Jeffery Dahmer: A 2022 Psychoanalysis of a Serial Killer

The Netflix series Dahmer: Monster: The Jeffrey Dahmer Story had 856.2 million hours watched 28 days after its release. All those hours are evidence of the intrigue around Jeffry Dahmer, one of the most infamous serial killers from the United States. People have described his demeanor as calm and non-threatening on social media. 

It then begs the question – what would flip his psychological switch and lead him to commit such heinous atrocities?

What is psychological analysis?

Psychological analysis is a science originated by scientist Sigmund Freud. A psychological analysis of behavior studies free association, unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts. Its main objective is to study the mind and the unconscious mind to achieve an understanding and effective treatment of mental disorders.

To psychologically analyze Jeffry Dahmer, the best place to start is his background and history.

Who is Jeffry Dahmer?

Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer was a sex offender and serial killer born in May 1960 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Dahmer was the firstborn child of Lionel Dahmer, a research chemist, and Joyce Annette, a teleprinter operator instructor. 

Jeffrey Dahmer became famous for serial killings, sexual offenses, cannibalism, and necrophilia crimes he committed from 1978 until his apprehension on 22nd July 1991. His crimes earned him the monikers; The Milwaukee Cannibal and The Milwaukee Monster.

He was born while his father was still a university student, which limited the amount of time Lionel spent with his young family. At the time, his mother was young, craved attention, suffered depression, and was reportedly a hypochondriac. Joyce attempted to overdose on Equanil, a medication used to treat anxiety. In an interview, Dahmer said he recalls doubting the solidity of his family.

Despite those dark spots, he was shown affection by his parents. Sources close to the family claim his parents showed an utmost fondness for young Dahmer. Many people can relate to such a situation where parents are busy building careers and discovering themselves. Some are too busy and occupied to be consistently available for their children.

How did Jeffrey Dahmer become a serial killer?

Like many children, Dahmer maintained a happy aura during his early years. However, he became silent and fearful after he underwent a double hernia surgery when he was three years old. During an interview, his father said as Dahmer grew, he developed an affinity for animal bones.

Dahmer then began collecting insects and skeletons of small animals such as squirrels. He was then interested in bleaching animal bones and preserving remains of dead animals with formaldehyde which his father obliged as he thought his son was developing an interest in science and specifically Chemistry like his dad.

During his high school days, Dahmer was persona non grata or an outcast. He found solace in alcohol and even referred to it as his medicine to classmates at 14. Even as a teenager, he was articulate in speech, polite, and very intelligent despite not reflecting on his grades.

Dahmer said he began fantasizing and obsessing about killing when he was about 15 and 16 years old. He described feeling sexual desires and wanting to possess power and control over other men. These feelings continued to evolve and led to Dahmer luring and sexually abusing, murdering, and dismembering 17 young men.

His first murder happened just after graduating from high school. He killed hitchhiker Steven Hicks who he lured to his house by offering beer. Dahmer had the intention of sleeping with Hicks. Fearing rejection and Hicks intending to leave after they were drunk, Dahmer struck him repeatedly with a dumbbell and then used its bar to choke him to death. Dahmer then describes pleasuring himself while standing over his lifeless body.

Alcoholic Dependency and Personality Change

Drinking at an early age morphed into alcohol dependency as he grew older. This dependency contributed to dropping out of college months after admission. He had recorded low grades in Introduction to Anthropology and Administrative Science.

After dropping out, his father encouraged him to enlist in the army, which he did. During his military service, he would get apprehended often for being drunk. He progressed and served as a medic after being deployed to West Germany. He performed well until his performance dropped due to regular intoxication. He would later get discharged as he could no longer effectively undertake his duties.

Back at home, his sexual fantasies, alcohol dependency, and tendencies advanced and eventually got him arrested for indecent exposure, his first arrest.

Another instance when he was in trouble with the law is when his neighbors called the police after they noticed a young boy naked and bleeding just outside his house. The police returned the boy to his residence. Dahmer is heard on record calmly explaining they were lovers and had just had a quarrel, a claim the police believed. The young boy, Konerak Sinthasomphone, was one of the serial 17 victims.

In an interview aired in February 1993 by Inside Edition, Dahmer said when his family moved to Milwaukee in 1981, he discovered and started reading pornography. He would then frequent gay bars and use his allure and manipulation to convince men to go home with him. He describes only wanting to drug and sleep with them while unconscious but sometimes would wake up having hurt his victims without any recollection of doing it.

On one occasion, Dahmer remembers waking up next to a man he had beaten while in a stupor. He then killed him and carried the body out of the motel they were in using a suitcase. Dahmer then dismembered the body and dumped it using plastic garbage bags.

During media interviews after his capture, he described watching The Exorcist III movie as a ritual before committing his egregious crimes. He also says he desired to build and dedicate to himself an altar where he could keep parts of his victims as memorabilia. At times Dahmer took photos of his dead victims. Other times he kept body parts like skulls and other bones.

Psychoanalysis of Jeffery Dahmer the Serial Killer

A serial killer is a murderer who seeks psychological gratification by killing more than three people over a month or more. Murders committed by serial killers are usually premeditated and are associated with sexual offenses.

During his trial, Jeffery Dahmer had a psyche examination done by a forensic psychiatrist. He was diagnosed with psychotic disorder, borderline personality disorder, and alcohol dependency. The psychiatrist also determined that Dahmer was legally sane. The examinations were vital as they were a factor in his sentencing. Dahmer was handed a sentence of 941 years without the possibility of parole for 16 murders of the 17 murders he committed.

People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder may exhibit the following symptoms; mood swings, anxiety, delusion, suicidal thoughts, a distorted self-image, comfortable in isolation, and lack of interest in routine activities. During media interviews, he describes having these symptoms from an early age.

Symptoms of the psychotic disorder include; hallucinations, emotional detachment from family and friends, paranoia, timid behavior, diversion from topics during conversations, and irregular sleeping patterns.

Causes of the above disorders vary depending on an individual and their environment. However, drug and alcohol abuse, a history of domestic violence, emotional abuse, and neglect are risk factors for the conditions.

The Milwaukee Cannibal experienced some of the above risk factors. His constant intoxication and self-isolation during his upbringing could have been a factor as to why he became a serial killer. 

What dumbfounds people is how he killed 17 people in gruesome ways for all those years without getting caught.

His ability to evade capture from authorities and conceal his nature from his family and the public can be due to various factors. Dahmer was a white male, had a calm demeanor, was articulate in his speech, and it was accepted and known he kept to himself. Dahmer also targeted victims who would be hard to notice were missing.

Evading the Law his Murderous Behavior

His killing spree was between 1978 and 1991, a dark period for men from the gay community. Many were outcasts, were rebuked by their families, and hence would lose contact after running away. There was also no social media which made contact between his victims and people they knew difficult. Such victims were easy targets for Dahmer as no one would report them missing.

In the 1993 interview, Dahmer does admit being aware of his actions. He also claimed he felt remorse and guilt for his actions. His ability to manipulate and convince victims could be a trait due to borderline personality disorder. His psychotic disorder explains his inability to stop himself from going through with his heinous actions. He stated that although he knew his actions were wrong, he couldn’t inhibit his compulsive urges.

Upon his apprehension in 1991, Dahmer waived his right to a lawyer. He wanted to confess to all his murders and stated that it was a relief that he finally got caught. According to him, if he wasn’t apprehended, he might have continued with the murders.

During all his interviews and court hearings, he stayed calm and collected. He described in detail his sexual crimes, cannibalism, murders, and necrophilia. His physical appearance and demeanor amazed many people as he told of his actions as it seemed like he was explaining a recipe.

Dahmer’s story demonstrates the importance of treating mental conditions early. People deemed normal by society can be serial killers and offenders and commit these crimes for a long time without people noticing. 

