Interventions for Adult and Juvenile Sex offenders

For many years, therapeutic interventions for juvenile sex offenders were similar to those for adult sex offenders. However, research advances in developmental, motivational and behavioral differences in juvenile and adult sex offender have resulted in the development of interventions that are more responsive to the diversity of sexual offending between these two groups.

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For instance, psychotherapeutic interventions to help the juveniles understand and manage their illness involve the exploration of traumas that the juveniles may have experienced in the past while interventions for adult offenders such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) tend to focus on current situations rather than the exploration of past trauma. While interventions for general offending behaviors may be applicable to juvenile sexual offenders, interventions for general adult offending may not apply to adult sexual offenders who often present with issues similar to those observed in alcoholics and addicts. However, there also exist similarities in interventions for both groups.

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For instance, CBT for both juvenile and adult offenders focuses on the identification of thoughts and circumstance that trigger offending behavior, correction of these deviant thoughts for juveniles and the identification of effective ways to short circuit the trigger process for adults. In my opinion, Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is the most effective form of therapy for juvenile offenders while CBT and group therapy are the most effective for adults. MST reduces the occurrence of offending behavior by targeting the youth’s underlying problematic behavior. Through MST, interpersonal transactions and social interactions in the youth’s natural environment can be addressed which will prevent the probability that the youth will relapse once he/she re-enters the community despite the success of CBT and psychotherapeutic interventions.

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Moreover, the involvement of the youth’s family will ensure that they are empowered to raise their child in a more aware manner. CBT for adult offenders gives the offender control over his/her illness through coping mechanisms geared towards short-circuiting the trigger process. Moreover, through behavior contraction, the offender and the therapist are able to agree on the specific sexual behaviors that need to be eliminated which instils a sense of obligation and responsibility in the offender. Group therapy provides a safe space for the offenders to become aware of their internal rationalization processes, confront their behaviors and provides excellent external reinforcement for permanent changes in behavior which a therapist alone would not be able to provide.

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Princess Diana Transformational and Servant Leadership

Princess Diana’s Brief Biography

Diana Spencer was born on 1st of July 1961 in Sandringham to the Spencer family which had undeniable close ties to the royal family with both of Diana’s grandmothers serving as ladies in waiting Queen Elizabeth, the queen mother. Diana was educated in private schools and attended finishing school for one term in Switzerland before she returned to London. In the summer of 1980, Diana and Prince Charles were guests at a country weekend retreat and it was there that the young Diana caught the eye of the heir apparent to the British throne.

 After a brief period of courtship, the prince proposed to Diana and they were wed on July 1981 in St Paul’s Cathedral after which she became Diana, Princess of Wales. Apart from being a devoted mother to her two sons, Diana displayed an incredible commitment to charity and social work which earned her the title “The people’s princess” (Junor, 1982). Her devotion to humanitarian work continued after her divorce from Prince Charles and ended upon her untimely demise in a tragic car accident in 1997 at the age of 36.

Princess Diana’s Leadership

Princess Diana is perhaps the most admired monarch of all time. Her effortless display of transformational and servant leadership still motivates and empowers her avid followers (such as myself) decades after her death. Of all the admirable qualities possessed by Diana, I find her integrity and honesty most appealing. Diana’s honesty is perhaps most notable in the way she chooses to communicate with people, her iconic quotes speak of a heart governed by truth while testimonies from her followers show the high degree of trust she managed to acquire through honest communication.

As a wife to the prince, Diana was constantly under surveillance. Moreover, the British monarch is structured in a way that denies members of the royal family and freedom to lean into their own inclinations or display any preferences that are not in consistence with the direction given by the monarch. As such, Diana was under constant pressure to conform to the rules of the British monarch and meet expectations regarding the behavior of a princess. However, Diana defied all these expectations and remained true to her personality. For instance, Diana regarded her family as “…the most important thing.” (Morton, 1992).  She does not let the pressures of her royal duties get in the way of fulfilling her responsibilities as a mother, instead, she rigidly structures her schedule in a way that ensures that she gives maximum attention to her home. She regularly takes her sons to theme parks, makes time to drop them off at school and is actively involved in choosing the schools they would attend and the nannies that would take care of them.

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In an age where career pressures can easily tramp familial responsibilities, it is inspiring to observe someone set such distinct priorities and fulfill them effectively (Moore, 1991). Diana’s integrity is further exemplified by her dedication to the plight of HIV/AIDS victims despite constant objection from members of the royal family and even the British public. Despite being misunderstood by those closest to her and the massive criticism and antagonism she receives from stepping beyond the boundaries of a typical monarch, Diana’s determination to raise her children in as normal a way as possible and dedicated herself in service to individuals within the society that she felt had been cast out, remains unwavering.

