Reformed Christian Body Politic and Ways it was Healthy and Sick

Reformed Christian Body Politics

The reformation, also called Protestantism, refers to the religious revolution that occurred in the Western church in the 16th century. Its key leaders were John Calvin and Martin Luther. The reformation had far-reaching political effects, as it became the basis for the founding of Protestantism (Ryan, 2012). The reformation was crucial to the development of the Western tradition of political ideas as evident in the reformed Christian body politics.

Read also A Comparison Between Classical and Medieval Body Politic

Martin Luther started the Reformation in Germany posting his ninety-five theses, which denounced “false” teachings and corrupt practices of the Catholic Church. Luther refuted the idea of the church being the soul of the body politic. According to Luther, since the soul represents God it should not make the body sick; which the church often did and this was irreconcilable. He held that the Church was an unnecessary intermediate to God. Luther and later Calvin advanced this idea by elucidated that God revealed himself through the scripture and personal relationships. John Calvin advanced Luther’s grassroots effort by taking the idea further whereby he institutionalized the Protestant movement in Geneva. The Protestant wave under Calvin’s leadership and political ideologies legitimized the organizational structure allowing for the Protestant Church’s growth to a regional institution and later to a centralized government (Ryan, 2012).

Read also The Classical Body Politic and How it was Healthy and Sick

Anglican Britain fueled the growth of the reformation. This happened when Henry VIII declared himself the leader of the Church of England. This facilitated the changes in body politics from the medieval worldview to the Protestant perspective. Under this view, the head is the ruling party, the knights and nobles represent the chest arms and hands, the common people are the legs and feet. The ruling parties receive authority from God and, for the body to be healthy they must conduct themselves in a law-abiding fashion. Thus, they must serve law and justice as well as attend to the welfare of the people. From the reformed Christian body politics view, the ruling party is treated as a servant to the whole body as opposed to being the commander. Most importantly, all the body parts must function as a cohesive unit by complementing each other and practicing reciprocity to ensure the body remains healthy (Ryan, 2012). This aligns with I Corinthians 12:12–27 teaching, which states that the body is one and has many members, who must operate without dissension to ensure effectiveness.

Read also Reformed Christian Vs Early Modern Bodies Politic

A Comparison Between Classical and Medieval Body Politic

Classical and Medieval Christian Bodies

The body politic is an ancient metaphor that conceptualizes a state, society, or church and its institutions as a biological body (usually human). Hence, the body politic is a metaphor for the structure of society. Like a human body, society has many parts whereby each institution or class is a part of the body with unique functions and values. Like the human body, the political body has various conditions of health and illness, strengths and weaknesses, which is why active effort to maintain the ideal situation is essential. Understanding the body from the Classical and Medieval perspectives is an important basis for understanding the evolutions of political bodies. This paper compares the Classical and Medieval body politic with consideration of Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas perspectives and ideologies.

Read also Reformed Christian Vs Early Modern Bodies Politic

The Classical Body Politic

            The Classical body politic is best defined by the works of Plato and Aristotle. During the Greek era, citizenship was characterized by being narrow and politics was seen purely as a public matter. During this period, the political view was that citizens could only exist in self-governing city-states. As per Plato, the Republic stood out as the perfect city and a philosophical king was best suited to rule the city (Ryan, 2012). Plato elucidated that the republic qualifies as the head of the Classic body politic ruled by a philosopher-king as the ultimate ruling class. In such a city, there would be no politics. This is because Plato’s view is anti-political, which is paradoxical since he described a political body (Harvey, 2021).

Read also The Classical Body Politic and How it was Healthy and Sick

Aristotle agrees with Plato’s perspective. He elucidates that the military constitutes the hands of the body. The commoners including farmers and merchants are the feet of the body. Religious institutions constitute the heart of the body. It is worth noting that classical philosophers did not pay attention to the heart as part of the political body. Notably, there are both healthy and ill aspects to the classical body politic. For instance, whereas the king is the head, hence the controller of the body, without the hands or the feet, the body is ineffective (Kenny, 2012).

Read also Plato and Greek Philosophy Influence on Western Ways of Seeing, Being And Doing

The Medieval Body Politic

The medieval body politic succeeded the classical body politic. According to Ryan (2012), the medieval body politic stemmed from the Roman emperor Constantine and the Jewish political worldview. It began with Augustine, an early Christian thinker. Augustine separated two different places in his book The City of God. The two cities are the earthly world and the heavenly world. Augustine elucidated that the love of self informs the earthly world while the love of God informs the heavenly world (Kenny, 2012). Aquinas helped further the medieval body politic by elucidating the different parts of the body. The head of the body was the king, nobles comprised the arms, priests represented the soul, and the peasants form the legs (Mooney, 2011). When all the parts work together, the body is healthy. However, corruption and abandoning Christian teachings can sicken the body. For instance, if the King is corrupt or the priests do not uphold Christian teachings, then the body falls ill (Arnhart, 2015).

Read also Black Death Plague Impacts on the Economic and Cultural Life of Medieval Europe

Comparison and Conclusion

Classical and Medieval politics share similarities and differences as demonstrated by this essay. Regarding similarities, both have the king or the monarch as the head of the body. The military/nobles are the arms. Moreover, both have the commoners as the legs. Concerning differences between the two perspectives, whereas the Classical body gave little attention to religion, the medieval body focused heavily on religion to inform its view. Both seem flawed as they do not have God as the head of the body. The bible in 1 Corinthians 11:3 states “But I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ, the head of a wife is her husband, and the head of Christ is God.”