Increase in Family Violence During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Covid-19 Pandemic and Family Violence

Countries across the globe are battling COVID-19 by employing measures that include school closures, national quarantines, online work, lockdown, and border closures to minimize the transmission speed. Almost every region in the world has experienced some kind of restriction, with measures differing from one area to another. For instance, United States enacted regional lockdowns, while countries such as Italy enacted indefinite total lockdown. The situation worsened as the number of infected people increased worldwide. Other than the increase in the rate of infection, COVID-19 has impacted societies, relationships, and families in unpredictable and unimaginable ways resulting in socioeconomic crisis. COVID-19 is subjecting societies to pressure that goes past social care systems, political leadership, international solidarity, and healthcare infrastructure. One such weighty impact that is currently being experienced at an alarming rate is the effects of increasing cases of domestic or family violence during the pandemic (Sharma and Borah 2).

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Domestic and family violence is one of the common social problems in our society. Domestic and family health violence are approximated to impact 10 million individuals in the United States annually. It is a public health issue and nearly all healthcare professionals will treat or evaluate a family or domestic violence patient at some point. Family and domestic violence define a wide range of abuse that includes psychological, economic, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse toward elders, adults, and children (Huecker et al. 1).

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Family violence has been a serious social problem in our society for a long time. However, the situation is said to have been worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic. The rates of violence against women are currently on the rise and are a major concern during the COVID-19 pandemic globally. According to Sharma and Borah (2), a recent article from The Guardian documents a surge in domestic violence and stresses on a pattern that can be observed worldwide. According to the report, Brazil experience a rise in domestic violence incidences by 40-50% during the pandemic. The UK experienced an increase in calls associated with domestic violence cases by 25% in a week after lockdown and strict social distancing measures were executed (Sharma and Borah 2).

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In the USA, there was a spike in domestic violence cases during the Pandemic in various states. Portland, for instance, experiences a spike in cases of arrest associated with domestic violence by 22%, there was a 27% increase in cases of domestic violence calls in Jefferson Country Alabama in March 2020 compared to the same time in 2019. New York City also experienced an increase in domestic violence helpline calls by 10% in March 2020 compared to the same time in 2019 (Sharma and Borah 2). Cyprus and Spain experience a spike in helplines call by 20-30% in the first few days of lockdown and also in a week after the report of the first case of COVID-19 in the countries. France also recorded an increase in domestic violence by 30% since March 2020, with Paris alone recording a 36% increase in domestic violence (Nittari et al. 5).

A study by the Center for Global Development on violence against children and women during COVID-19 revealed a general increase in children and women violence across the globe. Jordan documented quadrupling of self-reported violence against women. Also, China demonstrated a 278% increase in police calls for domestic violence during the pandemic. The study also recorded an increase in domestic violence in Bangladesh, Iran, Nigeria, Germany, Chile, Colombia, Italy, Mexico, Hubei, Iran, Isfahan, Thailand, Indonesia, India, and Malaysia among others (Bourgault et al. 2-3).

Why did Family Violence Increase During the Covid-19 Pandemic?

The increase of family violence during the pandemic is highly blamed on policies and regulations employed by most countries to control the spread of the disease. Most countries employed COVID-19 containment measures that included lockdowns, quarantines, and social distancing have resulted in social isolation, movement restriction, and economic insecurity. This increased domestic violence risk factors. Victims were quarantined with abusive partners, reducing or eliminating the safe window they used to have before the pandemic. Lockdown has offered greater freedom to abusers. It has made it easier for an abuser to enact control tactics by reducing the victim’s access to the internet, phones, and other people.

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Moreover, victims were disconnected from their normal support systems such as community, friends, and family, with the consequent increase in difficulties in seeking help. Moreover, it has been postulated that isolation paired with economic psychological stressors such as limited social support, unemployment, limited resources, and reduced income, that accompany the pandemic and resulting in a possible increase in negative coping strategies such as binge drinking, can integrate to create a perfect storm to ignite violent behaviors in the family (Mittal and Singh 4). 

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Despite the recorded increase in domestic violence during a pandemic, some studies have identified a realized increase in unreported gender-based violence cases during the pandemic. According to Mittal and Singh (4), most of the employed policies put in place to address the COVID-19 pandemic made it hard for some of the victims to report cases of family violence. Several gender-based violent shelters and NGOs experienced a decline in helpline number calls during the pandemic. This includes Jagori, a Delhi-based NGO that experience a 50% drop in helpline calls. A similar situation was experienced in Norwegian shelters for domestic violence victims. This was blamed on abusers’ freedom to control victims, and lack of collaboration among the involved agents in addressing family violence, mostly due to lockdown and other measures (Bergman et al. 1).

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To address the issue of increasing family violence during the pandemic, the involved agencies should focus on ignored measures during a pandemic. The agents should find a way to expand community partnerships and collaboration and creating awareness. They should also find better reporting methods that are unlikely to alert the abuser. For instance, rather than using phone calls, they can consider using SMS, WhatsApp chats, emails, Tweets, or Facebook chats. The involved authority should also facilitate the provision of counseling, and other therapeutic intervention using telephones or the internets, especially among individuals going through psychological problems or experiencing other stressors that can initiate negative coping techniques. Addressing psychological issues before they escalate would help in reducing the increase in violence.

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The research has highly enlightened me on increase in the cases of family violence during the pandemic. Before the research, I expected that most people living with abusive partners were likely to experience an increase in abuse frequency, due to lockdown and lack of safe space. However, the rate of increase in reported domestic violence cases made me realize that the pandemic created a new set of abusers, as a result of economic and social stressors. This means there have been a huge number of couples experiencing abuse for the first time. This shows the magnitude of the COVID-19 crisis on people’s lives, especially due to its effect on people’s economic and social wellbeing.

U.S. Drug Prices, Why Are they so High?

Drug Prices in The United States

Nearly one in four Americans who take prescription drugs say they struggle to afford the medication they need. A recent report from RAND Corporation found that US prescription drug prices are 256% higher than other countries; averaging the prices seen in 32 other countries (Light & Caplan, 2018). The ratio of sales to volume weight is significantly higher in the US. Zolgensma, a drug that treats spinal muscular atrophy, is the most expensive drug in the U.S. It has an estimated annual cost of $2,125,000. Unbranded generics account for approximately 12% of prescription drug spending at manufacturer prices (Walker, 2015). The branded drugs make up 11% of the US prescription volume and 82% of expenditure. Therefore, brand drugs are the primary driver of the higher prescription drug prices in the country. These prices, in fact, have been exponentially increasing for a while.

Why Are Drug Prices so High In United States?

The simple explanation of this excessive drug prices is monopoly pricing. By using the patent protection and FDA marketing exclusivity, the government gives pharmaceutical companies a monopoly on brand-name drugs. Monopolies are the highest risk factors for excessive prices.

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It is very difficult to note the actual out-of-pocket cost to consumers for a prescription because of the consumer rebates and price adjustments to insurers. Thus, the true cost of these prescription drugs is difficult to determine (Berman & Thomas, 2017). These prices are engrossed in a web of price adjustments and middle managers from the gross price to the actual price that the consumer pays. Patients’ out-of-pocket costs continue to grow while net costs to insurers keep declining, meaning that the insured patients are bearing a disproportionate share of the costs relative to the terms of their insurance agreements (Bollyky & Kesselheim, 2017). Clearly, the health insurance system in the US is so unique to any other developed country.

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Another reason for the higher prices in the country is because the government does not set ceiling prices in the US as other countries do. Also, there are marketing exclusivity periods for patented innovator drugs. There is a group of middlemen known as Pharmacy Benefit Managers (PBMs) that negotiates prices with pharmaceutical companies for inclusivity of health insurance coverage lists (Berman & Thomas, 2017). These groups often promote implementation of direct discounts or rebates that lead to higher prices to the consumer. This results in a war of internal pricing where manufactures are given incentives to increase list prices while increasing discounts to keep PBMs happy.

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Has The Government Done Anything To Lower Drug Prices?