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Leading from the heart

Diana’s immense capacity to show love was central to her leadership. She made it clear that she did not seek to “…go by the rule book” and that her leadership involved leading “from the heart, not the head” (Morton, 1992).  While it is crucial for leaders to examine situations rationally, it is evident from Diana’s success as a leader that more needs to go into leadership with more than mere strategy. The heart houses intellect, motivation, attitude, character, and value and is the center of an individual’s personality (Lenski, 1946). Diana’s accomplishments could not have come from a lack of tenacity and perseverance. Perhaps it was through her decision to fight for causes that were central to her personality, those that touched her heart that she acquired the motivation to keep going.

Although it is not unusual for public figures to do their part for the underprivileged in the society, Diana did not extend her royal patronage to charity organizations for the mere show of it or just to fulfill part of her royal duties, the princess made an effort to support organizations whose causes were of personal interest to her.  For instance, the princess was the royal patron of Barnardo’s an institution supporting homeless and abused children, Birthright, Child Accident Prevention Trust and Children’s hospitals around the world. This choice of institutions shows the overwhelming amount of love she has for children which is also reflected in the way she chooses to care for her sons. It is indeed admirable that what she loves is what she uses to change the lives of others.

Princess Diana’s Servant leadership

There must exist an endless capacity to serve others within the heart of every great leader (Greenleaf, 2002). Servant leadership is defined by the capacity of a leader to display genuine empathy, foresight, and commitment to building the community and the people within it (Sendjaya et al, 2008). While Diana may not have set out to be a leader, the empathy, awareness, and capacity to heal she displays towards every cause she decides to support distinguishes her as a leader and a relatable one at that. For instance, when it was still a popular belief that HIV/AIDS could be contracted through casual contact with AIDS victims, Diana was actively visiting dying AIDS patients in hospices. When a bedridden AIDS patient burst into tears as the princess was chatting with him, Diana spontaneously put her arms around him to console him. This unprompted demonstration of compassion and concern for the grief that is central to humanity may not have been done to attract the audience of others, but it does. Diana effectively inspires others to want to be like her and doing so makes her position as a leader inevitable.

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Diana’s foresight into the plight of people suffering from HIV and her efforts to show others that these people did not deserve the isolation they received, but rather love, kindness and compassion show that she had recognized her duty to serve people whom society had cast out of its embrace and her dedication to the needs of her followers as opposed to those of the monarch truly set her apart as a servant leader (Spears, 1996).

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            Diana’s inspirational words “Whoever is in distress can call on me, I will come running wherever they are” (Morton, 1992) are embodied in the tremendous amount of her time she dedicates to the care for individuals who were in the midst of trials and suffering. For instance, when the Adrian Ward, a prominent figure in art, ballet and opera discovered that he was suffering from AIDS, he did not have to spend the last moments of his life in solitude and agony. Instead, Diana was by his side, secretly caring for him for five months, sharing blissful moments of sorrow, happiness and laughter with the iconic figure before he finally succumbed to his illness and passed away (Morton, 1992).

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Although humanitarian work was part of her royal duties, Diana was actively involved in all the charities she supported and this commitment is demonstrated by the fact that she continues to remain committed to her work even after her divorce from Prince Charles. She was deeply devoted to helping disadvantaged members of the society and addressing issues within the society that were royals would not typically address. She challenged public perceptions of individuals suffering from leprosy and HIV, banned landmines in Africa and demonstrated sincere empathy for suffering and distress of any kind. In her own words “Wherever there is suffering that is where I want to be, doing what I can.” (Morton, 1992).  Her strength and determination to serve people went a long way to bridge the gap between the monarchy and its people. She allowed the constituents to see more in the work that she was doing, to read more into what she said and sense how she feels.

Displaying genuine honesty and vulnerability may have come at the price of inviting more scrutiny into her life and permitting others to witness her shortcomings such as her struggles with bulimia, constant bouts of depression and even suicidal tendencies, but it also endeared her to her followers, enabled them to look beyond the glamorous life that she lived as a princess, envision her struggles and persevere with her. This unwavering display of humility, honesty, and integrity makes her all the more approachable to her followers and increases the likelihood that the inspiration she provides them with will take root. Coming out in support for children and outcasts is one thing, having inspirational messages for people is another but showing others that there has indeed been a lot of pain in your life, demonstrating an understanding of pain gained from having experienced it yourself and showing others that it is possible to survive that pain, is leading by example, a defining hallmark of servant leadership (Covey, 2002). 

Read also Concept of Servant Leadership and The Difference Between Servant Leadership and Transformational Leadership

Princess Diana’s Transformational leadership

Ford & Blanchard (1993), define transformational leadership as leadership that raises peoples’ consciousness towards what they want. This kind of leadership allows a leader to motivate followers, create awareness of what their priorities should be and get the followers to transcend beyond their own self-interests and discover other avenues of fulfillment beyond themselves (Bass et al, 1987). Through caring for the sick, the dying, the distressed and counseling the bereaved Diana unconsciously shows her followers that there is a way out of the fog of misery and pain, that there is fulfillment in looking “beyond yourself, to the needs of others” (Morton, 1992).

