process in a society where the rule of law and a system of checks and balances takes precedence (Held, 2006). Liberal democracies are known for promoting the separation of powers in structures of government, universal suffrage, property rights, and the freedom to choose ones gender and religion. The implementation liberal democracy tradition in Western countries such as the United States and Britain is an ongoing process given that its basic defining principles are yet to be fully given the complexities of contemporary society.

Liberal Democracy Strengths

             Liberal democracies offer stability given that the tradition is steeped in strict adherence to the rule of law and structure. For instance, the federal government adheres strictly to the constitution and expects the same of all political actors. Those who fail to follow and adhere to these tenets and relevant status risk being removed from elective posts given for failing to abide by the basic principles of liberal democracies. Within this same structure, minorities and individuals living in the fringes of mainstream society are also protected by law.  The 2015 Obergefell v. Hodges Supreme court ruling legalizing gay marriages was a recent display of the strength and capabilities of liberal democracy as a protector of the inalienable rights and freedoms of marginalized groups in society.

            The liberal democracy tradition also provides a sense of collective security and promotes the idea of minimal state intervention in citizen’s lives. Liberal democracies are, therefore, preoccupied with citizen’s wellbeing and are on the lookout for statutes that may infringe upon their rights. In this sense, the idea of individual liberties takes root and creates a society characterized by a wide range of freedoms to promote their overall wellbeing. Ultimately, they end up participating in the electoral and political processes because they do not feel repressed or discriminated from any sector (Kriesi, 2015). Societies that follow the liberal democracy model, such as the United States, are thus unlikely to be gripped by social unrest or anarchy given the harmonious foundation set by liberal democracy. The government ultimately focuses on state centralization through programs such as poverty eradication in inner-city communities.

Liberal Democracy Weaknesses  

            One of the main vulnerabilities of the liberal democracy tradition is its short-term focus and the presence of bureaucracy in the management of state affairs. Liberal democracies are malleable and provide numerous opportunities to legislators and policymakers to institute changes in government. Some of these changes may be deemed unnecessary and impulsive, especially given that elections will be held again in a given span of time. This trend promotes short-term focus based on the interest of a coalition or political partly, which may be contrary to wishes espoused by the majority.

Furthermore, liberal democracies also promote bureaucracy in the form of new laws to support new perspectives while also constricting personal liberties. This may breed an ideal environment for the abuse of power and dictatorship. Liberal democracies may also fail to serve the interests of all parties by adhering to “majoritarianism” (McGinnis, 2012). In this scenario, the rights and freedoms of minorities rarely take center stage such as scenarios where minorities are forcefully conscripted and the legalization of psychoactive drugs. Minorities are ultimately left with no other choice than to embrace proposed changes even when they go against their personal values.


            From the evaluation above, it is clear that both the Populist Democracy and Liberal Democracy traditions have explicit strengths and weakness. However, I would prefer living in a nation that follows a liberal democracy tradition. Such nations would likely put the interest of their citizens above those presented by leading political parties. Societies steeped in liberal democracy, such as the United States, are also stable and provide an ideal environment to pursue set objectives with minimal government intervention.

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Business Plan Development and Networking


            A business plan defines a business’s objectives and outlines how the business plans to achieve its goals. It lays out a well-written roadmap for a business from marketing to financial plan to operational standpoints. An effective business plan is well-written and sufficiently addresses all the required components. Notably, a business plan should incorporate both short and long-term forecasting. While developing a business plan, some components may prove challenging to complete. However, leveraging technology can help address the challenges. Besides having a well-written business plan, an organization should also emphasize networking (both formal and informal) and knowledge management. This paper explores the importance of short and long-term forecasting, the rationale for formal and informal networks, knowledge management in the digital age, and the components of a business plan.

Necessity Of Short-Term And Long-Term Forecasting For Developing The Key Elements Of The Business Plan

Business plans serve several purposes. The primary purposes of a business plan include creating an effective growth strategy, determining future financial needs, or attracting investors. Notably, all three functions require short- and long-term forecasting (Barrow, Barrow, & Brown, 2018). Thus, short and long-term forecasting is essential to developing the critical elements of a business plan. Both short and long-term forecasting provides the business plan’s target audience sufficient information to make informed decisions. Additionally, it helps in setting goals and planning for the short and long-run future. Moreover, it helps in budgeting by making the future visible in the approximation lens. For business plans aimed to attract investors, the short and long-term projections help potential investors determine if the venture is viable and whether it is worth investing in. short-term projections help investors understand when the business is expected to break even while the long-term forecasting demonstrates expected growth pattern (Ekanem, 2017). Thus, short and long-term forecasting is significantly crucial while developing the key elements of a business plan.