In mid Sep 2020, the Trump administration signed an executive order to lower prescription drugs by “putting America first.” A Most Favored Nation strategy to drug pricing creates a trading opportunity among states making originally bilateral agreements multilateral (Bollyky & Kesselheim, 2017). The implication of this is that the drugs covered under the most favored nation pricing scheme will be expanded. This initiative will allow Medicare to use the lower prices of the other developed countries than paying higher for the same drugs.  Also, Trump announced the end of the Unapproved Drugs Initiative program that was responsible for major shortages of vital medicines (Light & Caplan, 2018).

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This implies that the drug prices may be five times less expensive than before if the Biden administration implements this policy. The true cost of a drug depends on who’s paying, and everyone involved is pushing costs up. There should be fundamental rebate reforms to fix both the cost-shifting problems in the US and develop a more open and reliable net price. Medicare should be allowed to negotiate drug prices in order to help drive costs down and end the monopoly in pricing. Also, it is important for every citizen to have health coverage to benefit from negotiated pricing.

Conjunctivital Injection, Its Pathophysiology, Causes and Diagnosis

What is Conjunctivital Injection (Hyperemia)

Conjunctivital injection is a nonspecific response of the human body characterized by adjustment of blood volume to support tissues located in various body system. The condition results in a marked enlargement of the conjunctival vessels; causing localized irritation, redness, and inflammation along the affected regions. Binary scales, such as the McMonnies/Chapman-Davies scale (MC-D), are a common reference point for healthcare providers assessing patients with suspected cases of CI, especially given that they are able to compare the redness in patient’s eyes with a collage of relevant reference images. The initial review of patients is fundamental methodical process which aids healthcare providers in determining the severity of Conjunctivital injection infection in patients in addition to intra- and inter-observable variations present.

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The Pathophysiology of Conjunctivital Injection

The pathophysiology of CI can be tracked from a single sophisticated internal process where blood flow is adjusted in immediate response to pressing metabolic needs in the body. This eventually results in micro-circulation and local vasodilation in which the various blood vessels seek to actively compensate for a sudden oxygen debt during a period of intense physical activity. Moreover, vasodilation in cases of CI may occur as a response to trauma or the presence of microbial infection known to cause inflammation. It is primarily controlled by the sympathetic brain system and acts in response to drastic changes impairing normal function within the endothelial cells (Beckmann et al., 2015).

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Immediate medical attention is recommended in such scenarios since micro-circulation constitutes a medical emergency given that it predisposes patients to ischemic organ damage, severe sepsis, and multi-organ failure. The active engorgement of blood vessels in cases of CI is also a common feature associated with the condition, especially since the body tries to restore optimal blood pressure within vascular beds located in various body systems. CI eventually causes a dangerous elevation of vascular CO2 concentration and other existing blood metabolites which acts as a localized stimulus for active vasodilation. It is also important to note that CI is the foremost most reliable sign of dangerous vascular changes taking place within the body in direct response to infections caused by a foreign microbial colony or an inflammatory stimulus. The eventual result is the severe reddening of the hyperemic vessels due to vascular engorgement as indicated in the McMonnies/Chapman-Davies scale (MC-D) diagnostic criterion.

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Causes and Prevention of Conjunctivital Injection


Cases of Conjunctivital Injection, either active or passive, normally as part of a healthy physical response to uncharacteristic changes in blood pressure. These changes may be of a physiological origin or caused by disease or distress. The following are some of the most common causes of changes in blood pressure known to cause Conjunctivital injection:

  1. Intense physical exertion while exercising resulting in a cardiovascular response to compensate for more blood and oxygen.
  2. CI can also be caused by physical trauma or infection, where the outflow of blood assists in self-repair.
  3. Changes in the internal body temperature, especially when experiencing fever can also cause CI during the body’s attempt to release internal heat through the skin.
  4. Frequent hormonal changes, such as those witnessed during the pre- and postmenopausal phases in women, often cause hot flashes likely to trigger CI.
  5. Extended periods of inactivity among persons with a sedentary lifestyle may cause vascular blockages due to the excessive buildup of blood prompting a cardiovascular response to adjust changes in vascular blood volume.

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The prevention of Conjunctivital injection today should always begin with preventative and community health awareness initiatives to improve the general public’s understanding of the condition and existing steps to prevent it. This process would entail making sure each individual is aware of CI as a singular event where changes in blood pressure trigger a response in the body in an attempt to obtain much-needed nutrients and oxygen. It would then be accompanied by outlining some of the conditions predisposing individuals to developing CI, either passive or active, and how to prevent such an eventuality (Brunt et al., 2011). CI can be averted by making major lifestyle changes, such a avoiding a sedentary lifestyle and engaging in frequent light to moderate physical exercise. Moreover, the condition can also be prevented by proper weight management and eating a heart-healthy diet.

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Diagnosis-Symptoms and Treatment

Symptoms Associated with Conjunctivital Injection

A thorough examination of patient’s presenting with suspected cases of CI based on existing diagnostic criterion is necessary when seeking to promote individual welfare while improving healthcare outcomes. The clinical evaluation will, therefore, involve an assessment of the most common CI symptoms based on chromaticity, the tortuosity of blood vessels located within the region of interest, and the morphology of blood vessels (Bernstein, 2019). Symptomatic signs of CI may include reports of trouble breathing, severe chest pain (angina), and unexplained body aches. Other prominent symptoms associated with CI include coughing, swelling of lower limbs, and itching across the body. Each of the symptoms discussed above are, therefore, meant to guide physicians in diagnosing suspected cases of CI, prior to the mandatory imaging, exercise-stress, and blood tests.

Recommended Treatments

The primary objective of immediate commencement with available CI therapy options is to alleviate patient’s presenting symptoms in order to afford them some level of relief. However, it is important to note that treatment for CI does not focus exclusively on the condition given that it is often a sign of an underlying health problem. Medical attention and treatment is normally recommended in cases of active CI since blood flow cannot flow autonomously, allowing the body to lower elevated internal temperature (Tamura et al., 2015). CI treatment normally incorporates a combination of dietary changes and major lifestyle changes. The dietary involved in within a treatment context involves subscribing to a strict dietary regimen incorporating heart-healthy food options. Patients will also be expected to submit to a thorough and consistent weight management routine in order to maintain a healthy body mass. Pharmacological interventions are often prescribed as a last option and may involve administering beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular support and the lowering of blood pressure.

Prognosis of Conjunctivital Injection

The treatment and recovery patients previously diagnosed with CI relies on a structured and methodical intervention therapy requiring a high level of client participation. 

CI has often been used as an important clue indicative of internal inflammation or bacterial infection among patients presenting to primary healthcare providers for routine medical assessments. Additionally, the condition may also manifest in either a passive or active form which is why physicians recommend regular patient monitoring to track disease progression and the assessment of response to prescribed treatment (Bernstein, 2019). While active CI is common and rarely causes major medical concern, passive CI portends requires immediate medical attention as it is more serious and often caused by infectious diseases. This process may also involve elements of patient education given that it would be important for the patient to gain a clear overview of the condition and risk factors likely to have predisposed them to developing it in the first place. Major risk factors associated with CI include living a sedentary lifestyle with limited movement, frequent smoking, a high sodium diet, and the misuse of alcohol.

Life-Long Consequences Linked to Conjunctivital Injection

Cases of Conjunctivital injection are treatable but are likely to result in severe life-long consequences when patients fail to consult a healthcare provider for a detailed medical review. Nevertheless, it is important to note that the life-consequences suffered as a result of CI affliction are directly proportional to the level of blood pressure imbalance experienced over time. The most common life-long challenge associated with this build-up of blood pressure is the risk of developing chronic heart failure (Jones, 2014). However, patients diagnosed with CI can avert this eventuality through the proper management of initial symptoms while also making drastic lifestyle changes. Conjunctivital injection may also cause severe heart valve problems, kidney failure, liver damage, and heart rhythm problems if left untreated for an extended period hence the need for regular health checks.