Overcoming Process, Personal, Physical, and Semantic Communication Barriers

According to Abdin (2019), communication barriers include four main ones: process barriers, human barriers, physical barriers, and semantic barriers are all examples of these types of obstacles. As a manager, my goal is to use rules, tools, processes, and procedures to get beyond these roadblocks. As a result, the importance of excellent communication in any business cannot be overstated. Despite this, communication barriers exist in many companies, and once they are identified, they must be overcome. Because of this, if these barriers are not dealt with effectively, they can be highly harmful when it comes to accomplishing particular corporate goals.

Read also Communication Barriers between Police and Community

Process Communication Barriers

Process obstacles are a major roadblock (Abdin, 2019). Two people must communicate for a message to be exchanged. Things can go wrong while data is being transmitted. I would improve on my communication abilities to overcome these obstacles. When speaking, I would be sure to talk slowly and clearly and use terminology that is easy to comprehend. I would make sure I use listening skills to fully know what the other person understands by having them repeat back what I said. When it comes to communication, I Will not utilize text messages or email. I will rely on phone and face-to-face communication to get the job done. Personal boundaries are also a hindrance to communication. Trust and ego are two of the most common personal hurdles. It is impossible to have clear and effective communication if two people don’t trust one another. Employees will have faith in me if I show them that I’m trustworthy. When it comes to running my business, I’m not allowing my ego to get in the way. Employees shall be held to a high standard of integrity, treated with dignity, and treated fairly at all times.

Read also Real Communication Barriers Created by Technology in the Workplace – Annotated Bibliography

Semantic Communication Barriers

Misunderstandings arising from differences in a person’s understanding of words are known as semantic obstacles to communication (Button & Rossera, 2019). Even though words can have a variety of meanings, communicators need to remain focused on the precise topic at hand. Semantic obstacles include slang, metaphors, and connotations, which are examples of semantic barriers. To avoid this misinterpretation, a manager should remind their employees to use precise language while communicating. This is a personal matter that necessitates personal attention to be successfully implemented. Managers must set an example for their employees in how they interact.

Read also How to Overcome Communication Barriers As A Manager

Physical Communication Barriers

The workplace itself can act as a communication roadblock. Miscommunication is made easier by physical barriers in the workplace (Button & Rossera, 2019). Noise, high temperatures, cubes, walls, and locked doors are just a few examples of the various obstacles that stand in the way. As a result, workers won’t collaborate efficiently, which might lead to poor communication. Managers should watch out for such impediments and establish an office plan which fosters collaboration among personnel. Heating and cooling systems should be regulated to a suitable temperature, and any additional obstructions should be removed. Physical or manipulable things don’t necessitate complex tactics to be solved, making this a straightforward task.

Read also How Can i Improve Personal Communication?

Personal Communication Barriers

The obstacles that stand in the way of a person’s success are known as personal barriers. These obstacles might either be actual or imagined (Klimova & Semradova, 2019). When time is used as an excuse for not finishing a task, it becomes a personal barrier. Fear can also be a stumbling block since it prevents us from achieving our goals. Lack of resources and energy are two other factors that can get in the way of one’s achievement. Managers must pay close attention to the individual actions of their employees if they are to recognize and address personal impediments as a manager can overcome personal barriers by increasing the level of comfort with a subject which can be accomplished by learning more about it. I will also improve my decision-making level by raising my level of awareness. To achieve long-term success, I will pay attention to even the smallest things in the organization and improve my vocabulary to provide clear and succinct messages. Lastly, I will build trust with my team members and come up with knowledge and solutions that will benefit the organization.

Four Reasons Why Entrepreneurial Organizations Seek Opportunities For Innovation

Companies such as Amazon, eBay, Google, and MacDonald’s success has significant management implications for business innovation over the past decade. E-commerce, for example, depends on some innovations and entrepreneurship to thrive. It is claimed by Contador et al. (2019) that innovation and entrepreneurship are the two most important factors in the long-term success of an entrepreneurial business. To be considered innovative, a corporation must be willing to explore new possibilities and take risks.

Read also Why Entrepreneurial Organizations Seek Opportunities for Innovation

Entrepreneurship requires innovations to manage the surging competitiveness. Increased competitiveness resulting from free global trade necessitates the development of goods and services to meet the global market’s requirements. According to Fuentelsaz et al. (2018), success in today’s competitive business world hinges on creating sound business plans. Players in various industries are forced to seek out new resources due to shifting competitive conditions and market structure. Entrepreneurship relies heavily on finding inexpensive labor and maximizing economies of scale, yet invention is the most critical aspect of a business.

Read also Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Change, Artificial Intelligence and Technology

Consequently, entrepreneurial organizations should cultivate a spirit of innovation to gain long-term advantages and improve performance (Fuentelsaz et al., 2018). When it comes to securing a competitive advantage, innovation has proven essential. Entrepreneurial businesses increase productivity by providing a competitive advantage, which leads to their expansion.

Read also Richard Branson’s Entrepreneurial Journey Analysis Using Timmons FORT Model

A common assumption in the economics of innovation literature is that corporate innovation and economic growth are linked. The second reason for innovation is increasing revenue. According to Fuentelsaz et al. (2018), increased revenue is a common motivation for businesses to embrace innovation. Innovation is the change or creation of new processes, ideas, and products in the business sector. According to Schumpeterian theory, the more efficient and innovative companies gain market share. Companies that make significant investments in R&D have a better chance of prospering in the long run.