Importance of Developing Formal and Informal Networks When Building New Business Opportunities and Expanding Into New Markets

Formal and informal networks are crucial when building new business opportunities or expanding into new markets. An entrepreneur’s entrepreneurial networks start with his/her established web of relationships with friends and family (Benatti et al., 2021). According to Benatti et al., an entrepreneur develops social, avocational, and religious linkages from the outset. People in these groups can prove significantly useful by providing unexpected information or contacts that can help in some aspect of a business establishment or expanding to new markets. It is worth noting that informal networks are most valuable when building new business opportunities (Benatti et al., 2021). Nonetheless, if well-utilized, informal networks can prove considerably resourceful to an entrepreneur, whether in the process of developing new business opportunities or expanding to new markets.

Unlike informal networks, which a person develops from the outset due to passive social interactions with family and friends, formal networks are developed through active and purposeful efforts. According to Benatti et al. (2021), such networks are business associations or functions within a business/industry. They are relationships organized around business or industry groupings. These types of associations are valuable sources of information about new business opportunities and new markets. Benatti et al. elucidate that formal networks’ primary purpose is sharing of information and knowledge about various aspects of a particular business or industry and are characterized by asynchronous reciprocity. Hence, formal networks are valuable sources of insight about new business opportunities or expanding into new markets.

Importance Of Knowledge Management In The Digital Age And Identify Two Risks Organizations Must Address To Mitigate Competitive Pressures

            Digital transformations characterizing today’s world are rapidly broadening the array of technologies that a business can use to manage knowledge. Notably, knowledge management in the digital age is crucial as it hones an organization’s decision-making ability. Knowledge management entails three components: accumulation, storage, and sharing (North & Kumta, 2018). According to North and Kumta, the goal of knowledge management in the digital age is to facilitate organizational learning and create an ongoing improvement culture based on evidence. The wide range of technologies characterizing the digital age has made it relatively easier and effective for an organization to gather, define, structure, store, and share knowledge. Additionally, digital knowledge management makes it easier for organization members to easily access knowledge and share as needed (Abubakar, Elrehail, Alatailat, & Elçi, 2019). Thus, knowledge management in the digital is crucial to promoting evidence-based practices and facilitating ongoing improvements.

            There are various risks associated with knowledge management in the digital age. The risks fall into three broad categories: human knowledge risks, technological risks, and operational risks. This paper will address human knowledge risks and technological risks.  Human knowledge risks include knowledge hiding, unlearning, knowledge hoarding, and inadequate competence of employees. Technological risks include risks related to social media, such as the spread of fake information, risks associated with old technologies such as outdated software, risks related to cybercrime such as hacker attacks, and digitalization risks such as flawed algorithms (Abubakar, Elrehail, Alatailat, & Elçi, 2019). Organizations must mitigate these risks to mitigate competitive pressures.

 Two Most Challenging Business Plan Components for an Aspiring Entrepreneur

            A business plan comprises an executive summary, business description, market analysis and strategy, marketing and sales plan, competitive analysis, management and organization description, products and service description, operating plan, financial projection and needs, and exhibits and appendices. The executive summary section provides an overview of the entire business plan by highlighting what the plan will cover. The business description part provides a comprehensive description of the venture and its goals, services, products, and target market. The market analysis and strategy component identifies the business’s primary target audience and establishes a strategy to reach the market (Ekanem, 2017). 

            The marketing and sales plan section addresses the specifics regarding how the business plans to market and sell its products/services. The completive analysis entails a detailed competitive analysis and compares the business with its competitors. The management and organization description component elucidates the details of the venture’s management and organization strategy. The products and services description part expounds on the products/services the business offers. The operating plan section describes how the company will run. It also incorporates information regarding where the firm will operate, the number of employees, and other pertinent information related to the business’s operations. The financial projection and needs section details how the business anticipates bringing revenue and the funding required to hit the ground running. Lastly, the exhibits and appendices part contains extra information to further the goal business plan (Ekanem, 2017). 

            From the above-described components of a business plan, the two that would be most challenging for me as an aspiring entrepreneur are the operating plan and the financial forecast sections. As an aspiring entrepreneur, developing an operating plan that adequately addresses all the needed aspects can prove considerably challenging. Additionally, since the financial forecast section requires knowledge in accounting, it can prove challenging due to the dynamics of the variables involved.

