Transformational Leadership in Nursing

Modern healthcare organizations face changes that necessitate increasingly adaptive and accommodating leadership. This type of leadership is called “transformational” as it seeks to create an environments of shared responsibilities that affect the knowledge that a professional possesses. Precisely, transformational leadership theory is a process in which “leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of morality and motivation” (Burns 1978, p.21). Thus, the theory obligates leaders to motivate their followers through appeal to higher ideas and moral values, where the leader is expected to have a deep set of internal ideas and values. This results in the followers embracing change for the greater good rather than for their own interests and ambitions. According to Burns (1978), transformational leadership creates a value system congruence between the leader and their followers. The leader must have a strong personality and vision in order to be deemed transformational. Furthermore, they must persuade their followers to change opinions, expectations, and inspirations in order to work toward common objectives. On the whole, the components of transformational leadership include intellectual stimulation, ideal impact, personal consideration, and strong motivation.

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            The primary role of a transformational nurse leader in a healthcare setting encompasses encouraging self-esteem, promotion of teamwork, motivation of staff to higher levels of performance, and empowerment of followers in establishment and implementation of procedures and policies (Leach, 2005). Since the theory focuses on change, leaders who adopt it are considered as change agents who use their personalities and qualities to motivate their followers to achieve objectives and share their visions. Two utmost factors that facilitate the success of transformational leadership are trust and communication (Bass, 2005). Before commencing with any leadership task, a leader must build a connection with their groups via fairness, openness, and honesty. They can achieve this by encouraging followers to be independent in decision-making. Secondly, leaders must develop effective communication strategies in order to lead their followers to the ultimate goals. They must develop and possess a great sense of confidence and belief in the proposed vision to accomplish their leadership goals.

Read also Concept of Servant Leadership and The Difference Between Servant Leadership and Transformational Leadership

Current literature indicates that transformational leadership spurs follower commitment and satisfaction within the organization (Xu, 2017). Indeed, the impact of transformational mode of leadership on both personal and organizational outcomes makes it fitting in nursing organizations. Transformational leaders possess self-direction, self-confidence, and absence of internal conflict. They understand the needs of their followers in a way that allows them to influence behaviors and encourage success. Transformational nursing leaders normally stimulate other nurses intellectually through facilitation of the use of evidence-based practice procedures and adoption of questioning techniques in clinical actions (Bass, 2005). To achieve this influence they must adopt trustworthiness, inspirational traits, collaboration, and communication skills. Firstly, trust is important because it creates a foundation for healthy relationships between the leaders and their followers. Broken trust only results in chaos, disorganization, and fear among followers, which make it harder for the leader to inspire and motivate. This is why it is imperative for leaders to commence by gaining trust. The principal elements that create the foundation of trust are stability, courage, and integrity. An inspirational persona is also equally crucial. Since transformational leadership focuses on the concept of transformation, it is important for a leader to display an inspirational attitude. An inspirational persona comprises passion, respect, charism, optimism, and honesty. Lastly, collaboration and communication are crucial in driving the desired change (Bass, 2005). A leader who adopts effective communication strategies concentrates closely in what followers are trying to convey as well as what are the important things for those individuals. Collaboration ensures that the leader interacts and engages followers in the leadership process.            

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Consistent with transformational leadership theory, I can play the role of transformational leadership in many scenarios in healthcare settings such as in mentorship programs, productivity enhancement, and ethical conduct. Regarding mentorship, I can lead trainees through inspiration and motivation, particularly when emboldening them to reach their milestones. It is important to note that mentorship is a central capacity of leadership and is very influential in the growth of nurse leaders. I would employ transformational leadership theory to create empowering connections that offer dynamic guided experience to promote development and growth in professional and personal lives of trainees. With regard to productivity enhancement, transformational leadership would enable me to identify, note, and facilitate changes that enhance productivity within collaborative teams and departments. The communication trait would be especially valuable as it would facilitate interaction between colleagues, followers, and me concerning what activities people are partaking.

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Lastly, I would create an ethical climate through ethical transformational leadership to create a positive and effective outcome for both patients and nurses. I would engage with followers on one-on-one basis including in private spaces to communicate with them. In the course of communication, I would listen carefully to their thoughts as it is important to listen to followers’ needs when making transformations. Further, I would analyze each case meticulously and present my expectations for the nurse or the group, which could motivate the parties involved toward further career development and promotion. Through transformational leadership, I would influence the behavior of my followers and improve organizational commitment to achieve organizational goals.

Management of Chronic Co-morbid Conditions – The Case of Mr. Bale


 The current case involves an elderly Spanish patient (Mr. Bale) who is suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), and hearing loss. COPD is a combination of several distinct but related illnesses that are characterized by difficulty in breathing (Aksenova & Burduli, 2016). The condition can impact the quality of life of a patient considerably, necessitate long term medical care and frequent admissions, and result in premature death if inappropriately managed. CHF is a progressive condition that affects the ability of a heart to pump blood efficiently (Rasmussen et al., 2017). It is often referred as Heart Failure. It is also important to note that Mr. Bale has a history of smoking. His smoking habits are so severe that he has not stopped smoking despite having signed an agreement of cessation just before the initiation of his oxygen therapy. Although he receives care from a Western healthcare model, he still relies on Mexican cultural remedies. He currently lives in his son’s family home.

Mr. Bale’s treatment plan will be implemented in accordance with the Chronic Care Model (CCM), which is based on the application of interventions at different levels of care comprising the patient, provider, and the healthcare system (Horwitz, 2015). Therapy will be effected in accordance with the patient’s conditions and a collaborative approach that draws in evidence-based practice, quality improvement, communication, and interaction between members of the inter-professional team.

Medical Treatment

            COPD does not have an instant cure but it can be managed through the control of symptoms, reduction of complications and exacerbations, as well as the improvement of the quality of life of the patient. In the case of Mr. Bale, smoking cessation is a necessary remedy as it is the only way of restricting the condition from advancing to a worse stage. If he has had a hard time quitting, it is necessary for the nurse to consider nicotine replacement products and medications such as bupropion and varenicline.

The type of medications to be used in the control of COPD will rely on the available regimens but the ones that are commonly applied normally incorporate the use of bronchodilators, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, and theophylline (Currie et al., 2008). Bronchodilators usually come in an inhaler and aid in the relaxation of the muscles around the patient’s airways, allowing them to breathe easily and comfortably. Bronchodilators may be long-acting or short-acting in nature with the former serving as an endorsed remedy for severe cases of COPD. Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors decrease airway inflammation and relax the patient’s airways, but nurses should consider the side effects, which may include weight loss and diarrhea. Theophylline woks in the same way and side effects rely on the dosage. In addition, the nursing team should apply a pulmonary rehabilitation program and confer with Mr. Bale’s family about the matter in order to shorten hospitalization, increase independence, and improve his quality of life. This will consist of exercise training, education, nutrition advice, and counselling. Mr. Bale should continue with his oxygen therapy in order to maintain a stable level of oxygen in his blood.

