United States’ Response Great Recession and Impact of Economic Policies Implemented on the Market

Over the past decade, governments globally have grappled with the enduring reverberations of the 2008 Great Recession. Politicians, particularly in the United States, suggested the execution of sound economic policies as the most effective response to this emerging challenge. Policymakers backed this proposition since tweaking government budget, revising terms of national ownership and taxation had been successful in the past when addressing the Great Depression. It was also crucial to respond promptly since the Great Recession had resulted in a steep economic decline evident in world markets. This paper, therefore, evaluates the United States’ response to this crisis and the impact of economic policies implemented on the market

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Major Problems of the “Great Recession

            The Great Recession began in early 2007, marking the beginning of tough economic times for the world market. The extreme of reduction in the amount of liquidity within the global financial market had particularly negative effects on the real-estate sector. Consecutive reductions in the prime rate observed from 2000 prompted banks to lower interest rates, which made it possible for thousands of customers to receive mortgage loans. However, the prime rates soon recorded an unexpected ascent which resulted in steep fall in home prices. Home owners were soon “underwater”, inadvertently owing more than they were worth. Banks also proceeded to participate in an interbank freeze which made it difficult for individuals and businesses to obtain credit to emerge out of their financial rut.  The operational capacity of major companies was also affected since they were forced to reduce outflow and investments. As a result, permanent layoffs became the norm and soon left an estimated 8.8 million Americans unemployed (Center on Budgets and Policy Priorities, 2019).

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The banking sector also came to grips with the reality facing a majority of leading financial institutions, leaving many with no other option but to apply for federal bailouts. Major automotive companies such as Chrysler eventually declared bankruptcy and had to agree to unfavorable bail-out terms forcing it to cede partial ownership to the government. Furthermore, a 2.5 percent increase in the poverty rate was experienced within the first 3 years and soon followed closely by the loss of wealth through stock prices (Bofinger et al., 2015). Many also took a long time to recover and counteract the adverse effects of this recession, resulting in prolonged economic difficulties for most American households.

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Monetary Policy as a Response to the Great Recession

            The Federal Reserve is required by law to implement a fitting monetary policy during periods of economic decline. This seemingly mundane action has been credited in the past with managing high rates of inflation and reducing unemployment.  The Federal Reserve set this course of action by setting a temporary interest rate to determine how cheap or expensive financial institutions can provide loans to each other. The presence of this low interest rate resulted in an increase in liquidity which is essential when starting a new business. This then resulted in new employment opportunities for individuals who had lost their jobs since 2007.

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The Federal Reserve also implemented quantitative easing which would eventually result in the establishment of a reserve kitty for leading financial institutions to aid the purchase of significant assets. It was through this technique that a substantial amount of finances were injected into the economy to stimulate growth. This monetary policy also placed special emphasis on targeting the 2 percent inflation rate as a significant alternative when seeking to help the economy to recover. The Federal Reserve was primarily targeting a return to price stability and an increase in employment opportunities. Open-market operations entailed the implementation of bilateral currency exchange agreements which would ultimately ensure that funding remains constant. Additionally, pressure was relaxed on long-term interest rates which also created favorable conditions for the purchase of long-term securities.

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The Implementation of Fiscal Policy

            Financial policy was also applied during the Great Recession by relying on the execution of financial stimulus plans.  Policy makers within the United States were quick to suggest the enactment of progressive tax cuts and austerity measures to boost their slumping economy. Most of the suggestions made were developed in reference to the Keynesian theory which suggested that discrepancies in government spending during periods of economic decline can help save resources.  The fiscal policy implemented would feature fiscal stimulus plans that targeted 2 percent of its gross domestic product (G.D.P).  In 2008, the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 was signed into law after being forwarded by Congress for approval. Close to $150 billion was injected into the economy and an implementation of tax rebates for a section of the population (Ódor, 2017). 

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Taxpayers below the tax rebate were eligible for a rebate, often equal to one’s net income tax liability. The use of direct deposits for refunds often resulted in a stimulus payment which went a long way in transforming the economic condition at the time as envisaged by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. It is also worth noting that the purpose of fiscal policy was to stimulate consumers and businesses to spend more, therefore contributing to economic growth. Legislators also addressed the subprime mortgage crisis by reducing barriers that hindered most mortgages from receiving government insurance.

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Goals of Fiscal and Monetary Policies Employed

            Fiscal and monetary policies were employed primarily to stabilize the cyclical fluctuations witnesses in the wake of the Great Recession.  Fiscal policies in the form of tax rebates and austerity measures served to maintain macroeconomic stability by promoting aggregate demand. Economic activities were also limited to occasions of strong and noticeable growth to manage fluctuations. Thus, economic agents could now make accurate predictions when presenting budgets for approval. Domestic demand would then be stabilized while promoting development within the market (Wessel, 2014, p. 54). On the other hand, monetary policy sought to increase the supply of money while maintaining price stability.  The implementations of monetary policy also focused on maintaining a stable rate of inflation which would ultimately promote macroeconomic stability.  This also meant that timely strategies were implemented to threats to price-stability.

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An Evaluation of the Successes of the Implemented Policies

            The implementation of the assortment of policies to manage the Great Recession enjoyed relative success within the United States. Tax rebates elicited the desired effect where stimulus payments motivated households to increase spending, therefore, prompting an upsurge in nondurable consumption.  The simple act of maintaining inflation at 2 percent resulted in a cumulative increase in the number of individuals employed by companies with ready access to liquidity. Furthermore, congress implemented the Consume Protection Act and Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform act to prevent the escalation of the economic decline while supporting quick recovery.


The 2008 Great Recession marked one of the most unexpected economic downturns in contemporary history. It posed numerous risks to the economy which featured a fall in house prices, unemployment, lack of access to loans and bankruptcy. The Unites States Congress responded by enacting  the Economic Stimulus Act of 2008 and American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 as appropriate fiscal and monetary policies. It was through the implementation of these sound economic policies that the United States was able to manage its market and chart a new course.

