Epidemiology Paper on Chicken Pox

Description of Chicken Pox

Chicken pox also known as varicella is an extremely infectious disease that causes rashes, blisters or red spots, itching and fever. It is a contagious disease and is common in babies, but can also occur in adults and people with weak immune systems. Chickenpox is an infectious, disease caused by a virus known as varicella- zoster that spreads through the air when a person sneezes. It also spread when a person contacts one who is infected through touching or breathing from virus particles from blisters. The disease is contagious and spreads easily to those who have never had chickenpox or received the vaccine. People with shingle can also spread the disease because the same virus that causes shingles also causes chicken pox.

Read also Avian Influenza Epidemiology in Queen’s County

Symptoms begin when a person starts producing an itchy rash, blisters that may last for a week. The blisters fill with fluid and eventually turn into scabs. The rashes will appear on the chest, back, face, inside the mouth and eyelids. Additional symptoms include fever, tiredness, loss of appetite and headaches. Once a person gets a single attack of chicken pox, they will always get immunity from the disease (Landau, 2010).

Read also Epidemiology Paper On Influenza

Chicken pox can cause complications in babies, teenagers, adults, some pregnant women, and people with weak immune systems. Complications will especially be serious in people with HIV/Aids, cancer, people on chemotherapy, and those who have undergone transplants. These complications include dehydration, pneumonia, bleeding problems, inflammation of the brain, toxic shock syndrome, bacterial infections of the skin, bone and joint infections.

There is over the counter treatment that relieves the symptoms and prevents skin infections. These include the use of calamine lotion and colloidal oatmeal baths which reduce the itching. Keeping short fingernails reduces the urge to scratch the blisters. Medication that does not contain aspirin can relieve fever. For severe cases, doctors recommend the use of antiviral medications. These include Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. This is especially for those likely to develop a serious disease such as   those older than 12 years old and pregnant women.

Read also Applications of Epidemiology – A Case Study of E. coli at Good Health Hospital

Before 1995 when the Chickenpox vaccine was released; 4 million of the children born each year contracted chicken pox. Five of every 1000 cases in the United States were hospitalized, and of this number 100 died. Adults constitute less than five percent of chicken pox cases. This is because the first attack of chicken pox leads to immunity to the disease. Incidence rates for chicken pox in the US are one in every 2,254 per year or 0.04 percent of the population. The prevalence of chickenpox is that everyone gets the disease by the time they are over eighteen (Landau, 2010).

Determinants of Health

Determinants of health are those factors that affect the health status of a person. These factors are both social and economic.  Health behaviors such as alcohol, drugs, smoking, and lack of exercise, poor eating habits and poor nutrition will affect a person’s health.  Economic factors such as income, wealth level of education, ethnicity, race and employment status will affect a person’s health. People with a high income and high level of education will usually live in a safe and healthy environment. The converse will occur where those with low incomes will live in poor conditions and have poor health outcome.

Chickenpox is a highly contagious disease, and prevention is through vaccination. In this regard, people with high incomes and high level of education will be aware of chicken pox. They will, therefore, ensure that their children are vaccinated against the disease. People with low income and live in poor conditions may not be aware of the chicken pox vaccine. Furthermore, those who live in safe and healthy environments have access to health insurance and quality health care.

Epidemiologic Triangle for Chicken Pox

The Epidemiologic is a model that is used by scientists to study health problems.  The triangle has three corners; the Agent or (what), the Host or (who), and the En (where) that can study an infectious or contagious disease. The agent is what causes the disease and is usually a disease causing microbe. These microbes include bacteria, fungi, viruses or protozoa also commonly known as ‘germs’. The host is the organism harboring the disease usually humans or animals. If the host is an animal carrier, it may or may not get sick. However, if the host is a human it may display signs of the disease. The environment is the external factors that allow for the transmission of the disease (Buettner  & Muller, 2011).

In the case of chickenpox, the agent or microbe that causes the disease is the virus varicella-zoster. The virus will not affect any person who has already had an attack of the disease as they are immune to the disease. The host is the person who has contracted chickenpox and harbors the disease. This person will display symptoms of the disease that include itching, blisters and a fever. The environment for chickenpox is the air around those who have contracted the disease. Chickenpox is transmitted through the air when one coughs, sneezes or breathes the virus particles from the blisters.

Role of the Community Health Nurse

The community health nurse is a health professional who integrates the community and knowledge about the community with an understanding of the health issues affecting individuals and families. They articulate and translate health and illness experiences of vulnerable individuals and families within the community to health planners and policy makers. This assists the community to air their health problems and aspirations. Community health nurses assist in administering interventions that are applicable to the individual, family and population. The community health nurse acts as an epidemiologist in studying the health problems within the community. This is very critical especially in the case of contagious or infectious diseases. The role of the nurse is to report cases to health planners and policy makers so that the necessary interventions are proposed to prevent the disease from spreading. The community health nurse is an educator, preventer of disease, primary health care provider, counselor, advocate, observer, participant in health planning and promoter of health within the community (Landau, 2010).

The community health nurse will provide the necessary input for health programs that monitor, participate and respond to health issues in the community. The nurse is involved in reporting cases that are a threat to public health. The nurse is also involved in the collection and analysis of data that evaluates health trends and risk factors within the community. This assists in the determination of target prevention required within the community. They must also follow up on community health issues through assessment and evaluation of heath care services and health programs. The community health nurse plays a key role in the epidemiology.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the national organization that addresses communicable diseases in the United States and works under the US Department of Health. The objective of the federal agency is to protect the public through the control and prevention of communicable diseases. The role of the organization is to develop and apply disease control and prevention especially for infectious diseases. Health services around the country work in conjunction with CDC and the State department of Health through implementation of a national plan to reduce the number of cases of chickenpox. The national plan for chickenpox is to increase chickenpox vaccination among children to 90%. Since the introduction of the vaccine in 1995, the number of chickenpox cases has reduced by 75-85% (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014).

Read also Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Social Media Campaign Analysis

Conclusion

    In conclusion, the paper has applied the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to chickenpox. This is an infectious disease that affects babies, and adults with weak immune systems. Since 1995, after the release of the vaccine in 1995, chickenpox cases have reduced substantially. The paper has given a description of chicken pox that includes the causes, symptoms, treatment, complications and demographics. The epidemiologic triangle explains the agent, host and environment for chickenpox. The community health nurse plays a critical role in prevention and control of chickenpox. CDC in conjunction with the department of health and health services work together to increase chickenpox vaccination among children.

Cyberbullying : An In-Depth Analysis of Cybercrime

In the present world, the interaction of people has improved due to the advancement in technology. People are able to communicate easily irrespective of their distances and location in the world. Computers and mobile phones have provided the avenue for the increased interaction. People as social beings are interacting virtually through social media and other technological tools (Tardanico, 2012). However, people with malicious intentions use the technological tools to bully other people. This is referred to as cyberbullying.

Read also Social Media’s Adverse Effects with a Special Focus on Cyberbullying – Argumentative Essay

Cyber bullying is a premeditation and malicious antagonistic activity that is demonstrated by a perpetrator towards a victim (Hendricks, 2012). Many young people spend more time texting and on the internet and, therefore, they are culpable to be victimized by their friends and others who have malicious intent and are intent on intimidating and harassing the teens or preteens. The cyber bullies anonymously attack their victims by forging their information on various social sites to cover their tracks.  Bullying in schools has traditionally taken the form of aggression acts that are repetitively perpetrated by students on their fellow students (Kowalski et al., 2014). With the introduction of computers and smart mobile devices, bullying has taken a new turn.  The acts of cyberbullying have led to suicides among many teens who cannot take the stress and pressure associated with being maligned by their peers or anonymous people.  As a result, cyberbullying is a vice that should be stopped completely.

Read also Megan Meier Case Study – Cyberbullying Results in Death

Evolution of Cyberbullying

Cyberbullying has evolved from the use of text to the advanced use of various apps on smartphones that lead to the character assassination of the victims. In the 1990s, more people had cell phones and to some extent, some children owned cell phones especially those in middle and high schools. In 2010, more than three-quarters of the teen populations had phones and 2014 evidenced 78 % of teens owning a cell phone. More teens have access to the internet as compared to the last decade. Computers and other mobile devices have evolved greatly, and more information can be shared on the net than before. Cyberbullying got national attention in 2007 after Megan, who was a teenager from Missouri, was hoaxed and repeatedly attacked online by her reportedly fictitious boyfriend and her friends (Mirsky & Omar, 2015). The perpetrators of the cyberbullying were the mother and sister to a classmate of Megan. Such instances have shown the extent to which society has sunk in terms of cyberbullying. A middle school student that targeted the principle and an algebra teacher reportedly created a website. It had threatening and uncouth statements about them.

Read also School Bullying In US – Research Paper

The digital age has enabled not only texts to be longer and accessed by many people but also pictures. Some teens have been bullied with pictures that are defamatory and have led to some of the teens committing suicide. Jessica Logan is a teen who committed suicide after nude pictures of her were posted on the internet and were circulated throughout among her fellow students in Cincinnati (Carpenter & Hubbard, 2014). A mother and her child perpetrated the act. Such an act to a teen is rather traumatizing, and she lacked the courage to face the students after the posting of the nude pictures. The cyberbullying incident led to the Jessica Logan Act that seeks to encourage schools to prohibit cyberbullying. The ABC news has highlighted the plight of cyberbullied victims recently by airing a documentary titled Bullied to Death in America’s Schools”. The documentary shows the various sad actions that have led to the deaths of teenagers due to cyber bullying. The documentary pointed to the fact that some 14 teenagers had lost their lives by committing suicide. Cyberbullying is an international problem. It is not simply limited to the North America. Bylluing is characterized by an imbalance of power. Therefore, to tackle bullying effectively several measures that would help in tackling the imbalance of power should be implemented.

Read also Cybercrimes Development Chronology – Hacking, Email Wiretapping, Phishing And Vishing

People are victims of cyberbullying exhibit certain characteristics. The U.S. Secret Service detailed the characteristics of people who are victims of cybercrime after undertaking extensive investigation. The Secret Service claims that bullying is one of the major factors that make people engage in criminal activities. The shooters who engaged in 12 of the 15 campus shootings in the 1990s had a history of being bullied. Previously, bullying mainly involved intimidation, manipulation, and physical aggressiveness against a weaker individual. It was common in schools. Confiscation of an individual’s lunch money was one of the most common forms of bullying (Peterson, 2012).