            Like COPD, CHF needs lifelong management. Treatment can alleviate symptoms and help the patient live longer, as well as reduce the chance of sudden death. In the case of Mr. Bale, the nurse will choose one or more categories of medication from the following pool: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, inotropes, and digoxin (Rasmussen et al., 2017). These drugs generally increase the wellness of the CHF patient by either widening blood vessels, reducing blood pressure, reversing the damage of the heart, reducing the risk of abnormal heart rhythms, reducing fluid in the lungs, or increasing the pumping function of the heart.  

Safety Concerns and Risk Factors

            The major safety concerns and risk factors in the treatment of Mr. Bale relate to his elderly status and smoking habits. At 85 years old, he faces the risk of experiencing severe complications. Age is a major risk factor for many prevalent chronic conditions especially those associated with cardiovascular functions. The aging process tends to decrease fitness with time and usually involves the consequence of declining health (Niccoli & Partridge, 2012). Early living conditions and life experiences are also significant in the health of the elderly, meaning that Mr. Bale’s case has a potential of worsening owing to his lifelong smoking habits.

             According to Burns (2000), the disease consequences of smoking among the elderly are fatal although they occur disproportionately in the population. Consistent with research, older smokers like Mr. Bale are less likely to quit smoking. In fact Mr. Bale has already violated an agreement he had signed during the beginning of his oxygen therapy, promising to quit his smoking habits. The dangers of smoking whilst using oxygen therapy cannot be underestimated. Smoking around oxygen can cause hair and clothes to ignite and burn more vigorously than in normal air (Chang, Lipinski, & Sherman, 2001).

Ethical Dilemma and Solutions

            The most noteworthy ethical implication of incorporating palliative care in Mr. Bale’s treatment plan concerns his separation from his family. It is evident that the current setting cannot guarantee provision of maximum care due to the aforementioned risk factors. In relation to the principle of autonomy, a competent adult can accept or refuse treatment, drugs, surgeries according to their will, and their decision should be respected by everyone, including the inter-professional team (Gillon, 1994). This principle can get in the way of the current plan since Mr. Bale may wish to remain in his son’s home under the care of the family. However, the principle of beneficence demands healthcare providers to improve the patient’s health and go good in every situation.

            The ultimate solution to this ethical dilemma is to engage all members of the inter-professional team in a progressive conversation that takes full advantage of communication, interaction, education, and empowerment. This will give the nursing team a chance to convince Mr. Bale and his family that the current plan is reasonable and is only aimed at improving his wellness. The nursing team should draw in the principles of justice and non-maleficence (Gillon, 1994) while maintaining enough autonomy and benevolence.

Appropriate Course of Action

There is a need to place Mr. Bale on palliative care in order to ease symptoms and improve his quality of life. Notably, the manifestation of comorbid poses a risk at his age. Implementation of palliative care may demand his relocation to a medical setting and the involvement of a collaborative care nurse and a geriatric nurse alongside the primary care provider.

Use of Mobile Phones in Self-management of Diabetes in Children and Teenagers

This document presents guidelines on the use of smartphones and supportive mobile technology tools in the self-management of Diabetes in children and teenagers. Supportive mobile technologies are a set of gear that enhance the patient’s ability to monitor their state of health using their mobile phone (Klasnja & Pratt, 2012). Hence, the first step in this plan will be to acquire a mobile phone and a specific set of compatible technology tools comprising Telcare’s Blood Glucose Monitor, Glooko’s MeterSync Cable, and WellDoc’s DiabetesManager. This combination of gadgets will serve as a medium for collecting and logging blood glucose readings, providing real-time alerts and reminders, and translating and interpreting data over time. In particular, the smartphone will provide an interface for sharing data with the physicians and caregivers as well as make educational materials available based on the available trends.

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             Glooko’s MeterSync Cable is a universal cable that enables the patient to download glucose readings from a glucose meter. It will be used along with the Telcare’s Blood Glucose Monitor to keep track of all glucose readings, transmit data wirelessly, and provide real-time feedback. Telcare’s Blood Glucose Monitor can also be used individually without the need of logging readings to a smartphone as it is an enhanced type of monitor (Telcare, 2018). Nevertheless, this plan incorporates smartphones for purposes of integrating data into a management system and educating the patient. Glooko’s MeterSync Cable will therefore be used as a mere data transmission device for transferring data to the smartphone or a personal computer if need be (Baldridge, 2017). Lastly, the WellDoc’s DiabetesManager will serves as a diabetes management platform. It will be installed in the patient’s phone and used to interpret the data collected by Telcare’s Blood Glucose monitor. The platform will also send real-time alerts, educational materials, and actionable messages to patients based on their clinical information.

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            WellDoc DiabetesManager is clinically tested and FDA-cleared to provide automated and real-time behavioral coaching and clinical decision support for the patient (Quinn et al., 2008). As a software-based system, it supports patients and empowers healthcare professionals to design certain parameters and extend care beyond traditional hospital visits through utilization of the internet and smartphones. Among its capabilities is the capture, storage, and transmission of self-management data to the physician and medication adherence. The transmitted data is analyzed by an Automated Expert Analytics System that identifies trends and delivers applicable behavioral and educational lessons to enable the patient achieve medication adjustments and effective lifestyle. The captured data will be used purposely to assess the patient’s state of health and detection of symptom changes.        

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Altogether, this plan will require input from parents or guardians of the patients in form of assistance and adherence. It is important for the patient’s family to monitor the fulfillment of the requirements of this plan as children may forget or obscure the procedures. A significant advantage with this self-management strategy is that it applies throughout the teenage years and does not necessarily need to be changed unless a physician advises otherwise. This plan was successfully submitted to my healthcare setting and reviewed. My supervisors appraised it as valuable and applicable self-management model for diabetes patients. They claimed that the combination of smartphones and other technology tools has clear epidemiological value as it allows patient data to be collected over time. However, its implementation would depend on the center’s reimbursement model.

Instructional Strategies for Learners with Special Needs

Disengaged students often lag behind in class when it comes to academic achievement. Yet, to avoid this from occurring, teachers are expected to apply various strategies of instruction. A majority of instructional strategies are universal and applicable to various groups of learners while others yield better results when applied to a certain group of students. In this essay, the author reviews various strategies that can be applied to fifth-grade learners with each of the following special needs: ADHD, dyslexia, and visual impairment. Featured strategies will be applied consistently with cognitive, linguistic, social, emotional, and physical levels of development as well as with the Individualized Education Program (IEP) for each group.

