Discuss how evaluators can ensure that program evaluation results are properly disseminated. To whom should results be made readily available? Why is proper dissemination critical?
After completing the evaluation phase, program evaluators have to disseminate the evaluation findings to various stakeholders. Program evaluators can ensure that the program evaluation results are properly disseminated by formulating an evaluation dissemination strategy (Owen, 2020). Program evaluators need an evaluation dissemination strategy to ensure that the assessment results go beyond being a mere internal exercise. According to Owen, an evaluation dissemination strategy refers to a systematic plan aimed to ensure effective dispersal of program assessment results to both internal and external stakeholders. The strategy should incorporate diverse, creative, barrier-free, and efficient methods to disseminate the results (Newcomer, Hatry, & Wholey, 2015). Notably, the plan aims to ensure that the dissemination of assessment results to internal and external stakeholders in a manner that maximizes efficiency.
An evaluation dissemination strategy maximizes dissemination utility, which is a key principle that should guide the dissemination of evaluation results. It is imperative that the evaluators use a wide variety of formats and channels to effectively cater to the needs of the various audiences. Channels that evaluators can use include emails, news conferences, slide presentations, press or news releases, et cetera (Newcomer, Hatry, & Wholey, 2015). For instance, for internal stakeholders, the evaluators can utilize slide presentations, and for external stakeholders use emails and press releases. Formats that can be used include brochures, newsletters, executive summaries, one-page descriptions, technical reports, et cetera. Program evaluators should use a format the fits the unique needs of the various audiences of the results (Newcomer, Hatry, & Wholey, 2015). For instance, they can use executive summaries for the external stakeholders and technical reports for the internal stakeholders.
Elements of an Effective Presentation of Program Evaluation Results
There are five key components of an effective presentation of program evaluation results. First, the presentation should have a clear objective. The presenter should start with an overview that informs the audience what is the main focus of the presentation. Second, it should use clear and concise; the presenter should use language/words that the audience can easily understand. This ensures that the presentation is useful to the audience. Third, it should incorporate visuals to help the audience remain engaged and reinforce the main points of the presentation. Fourth, it should be conversational to help the audience remain engaged. Fifth, the presenter should leverage non-verbal behavior to enhance their speaking and retain the audience’s attention. Lastly, it should be well-rehearsed to ensure the presenter delivers it in an organized fashion (Zunac, Grabar, & Bicek, 2019).
The most efficacious modes of information delivery are verbal and written communication. Verbal communication entails delivering information through speaking. This can be face-to-face, video call, over the telephone, et cetera (Willkomm, 2018). According to Willkomm, for verbal communications, face-to-face is the most efficacious as it allows for communication through non-verbal cues as well. Written communication can be through reports, memos, emails, et cetera. Notably, all forms of written communication have the same objective; that is, to disseminate information clearly and concisely. However, written communication does not always achieve this goal as it is dependent on writing skills. Nonetheless, when well-written this mode of communication can prove efficacious (Willkomm, 2018). Visual communication can also be effective but it must be accompanied by either verbal or written communication or both.
Food is essential to humans as it provides the energy required to carry out various life functions. Lack of sufficient food results in malnutrition, stunted growth, poor health, and mortality. Despite the importance of food, there are still people across the globe who face hunger and countries experiencing food insecurity.
The highest number of the world’s hungry people live in developing nations. Specifically, 98 percent of the world’s hungry live in developing countries. It is also worth noting that most malnourished people live in Asia and the Pacific in countries such as the Philippines and Indonesia, with more than 500 million people. Additionally, more than 243 million people in sub-Saharan Africa face hunger, especially in arid countries such as Mali, Ethiopia, and Niger. Moreover, millions of people in the Caribbean and Latin America in places like Haiti and Guatemala struggle to find enough to eat (“The facts: What you need to know about global hunger”, 2020). Thus, the world’s most hungry people live in developing nations in various regions of the globe.
Food Insecurity Issues for those Countries and Difference Between “food insecurity” and “hunger” in these countries
Two of the countries currently facing food insecurity in the world are Indonesia and Haiti. Since mid-1997, Indonesia has been in an economic crisis. Notably, this economic crisis was presided by the prolonged drought that followed El Nino. The drought associated with El Nino resulted in a decline in food production. The economic crisis aggravated the situation as the country has been unable to recover from the adverse impacts of the drought (Amrullah, Ishida, Pullaila, & Rusyiana, 2019). Another factor contributing to food insecurity is unequal access to proper food; the available food is unaffordable to many. Moreover, Indonesia’s lakes and rivers are highly polluted and highly vulnerable to seasonal variations. Lastly, the self-sufficiency policies implemented by the Indonesian government have severely limited access to food (“Indonesian Food and Water Security: Ongoing Inaction Could Lead to a Future Crisis – Future Directions International”, 2018). Thus, food insecurity has resulted from a combination of various factors.