Read also Analysis of Strategies Related to Change and Innovation that Provide a Competitive Advantage

The third reason entrepreneurs need innovation is that customers’ needs are constantly evolving. Customers may require one thing today, but they may require something else the next day. Diaw and Asare (2018) conducted an empirical study that found a positive and significant association between innovation and consumer satisfaction in the Ghanaian telecoms business. Innovators can anticipate market shifts and develop viable solutions. If a company is not willing to innovate, it will not be able to meet the needs of its customers for long. For customers to remain loyal to a company, fresh ideas such as safe online payments and fast delivery must be implemented.

Read also Jeff Bezos Transformational Leadership and Contribution Towards Innovation

No doubt that the business sector’s future will be altered. The fourth reason is that many entrepreneurial businesses have been forced to adopt new strategies due to technological advancements and changes like the workplace (Kraus et al., 2021). Many people are taking advantage of the internet and other technological advances. In today’s world, businesses use information technology to streamline the recruitment and management of their human capital. In addition, a large section of today’s workforce is looking for ways to work more flexible hours. It is the responsibility of management to come up with new approaches to engaging and motivating employees in today’s technology-driven business environment.

Read also Norback and Persson Born to Be global Firms And Peng’s Five Entrepreneurial Strategies

Nearly every company in the 21st century is looking for new approaches to staying relevant in the market, avoiding competition, and aligning with customer demands. A company’s future is at stake if it does not embrace innovation. In conclusion, entrepreneurial firms seek chances for innovation and new ideas to remain competitive and preserve long-term growth in this continuously changing world. Companies can gradually achieve various objectives with the correct kind of technological integration and forward-looking concepts by embracing these projects. Only those companies that have shown the bravery to innovate and instill a culture of innovation in their staff will be able to thrive in today’s turbulent business environment and cut-throat competition.

Read also Entrepreneurial Crime – Elizabeth Holmes and Ramesh Balwani Wire Fraud

The Classical Body Politic and How it was Healthy and Sick

A Description of the Classical Body Politic: its head, heart, arms, feet, etc.

The classical body politic consists of several parts, the same as how the human body is made up of many different parts and organs. The various parts work together to achieve overall success. The body politic can be defined as a metaphor used in the understanding of the unity and complexity in a polity by comparing it and its operations to that of the human body. Functions and offices of given institutions of government and social classes can be seen as parts of the human body. It is worth noting that the hierarchy of social and political values that comes as a result of the comparison goes hand in hand with the traditional assessments of the organs of the human body in medieval and ancient philosophical and anatomical texts (Harvey, 2021).

According to Harvey (2020), one of the primary parts of the body politic is the head. It is metaphorical and representational of the head of the hierarchy and hence stands for the king. The head is therefore the ruling value and other parts of the human body and the body politic are subject to it. The heart is the other essential unit whose main function is to unify the entire body. The wise men and counselors are linked to the important task of the heart. The arms’ purpose is to safeguard and defend the kingdom and as such, the knights stand in the place of the arms, as defenders of the kingdom. On the other hand, the merchants are linked to the legs as a result of their progressive tours around the world while the laborers are equated to the feet since they operate close to the earth and support the body (Harvey, 2021).

In What Ways was the Classical Body Politic Healthy and Sick?

To a great extent, the classical body politic was healthy as it represents inclusiveness. It also depicts a clear representation of politics. Plato was a supporter of the idea as he wanted and believed in social equity. Each person fits into various parts of the system, which makes it possible for the human body to operate appropriately. In the real sense, each body part is crucial and ought to be given fair attention and respect. When all body parts are not considered, the body becomes sick rather than healthy. All representatives of the political hierarchy should also work together for the overall goal of the system. The head or leaders should take precautions when it comes to the welfare of those below them and the roles involved (Harvey, 2021). All body parts are essential.

A Comparison of Freud, Mahler, and Adler Developmental Models

Foundational Theories of Human Development

         Theories of human development were initially put forward as trailblazing attempts to understand hitherto unknown aspects of human growth and development.  According to Hurst (2020), foundational theories of human development ultimately provided a remarkable basis for assessing mental and psychological development foremost defining tenets of human growth. Foundational theories of human development have since morphed into holistic perspectives on growth; exploring the social, emotional, psychological, and cognitive aspects of this dynamic and multifaceted process. Foundational theories of human development also target an overall improvement in human relations through the explicatory appraisal of human growth, development, and learning abilities. Today, they are projected to improve our knowledge of human behavior, factors influencing human temperament, and the ability to predict future actions based on previous behavioral patterns. Sigmund Freud, Margaret Mahler, and Alfred Adler are highly regarded as leading contributors to human development discourse hence the fundamental nature of conducting a comparative analysis of each of their propositions.

Developmental Models by Freud and Mahler

           Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a leading contributor to intense debates on developmental models that raged during the first half of the 21st century. As the sole originator of the concept of psychoanalysis as an efficient solution to psychopathology, Freud was a respected authority in neuropathology whose views on human development were destined to captivate scholars and healthcare practitioners alike.  Freud, subsequently, introduced a developmental model based on his theory of psychosexual development to explain the process and major phases of human development across the lifespan. Besides, this was a revolutionary attempt since he, primarily, sought to integrate scientific structure into medicine, especially when attempting to interpret the process responsible for human development.

              Freud proposed that human development was unquestionably grounded in normative sexual development and, therefore, systematized his model based on five distinct developmental phases. They include the oral, anal, phallic, and genital stages (Sugarman, 2020). The oral stage (0-1-year-old) was described as a period during which oral desire formed the basis of an infant’s sense of gratification due to constant nursing by the mother. Freud proceeded to introduce the anal stage (1-3 years old) as the accompanying phase in human development during which primitive sexual development manifests through psychosexual gratification derived from defecating. On the other hand, the phallic stage (3-6 years old) is predominantly marked by cognizance of primordial sexual pleasure, infant libido (desire), and the potential of psychosexual gratification from genitalia as one of the main erogenous zones. The genital stage (13-18 years old) is Freud’s fifth and last stage of human development. With the onset of mature sexual feelings, children now increasingly seek independence to forge and maintain lasting relations and an avenue to express sexual desires.