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According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, fifth graders fall under the preoperational period which ranges from two to seven years of age (Bjorklund & Causey, 2017).  Therefore, they can engage in semiotic function and participate in the symbolic play. This calls for the use of multisensory learning. Multisensory learning utilizes instructional methods that engage learners through various senses. Senses that can be utilized are visual, auditory, tactile, and kinesthetic which involve seeing, hearing, touching and doing respectively. For learners with either ADHD or dyslexia, all senses are applicable, but for those with visual impairments, the teacher should exclude the visual sense since it represents a challenge for this specific group. Examples of multisensory learning strategies are the use of tactile materials, physical activities, and games. Piaget recommends the allowance of “spontaneous research” for each learner through strategies that are consistent with the level of development. Methods that support rediscovery and reconstruction of “truths” to impose disequilibrium are highly encouraged.

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Since firth graders are only able to focus on one dimension of problems, their communications and thoughts are normally egocentric. Teachers should respond to this trait by favoring rewards over punishment. Rewards are likely to make the child strive harder for the stimulus while punishments can lead to the development of a negative image about the subject or even school. In fact, scholars have found out that positive reinforcement is the key to curbing negative behavior for students in grade-level education (Martin & Pear, 2015).  The teacher may apply one or more types of reinforcements depending on the situation at hand. Common reinforcement mechanisms engage the student through either of the following means: Activity, natural and direct means, social means, tangible means, or tokens to promote the desired behavior.

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It is crucial to consider modes of representation and social origins of higher processes when developing instructional strategies for fifth graders and especially for the three groups of students that this essay addresses. Bruner (1966) asserts that teachers should use the three modes of representation (iconic, enactive, and symbolic) since the course of intellectual development moves through these stages. These should be blended with discovery in accordance with the level of learning that each learner manifests. Further, Vygotsky emphasizes the use of observation, experimentation, and problem-solving in various settings (Berk, 1994). Although observation is not applicable to a student with visual impairment, it can engage concentration when assimilated with other approaches. In sum, Vygotsky advocates the utilization of varied instructional methods since no single principle can account for development. Teachers can evaluate each situation to choose an approach that best fits each learner’s intellectual state.

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In addition to the aforementioned theories, the teacher should consider the individual needs of each learner when preparing instructions. Dyslexic students typically do not retain information efficiently. This leads to a slower pace of learning that can be complicated by individual traits of a learner. However, teachers can apply a number of well-equipped evidence-based strategies such as the use of assistive technologies, helpful arrangements, educational games, and collaboration with tutors and parents. Learners with dyslexia also need extra time for practicing tasks as well as customized aids for facilitating the learning and retention of information.

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For a learner with ADHD, teachers can deal with patterns of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity by establishing classroom routines, offering accommodations in class, focusing on positive relationships, and working collaboratively with relevant stakeholders (Abikoff, 1991). Classroom routines can help students, with or without ADHD, to remain on task. Appropriate supervision should be given where routines are at play particularly because students with ADHD tend to be more forgetful, disorganized, and easily distracted. As such, the teacher should offer accommodations by ensuring there are no distractions and encouraging positive peer models, allowing movement, and preparing for transitions. The use of positive feedback is also highly valuable because it helps the students recognize, appreciate, and strive for rewards.

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Lastly, the teacher should use assistive devices, proper methods of presentation, personal delivery, and multisensory learning strategies to help learners with visual impairment remain engaged. Assistive devices are principal to a visual learner because they have the potential of completely averting the barrier of impairment in a classroom setting. Personal delivery methods include the use of speech visibility and positioning where the teacher ensures that they can be heard, seen, and recognized by the learner. Personal learning in combination with multisensory is also helpful in creating engagement with the student.

Population Growth and World Hunger – Article Review

Many commentators have attempted to isolate the link between population growth, urbanization, and world hunger by alluding to the production limit of the planet. While this is an absolutely logical premise, critics reject this hypothesis on the basis of contradicting data. According to World Bank reports, recent decades have recorded lower levels of hunger and child malnutrition despite experiencing a rapid upsurge in population. This partly disproves the assertion that population growth is solely responsible for the incidence of world hunger. In response, this essay reviews two recent articles to review the link between hunger and population demographics.

            The fact that people depend on the environment for survival provides evidence of the connection between population growth and hunger. This is clearly demonstrated by Hwang (2018) in his article “7.5 billion and counting.” The article attempts to explain the mathematics of population growth, ecological implications, and sustainability of the planet. It claims that the link between population and hunger lies in people’s propensity to depend on food for survival. In a world with limited resources, people have fewer chances of survival while in one that has unlimited resources, they are bound to thrive and multiply exponentially. Therefore, the size of the population grows correspondingly with the availability of natural resources. For the last few centuries, the earth has enjoyed an abundance of natural resources, which have pushed population growth to exponential levels. The world’s population is projected to reach eight billion in 2023 (Hwang, 2018). This growth will be curtailed by the unavailability of resources, which is a harsh biological reality to be experienced as the earth approaches its carrying capacity.

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            Hwang (2018) says that the ecological implications for a growing population are dire. Citing the current era, he asserts that humans are consuming enormous amounts of resources and polluting the environment at astonishing rates. Forces resulting from these activities have led to an ecological imbalance. Developed countries are particularly notorious for consuming resources out of proportion to the size of their populations. The Worldwatch Institute states that the earth has a reserve of 1.9 hectares of land per person for drawing resources and discarding wastes. An average American citizen uses about 9.7 hectares. Thus, at the American standard of living, the current population is unsustainable (Hwang, 2018). Since doubling food production to feed the current populations would only amount to pushing the harsh reality of the earth’s carrying capacity by a few years ahead, the necessary thing to do according to Hwang (2018) would involve the reduction of birth rates.

            On the other hand, Hasell’s article “Does population growth lead to hunger and famine?” approaches the link between demographics through a different perspective. Hasell agrees to the logic behind the carrying capacity of a finite land area. The earth cannot support a population that consumes resources beyond the maximum level at which it can produce them. On investigating whether population growth causes famine, Hasell finds that the correlation between the two is inverse. Although it is difficult to reject the notion that population growth causes hunger based on two statistics on a world scale, data collected since 1800 through 2017 shows that famines and malnutrition-related deaths have decreased with increase in population over the years. The food supply has also grown tremendously. With this, the number of deaths related to insufficient calorie and protein intake has fallen from 500,000 to 300,000 in less than half-a-decade. Even so, Hasell utilizes Global Hunger Index data to prove that regions with higher levels of hunger have been accompanied by high population growth, such as India.     