Regarding Haiti’s food insecurity issue, several factors have contributed to the longstanding crisis. To start with, Haiti is highly susceptible to natural disasters such as droughts, hurricanes, floods, landslides, and earthquakes. Notably, these catastrophes have adverse impacts on agricultural production. The country also experiences irregular rainfall, and due to Haiti’s worsening economic conditions, the government has not sufficiently invested in water sources. Lastly, for a very long time, Haiti has been facing political instability, which makes it considerably challenging for the government to address the food insecurity crisis (“Food Assistance Fact Sheet – Haiti | Food Assistance | U.S. Agency for International Development”, 2021). The combined effect of these factors has led Haiti to find itself in a longstanding food insecurity crisis.
It is worth noting that there is a difference between hunger and food insecurity. Whereas the two are related, they are not the same. Hunger is physiological, while food insecurity is socio-economic. Hunger is measured at the individual level, while food security is measured at the household level (“What is food insecurity? Food security? – Food Forward”, 2019). In Haiti and Indonesia, both hunger and food insecurity are significant threats to the citizens.
Use of Biotechnologies in Solving the Food Insecurity
Low food production is mainly the leading cause of food insecurity in developing nations. These countries can address the problem of low crops yield by using biotechnologies. According to Najafi and Lee (2014), biotechnologies can help increase food production by introducing high-yielding crop varieties resistant to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Secondly, biotechnologies can reduce pest-associated production decline. Thirdly, they can increase the nutritional value of produced foods. However, on the downside, biotechnologies are associated with negative effects on health and technology (Prema, 2017). Thus, there is a need to tread carefully when adopting biotechnologies as a remedy to food insecurity.
One of the most significant revolutionary waves in the world’s history is the Atlantic Revolutions, 1750-1830. The three major Atlantic Revolutions include the American, France, and Haitian Revolutions. The revolutions were characterized by the rejection of the authority of the traditional ruling class or the aristocracy. Notably, whereas the three revolutions had positive outcomes, they also had negative consequences. This essay seeks to explore the origin and fallout of the American, French, and Haitian Revolutions.
The American Revolution was the fight for independence by the 13 of Britain’s North American colonies. The revolution followed more than a decade of estrangement between the colonies and the British crown; owing to the crown’s attempts to assert greater control over the colonies’ affairs, which was against the long adhered to the policy of statutory neglect (Judge & Langdon, 2009). The negative consequences of the American Revolution include economic decline and thousands of deaths. Due to the revolution, America lost its primary trading partner, Great Britain; this slowed America’s economy almost to a halt and fueled inflation. Additionally, America had a tough time paying the loan they had acquired from France to fund the war. Besides, the economic impact of the war also caused thousands of deaths. Even though America won, at least 6,500 Americans died in action. Britain lost at least 24,000 soldiers (CITE).
The French Revolution origin was a widespread discontent of the citizens with the French monarchy. The French were also unhappy with the poor economic policies, such as heavy taxes implemented by King Louis XVI. Additionally, the American Revolution in which France participated inspired the French to carry out their revolution (Judge & Langdon, 2009). The negative consequences of the course included economic collapse and thousands of deaths. The French Revolution led to the total collapse of the French economy. The war was characterized by rioting and looting. Moreover, when the conflict became violent, France nobles fled the country with their wealth and knowledge. It took a long time for France’s societal aspects to be restored. Moreover, during the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution, more than 40,000 people were killed (Armitage & Subrahmanyam, 2009).
The Haitian Revolution was a series of conflicts between the Haitian slaves, colonists, and the armies of the British and French colonizers. Three key reasons caused the revolution: (1) the frustrated aspirations of the affranchis, (2) slave owners’ brutality, and (3) inspiration from the French Revolution (Judge & Langdon, 2009). The negative consequences of the revolution include economic decline and a significant death toll. The Haitian Revolution caused an economic decline that left the nation in poverty. The revolution saw the destruction of Haiti’s capital and infrastructure. Up to date, Haiti has not been able to rebuild its wealth, and it remains one of the poorest countries in the world. The revolution also caused a death toll of approximately 345,000 soldiers; notably, this number incorporates Black, French, British, and White colonist soldiers (Armitage & Subrahmanyam, 2009).
To sum up, the three Atlantic revolutions discussed in this essay were characterized by the rejection of the authority of the traditional ruling class or the aristocracy. Notably, their fallouts were arguably similar, although they varied in magnitude. The negative consequences of the revolutions included economic decline and death tolls to the tune of thousands.