The Hollow Men by T.S. Elliot – Critical Analysis

A Critical Analysis of “The Hollow Men” by T.S. Eliot

            Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965) is regarded as one of the most influential poets of the 20th century.  He was born in the United States, but later moved to England in 1914 where he settled and became a renowned literary critic, poet and publisher. It was also here that he wrote “The Hollow Men” (1925) in which he explores overlapping themes ranging from his troubled marriage to Vivienne Haigh-Wood to post-war Europe after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. Eliot relied on a unique presentation technique, one of the primary reasons why his poems continue to enjoy global success.  It is for this reason that “The Hollow Men” is considered one of the most remarkable poems in modern history.  The following is a critical analysis of one of “The Hollow Men” to gain a better understanding of the author’s expertise and technique.

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            In writing this particular poem, Eliot sought to communicate with the reader by relying on its highly evocative nature. From the very onset, the author sets a distressing tone to highlight the desolation he had witnessed. The sorrowful nature of his presentation is just but a depiction of Eliot’s perception of the world around him during the first half of the 20th century and the challenges faced in Europe. It also highlights the environment where it was published and the prevailing emotions during this particular period. Eliot clearly takes this opportunity to use imagery to underscore the flaws that are inherent in humanity particularly during this period in history. So much so, that his version of events create a sense of detachment and indifference in the reader. Eliot uses this technique to evoke feelings of hopelessness and the void he felt living in post-war Europe. For instance, he makes particular mention of death throughout his poem to inform the reader about the dire nature of his immediate environment:

 “Those who have crossed…to death’s other kingdom” (White, Thomas).

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Furthermore, he expertly chooses words such as dry, hollow and desert to create mental images of the situation as he saw it. He animates the dead and paints a picture of desperate individuals struggling to cross over to the afterlife. It is quite impressive that Eliot made a direct reference to the desperation encountered during this period and how individuals readily surrendered to death devoid of the fear of confronting it alone.

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            Eliot is also an expert in using his characters to communicate matters of thematic importance to his audience.  One such technique involved using an admixture if symbolism and the use of descriptive language to relate key elements of his narration. The hollow men are described as individuals in a sorry state of affairs who have nothing more to look forward to rather than the destruction that follows death. They have lost all hope and seem to suggest that redemption is just but a fleeting dream. Eliot harnesses the power of symbolism by referring to the mythical Holy Grail using roses and individual’s eyes (Gale). While the main characters were noble individuals, they displayed signs of spiritual ignorance which sidetracked them from their purpose in life. They eventually had no firm belief system, which also meant that their lost their core reason for being. The rat’s coat and crow skin were both used to underscore this reality as symbols of death that awaited every individual.  Additionally, Eliot relies on repetition in his poem to reinforce his message and ensure that they ultimately gain a firm understanding of the subject matter.

            Moreover, at the crux of “The Hollow Men” is an imitable focus on human nature and the relationships that individuals share. Eliot uses short irregular rhymes and rhythms to aid in the creation of a masterpiece the likes of which had never been seen in the world of poetry.  The protagonists reside in timeless abode, which further promotes the ominous nature of the poem. All in all, Eliot still reflects a glimmer of hope by suggesting that a rebirth is possible and individuals can still attain a level of salvation. One of the hollow men is patiently waiting for the final carnage owing to the fact that he has made peace with its inescapable nature in life. Nevertheless, salvation does not seem far back which is why hope still remains for individuals who are spiritually blind. This represents a new age where individuals have an additional option regarding how to deal with instances of despair in their lives.  The recurrence of these Dantesque figures and their gatherings seem to refer to contemporary life and how humanity is currently living in a modern wasteland.            

In conclusion, “The Hollow Men” by T.S. Eliot was the author’s perspective on humanity and human nature. It focuses on the importance of forging lasting relationships and connection with one another. Eliot investigates the adverse effects of a lack of spiritual intention and ultimately reveals the suffering and torment the human soul is bound to go through.

Social Media, Body Cameras and Dash Cameras Altering Safety and Professionalism of Criminal Justice Professionals

Describe how social media, body cameras and dash cameras are altering the safety and professionalism of criminal justice professionals

Technology and innovation now play a major role within the criminal justice system. Its permeation within this sphere now means that it is capable of altering the safety and professionalism of criminal justice specialists. Although social media has been hailed globally as a novel innovation, it is a double-edged sword with far-reaching consequences. The advent of smartphone technology and the internet now allows citizens to record their encounters with law enforcement officers during routine stops (White & Malm, 2020).

This allows them to record real-time video of their interaction while making sure that the officer is made fully aware of this fact ensuring that all their actions are within legal bounds. On the other hand, individuals may also make recordings with malicious intent, posting them online and painting the officer in question in negative light. In such a scenario, the public may know little about the facts surrounding the case and proceed to openly castigate the officer. Such bias is now common across the United States and may, inadvertently, turn the public against law enforcement officers and even jeopardize their safety. Enraged motorists have been known to record traffic police during routine stops and even going as far as posting their name, badge number and address online. Such behavior complicates police work and may even put their lives in danger.

Correspondingly, body worn cameras (BWCs) and dash cameras are capable of affecting criminal justice professionals while on duty. These devices were initially introduced to hold suspects and law enforcement officers accountable for their actions (Moriarty, 2017). Generally, police officers have been known to apply the rules of professional conduct when their BWCs and dash cameras are turned on to provide appropriate evidence before a court of law. Major precincts across the United States are currently employing this technology to uphold standards of the criminal justice system and the integrity of officers.

Challenges Facing the Criminal Justice System in America in the Next Five Years – CJUS 330

Identify the three (3) most important challenges facing the criminal justice system in America in the next five (5) years. Describe why the challenges you have chosen should be of greatest concern to those working/ seeking to work in the field of criminal justice.

The criminal justice system grapples with a myriad of emerging challenges, chief among them being the danger posed by the Information Age, racial strife and overcrowding within state penitentiaries. The information Age marked a new era featuring the rise of the internet and permeation of social media platforms across varying spectrums of life. Although viewed by many as a positive development, social media is now identified as a major challenge facing the criminal justice system. Individuals have been known to abuse their freedom of speech while conversing with others online before going on to invoke the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States (III, 2010, p. 34). 