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In conclusion, environmental degradation, pollution, and overutilization of natural resources pose a threat to food security. This is evident with the current population growth and level of environmental degradation. Nevertheless, this represents only one aspect of why people die out of hunger. The present global supply is sufficient for the world’s population, yet select communities die out of hunger. Additionally, the number of famines have reduced over the years, rather than increasing with increased population growth.  Granting some regions with high population growth rates experience hunger, this hypothesis is inconclusive in explaining contradicting results in the other regions. For these reasons, the human race should examine the diverse factors that lead to world hunger since population growth is just one factor in a wide matrix of possibilities.

Ethical Implications in Schizophrenia Treatment


            Healthcare providers are increasingly expressing interest in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia, paralleling a growing concern over clinical and functional recovery as well as evidence relating to recuperation. Even so, these trends have been accompanied by the need for values in the field of medicine. One of the chief values that modern practitioners are expected to consider in their practice is truthfulness. There is a rising concern for whether healthcare providers should disclose information to patients who are suffering from potentially fatal illnesses like cancer. Today, healthcare providers believe that physicians should not withhold the truth from patients regardless of the status of their ailment. Some practitioners are even utilizing advance directives to forecast whether a patient will express interest in knowing the truth in future. The degree to which the healthcare sector has given priority to the value of truth is exhibited in the following moral accord; that clinicians should remain truthful to patients even if the situation may cause foreseeable, additional harm to patients. Evidently, there is a gap in knowledge about how the management of psychiatric complications like schizophrenia interact with the current ethical consensus. This paper aspires to explore situations in which the respect of autonomy of schizophrenia patients may conflict with the values of beneficence and non-maleficence.

Read also Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia

Review of Literature

Insight of Schizophrenia manifestation

            The manifestation of schizophrenia is often in form of positive and negative symptoms (Keil et al., 2016). Positive symptoms are those that are not experienced by the individuals and normally include tactile, gustatory, olfactory, and visual hallucinations, as well as disordered speech and delusions. Such symptoms are typically associated with psychosis (Singh et al., 2017) and are generally responsive to medication (Lee et al., 2016). On the other hand, negative symptoms represent deficits in emotional responses or other body processes and do not respond to medication (Millan et al., 2014). They include the inability to experience pleasure, poverty of speech, diminished emotions, lack of motivation, and lack of the desire to build relationships. Because of their nature, negative emotions contribute more to shrunken quality of life, poor functional abilities, and burden to others (Andreasen, 1982). People who experience negative symptoms to a greater degree compared to positive symptoms usually have a history of poor adjustment before the inception of the complication, and are less likely to respond to drugs at all (American Psychiatric Association, 2006).

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Other studies have rejected the validity of the positive and negative classification of symptoms, particularly factor analysis studies that observe a three-dimension categorization of symptoms. The terminology may be different in both cases, but aspects of hallucination, disorganization, and negative symptoms are equally considered (Charney et al., 2013).

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Ethical implications in Treatment

            Given the current ethical consensus, the treatment of schizophrenia is bound to raise a range of issues. The biggest challenge regards the complication’s nature as a form of psychosis. It is important to note that there are no current tests to validly determine whether one is psychotic or not. Additionally, there are no particular chemicals that seem to indicate the manifestation of schizophrenia or the degree of psychosis. Along with this, the management of schizophrenia in patients is challenging, acutely when it comes to the respect for patient autonomy. As seen from the manifestation of the disease, schizophrenia patients are more likely to have irrational thoughts. The following context reflect the need for exploring further into the case patient autonomy as far as the treatment of schizophrenia is concerned.

Truthfulness in Schizophrenia Treatment.

The conflict between the disclosure of truth and maleficence is a scenario that is likely to be encountered by any clinician who chooses to withhold facts as a result of a patient’s psychodynamics and underlying emotional needs. Indeed, psychiatrists normally withhold information from patients because of the potential implications it might have on the patient- the risk of patients not returning for further treatment is a common motivation for withholding the truth. The degree to which a practitioner withholds information can have potential ethical implications as far as patient autonomy is concerned. However, the ethical “tradeoff” can be warranted because of mutually exclusive and competing values that can benefit the patient. Such conflicts are common in the treatment of patients who suffer from paranoia – a symptom of schizophrenia.

A majority of psychiatrists believe that delusions should not be confronted. According to Andreason and Black (2014), patients with delusional disorders are more inclined to accepting treatment if it is presented as a remedy for tension, dysphoria, and concern that a patient experiences because of their delusion. Thus, the partial nondisclosure of facts may contribute to the general wellbeing of the patient, although some psychiatrists applied this approach beyond necessary levels. Havens (2004) uses a similar model to help develop an effective therapeutic alliance by requesting psychiatrists to explore and share symptoms in form of strengths with their patients. This approach may not be evidence based according to Stanard (1999), but Havens (2004) maintains that psychiatrists may obliterate patient fears through positive results. This creates an ethical dilemma of whether the principle of truthfulness should be consistently upheld in treatment of schizophrenia.

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“Risky” Ambitions of Schizophrenia Patients

There is an emerging school of thought that places greater emphasis on the quality of life rather than mere treatment of schizophrenia symptoms (Stanard, 1999; Kane, 2007). One way of improving the quality of life is allowing the patient to make their own choices. In this regard, some patients with schizophrenia are quite ambitious and this can lead to conflicts with their caregivers. A schizophrenia patient may wish to pursue a career that lies beyond their abilities, particularly intellectual capabilities, for instance. To achieve their desires, such a patient faces the risk of worsening their condition, yet to do otherwise would compromise with their quality of life. This, therefore, presents an ethical dilemma to the psychiatrist. Should they support their patient’s ambitious wishes to improve their quality of life or should they cancel the individual against following that course in order to evade the likelihood of exacerbation? The first option would be to be less authoritarian and protective and give preference to the patient’s desires. Although the complication could intensify, the psychiatrist would be supporting the patient in achieving his desires and gaining quality of life.

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            In such cases, some psychiatrists employ shared decision-making approaches (Hudson et al., 2008). This approach provides patients with more truth and information concerning their treatment decisions. According to Harman et al. (2006), this approach bypasses the principle of informed consent by focusing on the power asymmetry between caregivers and patients. The application of the approach means that the psychiatrist will give more information and power over treatment decisions to the patient via use of directional aids among other means. Evidently, respect for the autonomy of a patient with schizophrenia is independent of actual implications of treatment, given that schizophrenia patients are more prone to losing decision-making abilities.

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Involvement of schizophrenia patients in formulation of psychiatric advance directives.