Explain Challenges Associated With Balancing The Interests Of Multiple Stakeholders. Propose effective strategies to manage conflicts that arise when multiple stakeholders have opposing opinions. Explain
While managing and balancing the interests of multiple stakeholders is often deemed necessary, it is a challenging endeavor requiring effective management strategies given conflict is often bound to emerge. One of the most common challenges is the effect of competing interests between multiple stakeholders and an overall failure to align these same interests with organizational objectives. As a consequence, the implementation of progressive propositions may be impeded by frequent stalemates between multiple stakeholders who fail to come to a mutual agreement or compromise.
Furthermore, multiple stakeholders may have different responsibilities and needs within the wider organizational framework put in place. This may create tension given the likelihood of each group opting to advocate for their own individual agenda. However, this type of conflict can still be managed by systematically setting up structures that allow organizations to accurately and comprehensively identify each individual stakeholder using an analysis summary table. The main advantage of applying this strategy is having a complete understanding of the profile of each individual stakeholder, their responsibilities, involvement in the project, and priorities. This creates a system where they are utilized individually based on their roles and capabilities within the project.
For instance, stakeholders whose priories are divergent should not take precedence over their counterparts given their interests. Furthermore, goals should also be prioritized while always being prepared to manage any conflict of interest likely to emerge (Handy & Russell, 2018). Creative solutions such as dialogue should also be considered to dissolve conflict while appropriately managing and harmonizing the interests of each stakeholder. Outcomes should always remain a primary objective worth prioritizing in order to deliver on set goals. It is also imperative to be adaptable given the possibility of encountering challenges stemming from stakeholder conflict as a way of ensuring project outcomes are not impacted negatively.
Three Key Drivers of Labor Costs within A Specific Health Care Service, Facility, Or Other Health Sector-Related Occupation
For the past decade, the labor share of hospital total expenses has been increasing. According to the Healthcare Financial Management Association (HFMA), hospitals in the US have created 586,500 new jobs in the past decade, significantly increasing cost pressure (Daly, 2019). Some of the factors driving labor costs within hospitals include new staff needed to fulfill their missions embarked in the past decade, labor supply, and productivity improvement efforts.
Over the past decade, hospitals have created new job positions to fulfill the missions they have adopted in response to increasing quality requirements. This includes staff needed to implement electronic health records (EHRs), tracking social determinants of health, and other information technology initiatives (Daly, 2019). The additional staff required to implement these initiatives has considerably contributed to the increased labor cost. Hospitals can control this cost driver by fully leveraging technology. Automating most information technology functions can help minimize the number of staff required to oversee the initiatives.
The tightening labor market has also contributed to the increased cost of labor within hospitals. Due to population increase and increasing competition from private hospitals, the tightening labor market has led to higher wage demands. Hospitals, therefore, have more staff than they used to have, and these employees are demanding relatively higher wages. Besides the high salaries, the hospitals are compelled to offer attractive personnel benefits to retain their staff (Aksenova et al., 2020). Thus, decreased labor supply has contributed to the increased cost of labor. Hospitals can address this factor by investing in strategies aimed to improve employee retention. This starts in the recruitment process by identifying employees who will stay the course and providing a favorable working environment undergirded by the organizational culture.
Due to the increasing competition in the healthcare industry, hospitals have been compelled to find ways to bolster their productivity. Consequently, hospitals have spent considerable amounts of money and time enhancing employee productivity in the past decade. Some of the strategies used to improve productivity include employee training, giving perks, and other bonuses (Emanuel, 2018). A solution that can help address this factor is focusing on intrinsic motivators instead of extrinsic motivators when designing frameworks for attracting and retaining employees.
Future Changes that Might Accelerate or Exacerbate the Solutions ro Labor Costs
Whereas the proposed solutions have a high potential to slow down the increasingly growing cost of labor costs within hospitals, various trends deter the proposed solutions from achieving the desired outcomes. To start with, the growing trend of consumerism can prove challenging to the solutions. Hospitals will be forced to respond to consumerism by adding staff as navigators to guide patients requiring by answering non-clinical questions and guide patients requiring cosmetic surgery, among other needs driven by consumerism. Additionally, the increasing entry of Generation Z into the workforce means that Generation Z and Millennials will soon constitute most of the workforce. Notably, the two generations have unique employee needs that will require organizations to devise new strategies for attracting and retaining them as well as motivating them to enhance productivity. Lastly, the shrinking labor market means that the labor supply will continue to shrink, causing wages to rise. Nonetheless, through proper planning, the healthcare industry can counter these threats.
What are the variables that influence an employee’s decision to leave or stay at an organization?