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Court proceedings require a great deal of resources during trial and the period leading up to final deliberations. Any action detrimental to this process may result in wasted resources with negative implication. For instance, citizens are currently capable of recording their encounters with law enforcement officers and posting them on various social media platforms. A seemingly simple action such as posting a video recording of the defendant before their day in court ultimately affects the entire fidelity of the process. Furthermore, it may affect the juror’s opinions since they would be influenced by external factors as opposed to legal instructions provided by the presiding judge. This type of bias, thus, goes a long way in influencing juror’s stance before the final verdict is given. Similarly, the racial tensions witnessed within the United States poses an immediate threat to the criminal justice system. Individuals from minority groups now have a deep distrust for law enforcement agencies due to a sudden rise in cases linked racial profiling.

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According to Hucklesby & Wahidin (2013), racial tensions impede the entire criminal justice system and the gains made within the past decade (p.34). It is for this reason that experts suggest community policing as viable alternative bound to improve relations across the board.  Also, the United States has the highest incarceration rate globally at 716 per 100,000 of its population (Prison Policy Initiative, 2019). Overcrowding is typical within state penitentiaries struggling to manage this ever-growing number. Although significant resources are allocated towards the management of these populations, numbers keep swelling posing a threat to the efficacy of the criminal justice system. Lengthy sentencing policies have resulted in a high incarceration rate, with a sizeable number of jails and prisons functioning well beyond their carrying capacity.

Management of Juvenile Detention Centers In United States

The introduction of the modern-day Juvenile Detention Centers (JDCs) represents one of the most integral additions to the criminal justice system within the United States. This introduction now meant that a clear and independent system was formulated to transform the behavior of youthful offenders, ultimately redeeming them from harsher punitive measures by criminal courts.  This marked the beginning of a novel criminal justice system with the primary objective of transforming the demeanor of individual offenders and making certain that their personal needs are met. The application of a juvenile-centered approach now meant that professionals were consulted to provide advice regarding the best possible intervention by identifying the cause of their social and psychological problems (Bortner & Williams, 2012).

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JDCs were established in direct response to crime-infested inner cities in the United States and the risk posed to vulnerable youth. Over the past decade, the juvenile correctional system has been transmuted from an instrument for the enforcement appropriate punishment to rehabilitation centers with the primary aim of correcting offender’s destructive patterns of behavior. This generic management system is applied within juvenile detention centers (JDCs) in the United States while adhering to specific principles outlined in the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974. An in-depth evaluation of the management framework employed within juvenile detention centers is, therefore, crucial when endeavoring to gain a better understanding of the legal and policy management reforms introduced by the aforementioned legislation.

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Major Aspects of Juvenile Corrections

Effective management is regarded as an invaluable element of JDCs regardless of their size or purpose.  Operations and administration within JDCs are typically linked to their success when endeavoring to meet the needs of residents within these facilities. JDCs function in an environment that has been known to transform rapidly, which is why facility operations are based upon a clear vision. Core beliefs and values guide staff members within the facilities as they strive to transform the behavior of troubled youth deserving a second chance (“Juvenile Detention Centers,” 2014). Facility operations are also conducted in a restricted environment where youthful offenders are held in safe custody and accorded helpful services to aid in their transformation. These operations are the first line of defense when seeking to change the behavior of at-risk offenders and ultimately shield them from being institutionalized in the future. JDCs also function as an adjutant family where troubled youth can be nurtured by caring staff to ensure they become appreciated members of society. Offenders are made aware of viable alternatives that exist and the importance of making informed choices to transform their behavior (Meyer, 2015). Administrators also make certain that non-intrusive methods are applied while referring to a framework that is culturally sensitive. They recognize the challenges faced by the youth but also develop a workable scheme using professionals within the system to support efforts grounded in evidence-based research (Taylor & Fritsch, 2014). It is through this approach that procedures and policies within the facility are ultimately transformed. One of the primary responsibilities of the administration in JDCs is addressing any challenge originating from the external environment. Issues such as overcrowding and inadequate resources are addressed from this management level by relying on an assortment of tools at their disposal. Administrators rely sound planning, non-secure alternatives and a clear admission criteria which then makes it possible for operations to be conducted within the facility.

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            Operations and management are also applied suitably within JDCs to fulfill their mandate of handing down appropriate punitive measures to youthful offenders. Deuteronomy 21: 18-21 is uncompromising about respect within any ordered society and measures that should be taken to deal with any infraction. Individuals who disregard advice given by their parents are to be chastised and brought before the elders of the city. JDCs are a modern-day equivalent of this intervention technique where all the methods applied signify the relationship between the facility and the criminal justice system. Although JDCs grapple with a myriad of challenges, facilities surmount them by building coalitions with communities and organizations to address shortcomings. Furthermore, effective management practices entail formulating comprehensive standards and procedures to bolster the quality of services offered.   Managers also routinely evaluate the facility’s set objectives to make sure it performs at optimum level which enables planning for the future (Lebrun, 2011).

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Programs applied within JDCs are also subject to regular monitoring to ensure that key actors are persons of integrity. This also provides room and opportunities for acquisition owing to a demonstration of superior management skills and proper allocation. Similarly, hiring competent staff maintains a set standard which ultimately assures actors within the criminal justice system of the quality of services provided within JDCs. Special skills are commonly identified during the hiring process to recruit individuals with appropriate expertise which will benefit the organization. Evaluating and planning also occupies a large portion of a manager’s daily routine. They do so with the intention of improving the facility and future functions. This entails an in-depth evaluation of the relationship that exists between the organization and its immediate environment. The relationship between parole agencies and placement is assessed to review the predictability of admission within the facility. An evaluation of internal processes is also fundamental in assessing the current population of offenders housed within the facility and whether the activities implemented support original goals.