Advance directives are a necessary part of information disclosure. Correspondingly, a clinician can request a schizophrenia patient to express their opinion concerning modes of treatment should they lose decisional capabilities in future. This can only be done with patients who still have their decisional capacity in place. Such advance directives can assist psychiatrists to foresee future consequences encompassing the particular institutions the patient will attend, means of treatment, and medication (O’Reilly, 2008). By giving patients the chance to take part in critical decision-making procedures, the psychiatrist may be in a position to respect patient autonomy while regarding their wellbeing. Even so, Widdershoven & Berghmans (2007) and Hamann et al. (2006) are unwilling to pursue this course. This raises a complicated ethical dilemma that reverts decision-making to earlier stages. Another thing to consider is that the presentation of this option may cause exceptional fear in patients.

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In sum, clinicians face a range of ethical dilemmas when treating patients with schizophrenia. The biggest among them involves the observation of patient autonomy and regard for the values of beneficence and non-maleficence. As seen above, symptoms of schizophrenia manifest in terms positive and negative symptoms that are highly reminiscent of those experienced by psychosis patients. Hence, there is a noteworthy concern of whether schizophrenia patients are rationally adequate to make their own decision. This concern is further reflected in the support of risky” ambitions and the establishment of advance directives. It is clear that this is an area worth researching since the wellbeing of patients with schizophrenia is at stake.

Renovating the Roslin Farms Community Playground


Play is one of the most significant aspects in child development. Children who get enough play are exposed to the basic foundation of early learning as well as future learning. Furthermore, educators and child development experts recognize the importance of play, and this is manifested in the way educational, and home environments are expected to create convenient mechanisms for children to meet and play outdoors (Booth et al., 2004). Some parents may argue that indoor play is better due to safety concerns. Nonetheless, prior research on play and child development show that outdoor play gives children the opportunity to engage in various types of play that enhance their physical capabilities and also instill a sense of independence (Black, Menzel & Bungum, 2015).  In addition, outdoor play enhances a child’s psychological well-being because they get socially exposed to other children and form relationships that highly impact their lives. Outdoor play also offers a wide range of possibilities including climbing, biking, trikes, use of large space, and environmental interaction. The most convenient platform that allows the aforementioned benefits to child development is a children’s playground. However, a poorly maintained playground is not suitable for children as it hinders their ability to play (Cohen et al., 2015). The Roslin Farms community faces similar concerns given that the community’s playground is in bad shape, consequently denying children the ability to play outdoors and also exposes them to the risk of injury, street traffic, and minimal social interaction. This report provides insight into the current state of the community’s children’s playground as well as concerns that need to be addressed to solve the problem through the   implementation of necessary renovations effectively. The report will draw conclusions from primary and secondary research. Notably, information gathered through interviews with parents and other members of the Roslin Farms community provides more insight on the current state of the children’s playground and also provides a clear understanding of the concerns parents have regarding their children’s use of the playground.

Community’s Concerns on the Current State of the Playground

Reduced Physical Activity

Upon interviewing parents, majority unveiled that the poor condition of the playground forces them to restrict their children’s play activity to indoor parameters. As a result, their children have reduced their physical abilities and show less interest in important aspects such as sports and recreational bike riding. This concern is backed by prior research on child development and physical activity, which establishes that reduced physical activity in children has detrimental factors that can impact future physical capabilities of children. Janssen & LeBlanc (2010) states that consistent physical activity can bestow sustainable health benefits to children and also reduce their risk of chronic diseases, improved social and mental health, and fitness through maintaining healthy body weight. Notably, children with minimal physical activity are at a greater risk of becoming obese (Coen & Ross, 2006). Both structured and unstructured activities such as cycling, walking and particularly any form of outdoor activity are highly associated with a child’s physical activity. Research on the topic further shows that neighborhood environments which contain playgrounds and parks that promote the enhancement of children’s physical activity correlate with both social and psychological benefits as well as a healthy body mass index for children (Coen & Ross, 2006). Lack of the latter therein exposes these children to the associated health risks.

Increased Injury

While most parents opt to keep their children indoors, about a third of the parents allow their children to play outside in the playgrounds despite the poor conditions. These parents are, however, dissatisfied and discouraged by the state of the playground due to the high prevalence of injuries imminent in their children. The increased rate of injuries from playing in the park is a result of the broken and rusty equipment as well as the uneven and rocky surface which makes the children susceptible to injury during play. Parents complained that the prevalent injuries were very harmful to their children as most of them ultimately develop phobias tied to outdoor play while others get scars that impact their attitudes towards physical activity (Norton, Nixon & Sibert, 2004).  They reported the most common forms of injuries were bruises which are less severe as compared to fractures and head injuries. Notably, parents who restricted their children from playing on the unfit playground were more concerned about head injuries and fractures rather than scratches and bruises. In addition, the emergency visits to the community hospitals from the playground injuries are very high, a factor that may lead parents to file lawsuits against the community’s real estate developers if the issue remains unsolved.

Increased risk of Accidents

Members of the community raised concerns regarding the risk of accidents. This is due to the fact that the Roslin Farms Community is a big neighborhood hence the streets and paved roads are busy with vehicles, motorcycles and bicycles traffic. With the closing of schools for the summer break, children will be forced to play on the streets, and this will ultimately expose them to the risk of accidents. The residents backed up their concerns with three evident cases where three children in the neighborhood were hit by vehicles on the road while playing on different occasions. One of the children was detrimentally injured, while the rest luckily incurred minor injuries. Nonetheless, the risk of accidents from playing outside has led most parents to restrict their children’s play environment. This has not only affected their play time but also minimized their children’s interactions with each other.

Change in Children’s Behavior

Residents of the Roslin Farms Community complained of a change in their children’s behavior due to lack of effective outdoor play. Given that most of the playground equipment is in bad shape, most children opt to play on the streets or stay indoors. Parents noted that their children have developed the language adults speak on the streets, while those who prefer to stay indoors have developed an addiction to television and computer gaming. These concerns are backed by prior studies which show that children’s behavior is highly influenced by their environment. While playing on the streets, children are prone to learning from what they see other people, especially adults doing. In the case where adults use foul language, the children pick up these languages and imitate them. On the other hand, children who stay indoors, do so because the playground is less attractive to them. As a result, they develop habits like watching so much television while others start playing video games which are very addictive. Ibberson (2017), notes that a child’s environment is a key factor in the development of their future behavior. If they develop a habit of watching too much television and video games, they will most likely watch too much television and addictively play video games when older. Notably, the latter behaviors are linked to behavioral disorders that align with low self-esteem and overeating which ultimately causes obesity (Ibberson 2017).

Reduced Property Value

The poor condition of the playground not only possess problems for residents but also the real estate developers of the community. This follows the fact that in the past 5 years, 5% of the residents moved to other communities, leaving most houses empty. Many prospects loved the community’s environment but failed to purchase homes due to the poor state of the playground, based on concerns regarding their children’s outdoor play. It is, therefore, necessary to make playground renovations to attract prospects into the community.