How Technology Could Help Overcome Identified Business Plan Challenges

            Technology can help address the above-identified business plan challenges. To start with, the internet is a rich source of information that can help me better understand how to complete the two sections. Besides providing access to journal articles and insightful databases, the internet has business plan samples that can serve as guidelines for completing my business plan. Additionally, there exist many technological tools that render financial analysis and projection relatively more straightforward, even for those who are not accounting savvy. These include technologies such as Xero, Float, DryRun Financial Forecast, and Pulse Financial Forecast. Using these technologies can help me address the challenges associated with developing the financial forecast section of the business plan.


 To sum up, a business plan serves a crucial role in describing an organization’s core business activities, goals, and how it plans to achieve its objectives. Both short and long-term forecasting is essential to a business plan as they allow the target audience of the plan to make well-informed decisions. Knowledge management in the digital age is also vital as it facilitates organizational learning and creates an ongoing improvement culture based on evidence. Notably, a business plan incorporates many components which can prove challenging to develop. However, leveraging technology can help address the challenges. Besides developing a business plan, informal and formal networks are crucial to building new business ideas and expanding to new markets.

Globalization and Use of Fossil Fuel as Threats to the Global Environment

Critical Threats to the Global Environment

The world has been experiencing numerous environmental issues resulting to advance effects in human life including climate changes, and an increase in the world temperature among other issues. Growing modern age environmental issues capture the attention of the world society. As a major factor in the optimal environmental balance disturbing process, man is regarded to be the most responsible for the occurrence of the environmental crisis that is manifested in all life spheres. Due to a progressive number of environmental issues that require immediate response, the global community must define the best way to mitigate the issue. This paper focuses on discussing globalization and the use of fossil fuel as the major causes of environmental threats in the world, with intention of determining their main contributing factor, human activities contribution, and establishing the best way to address or mitigate the problem.

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Factors that Make Globalization and Use of Fossil Fuel Such a Serious Risk to the Global Environment

Globalization refers to a complex process whose direction and pace are determined by various factors, which its environmental, social, and economic manifestations leave lasting and significant impacts. In the environmental context, globalization is perceived as a process of widespread environmental crises manifestation, initiated by global environmental pollution. Globalizing mankind to create a global society is faced with actual global issues. Among those problems a significant place belongs to the planet earth environmental balance disruption, which threaten human life survival on it, to the level that one can talk of a global environmental crisis. When globalization is regarded in modern environmental crises, environmental issues, and ecological issues context, four interrelated contexts are considered. The globalization process is perceived as a process of environmental crisis manifestation on a large scale, and the issues yielding from the global economic crisis are currently very far from the regional and national framework (Ilic, 2).

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Civilization development has caused the gradual emergence of climate change and global warming on earth. Globalization caused growth in international trade, higher cooperation among countries, accelerated financial flows, and innovations in technology and science. Nevertheless, it also adds to environmental degradation. The major causes of environmental issues based on sustainable development and environmental protection are industrial production, uncontrolled natural resources exploitation, traffic development, energy production growth, development of technology and technics, and agricultural chemical contamination. With society development and population increase which cause an increase in the demand for products essential for life, it has become important to shift to industrial production mode. Certainly, industrial production has positive sides based on increased production, though not without endangering the environment via harmful gases emission into the soil, water, and air (Perera, 7).

The graph demonstrates how the world temperatures have been increasing in the past fifty years and the temperature changes prediction in the future. According to Ilic (2), a very far-reaching and important globalization negative effect is manifested in climate change and global warming. Global warming is caused by the greenhouse effect initiated by developing nations growing industrialization and heavy dependence on fossil fuels. The carbon emitted into the atmosphere through the two means result in global warming which yields to glacier and ice melting and the eventual rise of the seal level. This consequently has an extensive effect on the weather system and biodiversity. This, based on OECD has caused a rise in the average global temperature by 0.6oC since the late 19th century as demonstrated in the graph above. The situation is anticipated to worsen in the future if no measures are taken to control the environmental effect of different human activities around the globe. It is predicted that the global temperature will rise by more than 1 in the next 10 years from what was recorded in the late 19th century (Ilic, 2).