Employee retention is essential to organizational growth. Organizations that have reckoned this fact are spending significant amounts of time and money investigating the variables that influence employees’ decision to leave or stay at an organization. Notably, many factors influence this decision, and they are intrinsically and extrinsically motivated.
Besides compensation, employees also seek a job that is meaningful to them. Therefore, the meaningfulness of a job to an employee is considerably important. Secondly, ability to provide employees with career development opportunities. These include opportunities such as employee training, challenging tasks, education opportunities, promotions based on merit, et cetera. Thirdly, an employee’s decision to leave or stay can be influenced by the organization’s reward and recognition framework. People want to be in an organization where they feel their time and effort are well appreciated (Al Mamun & Hasan, 2017).
Fourthly, work-life balance also plays a significant role in informing an employee’s decision to stay or leave. Employees want organizations that provide them with schedules that allow them to achieve work-life balance. Last but equally important, culture fit. Employees want an organization undergirded by a culture that motivates and inspires them to be the best they can be. This entails a culture that supports, among other things, creativity, risk-taking, employee autonomy, robust relationships based on trust, involving employees in the decision-making process, et cetera (Al Mamun & Hasan, 2017).
To sum up, when it comes to the decision to stay or leave a workplace, it is not all about the money. Other factors, including job meaningfulness, career development opportunities, reward and recognition, work-life balance, and culture fit, significantly influence the decision. Thus, when devising their employee retention frameworks, organizations should consider the named factors.
Different Strategies Associated with Incremental Change and Radical Change
Incremental change means that programs and organizations can be developed over time by making minor alterations such as changing components or activities therefore building on the status quo. For example, continuous improvement in quality management process or implementation of a new computer system to increase efficiency is an incremental change. Normally, incremental change is an exercise that slowly gets more difficult. This process allows more time for data collection and can help managers track performance of a program and learn which problems need to be addressed. This improves efficiency productivity and competitive differentiation. We can apply different strategies for incremental change. It is important to build an understanding of customer needs through conducting qualitative interviews, surveys and idea management software. Align your team with innovative methodologies and pivot the approach in the moment to minimize revisiting the research process afterward. Always build Riskiest Assumption Test (RAT) to help identify and invalidate key misconceptions and determine whether customers are interested in the concept before investing in it. Finally, communicate constantly with customers to help gain a better understanding of customer experiences, needs and responses towards new concepts and features.
Radical change is change that occurs relatively fast and usually modifies the essence of social structures or practices in an organization. This change affects the resources, norms and interpretive schemes of groups and individuals. In the real world completely transforming how a company is structured and cultured is a radical change. To bring about radical change in an organization, adopt a coaching or training environment in the company culture. Companies can use proactive, active, reactive and passive strategies for radical change. Active strategies predict a healthy change in customer needs and rapidly grasps the market opportunity. Reactive strategies slowly adapt and embrace the market and technological dynamics. Passive strategies delay the process of change until the business comes up with a contingency plan that accommodates and counters risks and threats.
Example Where Incremental Change Is A Better Solution And One Example Where Radical Change Should Be Considered.
Incremental change is preferred whenever the result of the change is unforeseen and the conditions where resources are inadequate. For instance, when a company wants to venture into production of a crude product without adequate resources, a wide range of knowledge and research, and where analytical predictable outcomes are not certain. The firm has to be well advised to proceed by implementing incremental changes (1). Radical changes are considered where companies have huge fiscal resources, broad and perfect knowledge of the market and technology, cutting edge innovations, and adequate and skilled human resources.
A Scenario Where A Push Or Pull Innovation Would Provide A Competitive Advantage
Push and pull innovation is any innovation that involves deep knowledge of both a problem and a solution. Push marketing requires pushing your brand in front of potential customers by advertising or promotions. Pull marketing requires implementing a strategy that naturally draws customer interest to your products. Push innovation is enhanced by immediate payback while pull marketing is essential in the long run (2). This innovation is influenced by internal development or research activities to enable supply chains to facilitate distribution of goods or services while pull change motivates potential customers to seek a specific product where the producer has a strong brand. Successful firms that aim to have a competitive advantage in the market and technology investments apply push and pull strategies (1). This enables them to make profits now and in future with the objective of getting specific products to its intended target market.
Therefore, push and pull innovation promotional strategies. In a production organization, the push strategy works to boost sales for items that have low value as the pull strategy fosters and motivates customers to acquire a particular brand. This will lead to various results: For starters there will be a high demand for a particular brand with retailers stocking the product in bulk. Moreover, the customers will be aware of the existence of a particular product and demand more, increasing sales and marginal profits.