            Margaret Mahler (1897-1985) was also a notable contributor to the long-standing debate on the process of human development. The Hungarian-American psychiatrist proposed a model of human development grounded in a proposition identified as the Separation-Individual theory of child development.  Furthermore, it is founded on the so-called discipline of “ego psychology” and mainly sought to improve the scholarly understanding of prevailing notions on human development (McDevitt, 2015). Mahler suggested that the successful completion of major developmental phases during formative periods of human development occasioned separation and individuation. Additionally, Mahler’s model of human development was based on three main phases; the normal autistic, normal symbiotic, and separation-individual stages. During the normal autistic phase (0-1 month), the infant is disinterested in external stimuli and mainly focuses on themselves. The normal symbiotic (1-5 months) then begins with the infants’ inexplicit awareness of the mother based on a need-satisfaction basis. This ultimately culminates in the separation-individual phase (5-24 months) during which children start to understand the concept of boundaries, in addition to making a final transition to overlapping realms.

Freud and Mahler’s Developmental Models vs. Adler’s Foundational Theory

             Several aspects of stand out in the models of human development proposed by Freud and Mahler. Both models emphasize the importance of major childhood developmental milestones and the overall importance of meeting them within the respective stages. Freud and Mahler, essentially, theorized that a healthy adult and whole adult is a direct product of efforts by dedicated guardians focused on meeting developmental goals. Successful completion of the 5th and last stage of Freud’s model of human development is meant to prompt a desire for personal autonomy and independence (Beit-Hallahmi, 2020). Similarly, finishing the 3rd and final stage of Mahler’s model of human development is anticipated to prompt a child’s ultimate separation and individuation; signifying independence from the mother. Freud and Mahler also envisioned a long-awaited conclusion where healthy children achieve emotional maturity and are eventually capable of solving conflicts and cooperating with their peers (Frankish, 2018). However, a perceptible variation in views can be deduced when comparing Freud and Mahler’s models of human development with Alfred Adler’s theory. For instance, Adler highlights the inimitability and indivisibility of human development, thus focusing solely on every individual being unique. Adler’s human development theory was not structured based on stages but rather sought to demystify human behavior within a social context (Adler, 2013). Today, the Adlerian theory is can be applied in counseling in scenarios owing to its goal-oriented and humanistic outlook. It may, therefore, play a crucial role in enabling therapists to identify impediments hindering the progress within a therapeutic setting while also collaborating with the patient to work towards set objectives.

Concepts from Psychoanalytic Approaches

The following are some of the primary concepts stemming from psychoanalytic approaches and potentially useful for nurse psychotherapists within a clinical setting:

  1. Taking patients’ social context into account as part of their individual history likely associated with their current circumstances. This may entail allowing patients to openly discuss their lives and major events which may have shaped them in order to identify any few and far between patterns likely liked to their personal crisis.
  2. A firm understanding of unconscious triggers and their association with the client’s current behavior pattern of behavior. Yet, this treatment modality should always be complemented with empathy and an open-minded outlook to encourage the client to participate in therapy.

Developmental Theories and their Application in Clinical Practice

               Today, it is imperative for all practicing nurse psychotherapists to possess and display a comprehensive understanding of developmental theories owing to their significance in standard clinical practice.

  1. Knowledge of developmental theories can aid nurse psychotherapists in identifying specific psychosocial stages responsible for impairing clients’ healthy adult development with the ultimate aim of correcting the damage by relying on therapy.
  2. A rich understanding of developmental theories also improves nurse psychotherapists’ situational awareness and ability to contextualize clients’ symptomatic behavior and mannerisms.
  3. An understanding of developmental theories also aids nurse psychotherapists’ in psychoanalyzing clients and predicting possible future responses.

Symbolic Interactionism, Social Conflict Theory, and Structural Functionalism

Essential of Sociology

Sociology refers to the systematic study of social interactions, social groups, and human society. It centers on how groups and people interact, and also the behavioral rules that shape those interactions. Sociology stresses interaction patterns including how patterns are developed, how they are upheld, and how they are altered. Sociology is grouped into six main areas that include social order theory and social organization, social control, social change, social groups, social processes, and social problems. All these can be explained using major sociology theoretical perspectives that help in interpreting, analyzing, explaining, and comprehending social phenomena. Theoretical frameworks are highly needed to be able to interpret social facts. Theory in this case refers to the general statement on how some sections of the world work and fit together (Brinkerhoff et al., 2011). The three main theoretical views in sociology which have offered a general sociological studies framework include symbolic interactionism, social conflict theory, and structural functionalism. Among them, the theoretical perspective that best fits sociology’s definition demonstrating people interaction is symbolic interactionism, as it defines the most essential elements of sociology.

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Symbolic Interactionism, Social Conflict Theory, and Structural Functionalism 

Structural functionalism  

Structural functionalism denotes society as a social system comprising of different institutions, organizations, and structures affecting each other and influencing the entire system. It centers on the institutions’ unction and their contribution to the social system continuity. According to Laluddin (2016), society structural analysis can be achieved by creating a functional analogy between an organism and society. In this sense, society is perceived as an organism demonstrating various degrees of structural complexity that can be weighed in terms of various component elements of its structures. Therefore, a structure consisting of identical elements would be less or more self-sufficient. Thus, the level of the integration of the whole relies on the extent of the variation that lives between the specific structural elements.