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Rules and Regulations

The sentencing of youthful offenders often means that they are condemned to an assigned JDC where they serve time for crimes committed.  An individual’s stay at the detention center may also be the result of an awaited court date after committing a crime. The criminal justice system plays a fundamental role in enforcing punitive measures to address the behavior of delinquent youth. According to Proverbs 22:15, parents and guardians are required to act swiftly to punish a child when they stray from teachings.  This rule is applicable in the case of JDCs for they detain youth suspected or guilty of an offence.  JDCs are governed by a set of rules and regulations that govern the mode of operation within facilities.

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For instance, strict visitation hours and days are provided to limit detainee’s interaction with outsiders.  Some facilities follow a strict code that only permits parental visitations. Individuals allowed into the facilities are expected to provide a valid state driver’s license with valid photo identification. As a rule of thumb, all personal property is handed in, only to be returned after the visit. Phone calls are also arranged by the facilities to ensure that detainees can contact their guardian or lawyer to arrange bond. JDCs require detainees to place collect calls which are then accepted by the individual receiving the call. The facility also has the power to revoke this right if an inmate uses obscenities or makes calls to harass key witnesses (Roberson, 2016, p. 89). Inmates can also receive mail during their stay at the facility. Nevertheless, they are still subjected to a thorough screening process to check for contraband items such as drugs and money. JDCs generally prohibit pornographic material, books with fundamentalist ideologies and instructional material.  During admission, all personal possessions are seized by the detention center and stored in a secure location. Inmates are also expected to attend school during their stay at the facility during the regular school calendar.

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The construction of JDCs also follows a strict code. Typically, they should be located in a geographical location close to law enforcement agencies, courts and family members. They are also expected to follow local, state and federal laws when admitting inmates and visitors. This rule ensures that all buildings within the facility are capable of housing staff and inmates with physical disabilities. Facilities also contain an indoor activity area, dining space, exercise yard and sleeping quarters. Regulations governing detention facilities also require them to have a written policy describing its purpose and the services offered (National Research Council et al., 2013, p. 89). The presence of a manual ensures that written policies are concisely communicated to employees and inmates alike. Additionally, the chain of command is a key factor in the day-to-day functioning of facilities. It outlines the lines of authority which should be followed at any given time for the purpose of accountability.  Facility and court personnel are also assigned specific roles based on their qualifications and job descriptions.  JDCs also maintain a daily report to keep track of all every inmate interned in the facility. Demographic information is then recorded in addition to specific case managers assigned to specific inmates. Facilities also refer to a management protocol indicating the procedures that should be followed when inspecting equipment. This ensures that replacements and repairs can be made in a timely fashion without the need for continual supervision. Staff members are also required to follow the rules and regulations governing their conduct with detainees. Inappropriate contact is prohibited and reported to appropriate authorities as soon as it is reported. Staff members in question will be subjected to strict disciplinary action which may include imprisonment or dismissal. JDCs are also required to conduct a thorough background check on potential candidates seeking employment opportunities to verify their competencies and qualifications.

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Careers within Juvenile Detention Centers (JDCs)

JDCs require an admixture of individuals from different professions to make sure that operations run smoothly while being able to transcend over any emerging challenge. A myriad of career opportunities for leaders, educators and fitting staff members exist within the wider management framework implemented within JDCs. Individuals seeking to pursue a career within JDCs are required to work with the department of juvenile justice to gather the appropriate expertise. Numerous career options exist for any individual who may want partner with the juvenile justice department. As a rule of thumb, any individual seeking to pursue a career in this field should have a high school diploma as a basic requirement. Similarly, they may also hold a bachelor’s degree in social work. Fulfilling these requirements often increases the chances of being hired a permanent employee and advancing as a specialist.

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One of the most common career options is as a juvenile correctional officer. This position allows staff members to interact directly will all inmates during their stint within the facility. Additionally, a juvenile correctional officer’s duties may extend to drug treatments when dealing with inmates with substance abuse issues. It is here that their expertise as social workers comes in handy; allowing them to gain the youths trust, which eventually increases the chances of success. They also protect inmates and actively participate in ensuring that all relevant rules and procedures are enforced. Juvenile correctional officers also conduct regular checks within the facilities while ensuring that they report any instance of unbecoming behavior witnessed. This information is then relayed to juvenile correctional counselors who may then use it during their final assessment. Opportunities are also available, within the criminal justice system, for individuals to serve as juvenile correctional counselors. These are correctional treatment specialists who assess the behavior of juveniles who have already been sentenced to serve time. They develop an action plan for the best course of action during the process of rehabilitation within the facility.

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Juvenile correctional counselors work in tandem with probation and correctional officers to develop a series of programs aimed at improving the condition of individual convicts. They support inmates seeking to transform their behavior to avoid a path that leads to crime. Parole and probation officers are also an integral part of the juvenile justice department. They are involved directly juvenile youth who have made noticeable improvements while in the facility and can now return to society. Probation officers monitor former inmates to ensure they participate in rehabilitation programs and transform their lives for the better (Schwartz, 2014, p. 56).  Moreover, the mentor troubled youth in a bid to create a sense of structure in their lives, therefore, keeping them away from criminal activity. Parole officers commonly accompany juvenile offenders to therapy session to aid them when seeking to make important changes in their lives. Juvenile defense attorneys are an integral part of the criminal justice system. They work directly with juvenile offenders and represent them during legal proceedings. Juvenile defense lawyer disseminate information about punishment and rehabilitation to offenders to ensure they have a firm understanding of all the particulars. They prepare their clients emotionally for what may transpire during their time in court facing the prosecutor. Juvenile defense attorneys are heavily invested in their client’s cases so that they get the best possible outcome and appeal outcomes that may be deemed unfair (Bergman & Berman, 2018, p. 45). Competent staff members have a better opportunity of advancing in their respective careers as opposed to uninvolved counterparts. Conscientious individuals, thus, play a key role in the management of tasks and training of staff with the purpose of expanding JDCs.

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Juvenile detention centers (JDCs) represent an integral part of the criminal justice system. They were officially established by the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 which created provisions for the establishment of a facility for youthful offenders. An evaluation of the management framework reveals an intricate framework to make sure legal and policy reforms are introduced appropriately and at the right time. Management and operations are major aspects of Juvenile Detention Centers in a bid to promote proper functioning. Furthermore, JDCs are also guided by a set of rules and regulations governing facilities. This ensures that professionals working in the facilities are governed by a set of succinct rules and can later progress in their careers.