Injected Conjunctiva Diagnosis – V.S, age 12 Hispanic Scenario

The Scenario of V.S a 12 year old Hispanic Male with Injected Conjunctiva

V.S., age 12 Hispanic male, presents with a feeling that there is sand in his eye. He had a cold a week ago and woke up this morning with his left eye crusted with yellowish drainage. On physical examination, he has injected conjunctiva on the left side, no adenopathy, and no vision changes. His vision is 20/20. Fluorescein staining reveals no abrasion. He is allergic to sulfa.

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Conjunctivitis Diagnosis

  1. List specific goals of treatment for V.S. who is diagnosed with injected conjunctiva
  2. What drug therapy would you prescribe? Why?
  3. What are the parameters for monitoring the success of the therapy?
  4. Discuss the education you would give to the parents regarding drug therapy.
  5. List one or two adverse reactions for the selected agent that would cause you to change therapy.
  6. What would be the choice for second-line therapy?
  7. What over-the-counter or alternative medications would be appropriate for V.S.?
  8. What dietary and lifestyle changes should be recommended for V.S.?
  9. Describe one or two drug–drug or drug–food interactions for the selected agent.

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Goals of Treatment for Patient Diagnosed with Injected Conjunctiva

The acute bout of conjunctivitis evident from the presenting patient was likely the direct result of either a bacterial or viral conjunctivitis infection. It, therefore, becomes fundamental to set clear and elaborate treatment goals to ensure the patient recovers fully from the disease within no time

 The main initial goal of treatment for the patient is to relieve the presenting symptoms in order to alleviate irritation and to eventually enable him to lead a normal high-quality life. Moreover, another critical objective in treating V. S’s conjunctivitis is to reduce the course of viral or bacterial infection known to induce inflammation among patients. Achieving each of the above-mentioned treatment goals would eventually prove noble and critical to community and public health since treatment essentially prevents further spread this contagious disease among the general population.

First-Line Drug Therapy Prescribed to Treat Conjunctivitis

Broad spectrum antibiotics have long been recommended as an ideal treatment option for patients diagnosed with conjunctivitis. Personally, I would prescribe Levofloxacin as the most appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotic to treat the patient’s microbial infection. Levofloxacin is a first-line antibiotic drug therapy option commonly prescribed to treat bacterial and viral infections such as conjunctivitis and with a low microbial resistance profile (Sheikh & Hurwitz, 2006). Timely intervention is necessary to ensure the disease duration is shortened significantly given that one of its main goals is to prevent further infection. Levofloxacin will also be beneficial in managing and eliminating the copious purulent discharge due to its efficacy in eliminating inflammation. However, regular follow-up sessions remain crucial during recovery and as a measure of the overall efficiency of the prescribed medication.

Parameters for Monitoring Success of Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy for Conjunctivitis

Several wide-ranging parameters can be applied in determining the overall success or failure of Levofloxacin therapy in treating conjunctivitis. Successful treatment with the drug would typically result in a drastic reduction in patient’s irritation and reddening of what is commonly referred to as the white of the eye (Jones, 2014). Another important parameter to consider is a substantial and noteworthy reduction in swelling within the conjunctiva or eyelids in response to a broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with Levofloxacin. Moreover, the success of Levofloxacin therapy can also be gauged based exclusively on the complete elimination of the copious purulent discharge, crusting eyelids returning to normal and an end to the burning sensation.

Patient Education Regimen Regarding Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy for Injected Conjunctiva

Today, patient education remains one of the most fundamental activities during treatment.

J et al., (2020) argue that the idea behind patient education is the literal arming of patients with a myriad of relevant medical data directly related to their recent diagnosis and accompanying steps to be followed in order to improve patient outcomes. In this particular case, I would begin my patient education regimen on Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy by reminding the patient of the importance of adherence to the treatment plan based on the recommended medication dosage. V.S. will be expected to apply the ophthalmic solution every two hours during the day. However, it will also be important to remind the patient not to apply the drops more than 8 times in a day. The patient should also keep the medicine in a germ-free secure location away from children. In case of a missed dose, the patient should proceed to take the medicine as soon as possible to prevent bacterial colonies from recovering and thriving.

Possible Adverse Reactions to Levofloxacin Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Conjunctivitis

Typically, patients newly diagnosed with conjunctivitis have a duty to tell the prescribing clinical staff whether they are allergic to broad spectrum antibiotics such as Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Gemifloxacin, or Quinolone. This is a precautionary measure taken to prevent scenarios where patients suffer severe allergic reactions once exposed to Levofloxacin or ingredients used in its preparation. However, adverse reactions to pharmacological agents is a common fixture during therapy with broad spectrum antibiotics. For instance, an adverse reaction to Levofloxacin antibiotic therapy in the treatment of conjunctivitis may manifest as nausea, diarrhea, heartburn or vomiting (Baum & Barza, 2021). Nevertheless, patients should always remember to consult their primary healthcare provider for professional guidance if the adverse reactions persist.

Avelox as an ideal Second-Line Antibiotic Therapy Option in Treating Injected Conjunctiva

Avelox is a suitable second-line antibiotic therapy option approved by the U.S Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) and is appropriate for treating patients suffering from conjunctivitis. It is of the fluoroquinolones class of broad-spectrum antibiotics and is mainly administered as an injection or in the form of Maxifloxacin Hydro-chloride tablets. However, it is important to point out that the Levofloxacin must first be proved to be ineffective in treating conjunctivitis before resorting to prescribing a second-line antibiotic therapy option. Avelox is a strong broad-spectrum antibiotic with a potential to cause serious side effects which may very well result in death. However, if prescribed, the patient should take the film coated Avelox 400 mg tablets, orally daily, until the final clearing of the bacterial infection.

Over-the-Counter Medications and Alternative Medicine Appropriate for Treating Conjunctivitis

It is fundamental to begin by pointing out that that OTC medications and alternative medicines are largely incapable of treating any common case of viral or bacterial conjunctivitis. Nevertheless, they play an outstanding role in helping patients to cope by helping to alleviate the symptoms. Artificial tears are an example of OTC medication which can play an important role in preventing ocular dryness and inflammation (Nwaele & Satre, 2013). Antihistamines are also a dependable OTC capable of preventing irritation by blocking allergy-causing histamines. A similar effect is also observed with decongestants and vasoconstrictors since they prevent the widening of blood vessels during a histamine-triggered allergic reaction.

Dietary and Lifestyle Changes Recommended for VS

The journey to recovery after suffering from conjunctivitis not only requires pharmacological intervention but also relies on a complete overhaul of diet and lifestyle patterns. A diet consisting of leafy vegetables, fruits, Vitamin A (eggs and dairy products), Vitamin B2 and Zinc are critical in preventing conjuctvitis and in promoting optimal eye health (Sheikh & Hurwitz, 2017). However, VS must remember to avoid the excessive intake of starch and sugary foods known to cause a condition known as catarrhal which is known to signal the possible development of conjunctivitis. VS must also make major lifestyle changes such as avoiding a sedentary lifestyle and trading it for physical activities such as regular exercise and wellness routines such as Yoga.

Drug-Drug and Drug-Food Interactions when taking Levofloxacin

Drug-Drug Interactions

  • Chelation Agents: Levofloxacin interacts with chelation agents, such as antacids and multivitamins, and may hinder gastrointestinal movement.
  • Warfarin: Levofloxacin is also known to interact with Warfin; causing a post-marketing effect characterized by the enhancing of its effects and elevations in prothrombin time.

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Drug-Food Interactions

  • Dairy Products: Patients taking Levofloxacin should avoid dairy products such as cheese, yogurt, and milk 2 hours before and after taking the medication to minimize the chances of an adverse reaction or possible side effects (Iacobucci, 2016).
  • Multi-Vitamins Containing Mineral Supplements: Multi-Vitamins with active components consisting of a mineral supplement base should be avoided when a patient is on Levofloxacin since it may hinder the process involved in its absorption to the blood thus reducing its general efficacy.