However, in the contemporary world, victims of cyberbullying are usually humiliated in public. This makes certain victims of cyberbullying to formulate a plan by committing a stronger negative action against the bully. The campus shootings discussed above may have been motivated by an individual being bullied. In the contemporary world, a rumor can circulate in a school of community within a matter of seconds due to various technological tools. The spread of the information may be so fast that millions of people across the globe may have viewed the information prior to its removal. For instance, some years ago a Freshman from Rutgers University jumped from the George Washington Bridge after his sexual activities with another male student were videotaped and put in the internet. People who put the video may have thought they were simply having fun or bashing the student for engaging in homosexual activities. However, the impact of the activities was severe to both the victim and themselves (Peterson, 2012).

Read also Impacts Of Cybercrime At The National, Local, And Individual Levels – Computer Hacking

There has been a significant increase in bullying in the U.S. in the last 30 years. This may be linked to the increase in the number of suicides and homicides cases in certain areas. The motive of bullying is usually about something that the victims cannot change. For instance perpetrators of bullying may dislike individuals due to their hair color, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, and appearance.

There is a significant difference in the physical, psychological, and behavioral characteristics of victimization vary in elementary, middle and high school. Bullying in elementary school usually involves name calling and hitting each other. Students in middle school usually have mobile phones, which the parents have purchased for them. The students may use their phones to engage in cyberbullying. Children in high school have access to various electronic devices. They may use computers for educational programs. They also interact with various websites. As such, limited access to electronic devices in elementary schools make bullying of students be restricted to physical and verbal bullying of other students. Students in middle and high school have access to various electronic devices. Therefore, they may start engaging in cyberbullying (Peterson, 2012).

Technology and Evolution of Cybercrime

Computers had the monopoly of posting more content through emails and social sites in the past, but that has changed drastically. The digital age has brought about portable devices that can be carried around quite easily and used for any one’s convenience. The mobile devices have evolved greatly to incorporate various features like cameras and apps that can instantly post any information on the social media that includes Gmail, Yahoo, Facebook, Twitter among many other which have millions of users (Kowalski et al., 2012). Many apps have access to social media sites, which are linked to the camera, and pictures can be posted instantly without the use of a computer. Also, smartphones have led to a revolution in communication not only in using text messages and calls but also in using pictures taken at a specified time. Therefore, cyberbullying can bring on board many users who know the person and who can post negative comments about him or her. As such, one person can start the cyberbullying while bringing others into it. For example, malicious content can be posted about someone in school and everyone in the school can be able to see the content and even make comments to the victims who as explained above had led to many undesirable actions that have led to death (Schneider et al., 2012). The stressful conditions that occur have often led to suicides or the victim withdrawing him or herself from her peers. Some people may even hack into other accounts and use them in bullying their fellow students without the knowledge of the account user. Various incidences have been reported in social media where unrated content has been posted on their walls that have led to a barrage of unwarranted comments from users of the specific social sites.

Read also The Worrying Future Of Technology

The internet and technological tools are suitable for non-violent forms of bullying. Students in a learning institution may be classified into four categories. These include students who are neither bullies nor victims of cyberbullying, students are only victims of cyberbullying, students who are perpetrators of cyberbullying, and students who are both perpetrators and victims of cyberbullying. A significant proportion of students do not have any involvement with cyberbullying. However, students are either victims or perpetrators of cyberbullying are less likely to notify their parents or other adults about cyberbullying. Parents of the above students do not also know the internet activities of the students. People who are high internet users are more likely to be both cyberbullies and victims of cyberbullying than low internet users.

Technology has helped in democratizing bullying since one does not have to physically overpower the victim. One can simply log on, create a fake identity, and start bullying others. Instead of whispering behind the victim, the insults can be posted on social networking sites for everyone to read. Instead of an individual having to silently listen to a phone conversation, the individual can watch incriminating videos of the individual on a computer screen. In addition, instead of a popular clique in school refusing to let a certain student sit with them during lunch, people in the clique may use various technological tools to ensure that the victim is not in anybody’s list.

Despite the fact that a significant number of 14 to 24 year olds acknowledge the fact that digital abuse is a serious problem to people in their age bracket, very few of them believe what they post online can hurt them in the future. In the contemporary world, a significant number of 14 to 24 year olds engage in naked sexting. Sexting refers to sending nude sexually suggesting pictures using a phone or online. Time Magazine ranked sexting as the number one buzz word in 2009 (Stephey, 2009). Females are more likely to send naked pictures of themselves to other people. On the other hand, males are more likely to receive the nude pictures of the females. According to a study undertaken by MTV and AP in 2009, 61% of people who send naked pictures have been pressured by other people to also send them nude pictures. In addition, approximately 20% of people who receive sext messages pass them along to other people (AP-MTV, 2009).

The snowballing effect of sexting may be severe. For instance, an 18 year old Ohio girl committed suicide after her ex-boyfriend shared nude photos that she had sent him to other students. The students distributed it to other people. When the girl reported to authorities in an attempt to stop the distribution of the photos, the harassment of the girl by other students increased. The parents of the girl filed charges against the ex-boyfriend, several classmates, and the school for failing to prevent the harassment.

Legislation Related to Cyberbullying

Despite the fact that cyberbullying does not involve physical contact or audible insults, it may be very traumatizing to the victim. Use of of social media and mobile communications makes the offensive statements be viewed by all friends, family, and acquaintances of the victim. Therefore, the embarrassment and shame make cyberbullying have severe consequences.

Until recently, there were no laws that focused on addressing cyberbullying. However, legislators have not been blind to the significant increase in the number of cyberbullying incidences, which have been highlighted by the media. Some of the instances have resulted in tragic consequences such as suicides and shootings in school. This has led to the passing of laws in some states. However, the laws usually leave the implementation of various measures prescribed in the letter of the law in the hands of school officials. Therefore, in most instances, cyberbullying is treated as a civil case instead of a criminal case. In 2014, 49 of the 50 states had laws on cyberbullying. 20 of the states specifically stated cyberbullying in the laws. In addition, there are very few state policies that address cyberbullying that occurs outside the school. However, there are various laws that enable schools to intervene in instances where cyberbullying occurs outside the school but interrupts leaning in the school (Michelson, 2015).

Currently, there are no federal laws on cyberbullying. However, this does not imply that Congress has not tried to pass legislation on the crime. In 2008, Congress’ attempt to pass the Megan Meier Cyberbullying Prevention Act failed. However, federal civil right laws that prevent discriminatory harassment apply to federally funded schools (Kenley, 2012).

It is difficult to understand state laws on cyberbullying. Most state laws on cyberbullying claim that cyberbullying should be tackled at the school level. They require schools to implement policies that would help in stopping the occurrence of cyberbullying. The state laws acknowledge that it is the authority of schools to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying. As such, there are very few criminal codes that specifically deal with cyberbullying (Kenley, 2012).

Limitations and/or Gaps Related to Legislation on Cyberbullying

Most U.S. states have enacted laws that require schools to create or update their policies to help in tackling cyberbullying. However, schools can only the students who engage in cyberbullying. Certain states allow students to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying if there is evidence to suggest that the cyberbullying interrupts the school environment. However, the laws have various limitations. This is due to the fact that the American criminal justice system is very protective of an individual’s right to freedom of speech. Therefore, courts rarely term cyberbullying as sufficiently disruptive. This implies that in most instances, schools do not have the authority to discipline students who engage in cyberbullying (Michelson, 2015).

Japanese, Canadian and British authorities have various statutes that facilitate the prosecution of children who engage in various criminal activities related to cyberbullying. These include nuisance, communication threats and use of obscene communications. In the U.S. several individuals have been charges in instances where there is severe bullying. However, authorities are usually unable to prosecute the cases. This is due to the fact that criminal statutes for the laws specify the types of contacts that the perpetrator should have with the victim to be prosecuted for the alleged crimes. The laws have added electronic communication in an attempt to tackle this problem (Holt, Bossler & Seigfried-Spellar, 2015).

However, law enforcement agencies can only prosecute people only in severe cases of cyberbullying. Most cases of cyberbullying do not reach the high levels required for them to be termed as criminal harassment or stalking. This is because criminal harassment and stalking require the victims to fear that they would be physically harmed. Therefore, since cyberbullying does not involve physical violence of the victim it is difficult to prosecute the perpetrators (Michelson, 2015).

Cyberbullying may be tackled using two strategies. The internet-real name is one of the strategies that would help in tackling cyberbullying. This requires individuals to provide their identification to the website operation prior to posting comments. Therefore, if there is a lawsuit, the website operation would provide the information to the relevant authorities. Howe, the major limitation of this strategy is that it suppresses free speech and increases the risk of identity theft. Enactment of laws that criminalize cyberbullying would also help in tackling cyberbullying. For instance, after Megan Meier committed suicide due to being bullied online by a mother of one of her former friends, several towns and cities in Missouri enacted laws that addresses cyberbullying in response to the suicide. However, the laws simply implied that the victims of cyberbullying and their families have limited legal rights to prevent cyberbullying (Holt, Bossler & Seigfried-Spellar, 2015).

Penalties for Engaging in Cyberbullying in California

California defines cyberbullying as any form of harassment, intimidation, or annoyance of an individual through electronic means. It is a crime under certain instances. According to the California law, there are two types of online or electronic conduct that are classified as criminal. These include posting personal information to cause feat and use of electronic devices to harass. According to the California law, any person who posts or transmits information on the personal identification data of another individual or a harassing message on another individual to case unreasonable fear for the safety of the individual or his or her family is committing a misdemeanor. The California penal codes 422, 653.2, and 653m prescribe the punishment that the perpetrator should be subjected to. The penal codes also detail the punishment for an individual who uses obscene language or threatens to injure an individual or the property of another individual (Michelson, 2015).