Impact of Grassroots Policy Initiatives and Role of Nurse Leaders in Improving Health Outcomes

Over the past eight weeks, I have learned a great deal about the impact of grassroots policy initiatives and role of nurse leaders in improving health outcomes. I now have an in-depth comprehension of the significance of grassroots policy initiatives and how they impact barriers to practice. One of the meaningful key points elucidated during this course is the fundamental nature of policy advocacy within the health care profession. It essentially functions with the primary purpose of introducing positive changes within the practice by identifying areas where meaningful transformations are required. Policy advocacy entails transforming the environmental aspects of healthcare in a bid to support nurses when performing their duties (Medicine & Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing; at the Institute of Medicine, 2011).

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By so doing, healthcare facilities are bound to provide the highest quality of care while making certain that patient outcomes are improved. Grassroots policy initiatives also probe issues of concern affecting nurses when performing their duties within healthcare facilities. Results gathered from such initiatives are then utilized when formulating improved policies and community-based programs capable of advancing the quality of healthcare (Rebecca M. Patton; DNP; RN; CNOR; FAAN et al., 2014). Furthermore, I now realize that nurses play an integral role within this intricate system. It is they who actively participate in such initiatives with their primary goal of implementing viable solutions to improve healthcare. Medical practitioners, interested parties and key stakeholders also play a significant role within grassroots policy initiatives (Mason et al., 2013, p. 45).

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They actively influence key state actors to liaise with social institutions with the ultimate goal of improving healthcare across the board. For instance, clinicians can partner with legislators to discuss specific public health issues. My research resulted in a discussion of Ro Khan Khanna and his H.R.5223 – Health Care Workplace Violence Prevention Act (115th Congress 2017-2018).  Rep. Khanna’s initiative is an example of how legislators can advance the cause by developing workable blueprints crucial when seeking to transform healthcare.

Successful Change Initiative Vs Failed Change Initiative

This paper locates and discusses a scholarly article that describes a successful change initiative and a failed change initiative within an organization. Compare and contrast the implementation theories used for the change events discussed in the two articles. Provide a summation of what could have been done to make the failed initiative a success.

Successful Change at General Motors

The successful change article reviews a successful change initiative in General Motors (GM). According to the article GM was established in 1908 and became the largest motor manufacturing company in the globe in 1920. Since then the company dominated the motor industry until when Toyota Japan emerged and disturbed the company profitability particularly in the Northern American market in the late 90s. GM started experiencing sales decline in 2001 and faced a bankruptcy threat in 2009, an experience that triggered the need for change and restructuring. According to the article, change does not just happen, but it is mostly triggered by forces that give an organization the reason for the change.

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In GM change was triggered by external forces that include competition from Total Japan and internal forces that prompted the need for cost management by reducing high expenses such as wage costs. The article notes that GM was by then paying $74 per hour while Toyota was paying $44 per hour which was quite expensive and was highly fueled by an agreement with trade union (Khan & Hashim, 2014). Having identified reasons for change, the company had to decide on the forms of change to be adopted. The main selected areas included cost change, cultural change, structural change, and process change. The change took place in steps with the first step being cost management. This involved lowering the cost of some brands and reducing workers’ pay.  The company changed its culture by eliminating two board teams that were being consulted in the decision-making process, as a way of speeding up the decision-making process.

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The company also changed the culture to enhance employees’ efficiency and accountability as a way of making workers more responsible. The GM change encountered a number of challenges that included trade union resistance to wages cut and reducing of capacity level, and reduction in workers satisfaction in cultural change as it adopted a top-down approach rather than a down-up approach. The company addressed this by empowering workers by introducing down top approach in tailoring. Despite the challenges the company managed to reduce its workers by over 50% and attained a good outcome in cultural change, by creating a culture where workers are more aware of their responsibility and are highly accountable. Workers are also highly empowered to offer improved productivity (Khan & Hashim, 2014).    

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Failed Change Initiative at Saudi Telecommunication Company

The failed change initiative article analyses a change situation in Saudi Telecommunication Company (STC) that was established in 1998. STC was operating in the most dynamic industry in the world. In this regard, the company felt the need to change constantly to keep its activities aligned with changes in the market. However, the realization of the need to change does not guarantee the ability to successfully manage the change process. The article does not clearly discuss the process of change in the STC. However, it clearly notes that the change processes failed to give the anticipated outcome. A survey conducted by the researchers clearly indicated that some of the reasons for failures included lack of effective change management team, lack of planning and change resources, lack of communication, and poor support by the management of the company (Franklin & Aguenza, 2016). The company was also said to have experienced strong resistance to change from its 17000 workers. Some of the reasons identified for this strong resistance included lack of clarity, imposing change by force, fear for the future state, various changes taking place simultaneously, and workers status quo. A number of workers also cited a lack of understanding of the change reason as another aspect that initiated resistance (Franklin & Aguenza, 2016).  

Comparison of the Implementation Theories Used for Change Events

Khan and Hashim (2014) used two implementation theories that included Lewins three steps change model involving unfreezing, movement and refreezing. The article points out the importance of making necessary changes during the movement stage after unfreezing the status quo in the organization to defeat or eliminate the pressure of group conformity and individual resistance. The refreezing process was meant to make the adopted changes permanent in the organization, and stabilizing change measures through restraining forces and balancing driving. The other implementation theory exercised in this article is Kotters eight-step plan which include creating a sense of urgency and reason a change is required, creating adequate power to lead the change, generating new vision that direct the change and strategies for attaining the vision, vision communication, empowering others to act on the vision, short-term rewards, progressive improvement and adjustments where necessary, and change reinforcement. The two theories played a great role in enhancing the change success in the GM (Khan & Hashim, 2014).