The industrialization negative effect is also manifested via the plants’ devastation, animals’ destruction, and human health deterioration. Environment violation via raw materials depletion and excessive accumulation of all kinds of waster that cannot be decomposed by nature are the industrial production characteristics. As a planetary process, globalization has resulted in the development of traffic that causes environmental degradation through air pollution, increase in levels of noise, and uncontrolled release of hazardous and harmful substances. Although globalization has its benefits, its negative impacts on the environment surpass the positive ones. According to Ilic (2) the main negative effect is mirrored in the export-based environmental destruction. Excessive utilization of natural resources as a result of increased demand, and ecosystem removal due to population growth have a highly detrimental effect on the environment.

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The use of fossil fuels is another serious risk to the global environment. Fossil fuels energy has carbon and was generated over several million years ago vial a geological process. The chief components of fossil fuel are mainly the organic matter remains from animals and plants. Fossil fuel has been a major source of global energy supply and may continue as so for a long time if sufficient measures are not employed to promote renewable energy. Consequently, fossil fuel has contributed a great deal to the current global climate situation in the world. According to Oludaisi (6) fossil fuels use as the main energy source for most nations has caused various negative environmental effects that include air pollution and global warming. Air pollution causes numerous health issues, causing economic and social negative effects (Martins, 5).  

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According to Ilic (2), the by-products of fossil-fuel combustion are the globe’s most insignificant threat to children’s future and health and major contributors to environmental injustice and global inequality. The emissions comprise a myriad of carbon dioxide and toxic air pollutants that is the most essential human-generated climate-changing greenhouse gas. According to Perera (7), synergies between climate change and air pollution can magnify the harm to kids. Effects include respiratory illness, impairment of behavioral and cognitive development, and other chronic illnesses. Besides this, fossil fuels are not evenly distributed, a situation that increases the concerns regarding energy security due to their chief role in energy production systems today.

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Human Role in Aggravating Globalization and Fossil Fuel Threat to the Earth’s environment

Today’s environmental issues mostly originate from human activities. Natural resources depletion and pollution, dwindling animal and plant biodiversity, ecosystems degradation, the loss of wilderness, and climatic change are all humans initiated environmental concerns. Humans have destroyed and transformed nature for centuries with the help of science and technology. One way human activities have aggravated fossil fuel use threat to the earth environment is through overexploitation and use of fossil fuel in most daily life activities and industries. According to Ilic (2), past technological advancement that includes fossil fuels mobilization has played a great role in advancing people’s living standards. Nevertheless, they have also created unwelcomed side effects on the environment. Mass consumption, industry, and the raised energy needs of an increasing world population are considerably responsible for fossil fuel resources depletion, species extinction, and pollution. An increase in industrialization resulted in to increase in fossil fuel demand in the industrial sector, resulting in to increase in demand, and hence an increase in fossil fuel production and use. This has generally increased fossil fuel-related greenhouse gases emission (Martins, 5).

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Globalization has happened alongside and in some cases encouraged various development. Since it is closely related to increasing international trade, globalization has promoted the rapid production, consumption, and trade of material goods in unpredicted quantities. This has increased the production and transportation demand, increasing the volumes of fossil fuel needed for the production and transportation of products to the targeted market. The performance of such activities in repetition and the huge number has highly contributed to increasing in fossil fuel emission in the air, causing pollution and greenhouse gases effects. This has weighted the human activities’ ecological footprint around the globe. The increased population as a result of immigration, and free global movement increased pollution associated with transportation. These adverse impacts are easily seen in cities with unplanned urbanization, pollution, historical environment destruction, and overpopulation.

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Globalization has promoted a lot of social, and economic activities across the globe (Tausch, 8). This has created the need to develop modern transportation infrastructure among other amenities that make it possible for a country to attract foreigners’ visitors or tourists, investors. This has also been seen to attract the hosting of major global events in a country. This has seen many countries doing deforestation to create room for modern infrastructure.

Globalization has played a great role in encouraging cities’ rapid expansion and multiplication globally over the last two centuries. According to Karatas (4), cities are sources of technology and creativity, and they are economic growth engines. Cities only make up 2% of the surface of the earth, though they are home to more than half of the global population. For instance, in Europe urban dwellers’ proportion is even higher, as about 80% of Europeans today live in urban areas and cities (Karatas, 4). The cities growth and the progressive strength of older urban regions such as Paris, London, New York is no accident.