As such, California classifies both forms of cyberbullying as misdemeanor. An individual convicted of misdemeanor in California faces a punishment of imprisonment for a maximum period of one year, a maximum fine of $1,000 or both. California Assembly Bill 86 gives schools also have a right to suspend a student or recommend the expulsion of a student who engages in cyberbullying in California (Michelson, 2015).

Degree to Which the Penalties Are Adequate For Penalizing the Offender

The penalties on cyberbullying are not adequate in penalizing the offender. They require the involvement of schools. Schools can only suspend or expel students who engage in cyberbullying. This is despite the fact that cyberbullying may have severe consequences on the victim. The Megan Meier case highlights the severe consequences of cyberbullying. Simply suspending or expelling a student who engages in cyberbullying would is not a sufficient penalty is the consequences of cyberbullying on the victim are severe. It is also wrong for the criminal justice system to classify cyberbullying as a misdemeanor that attracts a punishment of a fine of not more than $1,000, a jail term of not more than one year, or both. The life of an individual who commits suicide due to cyberbullying is not worth a mere $1,000 if it is possible to quantify it in monetary terms.

Challenges Law Enforcement Face in Their Efforts to Prevent and Address Cyberbullying

The internet enables people in different locations to communicate as if they were net to each other. As such when one of the parties engages in a crime it would be difficult for law enforcement agencies to prosecute the individual to jurisdictional issues. Jurisdictional issues are some of the major challenges that law enforcement agencies face in their efforts to tackle cyberbullying. An act that is illegal in one state may not be illegal in another state. Living in a location where the activity is not even a crime complicates the issues. Law enforcement agencies can only arrest people who are within their jurisdiction. For instance, a police officer in California does not have the authority to arrest an individual in Texas. In addition, the FBI does not have the authority to arrest an individual in Italy (Kowalski, Limber & Agatston, 2012).

Law enforcement agencies also have different job responsibilities, missions, and cultures that provide different expectations on the definition of cyberbullying, how to prevent it, and the most appropriate responses to bullying. Schools and law enforcement agencies have different laws that control their operations. For instance, law enforcement agencies ensure that people uphold the law whereas schools have a school code of rules. This poses a huge challenge since schools play a critical role in addressing cyberbullying. Therefore, it is vital for schools and law enforcement agencies to have agreements that detail the measures both school personnel and law enforcement agencies should take to tackle law enforcement agencies (Kowalski, Limber & Agatston, 2012).

People engage in cyberbullying anonymously. Screen names and fake e-mail accounts block the identity of the bully. This makes it difficult for law enforcement agencies, the bullied individual and schools to determine the identity of the perpetrator (Kowalski, Limber & Agatston, 2012).

Conclusion and Recommendations

Cyberbullying is an evil that has greatly affected most teens and should be brought to a stop to prevent any undesirable acts like suicides from taking place (Slonje et al., 2013). Social sites should educate teens, encourage them to report any user who posts malicious content that is not true, and ensure that the teens know how to block such users should they surface on their walls. Initiative should thus be taken to deal with the vice and prevent further accidents involving teens. Policy makers should also pass legislation that would help in tackling the vice. It is vital for the legislation to consider the challenges facing current legislation on cyber crime.

General Motors 2013 – 2014 Recall Crisis Communication Analysis

In 2013 and 2014, General Motors was engulfed in varied recall issues. It recalled many vehicles some of its vehicles were blamed for many deaths and injuries. The recalls had the potential of impacting on General Motors for many years according to Flashman (2014). The recalls made by the company injured own reputation markedly. After each of the recalls, the customers left comments expressing their disaffection with the company’s crisis communication approaches. Even though its representatives gave out many reassuring messages on varied media platforms, its reputation suffered marked challenge (Liker & Franz, 2011)Hemus, 2010). This paper explores the effectiveness of how General Motors communicated during the crisis typified by the recalls.

Read also Toyota Vs General Motors Promotional Strategies

Overview of the General Motors 2013 – 2014 Recall Crisis

Soon after Mary Barra had been appointed to be the General Motors CEO, it became apparent that the company had been concealing information for many years that a defect on the automobiles it produced. The defect was blamed for 13 deaths. The company had to recall many units already sold to clients. The CEO came off as unprepared or even incompetent in communicating during crises but she charged several representatives of the company with the role of communicating about the crisis. The representatives were effective in that role by and large. Notably, the CEO is now highly regarded for having been quick to admit responsibility for the defect publicly. The admission helped build marked goodwill towards the company in the public opinion court.

See Also Toyota UK 2009 – 2010 Recall Crisis Communication Analysis

The communications sent out by General Motors during the recall crisis had varied ethical implications. The communications projected the company as accepting responsibility for the defective automobiles promptly. In crisis communication, taking responsibility and accountability are critical elements. General Motors took responsibility for the defect in the recalled vehicles promptly, helping it build marked goodwill towards the company in the public opinion court as noted earlier. Company’s that accept responsibility for their defective products promptly establish procedures for assisting those making requests, complaints or claims. As well, they ensure that their stakeholders have easy access to relevant information. General Motors established an autonomous claim site for its clients keen on making related claims (Flashman, 2014).

Read also Nike Organizational Communication Strategies Analysis

All in all, the crisis situation projected General Motors’ products as being of wanting quality and its practices as opaque. General Motors incurred considerable losses from the recalls, and its competitors were keen on capitalizing on its misfortune by wooing away its customers (Dietz & Gillespie, 2012). General Motors was afraid that its reputation would have been further eroded by potential class-action suits against it from discontented business analysts and investors. Like other automobile producers, traditionally, General Motors emphasizes on effectiveness. General Motors’ keenness on effectiveness has made it renowned for its efficient production systems for many years. General Motors has embraced effectiveness as its elementary management objective for long. General Motors projects itself as engaging every employee in persistent improvement. Even then, the crisis projected General Motors as having some inefficient systems and not being on staff engagement. The crisis projected it as having ineffective safety and quality systems and procedures (Colby, 2015).

Read also Communication Audit – A Strategy to Improve Communication

Regarding culture, the crisis situation was blamed on General Motors’ hierarchical management and bureaucratic approach. The approach was seen as impeding junior staff members from communicating the flaws that they noticed promptly. Consequently, numerous problems in the company went unnoticed and unresolved until the crisis situation. As well, regarding culture, General Motors’ representatives who issued communications regarding the crisis appeared to lack evidence to support own rhetoric at times. They appeared to have lack facts as to why the defect had remained undetected for many years. As well, they appeared to lack well-thought out information on what General Motors was set to do to eliminate the possibility of the defect in future.

Read also Troubleshooting Communication: BP Oil Spill – 2010

Effectiveness of General Motors’ Crisis Communication

When the crisis situation was underway, General Motors established many open communication lines for use especially by its clients. Even then, there were no such lines for its junior staff members owing to the company’s hierarchical management approach. As noted earlier, the approach and related traditions impede junior staff members from communicating the flaws that they notice promptly. The company received millions of comments from its clients and other people especially via Facebook. Most of the comments were negative but the representatives kept direct and clear lines and responded to the comments rather humanely according to Flashman (2014). In addition to its Facebook messaging platform, General Motors put in place an independent recall site to further facilitate the conveying of offline information regarding the crisis.

Read also Troubleshooting Communication – Incidence Of Failed Communication, Reasons And A Possible Solution

General Motors accepted responsibility for the defect promptly as well as authentically. It was quick in making out of the situation initially, projecting the company as having been quick to address situation devoid of being compelled to act on it. The quick admission of the responsibility projects it as having been averse to engaging in corporate denial, it projected its organizational culture as having been defined by adequate vigilance for possible crises (Colby, 2015).

Read also Troubleshooting Communication – Coca-Cola Company and the ‘New Coke’

The General Motors’ representatives expressed candor, or forthrightness, in their communication during the crisis situation. By and large, they responded directly and clearly. They were clear that the company’s reputation was not dependent on the recalls themselves but by how they addressed the situation in the succeeding days. The candor projected the company as swift to explain and respond. They communicated to their audiences directly, especially through video recordings, using a direct, simple, and personal language. Their tone was rather direct, moving the related discussions offline smoothly (Flashman, 2014). Even then, the CEO was reluctant to do interviews regarding the crisis, thus the company’s overall communication appeared to lack a leader’s voice.

Read also Philip Morris International Promotion and Communications Strategy Paper

General Motors’ leaders came off as having been in control of the events and having been inclined towards taking decisive action in addressing the situation in a coordinated way. The actuality that the company recalled automobiles only once meant that the leaders were forthright in how they acted on the recall. They gave out infographics that showed that it knew how to go about fixing the defect simply and clearly (Flashman, 2014).

General Motors did not utilize the media adequately, as well as effectively, in delivering its principal messages during the crisis situation. Its executives were not readily available to the media most of the time. Even then, the representatives shared the related bad news and good news whenever they communicated through the media. The expressed considerably consistent, as well as believable, communication whenever the media engaged them and whenever they gave out communications via YouTube, Facebook, and varied blogs (Flashman, 2014).

The CEO and the representatives did not involve customers and employees in the company’s crisis situation-related communication effort. That possibly stemmed from the company’s hierarchical management approach. The approach impedes customers and employees from communicating the flaws that they notice promptly. As noted earlier, the approach meant that the defect went unnoticed and unresolved for many years.

The communication-related actions related to the crisis situation were not in agreement with its mission as well as values. Traditionally, General Motors emphasizes on effectiveness, which has made it renowned for efficient systems for many years. Even then, from the foregoing, it is clear that the company was devoid of efficient communication teams and strategies during the crisis situation. As noted earlier, the crisis projected it as having some inefficient systems. Even then, the actions projected the company as true to the value it attaches to responsibility. Especially, as noted earlier, the actions projected the company as quick in accepting responsibility for the faulty automobiles (Colby, 2015).

Read also Applying Balanced Score Card – General Motors

Crisis Communication Recommendations

  1. General Motors should put in place measures to enable it to communicate effectively in crises before they happen. Particularly, the company should:
    1. Anticipate crises
    2. Carry out regular vulnerability audits
    3. Create communications and operational plans for responding to possible crises
    4. Make out its crisis communication officers or teams
    5. Make out, as well as train, crisis spokespersons
  2. Whenever a crisis happens, General Motors should gather the relevant facts promptly and communication them aggressively and promptly to avoid possible uncertainties.