Read also A Comparison of Sociological Perspectives – Structural Functionalist Approach, Social Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

This implies that the existence of extra variation between the structural elements results in greater integration in the whole and permits it to survive by lowering its internal disharmony. This theoretical perception focuses more on the functions of different parts of the society and how they integrate to form a whole structure. It does not center on individual interactions, but on individuals’ functions and how they complete a complex social structure. If perceived in terms of interaction one can conclude that it gauges the society-based interdependence of parts of the society. Society only survives based on how each part depends on others through their basic contribution to society.

Social Conflict Theory

Unlike structural-functionalism that perceives society as a well-integrated, harmonious social system with common goals and shared values, conflict theory perceives society as a ground of widespread struggle and conflict at each level. Rather than valuing consensus as a way of keeping society intact, it uses power exercises to play this role. Individuals, organizations, and institutions possessing power are perceived as imposing their standards and values of conduct on those without power by exercising their power and use of force. They create a particular social pattern in a way that favors their interest and permits them to acquire more wealth and power via the exploitation of the groups that are less privileged in the society. Thus, conflict theory perceives society to be organized on the patterns that uphold the discriminatory status quo. It sidelines some and favors others by depriving some of their rights by confining them in one place and not permitting any change that might work in the favor of the disadvantaged in society (Laluddin, 2016). This theory depicts the negative form of interaction where the powerful ones exercise their power over the poor, initiating resentment in society.

Read also Functionalist View And Conflict Theory’s View Of Social Stratification

Symbolic Interactionism

Different from the other two, symbolic interactionism is a theory that handles social events on a small scale as it deals with the social interaction of individuals at a personal level. This theory is supported by different perspectives including Jeans Piaget, George Herbert Mead, and Charles Horton Cooley. Piaget argues that the child begins from a purely individual state wherein there is no possible exchange with others in the first months of existence. However, the socialization starts growing progressively afterward forever. In the beginning,  the child does not know any signs or rules and must conquer via a gradual adaptation created by accommodating and assimilating others,  and two significant elements of the outer society that include mutual comprehension, founded on the word, and shared discipline founded on reciprocity rules (Pescaru, 2019).

Read also How Management Uses Symbolic Interactionism To Reinforce Role Definition And Assert Dominance And Control Over Employees

Herbert and Cooley also tried to understand how a person obtains social and personal characteristics, especially self-identity. They deduced that individuals were not born with a sense of self. They obtained it via interaction that happens between them in society. Therefore, self-identity can be regarded as a social product rather than an instinctive event possessed by an individual. Herbert also regarded people’s minds including language development as a product of social interaction. This theory perceives social patterns about individuals’ subjective comprehension of their social world (Laluddin, 2016). Unlike the other two that center on a wider part of the society, this centers on people interaction at a basic level, and hence it acts as the theory that gives the basic explanation of sociology, and that focus on the most essential elements of sociology which is socialization.

Read also Evaluation of the Doctrine of Interactionism

Read also How Is Racism Explained From A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective?

Similarities and Differences Between Symbolic Interactionism, Social Conflict Theory, and Structural Functionalism

The three sociological perspectives share several similarities. To start with, they all offer theoretical paradigms for explaining how society operates by influencing people and vice versa by uniquely conceptualizing society, human behavior, and social forces. Another similarity is evident between structural-functionalism and conflict perspective. Both apply macro-level analysis whereby functionalism analyzes the relationship between parts of society while conflict theory analyzes competition for scarce resources. There is also another similarity between structural-functionalism and the symbolic-internationalist perspective. Notably, both perspectives focus on the positive aspects of society that contribute to its stability. Functionalism focuses on the multiple interrelated components that work together to keep society functioning and the symbolic-interactionist perspective focuses on the relationships among individuals within a society and how the use of symbols influences the said relationships (Van Tubergen, 2020). Thus, although each of the three sociological perspectives uniquely conceptualizes society, they all share some similarities.

Due to their uniqueness in conceptualizing society, human behavior, and social forces, the three sociological perspectives have several differences. First, while structural-functionalism and conflict theory analyzes society from a macro level, the symbolic internationalist perspective analyzes society from a micro-level (Van Tubergen, 2020). Structural-functionalism and conflict theory are grand theories that attempt to explain large-scale relationships to answer fundamental questions regarding why societies form and why they change while the symbolic-interactionist perspective is a micro-level theory that studies specific relationships between individuals or small groups (Tyler, 2020). Another difference between the perspectives is evident in the aspects of society that the three theories focus on. While structural-functionalism and symbolic internationalist perspective focuses on the positive aspects of society, conflict theory focuses on the negative aspects. Structural-functionalism and symbolic-interactionist perspectives focus on the aspects that contribute to a society’s stability while conflict theory focuses on the aspects that contribute to instability. Lastly, while the structural-functionalism perspective defends the status quo, conflict theory challenges the status quo. Notably, the former believes that people cooperate to effect social order hence the efforts to avoid social change while the latter encourage social change owing to the underlying assumption that people are always competing for scarce resources (Van Tubergen, 2020). Thus, the three sociological perspectives have various contrasting assumptions despite their shared goal to conceptualize society and its dynamics.

Which Insights into Socialization between symbolic interactionism, social conflict theory, and structural functionalism gives us the most useful insights into the development of the Self?