Implications of Cellphone Manufacturing and Use on the Environment

The Implications of Cellphone Manufacturing and Use on the Environment

The 21st century is often known for its place in history as a special era mainly characterized by numerous fast-paced developments that have paved the way for various groundbreaking technological innovations. One such development was the introduction of the cellphone as a novel innovation projected to break the glass ceiling of telecommunications while marking the start of an exciting period in the realm of technological advancement. The cellphone was welcomed by many impressed by a compact portable design that made it possible to communicate with others and relay text messages from any region globally (Norman, 2021). However, this excitement was short-lived. Activists, lobby groups, and respected pundits raised concern over the long-term implications of cellphone manufacturing and its impact on the environment and various categories of existing ecosystem. Today, these concerns are compounded by the fact that multinational companies now dominate the cellphone manufacturing industry and appear to be largely unconcerned with the potential implications of mass-producing cellphones for the global consumer market.

Read also Response Essay to Naomi Riley’s Article “It’s a terrible idea to allow cellphones in schools”

This paper will, therefore, focus on providing a detailed evaluation of the harm caused by the large-scale production of cellphones globally and the most viable attempt to address this dilemma. It will also be crucial to conduct a review of the life cycle of a typical cellphone to better understand the path it takes from the industries and into the hands of individual consumers. This step-by-step process will put each of the paths taken into perspective to determine the direct effects of such actions on the environment and how it ultimately contributes to our carbon footprint. Moreover, this exercise is fundamental in determining the actual scope of the problem given that data on the actual magnitude of this problem remains disputed. Following a manufactured cellphone from the ordinary purchases made, to the packaging and transportation helps us to assess the various transportation mediums used and their direct impact on the environment. It will also be crucial to provide a broad evaluation focusing on both the immediate effects and long-term implications to better understand the breadth of this particular challenge.

Read also Are Cell Phones Dangerous To Have For Teenagers Or Not?

A major concern shared by detractors of cellphones in contemporary society is the presence of numerous components contained in the archetypal cellphone; all with the potential to do great harm to the environment. This is further exacerbated by the fact that each of the individual parts have unique effects on the environment, an assertion based on the numerous potentially harmful raw materials required to make the cellphone work. According to Demirbas et al. (2019),an ordinary functioning cellphone contains more than 60 elements ranging from polycarbonate thermoplastic polymers to radioactive components and rare earth minerals such as tantalum. Additionally, multinational companies such as Apple, Samsung, and Huawei remain uncooperative when required to provide an honest assessment of the potentially harmful effects of cellphone components on the environment (Jones, 2021). Whenever evidence-based journal articles are published highlighting the negative impact of cellphones on the environment, MNCs are often quick to offer a rebuttal based exclusively on the opinions of scientists working for this same companies. The idea is to trivialize the actual impact of cellphone manufacturing and use on the environment to avoid potential lawsuits by aggrieved parties or making losses based solely on opinions regarding their carbon footprint.

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The Influence of Individual Choices and its Effects on Environmental Sustainability

One of the most noteworthy aspects of today’s contemporary society is the fact that consumer behavior is largely down to individual choices. This means that consumers can choose specific consumer goods they are interested in and intend to own and can also decide to discard it for a newer and improved version. Yet, many actively fail to consider the numerous implications of individual choices on the environment and its role in diminishing. The cellphone industry is one of the fastest growing sectors due to the rapid rate of technological change taking place every day. Cellphone manufacturers normally rely on a versatile Research and Development Department (R&D) instituted with the specific aim of developing new advancements, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications, designed to ensure a company has a competitive advantage over some of their closest rivals (Langston, 2017). Although such teams are invaluable to innovation, they also pose a serious risk to the environment given that they have the potential to influence trends in individual choices. It is, therefore, no wonder that emerging cellphone trends are typically overtaken by newer developments in approximately 6 months due to the development of newer and more innovative technologies.

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An important observation that is often overlooked is the direct correlation between individual choices and diminishing environmental sustainability. In particular, most experts in technology and innovation continually fail to consider that the presence of new and improved features increase the probability that consumer may ditch their current device for a new one. Cellphone consumer behavior in developed countries is characterized by users discarding their new phones for new ones (Norman, 2021). Such individuals often expect that once discarded, their older phone will be recycled, and individual parts reused in other areas of technology. Nonetheless, this is not often the case. Out of the 60 odd components contained within a cellphone, recycling companies may only choose to extract individual parts with a lucrative market, such as microchips, polycarbonate thermoplastic polymers, and rubber. The remaining bits, mostly radioactive components, are duly discarded into unregulated landfills within major industrial hubs such as China, Bangladesh, and Oman.

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Individual choices and consumers’ ability to periodically obtain new cellphones based on solely on consumers’ sheer fascination with technological improvements also drives demand and creates a whole new chapter in environmental exploitation. The use of components such as iron, tin, copper, nickel, and rubber often mean that an increase in demand is accompanied by large-scale mining expeditions known for having a high destruction profile (Singh & Singh, 2021).Over the years, mining companies have done very little to mitigate the potentially harmful consequences of their commercial exploits. It is fairly common for major mining MNCs to only focus on profit while largely ignoring their role in diminishing environmental sustainability. An increase in demand for raw materials required in the manufacture of cellphones results in the signing of new mining concessions often due to depleted reserves. Large gaping pits eventually become a common feature in the landscape, as is common in Peru and Chile, which affects the landscape and the environment in question due to the large-scale removal of rocks.

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Recommendations on Mitigating the Negative Environmental Impact of Cellphones

Based on the empirical research evidence provided in this review, the negative environmental impact of cellphones is now quite apparent. However, it is also crucial to remember that both consumers and cellphone manufacturers can play an active role in averting the negative environmental impact of cellphones. Perhaps the most critical recommendation is raising public awareness on the consequences of individual choices and consumer behavior and its role in the diminishing of environmental impacts. Messages of this kind can be relayed through the traditional media and social media in the form of catchy commercials, documentaries, and bulletin programs.

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The idea is to reach a wider demographic with the main aim of discussing the dangers of impulsive consumer behavior in the cellphone market and the implications of such developments on environmental sustainability. Similarly, cellphone manufacturers should take responsibility for their business practices and the subsequent effects they eventually have on the environment. Major cellphone manufacturing MNCs can begin this process by limiting the unnecessary production of newer versions of their products in response to the dangers posed by unbridled individual consumer choices. Such actions are bound to reduce needless mining endeavors while also remembering to invest in a sustainable recycling process which also incorporates reusing and refurbishing older cellphone models.

Virtue Ethics Vs Utilitarianism Ethics Vs Deontological Ethics

Write a 350- to 700-word essay comparing the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. Include the following in your essay:

  • Utilitarianism ethics – what is the definition?, ethical thinker associated with theory, decision-making process, and Workplace example
  • Deontological Ethics: what is the definition?, ethical thinker associated with theory, decision-making process, and Workplace example
  • Virtue Ethics: what is the definition?, ethical thinker associated with theory, decision-making process, and Workplace example
  • A description of the differences in how each theory addresses ethics and morality
  • A personal experience to explain the relationship between virtue, values, and moral concepts as they relate to one of the three theories

Philosophies of Ethics

Ethics in philosophy has long been regarded as a special area of interest by academics given that it encompasses several schools of thought: all displaying a broad and diverse outlook. Yet, a common theme shared by these philosophies is their focus on the existential question of separating right from wrong. Philosophies of ethics, therefore, explore the nature of morality from multiple viewpoints, attempting to elaborate on the actual nature of morality as we know it, and examining the manner in which it affects our lives on a variety of levels. The existing categories also attempt to put meta-physics into perspective as one of the most reliable methods to employ when attempting to understand morality, justice, and truth in the context of society. Today, Virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics are the main categories often explored within the context of philosophies of ethics.

Virtue Ethics

Virtue ethics is a prominent category within the philosophy of ethics derived from both Eastern and Western philosophical tenets. Major aspects of virtue ethics are drawn from the teachings of prominent independent thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, Mencius, and Confucius; known for their prolific contribution to the philosophy of ethics. At the very core of virtue ethics is the idea that morality is directly related to the inner cultivation of virtue and character in man and the subsequent impact they have on our lives. This idea was developed with the initial aim of improving our overall understanding of character development within the context of consensus reality in society and the formation of innate morality and thoughts (Swanton, 2021). The philosophy of virtue ethics, therefore, assumes that aspects of the newly formed moral compass are primarily responsible for the variety of behaviors displayed by humanity today. Furthermore, virtue ethics contends that consensus reality compels us to act in a manner that is socially acceptable based on our recognition of social customs and norms within our societies unlike the ideas of consequential action posited in utilitarianism.