Read also Aging Workforce, Current Global Trend That Might Impact General Motors

Mending the Wall Vs The Road not Taken

Introduction

Critical reading of poetry and prose enhances the analysis instrumental in establishing how different pieces of literal work differ in terms of structure, purpose, theme, language and form. It involves assessing the literary techniques, the language choice, imagery, structure and evaluates how such tools have been utilized to achieve different effects in prose.  This paper compares and contrasts two of Robert Frost’s literary pieces, Mending the Wall [1914] and The Road not Taken [1916] in terms of structure and thematic composition. It examines closely Frost’s writing style and the manner of language application.

Read also A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings and A good Man is Hard to Find – Literary Analysis

An Abridgment of Two Literal Works

Mending the Wall 1914 by Robert Frost is a piece of literary work that revolves around a stone wall that separates the persona’s property from that of his neighbor. While both meet to walk the wall and make repairs every spring, the speaker does not see the rationale to keep the wall since there are’ no cows to contain, just pine trees and apples. His neighbor, contrariwise, emphasizes that it is crucial to maintain the wall in a bid to preserve their relationship. The neighbor holds that the wall should remain with the belief that good walls make good neighbors.   During the fixing of the wall, the speaker endeavors to persuade his neighbor otherwise. In addition, he indicts him of embracing firmly the antiquated tradition. Regardless of what the narrator articulates, however, the neighbor is not willing to change his position reiterating that only: “Good fences make good neighbors.”

Read also Uncle Brother – A Commentary on Pollard Velma’s Literary Analysis

The character encapsulated in the Robert Frost’s 1916 The Road Not Taken, finds himself standing in the woods in deliberation of a divide in the road. Concluding that each one is equally well-trekked and alluring, the persona decides to take one of the ways, although acknowledging that both are similarly worn and likewise draped. The speaker admits that someday in the future he will recreate the scene with the claim that he took the less-trodden path with a minor twist with the knowledge that he might not have an occasion to do so.  The speaker culminates on a wistful feeling, speculating how things might have been different if he had chosen the first route.

Read also The Euthyphro Dilemma and Portrayal of Providence in Literary Works

Evaluating the Structural Disparities

The poem The Road Not Taken, is constitutes of four couplets of each made up of five lines, all forming an ABAAB rhyme scheme. However, there is an outstanding exclusion of the last line. Each line has four stressed syllables that fluctuate on an iambic tetrameter base.  The poem can be considered as a nostalgic observation on choices of life. The narrator highlights his decision to choose the road that is less travelled and points out that his life would have been necessarily dissimilar if he had made the other choice. Making a choice of taking one of the two roads short of having any awareness regarding where each lead demonstrates the courage of the persona in taking ‘the less travelled road’ as opposed to taking the seemingly bland path traveled by others. It should be noted that the speaker only makes a discrimination of the two roads the paths subsequent to his selection of one. At the start, the paths are characterized as being primarily undistinguishable. With respect to exquisiteness, both routes are equally “fair,” and the overall “…passing there / Had worn them really about the same.”[Frost, 1916].

Read also Dead White Writer on the Floor – Literary Analysis

The baseline meter of poem Mending the Wall is blank verse, although some of the lines fit alongside the blank verse’s distinctive lock-step iambs, five abreast. The author does not structure the literary piece with stanzas, and instead maintains forty-five lines of narration in the first person. The poet preserves a number of five stressed syllables for every line. However, the feet vary broadly hence maintaining the normal speech-like eminence of the poetry. Frost offers no stanza breaks blended with noticeable end-rhymes. Nonetheless, most of the end-words are analogous in assonance such as wall, hill, balls, wall. Another set of assonance is in sun, thing, stone, mean, line, and again.  Additionally, game, them, and him presents another set of shared assonance. There are two Internal rhymes which can be taken as restrained, imbalanced, and this is indicative that they are plausibly spontaneous. The poet makes use of no fancy words making his vocabulary one of all of a piece and conversational except for only the word another, that has three syllables. It ensues therefore that the words reverberate so exceptionally together both in sound and feel.

Read also To my Dear and Loving Husband – Literary Analysis

Thematic Contrast of the Two Literal Works by Robert Frost

Evaluating the theme in The Road Not taken, it is apparent that the two presented roads are not only passing through the woods, but they are instead leading down two diverse routes in life. This can therefore justify the thoughtfulness displayed by the narrator. Although at the outset, the two roads appear to be the similar; one can appreciate the differences that will certainly result in different outcomes, following further scrutiny. [Frost, 1916], in line seven divulges that the path embraces only “perhaps the better claim,” since the dissimilarities between the two roads is so little. This informs the difficulty in the speaker to be absolutely certain in his decision. Throughout the entire poem, the road symbolism illuminates on the nature of individual’s social thought and indecision. It illustrates the difficulty experienced in making a choice whose outcome affects an individual’s life while accentuating the essence of human curiosity.

Read also John Grisham Influence on American Literary History

It is only later in life that the narrator suggests to gaze back on his life and decides to place such importance on this particular decision in his life. In the course of the leading three verses, the narrator displays no sense of compunction subsequent to his resolution. Similarly he does not concede that such a judgment might be imperative to his life. Hitherto, in old age, the narrator stabs to offer logic of order to the decisions of his past. In so doing he attempts to illuminate the reason why particular occurrences might have transpired in his life. Certainly, the justification that he opted for the “less traveled road” seems deceitful.  Nevertheless, the speaker firmly holds to his resolution, implying it to be a crucial instant in his life.

Read also Literary Criticism of Frankenstein and Radical Science by Marilyn Butler

In Mending the Wall, Frost produces two discrete characters whose ideas contrast about what unerringly constitutes good neighborhood. The speaker censures the neighbor’s fixation with renovating the wall and underlines the view that this is in essence old-fashioned and antiquated. All together, he retorts that his apples will not occupy the pinecones on neighbor’s property.  Additionally, the speaker asks whether ‘within a land of such of such freedom and discovery, are such borders necessary to maintain relationships between people?’ Notwithstanding the speaker’s incredulous opinion of the wall his neighbor holds to his apparently “outdated” attitude. This is accentuated in his reactions to each of the speaker’s discontented requests and reasoning with nothing else but the maxim: “Good fences make good neighbors.” The speaker highlights that the action of fixing the wall is in contravention to nature. This is indicated by the fact that year in, year out stones are extricated and cavities abruptly appear all short of reason. Subsequently the two neighbors seal the gaps and supplant the fallen boulders, just to witness the parts of the wall fall over again in the coming days. It looks as if nature is struggling to abolish the barricades that men have produced on the land.

Gen Robert E. Lee Mission Command For Battle Of Chancellorsville

Introduction

The Battle of Chancellorsville took place between April 30 and May 6, 1863, in the county of Spotsylvania in Virginia during the period that witnessed the American Civil War.  The Battle of Chancellorsville also referred as Chancellorsville campaign marked the most important encounter between opposing camps.  The battle brought General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate Army of Northern Virginia (ANV) up against Major General Joseph Hooker leading the Union Army of the Potomac (UOAP).  The battle resulted from one among reasons of the Federal objective attempt to recapture the confederate capital Richmond in Virginia.  Over the past two years, the Unions’ army had faced several defeats over similar objective.  The Battle of Chancellorsville started when the Union of Virginia soldiers crossed River Rappahannock in an effort to surround the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia under General Lee from the rear and the front.  The Union stationed the remaining of its forces near Fredericksburg. General Lee split his army enabling him to hold off the Union soldiers near Rappahannock. What began as an effort to reclaim Richmond became a battle against Lee’s army. By dividing his army, General Lee was able to contain the Union forces registering great success; however, the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia Stonewall Jackson a brilliant and tacticalgeneral was wounded due to friendly fire. This research paper will provide an analysis of the commander’s performance in operations process that includes understanding, Visualizing, Describing, directing, Leading and assessing.

Read also Herodotus’ portrayal of the Battle of Thermopylae Vs modern depiction of the event by Frank Miller

Confederate Army of Northern Virginia Operation Process

General Lee and Stonewall Jackson leadingConfederate Army of Northern Virginia were very significant participants during the Battle of Chancellorsville operation process. General Lee drove the operation process during The Battle of Chancellorsville by visualizing, understanding, directing, describing, leading, and assessing operations. GeneralLee strategy to divide his small army and face the Union army from different fronts was a great managerial tool that enabled him to drive the operations process. General Lee with the support of his staff, utilized operations process to detail and drive the conceptual planning significant to visualize, understand, as well as describe operational environment and  arrive at articulate decisions that enabled Lee to lead,  direct and assess military operations during the Battle of Chancellorsville. Activities involved in the operations process during a battle recur and overlap as conditions demand.

Read also The Battle of Midway Essay

During the Battle of Chancellorsville, GeneralLee divided the confederate army into groups in order to face the union armyeffectively since his army was outnumbered.  The planning process started as soon as the Union army crossed River Rappahannock with an objective of taking Richmond. General Lee planned and executed his plan of action through applying combat power to retain and exploit weaknessesof the Union army in order to gain advantage during the war. General Lee staff including Stonewall Jackson role was to assist Lee in understanding circumstances, making and executing decisions, control operations and evaluate progress of the confederates’ army during the battle.  The success registered by the Confederate army during the Chancellorsville campaign resulted from effective planning, execution and assessment of the progress of the battle. This section will analyze how General Lee understood, visualized, described, directed, led and assessed operations process during the Battle of Chancellorsville.

Read also What changes in the North explain why the Republicans abandoned the battle for Reconstruction?

Understanding

During military activities, understanding is a very essential component since it enables the commanders to establish the context of a situation. Understanding allows commanders to make effective decisions on planning and execution. The commanders obtain essential information utilized to develop and understand the operation through analyzing the mission and operational variables. Detailed and conceptual planning enables the commanders to develop an initial understanding of the problem and operational environment. In order to develop a full understanding of the problem and operational environment the commanders circulates within the operational area as much as possible with an aim of improving collaboration with lower ranking commanders and the force. Throughout the operational process, the commander use inputs from the staff and his own personal observations to improve the understanding of the operational environment.