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On the contrary, Franklin and Aguenza (2016) article did not have any change implementation theories. The article only discusses different types of changes but does not clearly identify the type of change employed in STC, unless all forms of change were affected simultaneously. Although the article supports the presence of resistance to change just like in Khan and Hashim (2014), it does not give any clear measures or strategies to be employed to overcome this resistance. The change process in STC was characterized by a number of loopholes from how it was planned and how it was conducted. There is a clear lack of plan and proper change management in the company. It is also clear that employees were not effectively involved in the process, making it hard to overcome change resistance.

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Making Failure Initiative a Success

Some of the measures that can be employed to enhance the change process in STC can include the use of the two change implementation theories adopted in GM. The use of Lewins three steps change model and Kotters eight-step plan will help in preparing the group for change and successful implementation of change. Lewins three steps change model will assist in eliminating the status quo, which is the main reason for resistance. Kotter’s eight-step plan will ensure that the organization is only engaged in the change process after workers understand the need for change and the urgency involved. It also ensures that the organization has a strong team to lead change which includes influential individuals who believe in the change. The plan offers clear guidance on the change process, the motivation of stakeholders involved, and effective communication which are some of the things that lacked in the STC changes (Khan & Hashim, 2014).

Read also Leading Organizational Change – Assignment And Sample Solution

Adam Smith – Influential Eighteenth-Century Political Economist

Adam Smith (1723-1790) is arguably one of the most influential political economists in modern history. He lived through the Scottish Enlightenment where he was accorded a unique opportunity to share his political, economic and moral philosophy. During this period, Smith also embarked on a scholarly quest with the intention of introducing his works and theories. Today he is remembered for authoring An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776), an in-depth investigation of modern economic systems and their influence on societies. Smith is also credited with developing the contemporary concept of division of labor, the classical free market economic theory the rationale behind improving economic prosperity. It is, therefore, fundamental to evaluate Smith’s contribution to economics and perspective on the proper role of government.

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Adam Smith, a very influential eighteenth-century political economist, wrote, “By pursuing his own interest, he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it” (cited in Stiglitz & Rosengard, 2015, p. 62). Considering the quotation, in 1,250

What Smith Meant by the “invisible hand” and it functions?

Adam Smith is recognized for introducing the so-called “invisible hand” concept.  The idea first appeared in his magnum opus, The Wealth of Nations, to refer to the unintentional social benefits of using a free market economy.  It is also grounded on the notion that individual’s actions based self-interests may, inadvertently, result in a myriad of social advantages for society as a whole. Smith’s proposition had direct links to aspects of production and the use of labor within the domestic industry to bolster economic success. Trade and market are thought to be mutually exclusive (Galbraith, 2017). Their interaction, thus, results in effects that are socially desirable to a particular nation as outlined in the neoclassical school of economic thought. Smith was particularly critical of government interference and regulation within the economy. He suggested a free-market as a measure to counter any unforeseen circumstances which may eventually result in a financial recession. Smith was also of the opinion that government intervention and regulation were unnecessary. It was for this very reason that he believed that society would benefit more in an environment where government was at the periphery and allowed individuals to actively participate in a free economy. Although done with noble intentions, government regulation was ineffective and harmful to society. Smith’s concept of the invisible hand made it possible for consumers to engage in the free purchase of goods while producers were also expected to sell their wares freely (Rothschild, 2013). Prices within the market will then be adjusted systematically to suit the needs of the general population. In nations where the government did not interfere in the market, production was done efficiently and in a manner that attracted investors and maximized their returns. It also created conditions where utility could be maximized by society. Thus, the collective desires of society interact freely to accomplish production, an inflow of capital and ready availability of goods and services. 

How Smith’s work is a Reaction to Mercantilism, which Dominated the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries. As a point of departure, define mercantilism.

Smith’s work is also widely regarded as reaction to mercantilism which had dominated the world market during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Mercantilism espouses economic nationalism with the primary goal of ultimately forming a strong and wealthy state.  Smith’s work was a reaction to this idea of political economy that was applied by major European powers at the time (Berry et al., 2013, p. 45).  Countries would amass wealth by limiting imports from other nations while encouraging exports.  The basis of this idea lay in that nations wanted to secure their wealth through the introduction of gold and silver while creating employment opportunities for locals. Smith openly criticized the mercantile system for its failure to introduce cumulative gains for consumers while serving the interests of wealthy merchants. It also consolidated regional powers, leading to economic competitions which eventually resulted in imperialism and colonialism. Military skirmishes between nation-states were also common during the era of mercantilism in Europe.

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Nation states were hell-bent on implementing expansionist policies to make sure that they could support their large standing militaries and dominate their contemporaries. Mercantile classes also influenced governments to fashion economic policies which would benefit them and their enterprises. Smith critiqued this consequential relationship since it introduced an imbalance where policies were specifically introduced to shield merchants from foreign competition. Mercantile policies also involved capital from governments and a direct involvement in the creation of monopolies. The imposition of quotas and tariffs also benefitted the local industry by reducing competition. Furthermore, Adam Smith was critical of mercantilism for it measured the wealth of a nation based on its treasury. To him, nations were better off focusing on improving trade since it had direct benefits to all parties involved.  The collusion between government and industry prevalent during this period was also dangerous since it reduced efficiency with no social benefit.

Did 19th-century thinkers agree with Smith. How did, for instance, Karl Marx view the doctrine of laissez-faire? What were the inevitable consequences of such an economic system?

Although Smith’s ideas were widely accepted during the 19th century, he was criticized by leading thinkers such as Karl Marx.  The bone of contention lay in Smith’s proposition that, in an ideal state, individuals would strive to maximize societal improvement. Consumers will, thus, be driven by a products benefit to society when making purchases (McLean, 2006).  In an ideal society, producers would sell items for a price closer to their overall cost of production. A lack demand or surplus would result in limited government role within the entire economic system. Karl Marx was critical of this approach and suggested capitalistic tendencies of this fashion would eventually result in the exploitation of workers.