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Today, virtue ethics is known for its insistence on the importance of innate character development in inculcating “natural virtue” as the foundation of proper social customs. However, Thomas (2011)argues that certain cross-sections of society may fail to implement virtue ethics successfully into their lives if they happen to be consumed by malicious intentions, insatiable greed, hypocrisy, or inexperience during their development. The subsequent grooming and nurturing of virtue ethics is, therefore, meant to help us to develop a clear and resolute sense of right and wrong as a gateway for proper behavior in society and is quite similar to virtue ethics in this respect (Driver, 2013).

Read also Golden Rule Vs Virtue Ethics

At the present moment, virtue ethics is widely applied in the workplace environment in guiding the behavior and demeanor of staff operating within different levels of the more incredible organizational structure. Employees are fully aware that vices such as corruption and inappropriate sexual contact are unacceptable within the workplace environment, regardless of individual and cultural determinations. It is, thus, widely accepted that originators of virtue ethics sought to promote the rise of universal morality in society given the multiplicity of viewpoints and cultural diversity evident today.

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Utilitarian Ethics

Utilitarianism is a noteworthy category of the existing philosophies of ethics known for advocating for individuals’ focus on the “greater good” in any given situation. The main objective of this philosophical perspective is to ensure that any given action performed maximizes the benefits for the wider society. It is for this very reason that the application of utilitarianism is common within legal circles given that it is regarded as a useful tool in developing appropriate codes of conduct. Classical utilitarianism was developed by John Stuart-Mill and Jeremy Bentham who are, arguably, the most influential thinkers in Western culture  (Doyle, 2012). Theirs was an attempt to develop a philosophy of ethics focusing squarely on novel ideas such as consequential and ultimately using them as a basis for guiding human action and quite similar to virtue ethics. This approach seeks to maximizes benefits for the greatest number of people in society while forming the basic conditions for pain and pleasure.

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The overall application of utilitarian ethics is also based on the idea that the measure of good derived from action should benefit the greater population without discrimination. Practical applications of utilitarian ethics are also associated with the theme of quantitative utilitarianism known for its focus on maximizing the benefits of an action while, simultaneously, minimizing the stress or possible negative blow-back associated with its application. While detractors of the utilitarian school of thought have criticized it for being “superficial” in its handling of matters associated with morality, proponents of this idea champion its use as a matter of practicality and ease of application.

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Utilitarianism is also thought to promote the notion of individual freedom as a practical guide towards promoting the creation of societies guided by equity and bolstered by attempts geared towards protecting society. For instance, utilitarianism is evident in today’s workplace environment where employers voluntarily implement and abide by codes and standards outlined under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA). Such actions ensure the application of a level of transparency and reliability based solely on attempts to maximize the greater good of the wider employee population while also taking their well-being into account.

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Deontological Ethics

The origins of deontological ethics can be traced back to humanity’s initial attempts to demystify individuals’ place in society and the overall duty ethics within this particular perspective. Ideas commonly associated with deontological ethics were first popularized by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, motivated by their biblical origins and practical application in a real-life capacity (Denis, 2018). Kant was particularly interested in the application of this ethical approach on a rules-based order in society while also considering the benefits likely to accrue from its application in a professional setting. One of the most outstanding differences between deontological ethics and the above-mentioned utilitarian school of thought, is that the former opposes the institution of explicit moral requirements for ethics. Moreover, deontological ethics also opposes the use and application of arbitrary systems of moral virtue since they do not hold any form of moral authority over individuals and are, therefore, unable to restrict human behavior.

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Deontological ethics is, however, seems quite similar to ideas held by virtue ethics given that both attempt to clarify the position and application of moral behavior. This is often cited as the main reason why deontological ethics is rarely associated with controversies associated with its application in a practical sense given the degree of philosophical superiority it seemingly projects. Fewer complications, therefore, arise from its use and application in society today given its low profile for emerging complications and in determining the types of positions likely to influence human intuition in the long haul (Palmer, 2020). Additionally, deontological ethics is also quite similar to virtue ethics in the manner in which it cedes authority with regard to the application of authority as a guide in assessing some of the most beneficial human behaviors known today. It also provides an expansive view of human morality based on an extensive form of inquiry designed to prove its viability as a categorical imperative among a wide array of ethical philosophies.

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Philosophies of ethics, such as virtue ethics, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics, attempt to improve our overall view of normative ethics as one of the best available ways of answering what we ought to do in life today. Apart from this crucial objective, they also serve some of the most useful frameworks available today for distinguishing right from wrong. Applied ethics is also critical throughout this particular process given that it helps us navigate the contemporary society in which we currently live while tackling major practical issues known to be of major moral importance today. An in-depth evaluation of each of the aforementioned categories is, therefore, fundamental in improving our overall understanding of select inherent similarities and differences and practical application in today’s fast-paced work environment.

Animal Rights, Should Animals Have the Same Rights as Humans

Animal Rights

The concept of animal rights is, arguably, one of the most controversial issues of our time. At the present moment, animal rights remains a contentious matter due to its basic grounding in moral principles which essentially highlight the importance of animal welfare and treating non-human sentient beings with utmost dignity. According to Nurse & Wyatt (2020), the current conception of animal rights recognizes the importance of allowing non-human animals to live on their own terms without being subjected to harmful and exploitative human desires. However, critics of this moral philosophy remain quite critical of the introduction of this emerging concept and claim that animal will eternally remain subservient to humankind. This debacle has sparked numerous debates on the fidelity of mainstreaming the idea of human rights led by progressive countries such as the United States and Britain.

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Moreover, these countries now equate animal rights to human rights and currently advocate for the protection of non-human sentient beings from torture and inhumane treatment by individuals typically expected to serve as their guardians. It is for these reasons that most developed countries have become the center of animal rights lobby groups calling for the legal protection of animals through legislation. Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966 remain some of the most prominent laws enacted to safeguard animal rights in contemporary times. The primary objective of each of the above-mentioned pieces of legislation was to enshrine the humane treatment of animals into acts of law as an official recognition of the drive towards offering basic welfare protection for non-human sentient beings. Today, animal rights activists such as Leo Anguiano and Nathan Semme remain at the forefront of animal rights campaigns while actively striving to highlight the overall significance of such efforts in realizing positive change in the treatment of animals globally.

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Animal Rights as a Necessity for a Progressive Society

Debates and candid discussions surrounding animal rights are necessary today and relevant when attempting to create a progressive society. It is quite evident today that humankind has focused exclusively on raising the collective consciousness by emphasizing on the importance of forming a global community based on fairness, equality, liberty, and dignity. Such efforts provide a unique explanation on how we have managed to reduce wars, conflict, and strife while countering dangerous vices such as tribalism, racism, ethnocentrism, and sexism. Yet, this progress can only be achieved by also considering the overall importance of ethics and the adoption of moral principles which bring out the best in humankind.

Acknowledging the significance of animal rights, therefore, goes a long way in nurturing the basic ideals necessary for inculcating a progressive and futuristic society. This process should entail the total rejection of the anthropocentric assumptions made by humans regarding our superiority to non-human sentient beings and the realization that animals too deserve protection from harm and exploitation. The integration of this concept in the mainstream should, therefore, take the form of animal’s right to equal consideration in the greater scheme of things given that such a perspective is bound to expand the scope of animal rights and its application. Besides, animal rights seem like an ideal framework for cultivating human advancement by recognizing our symbiotic relationship with non-human sentient beings as a sub-set of post-humanism (Mclaughlin, 2016). These ideas are repeated periodically in major world religions such as Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, and Shintoism as a pathway to improving the human condition while promoting environmental sustainability.