With only roughly over 60, 000 soldiers Lee fought against the union soldiers who numbered more than 130, 000. Understanding the problem and the environment of operation provided Lee and his men with advantage over the Union soldiers. Lee knew that he was outnumbered, and as a result, Lee went against military principles by dividing his soldiers twice and attacked the Union soldiers. Faced with the need to protect Richmond from the Union forces, and the challenge of inadequate food supplies for his army, Lee detached half of Gen JamesLongstreet first corps to the south. Operating in North Carolina and southern Virginia, General Longstreet soldiers provided the much-needed food to soldiers in Fredericksburg.

Visualization

The commander’s continuous understanding of the problem and operational process provides them with an understanding that enables them to visualize the desired goal and possible solution to the problem. Visualization is the process that involves developing an understanding on the situation, establish the desired end goal, and come up with an operation strategy that will enable the army to realize the desired end.  A mission’s assignment provides the basis that enables the commanders to visualize the operational environment, which as a result, act as a framework for planning and execution.  Visualization enables the commanders to make decisions according to new challenges. During the Battle of Chancellorsville, General Lee’svisualization of the problem, that is, attack from the Union forces and the desire to protect Richmond enabled him and his support commanders such as Stonewall Jackson to come up with suitable strategy to fight with the Union army that was twice the number of the Confederate soldiers. Lee with the help of support staff developed a strategy aimed at keeping of the looming threat posed by the Union soldiers by dividing his army. This risky military adventure enabled Lee to fight off and defeat the Union forces underMajor General Joseph Hooker who was overconfident and failed to acknowledge the military wit that General Lee possessed.

Describing

Describing is the process by which the commanders provide a description to their subordinate commanders and staff after visualizing an operation with an aim of creating a shared purpose and understanding.  The commanders, during the planning process ensure that the staff has a clear understanding of their visualization before embarking on the course of action. The commanders may make modifications to their visualization during execution in updated directives and guidance that result in fragmented orders adjusting the initial orders. Describing enables the commanders to express their visualization in relations to: their intention, planning guidance such as operational approach, critical information that the commander requires and important friendly information elements. General Lee visualization was to defend Richmond from the Union forces. Underscoring the fact that his low number of soldiers as compared to the Union soldiers under Major General Hooker, General Lee decided to split his forces twice and created a shared purpose and understanding among his staff. This enabled General Lee to realize immense success during the Battle of Chancellorsville.  Lee’s visualization included the decision to send General Jackson to flank the enemy from the right side in a risky and surprising but very effective attack. Due to inadequate food supplies, General Lee divided General Longstreet soldiers and sent half to Northern Carolina and Southern Virginia to provide food supplies to Lee’s men near Fredericksburg.

Directing

The commanders direct all elements of the operations through directing their intent, setting objectives, and providing clear instructions to support staff.   The commander directs soldiers throughout the entire operation process through: preparation and approval of plans and orders, establish support and command relationship,  assign and adjust responsibilities, control measures and responsibility organization; position force units to maximize battle power; position key leaders at critical times and place to ensure effective supervision; and allocate resources to counter threats and exploit opportunities. General Lee with the help of Lieutenant General Jackson directed all the elements of operation for the confederate army during the Battle of Chancellorsville. General Lee directed his forces through the entire battle by establishing different command under General Jackson and General Longstreet; assigning responsibility to soldiers and positioning General Longstreet soldiers to North Carolina and South Virginia in order to provide adequate food supply to combat. On May 2, 1863, General Lee met lieutenant General Jackson to adjust operation plan since they felt that a desperate plan was necessary. The plan called for Lieutenant General Jackson to lead 28,000 soldiers to attack the Union soldiers on a wide flank march. Lee commanded the remaining soldiers totally up to 12, 000 in an effort to stall Major General Hooker until Jackson executes their plan.

Leading

The commander provides direction, motivation, and purpose to support commanders, staff, and combat personnel through leadership. Leadership works effectively in the presence of the commander during the actual operations. The location of the commander during the operation process is a significant area of operations. The commander ensure that they achieve a balanced operation by providing leadership to the support staff as well as providing direction, motivation and purpose to support commanders and combat personnel locate away from the command post. General Lee was present in the actual battlefield during the Battle of Chancellorsville. Lee provided leadership to 12, 000 soldiers who together they contained major General Hooker with his soldiers, and at the same time provided leadership to 28,000 men under the command of Lieutenant General Jackson who aimed at attacking the Union soldiers from the right. General Lee advanced a leadership plan that aimed at containing Sedgwick troops at Fredericksburg. Effective leadership during the battle enabled General Lee to subdue the Union forces.

Assessing

Commanders assess the situation continually in order to understand current operational conditions as well as determine the progress of the operation. Continuous evaluation enables commanders to adapt or anticipate the force to changing situations.  The commander incorporates the evaluation of the subordinate commanders, staff and their personal evaluation of the operational situation. Depending on this evaluation, the commanders can modify plans or orders in order to suitchanging situations within the force. By assessing the situation, Lee adjusted his plans in order to ensure that he keeps the Union soldiers from advancing to Richmond. Lee utilized this advantage to move the Confederate forces into positions that are more suitable. Mission control and command offer the flexibility to handle changing circumstance and exploit opportunities. As Hooker and his men attempted to advance from Fredericksburg, Lee organized his men to attack the Union soldiers leading to their defeat. Lee assessed situations and provided adjusted plans and orders in order to keep the Union soldiers from reaching Richmond.

Conclusion

The Battle of Chancellorsville is one a very significant event that modern times military professionals analyze to understand the art of warfare. The battle experienced massive courage, suffering and chaos on an expansive scale. The battle resulted in the Confederate casualties totaling to approximately 13, 000 constituting approximately 9,000 wounded soldiers, 1,700 killed, and 2, 200 imprisoned. The Union, on the other hand, also had close to 16, 500 casualties. General Lee decision to go against military strategy by dividing his army twice was a risky adventure but proved to be very effective in holding the Union soldiers. Lee managed to protect Richmond from the Union as well as the independence of Virginia. The Battle at Chancellorsville was well organized and executed effectively.  The command of general Lee and his subordinate generals including General Jackson understood, visualized, described, directed, led and assessed operational process leading to the immense success that the confederate soldiers registered in spite of having less soldiers as compared to those of the Union. Lee’s military wit played an essential role towards the victory.

Developing A Personal Vision Statement Using Vision as Story-Telling Technique

The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the development of a personal vision statement. A vision is to some degree invisible and it entails a progression that one goes through personally. It entails creating an image about a person and forming a story through the image. It can show a belief, passion or a feeling about a definite manner of observing and interpreting the world. Vision statement is the affirmation of a person’s goals to be achieved in a given period of time (Rosenfield, 2012). It should be remembered without difficulty, clear, motivating, thought-provoking and future oriented.

In five years’ time, the most desired goal is achievement of self-actualization, according to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. This will of course come after the achievement of physiological needs which include the basic needs, followed by safety needs, including individual and financial security, and good health. The next level in the hierarchy is the state of affection and belonging, it is important to have a family at this stage, many friends and good social life. This is followed by achievement of self-esteem in the society, feeling of being respected for being a good person and respecting others as well (Beck, 2013). Finally, achievement of self-actualization, which is attaining the desired potentials in live, one that is value and moral based, just and fair to everyone and everything in the environment. This does not include human life only, but also taking good care of available resources and conserving the environment we live in.

Read also Analysis of an Organization Vision Statement -Microsoft Corporation

The core beliefs that are desirable in a person can be inborn or instilled to a person by the parents or guardians. People have different believes because they constitute a person’s vision, which are invisible and can only be seen by the person. Belief in God is one of my best values that determine the way of living and making decisions. It is the duty of any Christian to guard and respect the doctrines and regulations as per the Ten Commandments in the Bible, with the rules in mind; one will find it difficult to break any other law in society. To add on that is the belief that having a family is necessary for a person to be able to interact well with other people, it is important to have good relationships with one’s family members, making it easy for one to relate with different people and personalities in a given setting (Kawasaki, 2012). The other one is a belief that honesty is the greatest guiding principle that leads to trust, which are essential in any type of relationship in society.

The other point is belief in upholding good work lifecycle balance; this means that working the whole day without having enough time to rest and socialize with other people is considered as a vice, rather than a virtue. Finally, belief in being educated, it is important for people to yearn for acquiring more knowledge more so in matters that directly impact their lives, a more value educated society  means a healthier, safer and secure livelihood. However, despite of having good values and morals, some changes would have to be made (Rosenfield, 2012). For example, being too optimistic, something that makes one to stop viewing life in a reality point of view. The other desired change is on how to make good use of available resources. The desired virtue is that of having good stewardship of assets and exercise prudence.

In order for one to make the desired vision a reality, goals that add value to the vision have to be made. In this scenario, one of them is having quality education in all aspects of life to help in discovering the needs, abilities and challenges that have to be considered to improve the individual conditions and also that of other people in the society (Kawasaki, 2012). Quality education has to be more than just acquiring knowledge and skills, but also morals and values on how to handle complex situations in the society. The other one is coming up with innovative ideas or projects that solve existing problems in the surrounding environment. With the major problem being unemployment, the major goal is starting a restaurant with the idea of generating more profits and creating employment to the people in the state.

Adding on that, it is paramount to take part in charity events so as to help the less fortunate in the society, as well as the sick patients suffering from chronic ailments like cancer. This will be done during the weekends and public holidays as a way of relaxing from work and socializing with other people. The other goal entails identifying and resolving any fault that might have been encountered in the previous years (Kawasaki, 2012). This means making peace with God at all times by repenting on the mistakes done, having clear conscience with all people in the society, and making sure that nobody is offended by ones deeds and actions. The final goal is living a healthy life by eating healthy food, maintaining good work life, and taking enough exercises.

Identifying one’s vision and goals will assist in making them happen because of many reasons. First is the fact one will be able to know what is required of the person in the society, and will always be guided by the goals (Beck, 2013). This happens only if one is committed in achieving the goals, which demands for self-regulation and discipline. Secondly, the vision contains a message of what is seen in a person, which can only be seen by its initiator. Therefore, with a vision in mind, the probability of implementing what is contained in it is high compared to when one has no vision at all.