Reasons Why Entrepreneurs Should Follow An Innovation Strategy
Entrepreneurs consolidate all factors of production, such as, labor, land, capital and human resources. They have a responsibility to identify, formulate an d implement innovative strategies to ensure the success of the business. They have to adhere to innovative strategies to increase competition. Innovative strategies give a company a competitive advantage by having a unique attribute that distinguishes it from the rest of the firms in the market. Entrepreneurs have to continuously and consistently come up with innovative ideas to achieve company’s mission, vision, goals and objectives. Innovative strategies aim to satisfy customer needs. With the increasing consumer’s expectations, desires, taste and preferences, entrepreneurs have a responsibility to indulge in research and development of innovative strategies to satisfy the unlimited customer needs. These strategies maximize profits while decreasing costs of production.
The main objective of any business is to make profit, therefore, entrepreneurs have to come up with newer methods of increasing sales, decreasing production costs and avoiding hidden costs, with the aim of maximizing profits. Strategic innovation requires entrepreneurs to implement the right framework for better outcomes. First, an entrepreneur should determine the causes and underlying issues in the organization and come up with ways of tackling them. The process of strategic innovation requires planning, directing, organizing, staffing, monitoring and evaluation of the ideas being considered (2). Planning is the key and most central part of the innovation process. Entrepreneurs use this process to solicit advanced solutions for their frameworks. Organizing and directing the staff is integral to the innovation and invention process. A structured work plan and collaboration from all stakeholders in the organization ensures favorable strategic innovation implementation.
Week 6 Assignment – The Impact of Climate Change on Food Security
The United Nations (UN) has hired you as a consultant, and your task is to assess the impact that climate change and global warming are expected to have on population growth and the ability of societies in the developing world to ensure there is adequate food security.
As the world’s population nears 10 billion by 2050, the effects of global warming are stripping some natural resources from the environment. As they diminish in number, developing countries will face mounting obstacles to improving the livelihoods of their citizens and stabilizing their access to enough food. The reason these governments are struggling even now is that our climate influences their economic health and the consequent diminishing living standards of their peoples. Climate changes are responsible for the current loss of biodiversity as well as the physical access to some critical farming regions. As such, these changes in global weather patterns diminish agricultural output and the distribution of food to local and international markets. These difficulties will become even more significant for these countries as the Earth’s climate changes for the worse. Temperatures are already increasing incrementally, and polar ice caps are melting, so the salient question is: what does this suggest for developing societies?
The issue before the developing world is not its lack of food, but rather how to gain access to food. Simply put, changes in our climate are affecting the global food chain, and hence, the living standards of entire populations. Added to this is the fact that food is not getting to where it is needed in time to prevent hunger or starvation. In many developing countries, shortages are due to governments’ control over distribution networks rather than an insufficient supply of food itself. In effect, these governments are weaponizing food by favoring certain ethnic or religious groups over others. When added to dramatic climate changes that we are experiencing even now, the future for billions of poor people looks increasingly dim.
You are to write a minimum of a 5 page persuasive paper for the UN that addresses the following questions about the relationship between atmospheric weather patterns and food security in the developing world:
Climate change and global warming are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same phenomenon. What are the differences between the two concepts and what leads to the confusion between them?
In 1900, the average global temperature was about 13.7° Celsius (56.7° Fahrenheit) (Osborn, 2021), but as of 2020, the temperature has risen another 1.2°C to 14.9°C (58.9°F). According to the Earth and climate science community, if the Earth’s surface temperature rises another 2°C (3.6°F), we will suffer catastrophic weather patterns that, among other things, will raise sea levels, cause widespread droughts and wildfires, result in plant, insect, and animal extinctions, and reduce agricultural productivity throughout the world (Mastroianni, 2015 and Lindsey & Dahlman, 2020). How much credibility do you place in these projections? Why?
There is no question that the Earth’s food sources are threatened by changes in its weather patterns, but what specific challenges does climate change pose to the food security of people in the developing world?
There is currently a debate among some multinational lending agencies like the International Monetary Fund, UNICEF, and AID over the financial support for food security has been misused by recipient government officials. On the other hand, U.S. authorities insist that misuse of its assistance is not occurring because it has strict monitoring oversight in place. What is your position on this matter? Is there evidence that financial assistance to developing governments is being widely misused by government officials?
Relationship Between Atmospheric Weather Patterns and Food security in the Developing World
In recent decades, food insecurity has been one of the major global concerns. A major factor causing this insecurity is climate change. Notably, climate change poses a significant threat to food security, especially in developing nations. As the impact of climate change has continually worsened over the decades, various agencies have channeled funds into developing countries for food security. However, these funds seem to be unhelpful as food insecurity in these nations continues to worsen. This essay seeks to define climate change, evaluate the impact of rising earth temperatures, explore the effects of climate change on food security for developing nations, and address the concern regarding misappropriation of financial support for food security by developing nations’ government officials.