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The system would also benefit the rich while disadvantaging the poor and segmented individuals in society. Marx further believed that the value of good service is directly attributed to the labor force behind its production. Contrary to Smith’s idea of society, Marx posited that only two classes exist- the bourgeoisie and the proletariat. He believed capitalism did not offer a chance for transformation and societal improvement, which is why individuals would remain in their respective classes. Smith was also trusted in capitalism as the ideal economic system for any society. Marx was against this idea since the lasses-faire doctrine would encourage individualistic tendencies and ultimately lead to social injustice.

Discuss the influences of Smith and his critics, like Marx, reflected in the mixed economy of the United States today.

Smith had a massive influence, typically reflected in the mixed economy presently adopted by the United States.  He introduced the free market philosophy which underscored the importance of minimizing government regulation and intervention. In the United States, the government now limits its involvement and the application intervention policies to steer economic progress (Skousen, 2015, p. 34).

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The idea of the invisible hand is also applied by the United States by avoid influencing the forces of supply and demand. Additionally, Smith’s ideas resulted in the large-scale adoption of the assembly-line production method in the United States.  It resulted in the division of labor and overall effectiveness at the workplace. The United States also refers to the gross domestic product (GNP), a metric introduced by Smith, which has revolutionized importing and exporting.

Best Universities In The USA To Study Online Programs

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed our day-to-day routines. We have had to adapt. Amidst all the uncertainty, you may still want to get your Diploma, Bachelor’s, Masters or Ph.D., and you are as uncertain about most things as the world is. The Education sector has also had to adapt.

Online programs are the best option in our current situation to get the ball rolling as far as your education is concerned. 

You are probably wondering:

  • Will I still be marketable in the workforce with a degree or certificate attained online?
  • Is studying online more costly or cheaper than attending classes physically?
  • And most importantly, which are the best Universities to earn your certificate via an online program?

In previous years, studying through online programs has been considered an option for long-distance students and working people whose work and class schedules conflict. In our current situation, online programs are a necessity. 

  • Will I still be marketable in the workforce with a degree or certificate attained online?

A certificate earned online is as good as one obtained in class. You should, nevertheless, look out for whether or not the institution you attend online is accredited. However, with the many colleges across the country, it is wise to choose the best ones. 

Being in the best online colleges will give you an added advantage over people who studied online in just a college offering online programs. Online programs or online courses are the same as those done in classes. The difference is, online programs are more convenient and flexible. It could suit your particular lifestyle.

  • Is studying online more costly or cheaper than attending classes physically?

Variations in tuition fees depend on the particular online programs and the university. We have highlighted some of them respectively in the universities below. 

  • And most importantly, which are the best Universities in the USA to study online programs?

Strayer University

Strayer University is a private, learning institution established in 1892. Over the years, the university has enrolled over 50,000 students globally through its online programs. It has its headquarters in Washington DC, with 76 campuses located in 15 states. 

Strayer specializes in degree programs for working adults. Currently, they have an offer for spring classes starting April 5th in which students enrolling for a Bachelor’s program are getting a laptop pre-loaded with Microsoft software.

Strayer’s online programs are many. You have to head on to their website strayer.edu/online-degrees to go through the entire list. Popular fields include online programs featuring Bachelors in Business related programs, Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, Bachelor of Science in Criminal Justice, DevMountain courses, Digital Entrepreneurship, Health Sciences, Jack Welch programs, Joe Gibbs certificates, MBAs, Masters in Education, Masters in Health Service Administration, among others. 

All the online programs offered at Strayer University are accredited. Again, note that they have 50,000 students enrolled globally through the online programs. That is a testament to the excellent quality of their online programs. 

The tuition fee for the fall of 2019 was $1,480 per course for the Full and Part-Time degree programs and $1,480 for the Full and Part-Time Associates degrees. They may opt to update the fee structure, so stay updated on their official website strayer.edu/online-degrees.

Grand Canyon University 

GCU is a for-profit private, Christian University established in 1949. In 2018 they ranked, the largest Christian University based on enrollment. The university offers a variety of accredited online degree programs. 

They include Bachelors’ and Master’s online programs such as; Bachelor of Arts in Advertising and Graphic Design, Bachelor of Arts in Christian Studies, Master of Arts in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Master of Arts in Christian Leadership, Master of Arts in Communication, Master of Arts in Curriculum Instruction.

Grand Canyon University also offers online doctoral programs such as Doctor of Business Administration: Data Analytics, Doctor of Business Administration: Management, and Doctor of Business Administration: Marketing among many other Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral programs. 

All GCU online programs are fully accredited which helps in giving an edge when employers assess your papers. The university has also dedicated itself to providing online education with as good quality as traditional education. 

The requirements are a critical factor to GCU as they are to potential employers. Their online programs require the same credits as traditional programs. 

The tuition fees vary depending on the program of study. The range for all the online undergraduate programs is $395 to $470 per credit hour. Graduate classes range from $365 to $695. The rates apply to students interested in pursuing online degree programs or evening classes. 

University of Phoenix 

The University of Phoenix is a for-profit online college founded in 1976. The university has an open-enrollment admission policy meaning they accept all applicants with a high-school diploma, GED, or its equivalent as sufficient admission. UoPX is the largest recipient of federal GI Bill tuition benefits for military veterans. 

UoPX offers Bachelor’s, Doctoral, Competency-based programs, Associate’s Degree, Certificates, and Master’s online programs covering diverse fields like Business, Behavioral Sciences, Education, Healthcare, Technology, Criminal Justice, and Psychology.

All the online programs offered at the University of Phoenix are accredited. As stated above the requirements to apply for courses are a GED, High-school Diploma, or an equivalent. 

For Undergraduates and Associate’s Degrees, you pay $398 per credit as the tuition fees. For Master’s programs, you pay $698 per credit and for the Doctoral programs, you pay $810 tuition fees. The university has a platform on its website to apply for federal financial aid, military or veteran benefits, employer assistance, and other scholarships. For more information about the University of Phoenix online programs click on this link phoenix.edu.

American Public University System

American Public University System (APUS) is a private, also for-profit, online learning institution consisting of American Military University (AMU), American Public University (APU), and Hondros College of Nursing. The university was established in 1991 and is owned by American Public Education, Inc. a publicly traded private-sector corporation. 