Despite having good visions and goals, there are stumbling blocks that may impede the progress towards the vision. One of them is lack of adequate funds to access quality education, this might result in one seeking for knowledge from unreliable sources which are not value and moral based negating the whole process of seeking quality education. The other one is lack of good health, from this perspective, health is seen as a state of having good physical, social and mental well-being and not simply the lack of sickness or disability (Rosenfield, 2012). In the event that one develops a state of poor health, which is not predestined by anyone, it would be very difficult to efficiently accomplish the desired visions. Tagging on that is the fact without good health; it is very difficult to make ethical and moral decisions in a given set up.

Relationship Between Political Parties and the Electoral Process

Assignment Instructions

Write a three (3) page paper on the relationship between political parties and the electoral process in which you:

  1. Identify three to four (3-4) ideological differences between America’s two (2) major political parties.
  2. Analyze key reasons why third parties have never been successful at the presidential level.
  3. Determine the role of the campaign process in maintaining the two-party system. Use examples to support
  4. your response.
  5. Use at least four (4) quality academic resources in this assignment.

Read also Relationship Between the President and Congress in the Lawmaking Process

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are to:

  • Infer a theory why the U.S. has only two major political parties.
  • Develop reasoned written and spoken presentations on issues and questions involving the U.S. government and national political processes using information in the course.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in the field of U.S. government and politics.

Relationship Between Political Parties and the Electoral Process

Ideological Differences Between America’s Two (2) Major Political Parties.

The United States of America is founded on the foundation that each and every citizen is entitled to a voice in the government’s decisions that our government makes. The two main political parties used by American Citizens as a way to voice their apprehensions as well as cast their votes include the Republicans and the Democrats. There are other third parties in America that citizens can become members of, however, these parties are yet to succeed at the presidential level. The process of campaigning is a major influencing force in the succession of politicians and the success of their political parties on a presidential level (Hibbing, John, & Elizabeth, 2002).

Read also Characteristics and Functions of American Political Parties – Answered

The Republicans and the Democrats have a number of ideological dissimilarities between them. The first ideological distinction lies in their fundamental core beliefs. Republicans deem that each person is liable for his or her personal place in the society. At the center of the Republican ideologies is the principle of limiting the interference of government as a way of individual success and that the government should only interfere on a very controlled capacity (Hibbing, John, & Elizabeth, 2002). Democrats on the other hand believe that it is the government’s responsibility to take care of majority of its citizens even if it has to give up some individuals’ rights while doing it. Democrats favor monopolization of power in Washington D.C. and they also favor interventions at federal level that would substitute community centered solutions.
A second major ideological dissimilarity between the Republicans and the Democrats lies in their views regarding the economy. Republicans suppose that free enterprise is the most ideal course of action. Democrats on the other hand suppose that the government should guide business resolutions and they are also in support of labor unions.

Read also The Development of the Two Party System in the US

The third difference in the philosophical beliefs of Republicans and Democrats is in regards to taxes and government spending. Republicans advocate for cuts in government spending and they also deem that every individual should be in control of his/her own individual finances. Democrats on the other hand believe that the federal government rather than specific citizens should be in charge of spending. Another difference in their ideological beliefs lies in the Education sector. Republicans believe that all students in America, regardless of their race or socio-economic background should be capable of reading and math and thus schools ought to be accountable for students’ progress through testing (Hibbing, John, & Elizabeth, 2002). Democrats on the other hand believe that tests are not the solution and that they largely waste the educators’ time. In line with this principle, Democrats believe that students should remain in their respective schools, even when the school is under performing and not teaching as it should.

Reasons Why Third Parties have Never been Successful at the Presidential Level

While numerous people may comment that a third political party is the remedy to most of the political dilemmas being faced in this country, their are a number of reasons why such third parties remain unsuccessful (John, et. al., 2012). One reason for this lack of success is that most third political parties have traditionally arose from radical thinkers as a result of frustration instead of the ideal reasonable middle of the road thinkers.

Read also Political Reasons Why a Third Party Candidate Has Never Won Presidential Election

Another reason for this absence of success of third parties is because their initial leaders did not successfully create strong lasting leaders that would head the party for a lengthy period of time (Zak, 2003). Lack or limited resources such as money and a lack of powerful and influential sponsors is also another reason for lack of success of the third political parties at the presidential level. Money, powerful leaders, and business relationships are all indispensable factors for a political party’s success at the presidential level.

Role of the Campaign Process in Maintaining the Two-party System

The campaign activity has an important role in preserving a two-party system. The key fundamentals for a current day campaigns include money, plan, and promotion, usually in the form of media publicity. Since the United States of America has two key political parties, each one pursues to expand its support as their petitions are designed to earn the support of an assorted electorate (Zak, 2003).

Read also U.S. Presidential Elections 2016

Even though there are substantial differences between Republicans and Democrats campaigns the two overlap on several key issues. The campaign process permits each of the main political parties’ candidates to voice their views and for those views to be heard in different forums, national debates, televised interviews, and visits to cities throughout the country. The campaign process not only allows the two-party system to function properly, but it also offers rules and guidelines for the party to adhere to. Additionally, the campaign process also allows for the dualism of political subjects. Generally, every issue has two sides and the campaign process allows for candidates to express their opinions.

Read also Critical Analysis of a Political Campaign – Donald Trump’s 2016 Presidential Campaigns

Read also Obama’s Social Media Campaign Analysis

The American electoral process is successful since it observes to the fundamental principle that every citizen has voice and that voice should be heard. There are areas that still need improvement but the two key political parties allow majority of Americans to voice their views and concerns and be heard.

Coaching Model For Frito Lay Company

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the coaching model embraced in Frito Lay Company. Frito Lay was founded way back in 1961 through a merging process between the Frito Company by C.E. Doolin and H.W. Lay & Company by Herman W. Lay, which resulted in Frito Lay (Rogers, 2012). It is best known in the United States for making savory dishes like Fritos, smart food popcorn, Grandma’s cookies, Cracker Jack candy-coated popcorn, Funyuns onion flavored rings and various chips prepared with the composition of Olestra, a fat substitute. Frito-Lay America is owned by the popular company PepsiCo, and its operations in the U.S as well as Canada account for more than 20 percent of the sales of soda manufacturers. The company’s success lies in its commitments to make available quality products under some of the world’s best brand names and alongside that is performance with purpose.

Managing Coaching Approach

In any given organization, irrespective of the kind of work done, it must have a managerial team or department, starting from front line managers, to the middle level and the top level management. A manager may not directly generate whatever it is an organization makes but may facilitate and organize team productivity, paving way for others to succeed with minimum obstacles. Among the many responsibilities given to a manager is coaching which involves laying out the general strategies of the company to the employees who will run the business while the coach steps out of the way (Rogers, 2012). Coaching can be defined as a way of creating and maintaining a partnership between the manager and employees in to sustain a shared understanding regarding the issues that need to be achieved in the company and the manner in which both the company and the employees will benefit from the method used. Frito Lay Company uses the managing coaching approach in its human resource department. This model identifies situations when managing is required and when coaching is necessary. It is the responsibility of the manager to coach and manage when needed. The model has a seven step process which must be followed by the coaching manager for it to be effective.

The first step is tracking down the team’s productivity using the staff portal in the company. This will help in knowing the strengths and weaknesses of individual employee and where to put more emphasis while passing information. One will be able to know who is performing best and who needs more help (Crane & Patrick, 2012). The second step is ensuring that all members of the team have a good productive working environment. This is done by avoiding micromanaging while having open discussions or sharing resources. There should be equal distribution of company resources to all members and fair remunerations. The employees should be given chances to show how they can improve their productivity which gives them a sense of belonging in the company.

The third step is providing consequential feedback that has suggestions on how to improve (Brannon & Mickolus, 2013). While coaching, it is beneficial to provide growth ideas to the employees. This includes provision of on-job training opportunities and the company paying employees who opt to further their studies. The fourth step is setting reasonable goals for the team. This should be arrived at after accessing the individual performance of each member. The goals should be realistic and benefits both the employee and the company. The next step creating a positive bond with each employee, this can be achieved by respecting their decisions and contributions towards the growth of the company. The coach should act as a mentor who is aiding them to achieve their goals in manner positive to both parties (Rogers, 2012).

This is followed by supporting the group when they need any help. This is done by helping them maintain a reasonable work-life balance without feeling being used by the company in negative way. There should a sign of loyalty between the employer and the employee. The final step in the model is praising the employees liberally. Since employees want to feel respected part of the company, it is nice to appreciate them regularly, even when there is need to correct an individual, it is better to start by discussing the positive aspects of their performance before embarking on the negative side.

Read also Models For Behavior Change In Motivational Coaching

The identified coaching model has improved performance management activities in Frito Lay Company. It has provided a sense of direction to both the human resource department and the employee. It has expressed the departments’ goals and values which facilitates the planning stage of the performance management. It also ensures that the employees remain focused and understand their priorities enabling them to see the link between their performance and the departments overall achievements. This model has led to improved performance of the company since the coach is tasked with the responsibility of creating learning environment where employees are supported in their efforts to improve their productivity. With continuous individual improvement, it adds up general improvement to the company at large (Wilson, 2011).

Coaching has led to the opening of new possibilities in the company. Miller (2013) argues that through coaching, employees are encouraged to solve problems and be good decision makers, these eventually leads to innovativeness and creation of new ideas that open new possibilities. The model has served as a resource for removing obstacles in the company since through the coaching, employees are encouraged to think of ways they can improve their performance. This strategy worked well with most of them hence reducing the employee turnover in the company.

Read also Motivational Coaching And Motivational Coaching Process

Best practices are intended to craft a standard method for achieving an objective or realizing a particular result. Couching best practices are the methods and techniques established and modeled by an organization or institution that have been proofed to be effective and practical when applied to a given coaching activities and contexts. While coaching, the managers should ensure that they are guiding by the best practices to achieve the expected results. One of the recommended best practices to Frito Lay Company is that of the coach-centered relationship. In this practice, there is a close relationship between the coach and the employee which ensures positive interaction and influence on the person to improve one’s performance (Wilson, 2011). This practice needs the coach to remain focused on the employees’ needs and goals which requires measurable objectives and action steps to be built in the coaching process. Helping an employee achieve the desired goals will lead to overall improvements in the company as well.