Animal Rights as a Safeguard against Abuse and Exploitation

The enactment of animal rights is also fundamental as an integral measure in preventing the wanton abuse of non-human sentient beings and their subsequent exploitation by humans. At the core of this particular idea is the full recognition of animals as animate creatures with the capacity to feel pain and experience suffering like human beings. The act of safeguarding animals from all forms of abuse and exploitation, therefore, falls squarely within the scope of legislation such as Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966. Apart from outlining the manner in which pets should be treated within the context of a cultured society, these laws also extend their protection to farmed animals by stipulating basic standards for treatment. Their tenets cover relevant animal rights issues such as outlining basic guidelines for the sale, purchase, handling, and transportation of non-human sentient beings regardless of their purpose but with the sole aim of promoting their welfare.

These guidelines also strive to offer an acceptable level of psychological protection to animals. particularly farmed animals and non-human primates. It is, therefore, no wonder that both the Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966 are explicit in their prohibition of inhumane lab experiments on animals and engaging in violent acts such as dogfighting. Biller-Andomo (2015), consider this a step in the right direction given that the premise acknowledges the fact that animals also suffer in a manner similar to human beings, sparking critical conversations on animal consciousness among reformist legal scholars. Such arguments have steered the drive towards a complete revaluation of the legal status of animals as one of the primordial steps towards curbing incidences of animal cruelty and the subsequent promotion of humane practices.

Link between Animal Rights and Environmental Sustainability

Animal rights and the enactment of federal and state legislation safeguarding animals remains a necessity, especially given that it is associated with environmental sustainability. Over the past decade, climate change activists such as Greta Thunberg have warned of the potential of a grand environmental catastrophe due to the systematic failures of the leadership class in realizing its urgency. This reality is also projected to result in the unprecedented destruction of a wide range of animal species likely to result in a major ecological imbalance globally. Animal rights, thus, play a significant role in averting this phenomenon by relying on systems protecting animals and ensuring populations remain at an optimum level for posterity. Designating animals as non-human persons ensures these life forms thrive in a global landscape known for experiencing a rapid rate of change and ultimately promoting environmental sustainability (Aaltola, 2016). This shift in meta-ethics is also bound to promote the inclusion of divergent schools of thoughts on animal rights and our role in championing equal rights for non-human sentient beings. A realization of the association between animal rights and environmental sustainability also shatters and demystify the myth of human supremacy over non-human sentient beings.


The epistemological axiom of human supremacy over animals is a controversial point of view criticized by its detractors who encourage open debate on the importance and significance of animal rights today. Animal rights, through legislation such as Britain’s Animal Sentience Act of 2021 and the US Animal Welfare Act of 1966, highlight the importance of exploring this new perspective with the main aim of ensuring that it remains a relevant issue in contemporary times. Animal rights is now viewed as a necessary precondition for progressive society, a safeguard against abuse and exploitation, and one of the most significant strategies to adopt when seeking to promote environmental sustainability. Full acknowledgment of this reality is, therefore, a crucial imperative for human development and the welfare of non-sentient beings and will eventually go a long way in ushering moralistic ethics within the sphere of mainstream society in the current global environment.

Antibiotic Resistance and how to avoid it in a Community

What is Antibiotic Resistance?

Antibiotic resistance refers to microbial aversion to antimicrobial drugs developed with the original intent of combating specific germs, bacteria, and fungi. During such instances, prescribed antibiotic medications are seemingly unable to kill or eliminate harmful microbes targeted. Today, antibiotic resistance is associated with an unprecedented increase in the emergence and spread of resistant infections, posing an immediate public health concern globally. According to a recent study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), antibiotic resistance is among one of the most concerning public health concerns facing the American public today given that it kills, at least, 1.29 million annually. Concern over the pervasiveness of antibiotic resistance is also driven by the fact that cases of mortality directly attributed to antibiotic resistance keep on rising each year hence the need for a decisive and resounding response.

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Antimicrobial resistance is a resistance is a relatively new phenomenon given that this response was not typical of bacteria and fungi during treatment with antibiotics. This, therefore, poses a serious health risk to individuals in different stages in life and across different demographics since it is among one of the most problematic public health challenges one may attempt to solve. Dangerous antibiotic resistance is now associated with a growing need for second- and third-line pharmacological interventions during treatment which may have adverse effects such as organ failure and extended hospital stays. Antibiotic resistance is also a major source of concerns for medical practitioners given that antibiotics are a major mode of treatment recommended in fighting infections (Bennett, 2018). This eventually means that clinical experts run out of viable treatment options for their patients, further impacting their outcomes. Moreover, common medical procedures such as cancer therapy, surgery, and treatment for chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes often require antibiotic therapy, thus posing a direct threat to patient’s recovery.

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Causes of Antibiotic Resistance

The link between Microbial Evolution and Antibiotic Resistance

Scientists and medical experts have long been at the forefront of efforts geared towards identifying the specific forces behind antibiotic resistance. At the present moment, the consensus by experts on this matter is that antibiotic resistance is caused primarily by the evolution of microbes over an extended period of time. Changes accompanying this evolution are then responsible for the microbes’ ability to thrive within a harsh environment while still functioning efficiently coupled with rapid reproduction. Antibiotic resistance, therefore, transforms the basic structure of microbes; prompting them to adapt to significant changes within their immediate environment and the ability to spread more rapidly than before. Additionally, this is compounded further by the actual presence of an antimicrobial gene within the microbes that are then passed on to their progeny leading to a cycle of resistance and a new-found ability to survive antibiotic treatments. Drug-resistant microbes are hardy and able to reproduce even in the most extreme of environments which eventually improves their ability to build colonies while continuing their spread.

Mutation and Inappropriate Drug Use

Today, microbial gene mutation and the inappropriate use of prescribed medications are typically cited as some of the most typical reasons explaining the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Microbial gene mutation is commonly attributed to the high rate of cell division witnessed among these organisms which ultimately improves their overall ability to evolve and reproduce within the context of challenging environments. These changes are often said to improve the overall manner in which they react once exposed to antimicrobial agents and their ability to survive such an attack. Mutation and a high rate of multiplication are also directly related, making it quite difficult for antibiotic treatments to work given that the bacteria in question are now able to survive and thrive in all types of environments. Mutation is also associated with the microbial gene transfer of these genes among related sub-types and genus of bacteria, causing the formation of drug-resistant DNA among emerging progeny. The inappropriate use of antibiotics is also widely thought to be a major reason behind the prevalence of antibiotic resistance while exacerbating bacterial and viral infection.

Preventing Antibiotic Resistance in my Community

Although antibiotic resistance is today viewed as an existential public health concern, the good news is that healthcare workers can play a leading role in preventing the spread and permeation of this phenomenon within their respective communities. Such efforts should always be grounded in science and evidence based practices (EBP) to ensure that each of the frameworks implemented prevent germs, bacteria, and viruses from developing impregnable defenses. The following are some strategies I would employ to prevent antibiotic resistance in my community:


Basic hygiene is an effective tool to employ when attempting to prevent antibiotic resistance. This is mainly due to the overabundance of germs, bacteria, and virus on our bodies at any given time. Hand-washing, therefore, creates a preventative system where harmful microbes are removed from our external bodies, hindering their spread while fighting them simultaneously.

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Knowing the telltale Symptoms Associated with Antibiotic Resistance

Individual knowledge of the signs associated with antibiotic resistance is also quite effective in preventing microbial evolution and mutation. Patients should always remain cognizant of the supposed effects of the medications prescribed which allows them to recognize early symptoms of antibiotic resistance (Hawser, 2012). It is, therefore, critical to raise awareness within a community to improve the public’s awareness of scenarios where infection seem to not get better and this being a cue for consulting a healthcare professional.

Asking Relevant Questions on Drug use

Patients are also obligated to pose relevant questions to their primary healthcare provider regarding antibiotic use and factors likely to predispose them to antibiotic resistance. According to Wilson (2019), this process should always begin with a candid doctor-patient discussion regarding the antibiotics prescribed, dosage frequency, and any possible side effect. This process aims at ensuring that patients are empowered on the appropriate use of prescribed medications in order to facilitate safe intake, the prevention of further infections, and improving patient outcomes.