Sociology is an extensive subject that deals with people’s interaction including social order theory and social organization, social control, social change, social groups, social processes, and social problems.  These fields are summarized using three main socialization theories that give different perspectives of sociology including symbolic interactionism, social conflict theory, and structural functionalism. Among them, symbolic interactionism is a theoretical perspective found on the most basic aspects of sociology. It, therefore, offers the most basic explanation of sociology demonstrating the development of socialization from the most basic stage of life. This means it is the theory that holds the most essential aspects of sociology.

Social Anxiety Disorder Research Paper


For persons unacquainted with phobias, it is common for them to assume that they are mere irrational fears capable of being controlled by respective victims. However, individuals grappling with such conditions acknowledge their gravity and impact on their quality of life. According to the 5th Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), phobias differ greatly from common fears given that they are more severe and often persistent (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Persons suffering from a specific type of phobia every so often describe them as an uncontrollable and overwhelming desire to avoid specific stimuli responsible for triggering them.  Social anxiety disorder or social phobia one such disorder, primarily characterized by extreme distress during social interaction and an irrational fear of prejudgment and public embarrassment. It is, therefore, fundamental to describe this problem in detail, major characteristics associated with the disorder, at-risk populations and comorbidities, and the types of interventions available today.

Read also Anxiety Specific Phobias Research Paper

Social Anxiety Disorder, DSM-5 300.23 (F40.10)

            Social anxiety disorder is a phobia characterized by extreme distress during social interactions. Persons suffering from the condition are overly concerned with their standing in public and frequently preoccupied by the fear of humiliation or being judged by others. According to Comer & Comer (2017), social anxiety may also encompass an irrational fear of scrutiny by others in performance scenarios, the fear of eating in front of others or registering poor results at school or within an occupational capacity. As a consequence, persons suffering from this disorder inadvertently end up being excessively judgmental of their ability to perform and thrive in public. This may, eventually, impede personal success presently and in the future.

Read also Agoraphobia, Symptoms, Treatment and Potential Impact at Workplace

Among one of the most common consequences of social phobia is a general inability, by competent individuals, to discharge important duties and responsibilities due to the condition. Since social anxiety disorder is normally an uncomfortable subject to broach; which explains why sufferers may end up failing to honor social invitations and obligations. This response might, therefore, be misconstrued as pride, arrogance, disinterest, or hostility towards well-meaning individuals and can have a negative impact on interpersonal relationships shared with close friends and family. Social anxiety disorder has increasingly become a major focal point in mental health owing to its severity and the very fact that this disabling fear can incapacitate sufferers to the point of inhibiting the possibility of future social contact.

Characteristics of Social Anxiety Disorder

            Several diagnostic characteristics distinguish social anxiety disorder from other mental health conditions listed in DSM-5.  Furthermore, these specific characteristics are also utilized as a benchmark in the evaluation of whether presenting cases satisfy the prevailing standard diagnostic criteria. The most common distinguishing attribute associated with social anxiety disorder is an extreme irrational fear and apprehension in social settings. Persons suffering from the condition may, therefore, wrongly assume that they are the center of attention, therefore warranting an urgent need to remain unnoticed in a “hostile” environment (Koyuncu et al., 2019). Such attitudes then hinder social interaction in social settings or exercising public speaking; fearing their avoidant behavior may manifest when least expected. Persons suffering from social anxiety disorder are also likely to experience extreme irrational distress over social interactions and even resort to crying or experience panic attacks. Furthermore, social phobia is also characterized by the fear of social rejection due to perceived inadequacies associated with their condition. Individuals suffering from social anxiety disorder are exceedingly self-conscious and may exhibit disproportionate anxiety over perceived physical blemishes or character traits (Lee & Lee, 2018). The condition may also impair subjects from optimal functioning in an occupational capacity resulting in strained interpersonal relationships with coworkers and fellow team members. Initially, social phobia may appear as extreme “shyness” during social interactions but later progress to avoidant behavior.

Prevalence and Comorbidities

            Since SAD frequently affects a considerable cross-section of the general population at any given point in their lives, the condition is designated a “lifetime prevalence” label. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), under the patronage of the National Institute of Mental Health Disorders, estimates that 7.1% of the adult population in the U.S. experienced social phobia within the past year (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020). Epidemiological studies also indicate that, if left untreated, both generalized and non-generalized SAD may become a lifelong problem for vulnerable segments of the population predisposed to developing the condition.  Since the onset often begins between late childhood and early adolescence, parents are strongly advised to seek professional help from their respective healthcare providers to address the condition during its formative stages using first-line interventions approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Although SAD’s gender distribution is relatively equal during the pre-adolescence, the condition later affects more females (8.0%) than it does males (6.1%) at a ratio of 2.5:1.2 respective (National Institute of Mental Health, 2020). This gender ratio disparity is mostly attributed to women’s propensity to express greater fear in a wide array social situations comparative to men and further cemented by existing cross-cultural variations. However, a study by Koyuncu et al., (2019) concluded that major psychiatric comorbidities associated with SAD include bipolar disorder, major depression, alcohol use disorder, and personality disorder. Their presence may, therefore, have a major impact on disease progression and ultimately impact care-seeking behavior.

Possible Interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder

Pharmacological Treatment

            Pharmacological intervention is typically recommended for patients experiencing severe bouts of social phobia. According to (Rowa et al., (2018), first-line pharmacological interventions for SAD include anticonvulsants, antidepressants, and benzodiazepine. The intention of exploiting this intervention is to improve sufferer’s quality of life and enable them to function optimally in public.

Psychological Interventions

            The application of psychological interventions is a popular and highly efficient solution in managing SAD. Some of the most common psychological interventions range from methods such as exposure in vivo, social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy (Rowa et al., 2018). The rationale informing their use is in their ability to equip sufferers with sufficient psychological tools to address their respective phobias on a self-help basis.