Read also Role Of World Trade Organization In Acceleration of Globalization

New technologies and globalization attract people to large cities, by increasing urban proximity returns. The pressures of urbanization on the environment result in major environmental issues. Globalization promotes speedy urban development human activity, threaten to aggravate urban natural resources degradation and environmental pollution. Urban environmental issues are threats to the future or present wellbeing of people, yielding to human invoked destruction to the physical environment borne into or in urban areas. Urban environmental problems are elevated by metropolitan development initiatives and are associated with environmental issues. Some of these urban environmental issues include inefficient and inadequate waste disposal management, elevated air pollution, water bodies’ pollution, and loss of green areas. Other effects include emission of greenhouse gases and chemicals, resources depletion, and ecological disruption (Karatas, 4).

Read also Impact of Globalization on U.S.A Businesses

Initiatives that Global Community can Take to Mitigate the Worse Effects of this Environmental Threat

The global community can take various initiatives to mitigate the worst effects of globalization and fossil fuel use environmental threat. According to Oludaisi (6), most countries have already started implementing measures to control fossil fuel use environmental threat by promoting the use of alternative sources of energy, mostly renewable energy. The use of renewable energy plays a great role in minimizing fossil fuel use and hence reducing the rate of pollution caused by the same. Different countries and individuals are introducing the use of wind energy, solar energy, hydro energy, wave tides, and fuel cells as alternative sources of clean energy.

Read also Environmental Problems that Business and Society Face

Also, different industries are adopting green production to reduce the volume of carbon emitted in their production and product use. There have been many changes including the production of electric cars to reduce overdependence on fossil fuel in the transportation industry. The global community can mitigate fossil fuel environment threats further by putting limits on the volume of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases emitted by each country or targets of emission control by a certain period, and leave the mandate of fulfilling this to the country. Some countries such as the U.S. have put caps on the amount that should be emitted by each plant. This helps in forcing companies to adopt green production technologies (Perrera). The global community can also agree on leaving fossil fuels on the ground or using carbon capture and storage technologies. Though expensive, such measures can help in reducing the quantity of greenhouse gas effect in the atmosphere (Johnsson, 3 ). The global community can also agree on the rate of fossil fuel replacement with other renewable technologies with time. Such policies and targets will play a great role in mitigating the negative effects of fossil fuel use on the environment.

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To mitigate environmental threats caused by globalization, the global community should focus on training people on taking personal responsibility towards greenhouse gases emissions. As stated earlier, globalization is highly complex and hence it is hard to control the activities of people in a global environment. Although the government may manage to control an industrial contribution to environmental threat, it is hard to control individual actions likely to contribute to pollution and environmental degradation. Training people on individuals’ contribution to the situation, and measures they can take to reduce the effect would be highly effective in addressing the problem. According to Karatas (4), environmental awareness is closely related to the environmental crisis. It is therefore important to develop environmental awareness to control the emergence of environmental crises. Environmental awareness is an environmental culture spiritual dimension that includes habits and knowledge, adopted beliefs, attitudes and values, norms acceptance regarding what is in the social and natural high quality and healthy environment, what threatens it, how to important is to take care of it, the best ways to improve life quality and awareness in the existing condition. This will help in change people’s behaviors, ensuring that the majority consider their carbon footprint before engaging in an activity. It will also be important to create applied ecology on an agreed environmental policies basis (Figge, 1). Such measures can be taken at the national level by the government and at the international level by NGOs. Although their implementation may be local, their effect will be felt globally.


Globalization and the use of fossil fuels have played a great role in endangering global environmental health. Fossil fuels are found to contribute among the highest quantities of carbon emission in the world, through combustion where various by-products are released. Globalization has also been found to encourage various changes in the world including uncontrolled urban development, overpopulation in urban centers, growth of industries, and increase in traffic which results in various human activities contributing to environmental threats. The contribution of the two threats to environmental damage is immense and hence measures are needed to mitigate their effects. Although it is anticipated that fossil fuel use is likely to go down due to depletion, its use is still high and the impact is highly destructive and an alternative energy source can help a great deal in mitigating its effect. Other proposed measures include the development of control policies, and creating environmental awareness.

California Crisis, Kansas Crisis and Their Consequences

The Road to the American Civil War (1850-1856)

       The American Civil War still remains one of the most pivotal periods in American history. Its origins can be tracked back to the problems that emerged from the Missouri Compromise as the Federal government sought to promote westward expansion into uncharted territory. This particular situation was further exacerbated by the sudden annexation of the State of Texas by Mexico and the animosity and violence that soon followed. Today, it is generally agreed that the road to the American civil was paved with states’ clamor for recognition of their autonomy, the issue of slavery, and the political and economic divide that seemed to exist between Northern and Southern states. The California Crisis and the Kansas Crisis were two of the most important events precipitating this conflict. The California Crisis was a turning point in the conflict given that the decision to admit California into the Union was viewed as an affront upon the views the slave-owning South (Neely, 2017). The discovery of gold in California had seen the federal government promote a westward expansion while also spreading abolitionist views which went against the values and ideals of the Southern state. The Kansas Crisis was also a major factor that led to the American Civil War since the slave-owning South was sharply against the decision to vote on the issue of slavery in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska.