Proposed Solutions

The most relevant solution to the aforementioned problems is to make the necessary renovations to the community’s playground. Primary research on the aforementioned issue portrays the need to tackle the root cause of the problem rather than deal with the effects of the problem. To this regard, there is need to make absolute renovations which will account for play equipment as well as the playground environment. To achieve this, the issue of budget and financing first needs to be addressed. It is, however, worth noting that the cost incurred to make the renovations will be high, nonetheless, the benefits tied to taking the necessary action outweighs the monetary value of the project. Budgeting can be done by a financial expert with the help of a playground renovator. The involvement of a Certified Playground Safety Inspector (CPSI) is also very important to ensure that the proposed equipment and environment meet the highest safety standards.

Secondly, the renovation team will need to purchase new equipment given that existing equipment is outdated, broken and rusty. None of the existing equipment is fit for repair. The proposed equipment include fitness systems which comprise complete 5-station systems, a twister, a switch glider, a life-trail activity panel, a space ball M net climber, a funnel ball, a tether ball and furniture like benches, picnic tables. Since the basketball court is still functional, it will only need a painting job and new basketballs. There is also a need to create a new fence that would provide security for the children and the playground equipment.  According to Blac, Menzel & Bungum (2015), children need equipment that exercises their bodies and reduces the risk of obesity in a country where 20% of the children are currently obese.

Thirdly, the renovations will include the resurfacing of the playground to remove all rocks, even the surface and add sand. The renovation team will also plant grass on the exterior surfaces to create a park-like feel and make the playground more attractive for the children and their parents. All the proposed equipment are usable for children of varying ages and will, therefore, attract a wide range of ages, including older children aged 10-15 years. After liaising with renovation experts, it was determined that the estimated cost for the complete renovations would amount to 50,000 USD.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Based on information gathered from the Roslin Farms Community residents, the community playground is in bad shape, consequently affecting healthy play for the children. There are also several intrinsic and extrinsic problems resulting from the current state of the playground. As a result, there is need to renovate the playground with the aim of creating a good and fun environment for children during the summer break and eradicating problematic factors that affect not only children but also the residents and real estate developers of the community.

Read also Workout Plan for an Injured Basketball Player

While making the necessary renovations, the involved personnel should ensure that all basic playground equipment are provided alongside the proposed equipment. This will not only interest children into engaging in outdoor play but also provide a wide range of play activities for the children, a factor that will reduce boredom and promote fun experiences for them. The renovations should also be accompanied by a supervision strategy to aid the children when adapting to this new equipment and also help them learn how to use them and maintain safety procedures during play. A supervisor will also help the children explore various exercises and games that align with the various equipment to make the outdoor activities fun and attractive for the children. Finally, upon completion, parents concerned with safety need to allow their children to experience the new infrastructure by letting the children play.

Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Autism Spectrum refers to a range of conditions that are classified as neurodevelopmental disorders. The term “Spectrum” signifies that individuals with this disorder can exhibit a range of symptoms that vary in magnitude and severity (Spielman et al. 587). Nevertheless, most ASD patients usually display problems with social interaction and communication, and restricted activities, interests, and behavior patterns. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) recognizes ASD as one of the most prevalent neurological disorders in the United States with an average prevalence rate of one in 59 children (Autism Speaks). Although incidence varies for each disorder in the spectrum, autism is a universal disorder and major health concern in the US and the rest of the world.

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Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder          

Autism Spectrum Disorder is characterized by two categories of symptoms. The first comprises irrevocable problems with social interaction and communication in different settings (NIMH).  Individuals with ASD may have difficulties understanding and using eye contact, intonation, facial expressions, and gestures while in contact with other persons, even from a very young age. In fact, a larger percentage of children with autism normally show no emotional or social reciprocity and, more often than not, do not share their happiness or seek comfort with parents. Additionally, they do not engage in social activities with other children of the same age, and even if they do, they normally have difficulties when communicating and keeping friends. This is typically due to delays or lack of development in linguistic skills and inability to compensate using nonverbal means of communication. Some children may try to use a single word, many incomprehensible words, or a stack of repetitive phrases, but attempts of communication are habitually futile.

            The second category of symptoms covers restricted ranges of behaviors, activities, and interests that display in a stereotypic or repetitive way (Psychiatry.Org). A child diagnosed with autism may concentrate intensively on an activity such as rolling a ball on the floor or spinning a toy wheel but fail to engage in other varying games of role play and pretend. Fixations on particular objects and complex routines are also very common, and departure from such routines can lead to episodes of outbursts and rage. Other symptoms include over under-sensitivity or over-sensitivity to certain odors, sounds, touches, episodes of hyperactivity, and eating and sleeping disorders, none of which are required for the diagnosis of autism. Indeed, physicians diagnose ASD by examining a child’s developmental and behavioral patterns.

What Causes Autism Spectrum Disorder?

             The exact cause of Autism Spectrum Disorder remains unknown to date, but researchers hypothesize that genetic factors, environmental triggers, and secondary health conditions may have a role to play in etiology. Genetic predisposition is commonly cited as a basis for the development of the disorder wherein certain genes are associated with increased vulnerability (Marshall et al. 480). Researchers have identified select cases where ASD runs in families. For instance, younger siblings of individuals with ASD can develop the condition. Nevertheless, researchers have not linked any specific genes to Autism Spectrum Disorder. Another causal theory is that individuals with genetic susceptibility to ASD can only suffer from the disorder in the presence of certain ecological factors.  Potential factors comprise premature birth and exposure to alcohol and certain drugs (Szatmari 175). A few studies have found evidence of an association between ASD and certain viruses such as measles, rubella, mumps, syphilis, and toxoplasmosis, as well as chemicals like valproic acid and thalidomide. Even so, these causes account for a very small percentage of all cases.

How can Autism Spectrum Disorder be Treated?

            Given that Autism Spectrum Disorder is a life-long condition, there is no known cure as yet. However, individuals with autism can experience better wellness and developmental outcomes with early and well-planned interventions that are tailored according to personal needs (Won, Hyejung, Won Mah, and Eunjoon). One primary goal of early interventions is to help an individual acquire functional communication. Approaches involving education programs should concentrate on knowledge about the child and their needs as autistic patients. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) strategies are commonly integrated with structured teaching methods to prepare specially-tailored educational programs for autistic children (Mulick). Early identification and assessment should be succeeded by the provision of curate information to concerned individuals, including members of the family and guardians.