The next best practice is effective approaches to coaching. Couches have different ways of approaching the employees, but the best effective method in Frito Lay is approaching couching with a focus on personal growth and leadership (Miller, 2013). With these, the employees will be able to realize their areas of weaknesses and come up with ways of solving the problem. These will lead to increase in their performance since they will be able to correct positively what was causing the low performances.

The other best practice is the contextual issues at hand. It is very clear that a couch can’t couch an empty space or a classroom without students, there must be a specific reason for the coaching. Considering Frito Lay, the couch must survey the rising issues and demands about the company, the organizational cultures, the general performances of each member in the team and direct insights from the employees (Brannon & Mickolus, 2013). With these inquiries, it will be very easy to handle the couching process. These will create a link between the employees’ goals and demands with that of those of the company, optimizing the performances of both parties since the employees will know what is required of them by the company.

Team work in an organization ensures sharing of ideas and knowledge hence making work easier and improved performances. There are many best practices that would maximize team based performances in Frito Lay. The first one is the models, tools and the techniques used in the company, and not necessarily for coaching purposes only but for the general uses in the company (Miller, 2013). For example, the use of the portal for knowledge management, which so far is the single point of access to multiple information sources and offers personalized access in the company. This portal serves as the central location for the sales department for all the corporate information as well as sales-related clients and reduces the time taken for finding and sharing research; it also contains the profiles of all the members in the corporation. The main goals for the portal are to share knowledge, to utilize customer specific information and to promote team collaboration. This practice enables the sales department to work as a team and at the same get to know how to handle their customers better hence making the company always marketable and competitive.

Getting the support of other employees as part of a coaching initiative promotes team based performances in the company. For example, involving the corporate executives, who know that the best practices and corporate information would offer employees ideas to improve their skills and performances in the couching programs. This not only promotes interactions between the management and non-management team, but also facilitates sharing of ideas and knowledge (Rogers, 2012). This shows a quantifiable perspective to the employee and gets the opportunity to gauge if the company is developing, especially in the eyes of the corporate executives.

Relationship building is a practice that must be present for a company to achieve its desired goals. Coaching must promote good relationships between the management and the non-management team and all the departments must be able to communicate with a common language. The language is the goal and visions of the company. This practice can be promoted by organizing frequent meetings between the relevant parties, or company social gatherings or parties where employees are able to interact with each other and learn about the developments in different departments (Crane & Patrick, 2012). It promotes the company’s performance in a manner that the interdepartmental interactions will open a room for internal competition since each department would want to perform best than the other leading to improved productivity in the company.

Practices that are results oriented would have challenges in a company but the benefits are more than the negative effects. Apart from encouraging individual performances, couching should emphasize on overall positive results (Miller, 2013). For example, few lazy individuals in the sales department might show a negative image to the corporate team about the department. Couching practices that are results oriented ensures that all members in the team work towards a common goal, which promotes team work and at the same time achieving the desired goals.

The final practice is creativity and innovativeness. This comes into practice after evaluating the company’s and the employees’ needs, and finding solutions for the problem by being creative. Using the innovation of the Customer Community Portal at Frito Lay Company as an example, it was invented after the company experienced many challenges that affected its operations (Rogers, 2012). It has helped promote a sense of solidarity and relationship building, for example staff can share best practices concerning their areas of expertise. People in the sales department can access the latest news regarding their customers and make any necessary changes or implementations. It has also helped the managers know the skills of their subordinates since everyone is required to catalogue their skills strengths and weaknesses. The portal has helped boost employee retention since most of the employees especially the sales team, felt pressurized when trying to access information about their clients or even communicating with the rest of the team.

In conclusion, this paper evaluated the coaching model embraced in Frito Lay Company.  Coaching is considered an important tool in a company’s performance management practice. In any given organization, irrespective of the kind of work done, there must be a managerial team or department, starting from front line managers, to the middle level and the top level management. It should be guided by the coaching best practices in order to attain maximum results.

Is The Self Existent? David Hume Vs Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant and David Hume are renowned psychology philosophers. Hume has a materialism-based perspective on all metaphysical deliberations, natural law, matter, soul, and God. He views all metaphysical deliberations, natural law, matter, soul, and God as mere outcomes, or products, of imagination (Pojman, 2002; Solomon, Higgins & Martin, 2016). He links all self-reference perceptions to external contingencies. He holds that every mind is subject to perception, meaning that the self is not detached from perception as well. On the other hand, Kant (1787) defines the self’s model that acknowledges math and physics and insulates faith and God concurrently. He employs physics principles in ascertaining what is characterized as the self according to Boeree (1999). This essay explores why Hume (1789) is convinced that the self is non-existent and Kant’s response to him.

Read also Consumption as a Primary Source of Self and Identity Construction

Hume (1789) is convinced that the contents in a person’s mind stem from his or her experiences exclusively, with the trigger being internal or even external. In that nexus, he defines what he refers to as impressions, which he projects as different from ideas. According to him, an impression is a clear perception, is lively, and is strong. For him, the self and the mind are non-existent since any perception held by a person only becomes active when he or she is conscious. He comes off as reducing cognition, as well as personality, to a typical device that is put on or off accordingly according to Boeree (1999). Death brings to an end every perception that a person bears.

Read also Avocado Vs Artichoke Views Of Self – Compare And Contrast Essay

The inquiry method adopted by Hume (1789) commences with his supposition that experiences that are in themselves impressions are incapable of occasioning a self that is constant: a self that would constantly offer reference to every prospective experience. The notion, or idea, of self comprises of a number of impressions and ideas. One does not have the same impression for all the time he or she is conscious according to Boeree (1999). Diverse sensations, including cold, pleasure, heat, and pain are in an invariable, as opposed to constant, continuum according to Hume (1789). That means that the notion is derived from any impression. He concludes that from the foregoing, it is clear that such notion is non-existent

Read also How John Locke Views Personal Identity – Sample Essay

Additionally, Hume (1789) reflects on the place value, or position, of the identity of the existence that is uninterrupted as well as invariable. He establishes that there is no any primal, or primordial, material or substance pointing out where every secondary continuation of every given individual existence continues living, or exists. According to him, all what is in a person’s conscious state is a derivative of impression. The items in the external environment exist as discrete species, which are detachable from every secondary attribute in the conscious thought. For the purpose of negating every demonstration, or expression, of substance, he presents an analogy according to Boeree (1999). The analogy is that if one’s life is reduced to levels that are lower than that of an oyster’s life, he or she would be devoid of perception, including perception of hunger and thirst. Only the perception would continue existing.

The addition of more complicated perception would be incapable of yielding any idea of substance that can give rise to constant, as well as autonomous, self according to Hume (1789). The mind model developed by Hume (1789) merely documents data when the mind is distinctly conscious. Notably, the model isolates, as well as abstracts, the secondary attributes, or qualities, and objects devoid of metaphysics. The model does not define unity of experience according to Boeree (1999).

The notion that Kant (1787) holds of the self is elementarily a reaction to the model developed by Hume (1789). Kant (1787) comes off as keen on justifying his thinking that physics comprises of universal truths. He comes off as keen on insulating religion, particularly regarding beliefs in free will and immortality. In addition, he comes off as keen on correcting the earlier challenges, or problems, of a soul that is non-material and that is localized within space according to Boeree (1999). He employs inner sense in defending the body’s heterogeneity and the soul’s heterogeneity, projecting the body as an item of external sense and the soul as an item of internal sense. He holds that the self comprises of two elements: the outer-self along with the inner-self.

Kant (1787) employs the term empirical self-consciousness in describing the latter, the inner-self. Kant (1787) employs the term transcendental apperception to pass two messages. First, he uses term to mean a faculty that is of a synthetic nature. Second, he used the term to refer to the subject “I”. Logically, the function would happen in the inner sense. Kant (1787) holds that every representational state, including every outer object that is spatially localized, is in the sense. A person’s source of own representations belongs to the sense regardless of whether or not the source is a priori product or an external object as his or her mind’s modification according to Kant (1787). Kant (1787) views transcendental apperception as a pathway, or means, towards a person’s awareness, or consciousness, of own self. Even then, the sense does not denote pure apperception according to Boeree (1999).Rather, it is the consciousness, or awareness, of what one is experiencing as he or she is impacted on by thought.

Unlike Hume (1789), Kant (1787) holds that consciousness and unity of experience are critical to the self idea. Transcendental apperception brings together or unites every appearance into a single experience according to Kant (1787). That means that the unity is hinged on specific causal laws. There are syntheses, which are in line with given concepts, whose effect is the subordination of all to what Kant (1787) characterizes as transcendental unity. Kant (1787) holds that the consciousness’ contents can only be unified if they are defined by causal linkages. Kant (1787), unlike Hume (1789), opines that there are manifold representations that occasion the common understanding of the self as being a line shared subject. According to Kant (1787), the self concept necessitates a continuous undivided self. The concept is projected by Kant (1787) as an extension of universal unity, which spans numerous representations according to Boeree (1999).

By and large, the model developed by Kant responds to the inductive self model that Hume proposes. The model that Hume proposes is exclusively material-based. Hume projects the self as a passive spectator comparable to one who is watching own life go past him or her as on a television screen. Hume comes off as stringent determinist in his appreciation of the self: he contends that the self concept is merely memory along with imagination.

Use Of Indwelling Urinary Catheters – Translational Research

Indwelling urinary catheters are extensively utilized in hospitalized patients and can be suitable ways for therapeutic management under particular situations. Nevertheless, a number of indwelling urinary catheters are utilized with no clear indications, therefore subjecting patients at an unnecessary complications risk in their hospitalization. Among the catheter associated complications include psychological and physical discomfort to the patient, renal inflammation, bladder calculi, and catheter-related urinary tract infections (CAUTI). Catheter-related urinary tract infections development in older adults can yield into immobility, fall and delirium (Bernard et al., 2012). Most healthcare organizations are experiencing increased in the rate of mortality and morbidity as a result of CAUTI. In this regard, more and more research are being carried out to establish evidence based practices that would reduce the risk of Catheter-related urinary tract infections among hospitalized individuals, particularly elderly and those in the intensive care unit.