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Research Paper on Why Adolescents Use Drugs

Why do Adolescents Use Drugs?

The usage of drugs by adolescents can range from exploratory to pathological. Adolescents who use substances regularly are more likely to have short-term problems such as automobile accidents, conflicts, unwanted sexual activity, and overdose. Substance abuse harms teenage brain development. According to Das et al. (2016), adolescents who regularly use alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, or other substances are more likely to develop long-term problems such as mental health problems, educational underachievement, substance abuse, and addiction as adults. Taking risks and looking for thrills is a normal aspect of modern adolescent development. By the time they graduate from high school, approximately 70 percent of adolescents will have experimented with drugs or alcohol at some point (Das et al., 2016).

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Adults should not denigrate, disregard, or tolerate even the most infrequent use of illicit substances. It is difficult to overstate the importance of parental views and behavior when it comes to substance abuse, especially when using alcohol, cigarettes, prescription medicines, and other substances themselves. According to national polls, Novacek et al. (2018) among 12th-graders, the percentage who say they have never taken any substances has consistently increased over the past 40 years. Prescription opiates and high-potency marijuana are among the more potent and deadly items now readily available. These goods increase the risk of both short- and long-term repercussions for teenagers who begin using substances due to these products (Novacek et al., 2018).

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Other risk factors for adolescent smoking include poor academic performance, extreme dieting, especially among females, physical fighting and drunk driving, especially among guys, and the use of alcohol or other substances, which is more common among boys (Novacek et al., 2018).

Teenagers with low self-esteem, poor problem-solving skills, and easy access to cigarettes may use tobacco in various ways. About 3.5 percent of high school students have used smokeless tobacco in the last decade, according to (Santrock, 2005) . People above the age of 12 are less likely to smoke cigarettes than a few years ago. Parents can help prevent their children from smoking or using smokeless tobacco products by providing positive role models, addressing the hazards of tobacco, and assisting teenagers who already smoke or chew to stop using it (Novacek et al., 2018).

Read also Drug and Substance Abuse Among School Aged Youth

Randall & York (2020) demonstrate that 39 percent of people between the ages of 18 and 25 use drugs, compared to 34 percent of people between 26 and 29. Within seven years, 70% of individuals who try an illegal drug before their thirteenth birthday have developed a substance dependence disorder; just 27% of those who try it after their seventeenth birthday do so. Opioid use problems affect 29.5 million people worldwide, with opioids being the most dangerous. According to a NACADA study, 11.7% of males and 5.4% of girls in high school use illicit drugs, and the majority of these students begin their drug and alcohol usage during their youth (Randall & York, 2020).

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Males and girls use virtually all illicit drugs in dramatically different ways, and boys are statistically more likely than females to attend an emergency room or die due to an overdose. Drunk driving is considered “illicit,” and marijuana use and prescription medication abuse. Men are significantly more likely than women to use or get addicted to illicit drugs and alcohol throughout the great majority of age groups (Randall & York, 2020). It is a problem that affects women just as much as men when it comes to drug usage. According to research, women are more likely than men to experience the craving16–19 and relapse20,21 phases of the addiction cycle. Regarding drug treatment, women face unique problems, such as getting child care or being provided medicine that has not been thoroughly studied in female patients before being prescribed.

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Adolescents with mental health issues are more likely to engage in substance addiction, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, inhalants, and other illicit substances. Special care and therapy are needed since substance abuse frequently begins during this formative time. Substance use disorder not otherwise specified (SUDNOS) may be diagnosed in adolescents experiencing signs of substance dependency but are not yet at the point where they fit the criteria for substance dependence. Anxiety and depression are typical comorbidities among teenagers who use drugs, as are bipolar illness and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (Randall & York, 2020). A person’s substance use issue is often helped by treatment for their mental illness.

Unfortunately, the root of substance use often goes far deeper than “experimentation” for many teens and young people entangled with substances. Parents and caregivers, behavioral and mental health issues, deprivation, lack of opportunities, support networks, and parental supervision are just some of the things that could affect the path to drug and substance abuse at an early age (Randall & York, 2020). Parents who do not keep an eye on their kids, do not communicate well with their kids, do not set clear rules against drugs and alcohol, and do not use alcohol or drugs themselves are all risk factors for adolescent substance abuse, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

In addition to school-based preventive programs, research has indicated that family-based intensive interventions, which usually emphasize family functioning, effectively reduce smoking. According to Das et al. (2016), students’ academic performance improved as a result of a “Smoke-Free Class Competition,” according to the findings of a different study (SFC). This program, implemented in schools across the country, includes a promise to quit smoking, contract management, and monetary awards as part of its overall strategy to reduce smoking. According to the findings of this study, the involvement of the SFC helps decrease the number of students who are currently smoking cigarettes in their dorm rooms. When studies of school-based smoking prevention programs were examined by Das et al. (2016), it was determined that they varied in terms of intensity, the number of booster sessions they included, the duration of their follow-up periods, and the percentage of students who participated. Furthermore, Das et al. (2016) showed just a little evidence that school-based smoking reduction programs had a long-term impact. Effective mass media campaigns have an acceptable level of intensity over a long period of time.

Adolescents who get school-based alcohol prevention programs are less likely to drink frequently, whereas those who receive these programs through their families are less likely to drink frequently. Interventions based on social competency and social influence implemented in schools have been demonstrated to be effective in preventing drug misuse, including marijuana usage (Novacek et al., 2018). Prevention of smoking through family-based interventions is critical in reducing smoking rates. Novacek et al. (2018) indicate that children between the ages of 11 and 14 were subjected to intense interventions to improve family functioning. School-based primary prevention programs are among the most effective strategies for preventing mixed substance misuse. A greater amount of research is needed to establish the effectiveness and impact of internet-based therapies and legislative measures and financial incentives.