Read also Role of Families, Teachers, and Peers in Assisting Learners with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

            Integration of educational strategies and collaboration with the child’s family, along with other supportive measures are the long-term foundation of a child’s development. Specially adapted education systems, such as special nursery schools, are critical prerequisites. Parents and guardians should ensure that the home environment and daily activities are specially adapted for the child. Adolescents and adults with autism may require access to educational measures to help increase personal skills and enhance independence and participation in varied activities. Highly-functioning individuals may need different programs and auxiliary assistance when organizing their education schedules and accessing various activities. Since ASD is a long-term disorder, adults should receive extensive support and assistance for the rest of their lives. Nevertheless, some individuals can become impressively independent, especially with the help of early interventions.            

In conclusion, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a broad range of symptoms and levels of impairment. Although symptoms are not precisely defined, they exhibit in two categories namely problems with social interaction and communication, and restricted behavior patterns. There are no current causes of the condition, but genetic and environmental factors are believed to have a role. Autism Spectrum Disorder has no immediate treatment and often requires implementation of personalized long-term management strategies that include behavior therapy.

Racism in India vs San Francisco

Many people believe that the recent series of physical and verbal attacks against foreigners in India is a reverberation of the country’s long history of racism. In 2017, Indian based African students expressed concern over the way they were being treated in residences, streets, and restaurants. The story of 19-year-old student Manish Khari was one of the few that painted a clear picture of what was happening on the ground. When Khari went missing on 24th March, his fellow residents believed that he had ended up on a dinner table of five Nigerian students (Sawlani). The residents did not hesitate to barge in the home of the Nigerians to rummage their fridge. To their surprise, their suspicions were quickly negated. Khari’s body was found the next day. A medical report confirmed that the cause of death was a drug overdose. One would have thought that that would be the end of the allegations, but instead, Khari’s neighbors were quick to conclude that the same group of Nigerians had drugged him. The incident, though unsupported by any evidence, prompted a spate of racist attacks on Nigerians across India. Whether the events were ignited by stereotypes among the Indian community or a genuine historical occurrence of cannibalism, they provided a strong indication of race-based prejudice. Indeed, as the author of this paper will attempt to show, racism is deeply embedded in the Indian social fabric at a much worse level than what is experienced in some parts of the United States, such as San Francisco.

Read also A Comparison of the African-American and Asian-American Racism Experience

The subject of racism in India did not commence with Khari’s incident. Rather, a range of scientific and non-scientific reports have shown that the country has long suffered from racial prejudice. A fascinating map of the level of racism in the world by country places India on the extreme side. Produced by two Swedish economists who sought to examine the level of economic freedom based on racial tolerance, the map was based on a survey of respondents from 80 countries around the world. The researchers asked the participants what kind of people they would tolerate or not want as neighbors. A large percentage of Indian respondents said that they would not want a person from a different race. The results were not surprising as many incidents around India provided legitimate backing. Apart from Nigerians, Ugandans, Tanzanians, Rwandan and Sudanese foreigners have suffered violent and verbal attacks on the basis of race. Attacks on Africans seem to be predominantly common, followed by racist prejudice among Indians themselves. However, Westerners are rarely attacked based on race. Indeed, Stevens claims that India is very welcoming as long as the visitors are westerners.

Read also How Is Racism Explained From A Symbolic Interactionist Perspective?

The growing preference for white skin is undoubtedly behind India’s differing racial attitudes towards white westerners and black Africans. This prejudice may be partly fueled by a blend of caste-based attitudes and an inferiority complex that dates back to the colonial times. The country’s obsession for fair skin has been well deep-rooted within the culture since the arrival of civilization when the white man was seen as superior. Unfortunately, such notions remain today in India and other countries. The larger Indian society now believes that skin color is included in the criteria of a person’s worth and that all virtues are connected with “fair” while all negative connotations come with “dark” colors. Various forms of media including billboards, movies, TV programs, and advertisements are to blame for the promotion of these misconceptions as they always depict “fair as beautiful.” The Indian government attempted to counter this problem through the Advertising Standards Council of India by addressing skin-based discrimination. The body banned all ads that depict people with dark skins as inferior. However, nothing has changed much to date. India’s advertisement industry and media continue to promote the idea of fairer complexions. Accordingly, most dark-skinned persons, particularly women, are desperately trying to look fair in order to avoid the stereotypes that are associated with dark skin. It is evident that colorism is a major issue in India, and is no doubt a contributory factor to racism.

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While it may be surprising to know that racism is a recurring problem in India, it is not easy to disregard that the Indian caste system has promoted the practice of discrimination across the country for centuries. The caste system has been significantly weakened since independence. In the preamble of the Indian constitution, negative discrimination on the basis of caste is forbidden. Nevertheless, case-based interactions and ranking continue to influence how Indians, particularly in the countryside and in the realms of marriage and kinship, relate with others in the community. Each caste represents a named, endogamous group for which membership is only achievable by birth (Dumont 248). It is part of a system of interdependence with other groups that are connected to complex networks that stretch across the entire country. There are hundreds if not thousands of castes and sub-castes in modern-day India all of which characterize a South-Asian social structure. The caste system was not designed to be inherently racial, but it does contribute to the conception of racial prejudice. Notably, the original definition of a caste describes it as a breed, race, or kind. Indians may refer to a caste as “Varna” which essentially symbolizes color (Cox 5). Castes were traditionally associated with occupation and class. For instance, the Brahmans (priests) were highly ranked, while farmers and artisans were moderately ranked. Barbers, potters, and carpenters received a low ranking while latrine, butchers, and launderers were considered as “untouchable” leatherworkers. Given that one’s caste system was acquired by birth, it meant that people in lowly ranked classes would remain subjugated in social disadvantage and poverty without the hope of redemption.

The topic of caste is considered taboo in cosmopolitan India and only shows up in “urban” conversations as part of an amusing cultural stereotype where people from high ranking castes are likened to financially sound people while the others are defined along their caste ranks. Certainly, the caste system has not left but merely gone silent. It has been linked to past injustices and created opportunities for members of the “high” class (Dumont 214). These racial quotas have snatched opportunities from various races and reinforced corruption in administrations. Many analysts claim that Indians are in denial of racism. In point of fact, the denial of caste discrimination amounts to colorblind racism (McDuie-Ra 2). The Gujarati riots of 2015 are a clear indication that class injustice has festered in lower caste communities. Back in 1991, an Indian news magazine reported that a person from a low caste in a village in southeast Delhi was punished by torture and hanging in front of 500 villagers after he was alleged to have had an affair with the daughter of a high-caste landlord.  Many more stories about prejudice against lowly ranked races have exposed the capacity of the caste system in fueling racial bigotry.