Current Nursing Practice

Nurses in our healthcare organization have been using indwelling urinary catheters to assist critically ill patients to remove urine from their body. This practice has for long been recognized as the best practice to assist elderly and critically ill patients who cannot manage to toilet. Normally, patients with indwelling urinary catheter are normally bathed by nurses. The healthcare has been experiencing increase in cases of CAUTI since 2010. This has highly been associated with poor insertion and position of the indwelling urinary catheters causing the tube blockage. This makes the urine accumulation in the bladder and thus, increasing risks for urinary tract infections and thus, the development of catheter-related urinary tract infections condition. CAUTI condition is a preventable condition. It can easily be prevented by employment of evidence based practices in insertion of the tube and in management of the patients working with indwelling urinary catheter.

Why the Current Nursing Practice Need to be changed

The current indwelling urinary catheters practice need to be changed for a number of reason. One of the main reasons is that the current technique used in the administration of the catheter is the increase in the rate of CAUTI infection. The hospital is experiencing 36% increase in the rate of CAUTI currently as compared to the rate in the last five years. CAUTI has been recognized as a hospital acquired infection as a result of poor nursing practices (Strouse, 2015). In this regard, it is evident that this condition can highly be prevented. The healthcare organization has realized that this can be prevented by employing various evidence based practices during the insertion of the tube and during the nursing management practice for patients inserted with catheter. The employment of evidence based practice is anticipated to reduce the rate of CAUTI infection by 80%. In this regard, the healthcare organization plans on implementing evidence based practice to reduce the rate of CAUTI among the elderly and critically ill patients in the organization.

Read also Pain Management Practices Employed Among Cancer Patients

Identifying the Key Stakeholders in the Health Setting

The impact of the current indwelling urinary catheter practice affect a number of individuals in this healthcare organization. This include the patients, nurses, the management, family members, surrounding community, and physicians, among other individuals. Therefore, all these stakeholders, together with the informatics nurses will be involved in the current change.

Role of the Identified Stakeholders

Patients

Patients will play a major role in the initiation of change and its implementation. Since patients are directly affected by the situation, they have a duty to report their new symptoms and anticipate assistance from the nurses in charge. This continuous and sincere reporting of the symptoms will create a concern among the physicians, nurses and the healthcare management and thus, pushing them into defining a solution. The similarity in the symptoms and extensive reporting will be of great importance in pushing the concerned individuals into developing a viable solution for the problem.

Families and the surrounding Community

The family and the community will play a great role of pressuring the healthcare organization into speeding up the process of change. Normally, families bring their loved ones into a healthcare facility with the hope that they will regain their health and quality of life. In case an organization fails in doing this, the family members may consider transferring their patient to another healthcare organization. This increases the rate of competition and high need to offer quality care to retain its customers. The spread of the word regarding high rate of infection in the healthcare to the community results to loss of customers as patients consider visiting other healthcare organizations. This pressure from the community and families push the healthcare organization into employing immediate measures to harness the situation.

Nurses

Nurses have a duty to evaluate the symptoms, to identify the trend and similar characteristics among the affected individuals and to report the situation to the nursing leaders. Nurses will also be involved in researching on the practices or procedures that result to CAUTI condition and those that do not result to the situation for patients with similar conditions. This will assist in identifying the main cause or the actual practice that result to this condition. Therefore, nurses will have a great responsibility in collecting the actual statistics regarding the number of impacted individuals, the procedures that initiates the infection, the level of severity and proposing need for immediate attention. Nursing leaders will play a major role in ensuring that the right solution is found and effectively employed.

Healthcare Management

The healthcare management will play a major role in assisting the nursing department in the implementation of the identified changes. This include financing the research and the implementation processes, setting new healthcare organization goals

Informatics Nurses

Informatics nurses will play a major role in research more about the condition and its evidence based prevention or intervention practice from the published literature. This include various online databases, online medical sites, conference materials, and any other medical research work regarding catheter-related urinary tract infections. The collected materials will be provided to the nurses and physicians to assist in identifying the best evidence based practices that can be employed to reduce the rate of infection in the healthcare center.

Physicians

Physicians will play a major role in defining the best viable solution for the identified problem. In this regard, they will be involved in making informed judgment with regard to the best measures to take. They will also assist in monitoring the viability of the employed solution based on the intervention outcome.

Evidence Summary

Catheter-related urinary tract infections is one of the hospitalized infection that can be prevented. It accounts for 80% of the total number of hospitalized infection. In this regard different researches have been employed to prevent these infections. The center for disease control and prevention (CDC) developed a guideline to assist in prevention of CAUTI. These guidelines contain three important components that include suitable utilization of indwelling urinary catheters, use of suitable methods for insertion of indwelling catheter, and the use of suitable methods for maintenance of the indwelling urinary catheter (Hus et al., 2012). There are a number of defined good practices that reduces the rate of infection. Method of bathing patients is one of them. Basin bathing and chlorhexidine wipes are known to increase the rate of infection among critical and elderly patients. The best recommended practice for cleaning patients with indwelling urinary catheters to prevent the rate of infection is by use of non-medicated cleansing wipes (Strouse, 2015).

Other recommended best practices include catheterizing patients just when it is very necessary, emphasizing on the significance of effective hand washing for all nurses and use of gloves for the insertion process (Pratt & Pellowe, 2010). Others include the use of sterile equipment to insert catheters, employment of suitable daily perineal care and after each bowel movement. Urine clarity should also be noted. The main noted mistakes in the insertion process is the use of aseptic insertion technique. This increases the contamination risks from the multiuse tube (Carter et al., 2014). Most nurses use multiuse lubricant for catheter tube insertion instead of a single-use packet. Lubricants reduces friction and other discomforts during the insertion process, however single-use packet is highly recommended to reduce contamination (Pratt & Pellowe, 2010). Another best practice recommended for reducing the rate of infection is reducing the length of catheterization. The use of catheters for a long duration increases the chances of developing infections and thus, they should be removed as soon as possible (Bernard et al., 2012).

In a research Meddings et al. (2015), established that Foley catheter is commonly used and it also possess the greatest risk developing catheter-related urinary tract infections. To reduce the rate of infection, nurses should consider using any other catheter rather than Foley catheter. In case the use of Foley is unavoidable, close monitoring is needed to notice any changes that would demonstrate onset of infection among patients (Meddings et al., 2015). It is also important for nurses to identify urinary retention risk factors, and enhancing proper management of these patients. This should be enhanced by clearly documenting on the patient urinary retention condition to enhance proper management all through (Johansson et al., 2013).

Best Recommended Practice

The best practice that should be recommended to our healthcare organization is the use of the best insertion procedures as well as the best patient management or maintenance procedures. The insertion procedures should ensure the use of single-packet lubricant to reduce the rate of contamination. Nurses should ensure thorough wash of hands before and after insertion or maintenance process. Gloves should be worn during the process. Sterile equipment will be used in all insertion process while aseptic insertion technique will be highly avoided. The healthcare will avoid the use of Foley which is said to have a high rate of infection. The recommended maintenance practice include reducing the catheterization days, cleaning patients with non-medicated wipe and also close monitoring of the patient urine to not any change of color.

Best Practice Change Model

The main issue in this healthcare organization is the lack of information regarding evidence practice in catering for indwelling urinary catheter. In this regard the best change model to employ is ACE Star knowledge transformation model. This model is employed since it enhances evidence translation into practice. The model assist in making the best decision regarding the best practice to implement. The model has five stages. These stages include discovery, evidence topic summary, action translation, integration of practice and finally evaluation stage. The model assist in the collection of all possible information regarding the topic of change (Stevens, 2013). This information is obtained in the first stage through research. The integrative review is conducted and the summary on the best practices identified. The identified practices are then translated into action. Best evidence is then is then obtained through practice integration. The organization is then involved in evaluation process to establish the effectiveness of the employed process.

The change process in this case will involve researching for the best practice to cater for patients using indwelling urinary catheter. The research will be conducted extensively and the research outcome summarized. The research process will involve informatics nurses. The best practices will be selected by the nursing leaders and the physicians involved in the management of these patients. The integration of the new intervention measures to the current process and implementation of change will involve the involved nurses and the nursing leaders. The poor practices in this process will be eliminated and only the best recommended practices will be utilized. The integration process will involve training and supervision to ensure that the recommended practices are employed effectively. The monitoring process will involves nurses, physicians and the nursing leaders who will be keen to check on the rate of infection within a certain period of time as compared to the rate at the moment. Effective integration of change will be noticed by the decrease in the rate of infection (Stevens, 2013).

Barrier to the Successful Implementation

The successful implementation of this process can be obstructed by a number of issues. Some of these issues include need for training nurses on slight changes in their usual procedures. This may create confusion since the change is slight and thus making it easier to be forgotten. Another major challenge is that the new changes may experience resistance from the nurses. Many nurses may still fail to see the importance of slight change of the procedures and thus, refusing to implement these changes. This may demand more supervision and make it hard for the management to implement these changes. Close supervision ay demand increase in the number of nurses in the department since it demand a reduction in the nurse to patient ratio. This may be expensive to the organization. The organization may also be required to use more in purchase of more protective gears for the job, and any other required facility to enhance the new changes. This may make it hard for the management to accept all the recommended changes.

Possible Ethical Implication Arising

Nurses have an ethical obligation to cater for its patients and ensure their wellbeing. They are required to ensure good care that will ensure the wellbeing of the organization. In this regard, nurses and the entire change team should ensure that the employed measures do not results to more complications but they improve the patient’s wellbeing. The possible ethical issue that can occur in this case include making no change or worsening the patient situation with the current changes. This can be taken as a failed experimental process which directly involved human sample unethically. Thus, mistakes should be avoided and only the evidently identified measure employed as required to avoid more complications that would initiate ethical issues.

Get Up 50% Discount on Your First OrderUp To 50% Off Your First Order Due in Less Than 48 Hours

Grab this first time Discount, and save up to 50% on your first Order Due in Less Than 48 Hours.