Diligence and Responsibility when Prescribing Antibiotic Therapy To prevent Antibiotic Resistance

Healthcare providers have the fundamental duty of promoting diligence and responsibility when prescribing antibiotic therapy as one of the most efficient frameworks to implement in preventing antibiotic resistance. This is a major element of antibiotic stewardship and should always be put under constant consideration in strict adherence to general CDC protocols and measures recommended by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS. Clinicians should always demonstrate concerted efforts geared towards measuring and quantifying the use of prescribed medications while actively monitoring patients’ adherence to associated regimen (Klein, 2016). Such efforts are directly associated with an attempt to improve antibiotic prescribing while actively combating the unnecessary use of antibiotics by vulnerable cross-sections of the general population. Antibiotic stewardship should also include the active training, re-training, and initiating capacity-building initiatives among clinical staff to ensure they are fully capable of providing the highest quality of care and advice to patients in need based on existing CDC and HHS guidelines.

Race, Gender, and Social Class Stratification in Ross Kemp : Extreme World

Write a 4-page paper in which you discuss the TV show or film in this case Ross Kemp : Extreme World as it relates to race, gender, and social class stratification. Include the following:

  • Provide the name of the show or film you selected, as well as a brief summary of the plot and setting of the story.
  • Identify and describe at least one example of social deviance that you observed. Which social structures or norms could have contributed to this act of deviance?

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  • Identify and describe at least two examples of sociological inequalities that you observed. Which social structures or norms could have contributed to these inequalities?
  • Indicate the theoretical perspective—functionalist, conflict, or symbolic interactionist—that you would use to explain the social inequalities you observed. Explain your reasons for choosing this perspective. Make connections between the social stratification of class, race, and gender that you observed in the TV show or film, and the ways that it represents inequality in our society.

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Social Inequality in the Media

Presently, cooperate media is regarded as one of the most prevalent and far-reaching milestones of the 21st century. This view is often held by many in society due to the media’s extensive sway on society and its ability to have real-life implications for different groups with a wide array of agendas. Today, the media has morphed into a unique medium of communication in a fast-paced society and as an invaluable medium for depicting sociological constructs relevant in society. Perhaps the most common of these is the media’s current role as a conduit for the demonstration of long-standing social inequality in society and its impacts on an assortment of populations globally.

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This paints an elaborate picture of reality as it is, especially based on sociological constructs such as social stratification, and the ultimate impact of this reality on vulnerable members of contemporary society. Within the past decade, discussions centered on social inequality in popular media have often been hailed for bringing the world’s attention to relevant issues affecting humanity while also presenting an opportunity for relevant parties to attempt to find viable and lasting solutions to such problems. Documentaries and feature films have often been at the forefront of this particular initiative and are now hailed for their ability top present an unadulterated version of relevant issues such as social inequality in contemporary society.

Summary of Show, Plot, and Setting in the Series Ross Kemp : Extreme World

My film of choice for this assignment is a documentary series titled Ross Kemp: Extreme World episode 6 of Season 3. This particular installment of the docu-series was shot in Rio de Janeiro Brazil and attempts to investigate some of the social problems plaguing Brazil today. The documentary specifically focused on the different realities lived by residents of the city and the structural inequalities which currently exist in present-day Brazilian society. Ross Kemp follows a group of underprivileged youth and musicians from the slums in an attempt to document their lives and experiences dealing with the different vicissitudes of life in this particular area.

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Nearly all of the individuals interviewed for this project were skeptical of the government’s commitment  to ending inequalities in society and creating economic opportunities for the most vulnerable members in society. They even regarded the political institutions and politicians as partly to blame for this current reality, with some even going as far as suggesting that it appears as though it is a conspiracy designed to maintain the status quo while oppressing the weakest members of society. The documentary was shot during the height of the crack-cocaine epidemic, right before the 2016 Rio Olympic Games, with the express aim of uncovering Brazil’s shameful underbelly. Kemp goes deeper into the favelas (slums) where he meets underage drug dealers and teenage prostitutes operating in open-air market stalls and without fear of governing authorities.

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Social Deviance in the Ross Kemp : Extreme World

Social deviance was a major theme in the film and featured prominently throughout the entire presentation. The most evident examples of social deviance in the film was substance abuse in the slums and an unregulated system of drug trafficking. Some of the poorest areas of Rio also had the highest level of drug trafficking activities, substance abuse, and limited involvement by the authorities. These areas were further divided into turfs where different street “Dons” ruled over as their spheres of influence and proceeded with illicit activities such as drug dealing and prostitution.

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For instance, the drug kingpin in charge of Rocinha confessed that he was the most influential drug dealer in the area and wielded more influence than any other gang in the area or the police. He operated under a criminal enterprise identified as Commando Vermelho (Red Command) and claimed that some of the illegal activities were originally meant to provide employment to desperate slum dwellers. This was, however, contrasted by the fact that the CV also controlled a considerable swathe of Rocinha favela and created “crack dens” where the residents could use their hard-earned money to buy and use drugs (“Ross Kemp extreme world S03 E06 Rio de Janeiro – video Dailymotion,” 2015).

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From the information provided through participant-interviews, it was clearly evident that some of the social structures present Brazilian society were directly responsible for the current state of affairs. For instance, slum dwellers expressed a high level of dissatisfaction with the authorities whom they accused of neglect and heavy-handedness by the Special Forces Unit (SFU) of the Brazilian police. Many referenced the authorities “pacification” initiatives as a major point of contention with the authorities and viewed them as nothing more than government-sanction campaigns of terror.

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Sociological Inequalities Observed

A number of sociological inequalities were also observed throughout the film and were enabled and empowered by a series of social structures and norms evident in Brazilian society. The most common sociological inequality evident in the film was racial discrimination and its implications in Brazilian society. Brazil was a major player in the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade and among the highest recipient of African slaves. Although Brazil later became an independent and sovereign country, racism still persists to date. Brazilians of African descent, Native Amazonian Brazilians, and mixed race individuals suffer the highest levels of discrimination in the country, compared to other races and ethnic groups present in the countries.

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According to Valladares (2019), 67 % of residents residing in Rio’s favelas self-identify as either black or mulatto (of mixed African, Iberian, and Amerindian parentage). In fact, sociology pundits participating in the film were quite unequivocal in claiming that the most prominent type of sociological inequality present in Brazil was the ethnic and racial marginalization of minority groups as evident in the slums. This inequality was further reinforced and enabled by the failures of successive governments and their inability to reduce or avert the perpetuation of systemic discrimination of minority groups within the country This, also considering that Brazil is ranked among the most unequal countries in Latin America with a Gini Index of 53.3 (“GINI index for Brazil,” 2021). Marginalized groups are also at a greater disadvantage given that they have a limited access to education and are, therefore, unable to secure gainful employment.

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Explaining Social Inequalities using the Conflict Theory

The Conflict Theory by Karl Marx may serve as an ideal tool for explaining social and structural inequalities present in Brazilian society today. This theoretical perspective can be evaluated through the Unequal System perspective and the actual impact of such a scenario in any multicultural society. From the onset, it was quite evident that structural inequalities within Brazilian society seemed to have a disproportionate impact on ethnic and racial minorities, who also happened to be slum-dwellers. In essence, the wider society would ordinarily regard such individuals as persons low in society’s stratification and ultimately regard them as persons from the lower class tiers of society.

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This type of categorization would eventually mean that they would be viewed as a little more than insignificant members of society, which would also explain why members of the greater Brazilian society routinely fail to acknowledge their plight or even being sympathetic to their plight. Through the Conflict Theory, it now becomes apparent that a considerable portion of the challenges faced by minority groups in Brazil may boil down to inequalities in the distribution of wealth and position of power and the deliberate failure of governments to focus on the economic emancipation of minority groups such as Rocinha’s slum dwellers.

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