A lack of education of social matters is also a major cause of the current level of racism in India. Ignorance about other people often fuels stereotypes. For instance, since many Indians do not understand that Africa is a diverse continent and that all Africans are not the same in terms of color and behavior, they are usually susceptible to the notions they are presented at first. It is evident that many Indians associate Africa with Nigeria since there’s a large Nigerian population in India. An Indian may judge every other black person based on the behavior and opinions about Nigerians (Prabhu). This close-mindedness can be explained through collective rationalization or “group think” domination. Whatever one Indian thinks about a black person is bound to be embraced by other Indians around him or her. This is not surprising because biological traits of behavior show that the human brain is predisposed to be xenophobic towards strangers or anything that is foreign. Thus, closemindedness, accompanied by stereotypes, pressure toward uniformity, pressure on dissenters, and the illusion of invulnerability underlie India’s racism towards foreigners, specifically black people. The solution to this multiplicity of factors is adequate education on social matters.

Compared to San Francisco, India is far much worse in terms of racism. The Indian caste system has existed for such a long time that it has been assimilated in peoples psyche, further making inequalities that should be seen as horrifying otherwise a normal part of daily life. This is evident in the manner in which many Indians display a shocking degree of acceptance of caste limitations. Such widespread acceptance is less visible in urban areas but is much more visible as one moves from small towns to rural villages. Additionally, the caste system has been preserved over the years through a clever manner by ascribing actions of the past life as the determiners of the present life. All these, ironically, are based on the mere accident of birth. Initially, the caste system was built to sustain social order through hierarchical and hereditary means. On the other hand, San Francisco is much more virtuous when it comes to equality. In fact, the state is nowhere in the list of the top 50 most racist regions on the planet. Cases of racism in San Francisco are very rare, and this is partly attributed to the establishment of an equality-based governance system, education of the masses on racism, and a history of learning about the negative impacts of racism. However, both India and San Francisco are alike in that segregation in the former and racism in the latter malevolently twist the philosophies of purity to foster and retain unsound levels of cultural and social inequality.

U.S Invasion of Afghanistan was not Based on the 9/11 Attacks

The United States Invasion of Afghanistan has over the past decades caused many controversies as various journalists, architectures, engineers and overly American citizens questioned the narrative presented by the government on why the U.S and her NATO allies started the war in 2001. Initially, the Invasion is said to be a retaliation by the government against the infamous 9/11 attacks spearheaded by Al-Qaida terrorists who were at the time led by Osama Bin Laden. The U.S government therefore demanded the Afghan Government and the Taliban to hand over Osama Bin Laden but the latter refused and instead demanded evidence that would justify the expatriation of Osama Bin Laden. Due to the inconsistencies in the narrative provided by the U.S. as well as the questionable events before and after the Afghanistan war, this paper argues that the U.S Invasion of Afghanistan was not based on the 9/11 attacks but rather, the attacks made on U.S soil were premeditated as a means to justify the invasion by the United States Military.

Read also United States Involvement in Afghanistan War

First, the war in Afghanistan was initiated during President George W. Bush’s presidency in 2001. The war continued to the presidency of President Barack Obama and is currently a controversial subject in the current Trump presidency. During the Bush administration, the 9/11 attack was one of the largest and most historic terrorist attacks in U.S history as it made headlines across the world. The U.S government later announced that the attack was spearheaded by Osama Bin Laden, an Al Qaida leader based in Afghanistan. The Invasion of the Afghan country was therefore justified as a retaliation especially since the Taliban refused to hand Bin Laden to the U.S government. However, the diplomatic efforts lasted two weeks with a non-consensus as the U.S government demanded the release of Osama Bin Laden while the Taliban demanded proof that Al Qaida leader Bin Laden was responsible for the terror attack. The U.S government insisted on the handing over of Bin Laden, but failed to provide solid proof that the individual was actually responsible for the attack (Coll, 2004). 

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As is evident, the U.S government failed to provide proof and instead offered accusations tying the Al Qaida to other terrorist attacks in Africa. Whether the U.S lacked solid evidence or simply did not intend for diplomatic solutions is questionable as the U.S government, under President Bush declared war on Afghanistan. To date, the U.S government has never released evidence tying Osama Bin Laden and the Al Qaida to the 9/11 attacks.

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Secondly, the death of Osama Bin Laden in May 1, 2011 was not enough to pull the U.S military from Afghanistan. The U.S government managed to complete the ten-year mission which was to retaliate the 9/11 bombing as well as end the Taliban military capacity in Afghanistan but still did not pull out of the country after achieving its goal. This raises the question of whether the intended purpose of the Afghanistan invasion was a terrorism-related war. The United States pentagon officials later claimed to have discovered that Afghanistan had vast minerals, and therefore intended to help the country mine and access these minerals as a way to build and restore order to their country (Baker, 2018). The Afghan citizens are however hostile to the U.S military and consider their presence a threat to their peace and daily livelihoods. Research shows that the U.S military stay in Afghanistan led to increased resistance from the Afghans who join terrorist forces and are tagged as insurgents. These Insurgents fight the U.S military to push them out of their country but the U.S stays as unwanted guests.

Thirdly, the war in Afghanistan is on the 16th year and has left the Afghan citizens unstable and poor despite efforts to help use their rich minerals to stabilize the country. Evidently, the discovery of wealthy self-sufficient minerals in Afghanistan has attracted other parties like Russia and China (Bender et al. 2018).  All these countries have military involvement and this portrays the geo-political and corporate interference in the country. Presently, the war in Afghanistan is based on counter geo-political aspects wherein each prominent country wants dominance over the rich oil reservoirs and other wealthy minerals in the country. The projected narrative is however described as a war on terrorism, democracy and women’s rights.

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Individuals who believe that the U.S government was justified to invade and stay in Afghan for more than a decade base their concerns on the country’s efforts to fight terrorism. It is however, not right for a foreign country to demand the expatriation of a citizen without providing concrete evidence that justify the expatriation. The U.S government is also in a war with Afghanistan citizens whose motive is to simply chase the foreign military out of their country (Witte, 2018). Presently, the presence of the U.S military in Afghanistan has led to constant tensions and unwanted bombings, deaths and instability in the country but the U.S still fails to withdraw its forces from the country and ironically sends more troops each year to help with the Insurgent situation (Rall, 2002). 

Read also President Obama had the Authority to Execute Operation Geronimo

In conclusion, The Afghanistan war has an official narrative that justifies the Invasion by the U.S military. However, evident factors show the presence of ulterior motives that not only disapprove international laws but also go against basic human rights as the Afghan citizens suffer the consequences of a war that does not involve them. The war is founded on western dominance politics as there lacks evidence that ties Afghanistan to the 9/11 attacks. The continued stay of U.S military forces in Afghanistan is also unnecessary and a false excuse by the U.S government and other representative parties whose focus is the control of the rich oil and mineral reserves in the country.