What are the differences between Climate Change and Global Warming concepts and what leads to the confusion between them?
In recent years, global warming and climate change are terms people worldwide have become accustomed to hearing. Often people use the two terms interchangeably. However, whereas the two are related, they do not refer to the same phenomenon. Global warming is just one of the many aspects of climate change. The term was coined in the 1970s in response to the growing awareness of the damage pollutants – mainly chlorofluorocarbons – were having on the earth’s ozone layer (Lorenz, 2020). Typically, the earth’s surface is supposed to heat during the daytime as sun rays strike it. At night, the energy is radiated back into space. The process maintains the temperature levels of the earth at optimum level. However, the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, including chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, and methane, leads to the formation of a gaseous shield around the world that prevents the sun from escaping. The increased heat retention at the earth’s surface causes temperatures to rise beyond the optimal level (Mikhaylov, Moiseev, Aleshin, & Burkhardt, 2020). The described phenomenon is referred to as global warming.
Climate change refers to the increasing alteration in the various climate measures over a long period. According to Lorenz (2020), this includes temperature, precipitation, and wind patterns. The difference between climate change and global warming is commonly misunderstood because the increased temperature directly causes climate change. Notably, at least one of the climatic variables – temperature, rainfall, or wind – need to fluctuate over an extended period in a particular region of the earth or across the entire globe for climate change to be established (Mikhaylov, Moiseev, Aleshin, & Burkhardt, 2020). Therefore, climate change refers to the long-term change in regional or climate patterns.
Global temperatures have been increasingly rising over the past few decades. In the 20th century, the average global temperature was about 13.7° Celsius, but as of 2020, the temperature had risen to 14.9° Celsius (Osborn, 2021). According to the Earth and Climate Science community, if the earth’s surface temperature increases by another 2° Celsius, the world will face catastrophic weather patterns that will cause, among other things, rise in sea levels, widespread droughts, and wildfires, reduced agricultural productivity, as well as plant, insect, and animal extinction worldwide. (Mastroianni, 2015) (Lindsey & Dahlman, 2020). Based on the documented impacts of global warming, it is only rational to place significant credibility on these projections.
For instance, Australia has already started experiencing the adverse impacts of global warming. Since 1910 since national records began, Australia’s temperatures have risen by about 1.44°C to 1.68°C (“Australia’s changing climate”, 2020). The effects of this warming have already started threatening the extinction of specific ecosystems, such as the Great Barrier Reef. Global warming threatens the extinction of ecosystems through temperature rise, salt invasion, water shortages, and extreme storm damage, among others. Moreover, one in every six species in Australia is at risk of extension due to the climate change resulting from global warming. When plants, animals, and birds are faced with climate change, they have two options to survive: move or adapt (“Impacts of global warming”, 2021). Since earth temperatures are rising across the globe, moving is not an option. Also, with the speed that climate is changing due to the rising earth temperatures, it is almost impossible for species to adapt quickly enough.
Another adverse consequence of global warming in Australia is in the food and farming realm. The country is experiencing changes in rainfall patterns, frequent heat waves, increasing severe drought, and extreme weather patterns that cause reduced agricultural productivity (“Impacts of global warming”, 2021). These are just some of the adverse effects of rising earth temperature in a single country; thus, the projections by Mastroianni (2015) and Lindsey and Dahlman (2020) should be taken seriously.
What specific challenges does climate change pose to the food security of people in the developing world?
Of all food securities, agriculture is the most sensitive to food security. Climate change poses various challenges to food security, especially for developing nations. One of the challenges to food security due to climate change is changes in rain patterns. According to Mugambiwa and Tirivangasi (2017), approximately 80 percent of agriculture in developing countries depends on rainwater. Rainfall shortages in developing countries dependent on the cultivation of semi-humid and non-irrigated crops cause a significant decline in agricultural productivity, threatening food security (Arora, 2019).
Climate change also causes extreme weather, which threatens food security. Meteorological records show that heatwaves have been relatively more frequent since the end of the last century. Combined with lack of rainfall, this has a direct adverse impact on the performance of some crops. During a crucial period in crops’ development, such as when flowering, a heatwave adversely impacts the harvest. Since developing countries do not have sufficient resources to invest in technologies such as greenhouse farming, they suffer the most from climate change (Mugambiwa & Tirivangasi, 2017).