The application process requires you to review APUS policies and declare your academic goal during your online application for admission. Remember they majorly focus on a particular niche of individuals. 

APUS’s most popular online programs include undergraduate programs in Intelligence Studies, Sports and Health Sciences, Homeland Security Cybersecurity, Information Technology, Criminal Justice, Emergency and Disaster Management, Nursing, Business Administration, and Management. The catalog explains their military branch. They also offer graduate programs in similar fields. Their curriculum has an emphasis on educating the nation’s military and public service communities.

Their tuition fees vary but the average rates are $285 or $250 with a military grant per credit for undergraduate courses and $370 without the military grant, $250 with a military grant per credit for Master’s programs. For more information on the tuition fees structure and doctoral tuition fees visit https://www.apus.edu/tuition/index

The University of St. Thomas 

The University of St. Thomas is a private, Catholic university located in ST. Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota. The institution was founded in 1885. They offer high-quality education in various fields. Annually, the University of St. Thomas enrolls 6,100 undergraduate students who are referred to as “Tommies”. 

Their online program focuses on participation. Thus students in online programs are included in live discussions, watching thought-provoking videos, listening to speakers, and collaborating with classmates. Online programs offered include undergraduate programs in Business, Catholic Studies, Education, Engineering, Law, and Social Work. 

Qualification varies for different programs and you can click on this link to get more information on the respective online program you may be interested in, https://www.stthomas.edu/academics/online-learning/.

Their tuition fees are averaged as $ 1,433 per credit for Undergraduate programs, $23,637 per term for Undergraduate banded rates for 12-18 credits. For more info on tuition fees hit this link https://www.stthomas.edu/businessoffice/resources/tuition2122/

Honorable Mention: Penn Foster College.

Penn Foster College is a private, for-profit college whose headquarters are in Scranton, Pennsylvania. The college was founded in 1890 as International Correspondence schools and is now a 100% online college. 

Penn Foster’s online programs are all asynchronous meaning you can start them any time. Penn Foster is accredited by the Distance Education Accrediting Commission (DEAC).  Undergrad, Associates Degrees, and Undergraduate certificates offered are from the following fields; Automotive, Creative Design, Education, Engineering, Technology, Legal Studies, Trade, Health Services, and they also have high-school programs to get your GED. 

They accept international students.

Their tuition fees vary with the respective courses. They do have offers such as the $2 a day offer. For more info on their tuition fee structure, you can check out their website https://www.pennfoster.edu/college

Studying online gives you the flexibility to still work or do other things while earning your certificate. Online programs are the future of learning. You can earn a Bachelor’s, Master’s, or and even your Doctorate from the institution of your choice and suit your schedules without having to break bank traveling. 

Biosensors and Wearable Health Trackers

The Impact of Innovation in Healthcare

Write a 260- to 350-word article that reviews a recent innovation in health care and its impact on existing systems (e.g., first- and second-movers, wearables, printed organs, genetic testing).

Biosensors and Wearable Health Trackers

The human body typically alerts us to numerous aspects related to our health. However, many of these valuable signals remain virtually unnoticed.  It is this reality that has now prompted scientists to look for viable solutions in technological innovations to enable them track body signals, manage disease and improve health. This article will, therefore, review biosensors and wearable trackers as recent innovations in healthcare and their impact on existing systems.

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The Rise of Biosensors and Wearable Health Trackers in the Healthcare Industry

            Biosensors represent a class of analytical health monitors that are now common within the sector. They function by sensing chemical substances in the body using an in-built system of physicochemical detectors.  They are typically made up of a bio-recognition area, processor and display. Biosensors rely on bio-receptors to probe and analyze the biological system which comes in handy when seeking to highlight any anomalies. Sensitive biological elements such as nucleic acids, tissues and organelles are routinely analyzed to determine their actual quantity within the body (Barlow 2016). Manufactures now design custom-designed biosensors with the primary aim of ensuring that they serve a specific purpose with regard to an individual’s health. Health trackers, on the other hand, are activity monitors which measure various metrics related to fitness. They monitor the heart rate, calories burned and the distance walked within a day. Wearable health devices are now synonymous with smartwatches which are now applied as fitness trackers.

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The Impact of Biosensors and Wearable Health Trackers on Existing Systems

            Biosensors and wearable health trackers have undoubtedly had a considerable impact on existing systems. Medical practitioners and researchers alike now rely upon this innovation to improve the quality of health care provided to individuals while bolstering the quality of existing systems. According to Higson (2017), biosensors have revolutionized the healthcare system speeding up patient’s test results while actively monitoring the human body through complex wireless-sensing technologies (p.14). For instance, healthcare facilities routinely use temperature-sensitive thermometers which apply the latest advances in technology to detect even the slightest of changes. Biosensors and wearable health devices have also reduced the need to travel considerable distances to healthcare facilities for medical tests. Home pregnancy tests detect pregnancy hormones contained in urine and a reliable technological innovation. This saves the time and money spent at the doctor’s office while also, inadvertently, reducing congestion within the healthcare system.

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            The introduction of biosensors and wearable health trackers is a welcome addition within the healthcare system which can be harnessed to help persons living in remote regions. It is now possible to integrate these technologies with smartphones, therefore providing a convenient health monitoring system. Additionally, the healthcare system benefit from this introduction since it now enables clinicians to accurately monitor the health condition of patients. The blood-oxygen monitor is one of the best examples of this innovation.  Healthcare practitioners benefit from the concise readings provided which can detect the slightest drop in oxygen levels, allowing them to respond swiftly (Mukhopadhyay, 2015). Similarly, wearable health trackers are currently used to improve health outcomes in individuals. They have been applied extensively in managing the weight of obese individuals by providing an accurate assessment of their current health status. These results, thus, become useful when developing healthy routines such as regular exercise and a balanced diet.


            Biosensors and wearable health trackers are recent technological innovations that have left an impression on existing healthcare systems. They now allow patients and medical practitioners to manage diseases by tracking body signals with the ultimate aim of improving health outcomes. Biosensors and wearable trackers represent the future of healthcare which is primarily why it is critical for researchers to improve the existing technology.