Substance abuse in teenagers can have devastating impacts on the community. Addiction has the potential to inflict havoc on a family. Substance-abusing adolescents generally isolate themselves from their parents and siblings, engage in antisocial behavior, and cause havoc in the home. Anger and damaged feelings are possible outcomes. There may also be disciplinary concerns or troubles at school. Santrock, (2005) show that parents may be terrified or in denial, depending on the situation. When parents are worried about their children’s well-being, it is not uncommon for them to take their frustrations out on one another. There is nothing like a drug or alcohol addiction to bring down an otherwise content family dynamic. Physical and emotional abuse are also possibilities; some children go so far as to harm their parents physically. When family members resort to violence as a way of dealing with stress, it’s an indication that the family is in desperate need of counseling (Randall & York, 2020). In conclusion, among the causes of teen drug addiction in adolescents include experimental curiosity, peer pressure, low socio-economic conditions at home, and the desire for extra energy for daily tasks. Drug misuse can harm a teenager’s physical and mental health. Some medications cause sleepiness, while others cause insomnia, paranoia, or hallucinations. Chronic drug usage causes heart, kidney, and liver problems.

Evolution of Healthcare in the United States Since Postindustrial Period

Since the postindustrial period, health care in the US has evolved from a simple system of itinerant doctors with relatively little training to a complex system. Medical science, technology, and authority of the medical professionals undergird the complex system. This paper examines how health care in the US has evolved since the post-industrial period. It will also explore how the evolution of medical technology, graduate medical education, and professionalization of medical and nursing staff have influenced the delivery of care. Lastly, the paper investigates why the US has been unsuccessful in evolving the current health care system into a national health care system.

Read also Evolution of US Healthcare System since Post Industrial Period

Evolution of the US Health Care Since Postindustrial Period

In the pre-industrial era (the 1700s to 1800s), home remedies and itinerant physicians characterized health care in the US. Medical practice was in disarray as it was viewed as a trade rather than a profession. Additionally, health care involved primitive medical practices such as emetics and purgatives. The health care system also missed institutional core whereby hospitals served social welfare and custodial function. Substandard medical education also characterized health care, whereby medical education was via apprenticeship and not universities (Magner & Kim, 2017). Since the postindustrial era, health care in the US has significantly evolved, whereby it has morphed from a simple system to a complex system.

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The post-industrial period (the late 1800s to mid-1900s) saw American physicians gain professional sovereignty. The physicians started many of the early hospitals in the US, with financial support from philanthropists. Various factors including urbanization, advancements in science and technology, institutionalization, licensing, and educational reform fueled the transformation of health care in the post-industrial period. Since the postindustrial era, health care in the US has also seen the introduction of public health, health insurance, the birth of patient safety and quality improvement, patient-centered care, et cetera. Today, three main features define the US healthcare system: (1) corporatization, (2) professionalism, and (3) reliance on science and technology (Magner & Kim, 2017). Health care has become a domain of large corporations, which provide professionalized care and rely on science and technology to provide the best care to patients.

How has the evolution of medical technology, graduate medical education, and the professionalization of medical and nursing staff affected the delivery of care?

The evolution of medical technology, graduate medical education, and professionalization of medical and nursing staff have tremendously affected the delivery of health care. Besides directly improving the delivery of health care, advancements in technology have influenced other factors such as the growth of institutions, medical education, and urban development allowing health care in the US to evolve to a professional entity (Salmon, 2020). According to Salmon, health care in the US did not emerge as a professional entity until the beginning of the 20th century. Notably, technological advancements characterizing the 20th century fueled the evolution. Some of the groundbreaking medical discoveries of the 20th century include aseptic techniques, sterilization techniques, X-ray imaging, et cetera. Thus, technology made advanced treatment available.

Before the postindustrial period, physicians received their education via apprenticeship. The post-industrial era saw physicians receive graduate education, which led to the professionalization of health care delivery. The evolution improved the standard of care by requiring that medical practices require science-based education, skills, and expertise. This allowed for the institutionalization of the hospital whereby it became the institution core of health care delivery (Salmon, 2020). Thus, graduate education improved physicians’ competence leading to improved patient outcomes.

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The professionalization of medical and nursing staff influenced the delivery of care by facilitating the legitimacy and acceptance of professional care. Consequently, this improved the demand for professional services. The professionalization also affected medical education by information reforms such as laboratory instruction and science addition to the curriculum. Moreover, the professionalization facilitated organized medicine through licensure (Salmon, 2020). Therefore, professionalization enhanced the desirability of medical treatments.

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Why the US has Been Unsuccessful in Evolving the Current Health Care System into a National Health Care System           

Since the 20th century, the US has been striving to evolve its health care system into a national health care system. However, it has not succeeded due to the increased rise of private insurance since the mid-1990s. The private insurance coverages have proven costly for low-income Americans. Efforts to implement national health insurance have faced challenges ranging from public resistance to problems with receiving services. Polls conducted in the 1980s pointed out significant fear of loss of coverage and problems with receiving services as the main reasons why the US has been unsuccessful in evolving its current health care system to a national health care system. The main impediment to the evolution of the US health care system into a national health care system in the 20th and 21st century is the ever-rising cost of care which makes medical care unaffordable to all Americans (Dickman, Himmelstein, & Woolhandler, 2017). Thus, the federal government needs to devise ways to lower the cost of care and cultivate public trust to make the national healthcare system successful.

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