Other direct impacts of climate change on food security include drought, torrent rain, flooding, and tropical storms. Developing nations have not invested well enough in addressing such catastrophes; hence these challenges pose a serious food security threat. Indirect challenges of climate change on food security include increased infestations and diseases, rising sea levels, water supply shortage, and environmental migrations (Mugambiwa & Tirivangasi, 2017). Lack of financial muscle to effectively address these challenges causes developing nations to face relatively higher food security risks.
One of the main factors crippling the development of developing nations is corruption. Most developing countries are in the predicament they are because government officials misuse funds meant for development. For a long time now, corruption has been a major topic of discussion. According to Kenny (2017), World Bank investigations on financial aid to developing countries have uncovered evidence of corruption and fraud. For instance, between 2007 and 2012, the World Bank found sanctionable corruption and fraud in 157 contracts worth $245 million (Kenny, 2017). Additionally, measurement of lost aid through outcomes reveals distressing reality. Over the decades, agencies such as the International Monetary Fund, AID, and UNICEF have extended financial assistance to developing countries for food security. However, most of these countries do not have much to show for all the financial aid they have received (Kenny, 2017). Thus, evidence shows that in developing countries, government officials misuse financial support for food security.
There is a need for strict monitoring oversight of this aid to ensure that it is not misappropriated. The monitoring oversight functions must be such that they are committed to the highest standards of responsibility and accountability. Having strict monitoring oversight will facilitate effective prevention and detection of possible misuse of financial support for food security. According to Jeppesen (2019), investing in developing countries entails taking a calculated risk. Appropriate measures are, therefore, necessary to mitigate the risks, particularly corruption and fraud.
To sum up, whereas global warming and climate change are related, they are two different phenomena. Global warming is just one of the many aspects of climate change. It is also noting that if left unaddressed, rising earth temperatures could cause catastrophic weather patterns in the future. Moreover, climate change is causing developing nations to face serious food security threats due to their limited financial muscle. Despite the extensive financial support for food security from various sources, government officials misappropriate the funds. There is, therefore, a need for strict monitoring oversight of this aid to ensure that the support effectively serves its purpose.
The Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) is a set of commonly-applied regulations that typically form the basis of financial reporting today. Although Generally Accepted Accounting Principles primary objective is to promote financial accountability and transparency from among different organizations, fundamental differences can still be deduced in its functioning within the context of public and private universities. This paper will, therefore, begin by reviewing the importance of identifying whether an institution is categorized as private or public. Furthermore, clarification will also be provided on reporting guidelines related to not-for-profit organizations that are also non-governmental in structure and design. An analysis of financial statements in public and private universities will also be provided, major format differences, and my views on which of the two is more dependable.
The Importance of Identifying whether the University is Private or Public
Today, individuals conducting any form of financial audit are required to have a firm understanding of universities and how they function. Part of this information now includes information on whether an institution is private or public since fundamental differences underpin both establishments. Evident among these is that public institutions are funded primarily by the federal government through financial appropriations that are part of state appropriations (Lessambo, 2018). On the other hand, private institutions are self-funded, with a majority of their monies coming from tuition fees, grants, endowment funds, and donations. This may explain why private institutions opt for higher tuition fees in order to meet the wide range of financial demands encountered. Nevertheless, they compensate for this by specializing on specific areas of practice and a stricter regimen where students and instructors are routinely evaluated to ensure they perform their core duties. Furthermore, private institutions subscribe to accounting principles and regulations provided by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB). On the other hand, private institutions are party to accounting standards specified by the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).
Public institutions are party to accounting standards specified by Governmental Accounting Standards Board. Parts of the specifications identified under its structure are stipulations for exceptional determination of the activities they can engage in. For instance, public institutions are permitted to engage in business-type endeavors and any other major federally-sanctioned business activity. This system ensures that the federal government remains fully aware of an institutions source of funding as one of the most practical solutions when aspiring to promote accrual transparency within federally-funded public institutions. Conversely, private institutions are party to accounting standards specified by Financial Accounting Standards Board under directives listed under Statement 117 (Barth et al., 2014). This requires them to openly declare their financial statements public when requested by interested parties during any given period in time. Furthermore, such institutions are typically required to present a comprehensive balance sheet with a three-tier classification of levels of donor restrictiveness.
Major Format Differences in Financial Reporting For Public Universities and Private Universities
Key differences also exist in the manner in which financial reporting is conducted in both public and private institutions. For instance, the typical financial statement for a public institution contains its restricted, unrestricted, and gross assets. They are also required to provide a complete statement containing all sources of income, relevant data on expenditure, and any variations in net assets which may have been recorded within the past year. On the other hand, private institutions are only required to declare their financial position on unrestricted, provisional, and permanently restricted assents. This may also include key information on the institution’s cash flow and a complete breakdown of the income statement.