Read also Two Fundamental Reasons Why the American Civil War Occurred

What is the California Crisis, and what are the consequences

       The California Crisis was one of the major factors responsible for sparking the American Civil War and began when California formally joined the Union after the discovery of gold in 1848. This initial discovery of gold deposits in this area had been followed by a keen focus on westward expansion by the Federal government and an influx of immigrants to work on the mine. A section of the population that also moved to California was from the North and had raised fears among Southerners that they had brought, together with them, the ideology of abolition (Lincoln & Douglas, 2019). The abolitionist movement was strong and well-established in the North which is particularly why slave-holding Southerners feared that California would now be infiltrated by some of their agents. The South also feared that the admission of the territory of California into the Union would seeming upset the balance of power within the region and thus viewed it as an immediate threat. Moreover, they also regarded the admission of California into the Union as a ploy to weaken the South which also made them ever more suspicious of the intentions of the North.

…..The California crisis resulted in further polarization between these two regions; with the South insisting that the North is trying to intentionally destabilize it and viewed it as a threat to their way of life. It was also evidence of the North’s growing influence over the social, economic, and political fabric of a young United States, leading the South to conclude that direct confrontation was the only viable attempt at addressing this issue (Fellman, 2017). The tipping point of this stalemate came when it became quite apparent that the North had a direct interest in abolishing slavery in the South which ultimately caused a great deal of anger and resentment among plantation owners. However, the California Crisis was a critical period during the road to the civil war since it brought national attention to the horrors of the institution of war in the South and helped to galvanize support among abolitionists.

What is the Kansas Crisis, and what are the Consequences?

The Kansas Crisis was another major event that is often viewed as one of the main causes of the civil war. In the years following the California crisis, the Union decided to assent to the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 that essentially created provision for the creation of Kansas and Nebraska as two independent and autonomous regions directly within the South’s sphere of influence (Neely, 2017). Settlers were subsequently invited and allowed to move into these new territories with the sole purpose of swaying the vote when it came to voting on whether or not to abolish slavery. This ultimately resulted in mass violence and bloodshed within these territories and was among one of the most visible signs that the Union was steadily hurtling towards civil war. Moreover, this conflict further emboldened abolitionists from the North to activate and support the anti-slavery movement which was in direct opposition with the South’s way of life. The North and South were now in direct opposition to each other in their ideals and ideas of the Union. While the North’s primary aim was to preserve the Union during this entire process, the South opined that the only practical solution to their predicament was to secession.

…..The North attempted to safeguard its political and economic power which they now considered to be under direct threat from talk of secession by the South. Additionally, the North also firmly believed that allowing the South to secede would set a dangerous precedent for other states and was, therefore, determined to stop it at all costs. Abolitionists from the North also believed that the Union had a moral duty to stamp out slavery in the South since they considered it an evil that had to be eradicated. On the other hand, the South was fully aware of the fact that slavery was the cornerstone of their economy and part of their culture and viewed abolitionist ideology as a clear encroachment by the Federal government and an affront upon the right of states.

Why does the South leave/fight? Why does the North fight?

After weighing all possible options and the consequences of the Union’s action, the South decided to leave prompting the North to declare war. This was a defining period in the history of the United States primarily due to the fact that the United States had not seen any major conflict ever since 1776 (Fuller, 2015). As mentioned earlier, the North was now fighting to preserve the integrity of the Union while the South was fighting to preserve its way of life. Yet, the confluence of the American Civil War was in the changing attitudes witnessed all across the Union and the rigidity of some of the party intent on holding on to their old ways. Different attitudes and belief systems had now developed all across the Union such as the view that slavery was a moral evil which now prompted the South to respond by declaring independence. The South was also a firm believer in the principle of state rights and viewed these recent developments as a violation of their sovereignty directly within the context of the Union. By fighting for independence, the South was affirming these rights and sending a clear message to the federal government that they would essentially continue with the institution of slavery and would continue to strive to protect their own interests.

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