Transparency in Revenues and Restricted Resources
Financial transparency has long been regarded as the centerpiece of accountability within any given organization or institution. This is typically due to the unique opportunities it affords stakeholders to review financial information in order to make an informed judgment about the current state of the market, price levels, and any previously-reviewed financial reports (Rückriegel, 2017). Furthermore, investors can also review an institution’s current financial status to ascertain whether it corresponds with funding received over a specified period. Transparency in revenues and restricted resources is also crucial as one of the most reliable methods of assuring donors that the funds provided in form of endowments and charitable were put to good use and likely to bolster its position in the long haul. This results in the development of a degree of trust between all parties involved that ultimately culminates in investors demonstrating their faith in the institutions in question. An investor provided with a complete Governmental Accounting Standards Board 54 statement by a public institution is, therefore, better placed to make an informed conclusion about its current financial status, revenue streams, and specific restricted resources at its disposal (Barth et al., 2014). Moreover, the unconditional pledges that are normally required under FASB standards creates a sense of obligation where involved parties abide by all
My Opinion on Transparency in Revenues and Restricted Resources
I hold the view that the statement activity is the foundation of transparency. Both public and private institutions are, therefore, likely to provide an honest account of finances within any given financial year as a matter of obligation to their respective accounting standard. Restricted funds are also accounted for at any given moment; providing a complete breakdown of how exactly funds are utilized, with all relevant transactions recorded as required. Public institutions, in particular, eventually thrive in honest financial accounting that benefits the entire establishment in the long haul.
Symbols and Rituals of non-Judeo-Christian Religious Organization and Christianity
Non-Judeo-Christian religious organizations are different from Judeo-Christians. However, they have some symbols and rituals that match those of the mainstream Christians, even if they are not identical. One of them is the use of scripture as a religious guide and the holder of laws that the followers must obey. Muslims have Quaran while Buddhists Tripitaka. The sacred books in each religion focus on informing the followers of the word of God which they must follow (Nathan & Topolski, 2016). They all have a history related to the writing of the scriptures, and the respect they accord the scripture, just like Judeo-Christians do. Although different, those scriptures teach similar moral values that can be easily interchanged. Judeo-Christians can easily use some of the biblical scriptures to invoke similar religious feelings and obligations to non-Judeo-Christians.
Prayer in non-Judeo-Christian Religious Organization and Christianity
Prayer is a common ritual to both Judeo-Christians and non-Judeo-Christians. The two use prayers as a form of speaking directly to God, to take their grievances, thanksgiving, requests, asking for forgiveness among other things. The two may pray differently, they use prayers as an important part of their faith and religious practice (Doc.wa.gov, 2013). Religions such as Muslims are required to pray about five times a day. Judeo-Christians do not have limited time for prayers. However, they regard prayers as one of the main ways to defeat evil. They are thus requested to be on their guard by being praying as many times as it is possible. Prayer is a common ritual that can be used to teach non-Judeo-Christians about Christ.
Fasting in non-Judeo-Christian Religious Organization and Christianity
Fasting is another ritual common to both Judeo-Christians and non-Judeo-Christians. Fasting is done in both groups to bring people closer to God through prayers and giving. Just like prayers, fasting is unlimited in the Judeo-Christians group. However, for Muslims and others, there are specific fasting seasons with a guideline on how fasting should be conducted. Nevertheless, the motive is normally the same for both groups, praying, giving to the poor, or sharing and fighting evil (Doc.wa.gov, 2013). The fact that non-Judeo-Christians understand the importance of fasting, can aid in teaching the act of mercy and kindness, sharing with the poor, and praying for each other, and supporting each other to overcome the evil.
Worship in non-Judeo-Christian Religious Organization and Christianity
Worship is another common ritual to both Judeo-Christians and non-Judeo-Christians. They both believe in worship as a way of showing their dedication to God. They both have holy places where they worship. Though given different names such as Church, Mosque, or Temple, they are used for worship. The worship involves singing, chanting, praying, reading and interpreting scriptures, and offering gifts (Doc.wa.gov, 2013). The main difference in the worship includes the days of worship and how worship is conducted. Each religion has its ways of doing it, its specific songs and chants, and different ways of worship for different occasions. However, they may all have similar benefits from the worship. The worship ritual can be used to convey the importance of praising and worshiping God, living according to God’s teachings to makes the worship more worthwhile, and the importance of cleansing oneself before making an offering to God. Missionaries can use the concept of worship to teach more about forgiveness, fellowship, and giving to the needy or sharing (Nathan & Topolski, 2016). For instance, one way of worship among Buddhists involve giving offerings to the poor, mostly seated outside the temple. This can be used to preach more about kindness, and sharing while preaching about Christianity to non-Judeo-Christians.
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