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A transformational leader stays close to his/her causes, gets the authority to act from the needs of his/her followers, takes initiatives and excels amid constant adversity. This definition by Anderson (1990), truly speaks of the spirit of leadership possessed by Diana. For instance, when Diana arrived in Nigeria and discovered that all the disabled people and beggars had been removed from the streets so as not to upset her she was incredibly upset as it was always her primary intention to get as close as possible to those who had been shunned by the society. Diana believed that there was no “better way to dismantle a personality than to isolate it.” (Morton, 1992). And having experienced this isolation herself, she set out to console those who were experiencing it in Jakarta and Maiduguri where she met and shook hands with patients suffering from leprosy (Morton, 1992).  

Princess Diana’s demise left her positive attributes forever immortalized in history. It is therefore almost impossible and futile to describe any shortcomings she might have had. However, upon careful examination of her life, it is apparent that a carefree spirit, consistent with youth, may have led to her untimely demise (Hindman, 2003). It is indeed saddening to envision how much value she would have had to the world could have been immense had she lived longer.

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Princess Diana’s legacy of transformational and servant leadership continues to empower people to this day. Her determination to excel amid constant scrutiny and opposition continues to affect the hearts of others through the many books that have been written about her. The amount adversity she had to overcome such as her struggle with bulimia and depression shows that leadership does not have to come from the perfect individuals and that people can still accomplish a lot despite being incredibly flawed.

How Ansel Adams Became a Famous Photographer

Born in San Francisco on February 20th 1902, Ansel Adams became fascinated with the beauty within nature at a very young age and was constantly exploring the world around him. This exploration was heightened when Adams developed a keen interest in photography. Adams’ first works, published in 1921, already showed careful composition and sensitivity to tonal balance. Through a combination of talent, creativity, dedication and desire for originality, Adams would grow into one of the most renowned landscape photographers of his time and become known to many, as the father of landscape photography.

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Adams is renowned for his ability to achieve an inimitable level of contrast in his work using creative darkroom art. At the onset of his career, Adams experimented with popular photography styles such as pictorialism, which encouraged imitation of paintings by employing soft focus and diffuse light, the Bromoi process and hand colorism. Adams later rejected these styles altogether for a more realistic style that relied on sharp focus, high contrast, precise exposure and darkroom craftsmanship. His extreme manipulation of tonal values in Monolith led to the birth of the concept of visualization which involved viewing the landscape not only in the way that it appears but also how it should appear in print before taking the image. Adams’ unique style, although defiant of all previous concepts in photography enabled him to produce stunning detailed photographs of landscapes and achieve an incredible level of contrast in his works.

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Adams’ primary motivation was the desire to encourage others to express themselves through art, to stimulate others to look for beauty and find creative excitement in nature as can be surmised from his dedication to teaching photography techniques to novice photographers through photography workshops in Detroit in the 1940s, training of military photographers at the Art center of Los Angeles in 1941, involvement in the formation of the first fine art photography department at the San Francisco Art Institute, contribution to several photography journals and magazines such as U.S Camera and travel, Aperture as well his publication of photography instruction books such as Making a Photograph and The camera. Adams was also motivated by a deep appreciation for photography as fine art and a desire to measure up to the standards set by seasoned photographers such as Paul Strand as can be deduced from his decision to pursue photography fully and use glossy paper to intensify tonal values in his photographs just as Strand was doing. Adams was also motivated by a desire to promote environmental conservation. His advocacy for this issue became closely intertwined with his practice as can be witnessed from his limited edition book Sierra Nevada, which was inspired by the presence of increasing incursion into Yosemite Valley for commercial development at the time.


Adams’ desire to merge his appreciation for photography as fine art and his visualization of nature played a critical role in his success as a 20th-century photographer. Adams’ was always looking for new ways to refine his craft, whether it was through shifting from the photography norms of pictorialism, developing the zone system of image-making that allowed him to create images with the same beautiful and stunning detail and contrast he saw in them or through acquiring advice on photography craftsmanship that would increase tonal value in his works form Paul Strand. The desire to step away from industry traditions in the 20th century and develop his own style led to the success of his first portfolio Parmelian prints of the high Sierras which included Monolith, one of his most famous pieces. Adams’ also constantly broadened the subject matter and technical range of his work. In the 1920s, he included still life and close up photography in his work which emphasized detail and visualization of every image before taking it and the use of small apertures with a wide range of focus distances.

Adams’ fame grew not only because of his unique skills but also because he was involved in training young photographers through workshops and took on may commercial projects until the 1970s. Adams was not a new name in photography during his time, having worked with Kodak, Fortune magazine, AT&T, The Department of Interior and the American Trust Company. In fact, his contract with the Department of Interior was responsible for one of his most famous images, Moonlight whose reinterpreted versions are estimated to be worth over 25 million dollars and whose commercial success gave Adams’ independence from commercial projects.  Even in his later years, when he was suffering from gout and arthritis, Adams’ dedication to his craft never wavered as can be deduced from his decision to reprint negatives from his vault when the demand for his works increased in museums that had finally created departments of photography.


Ansel Adams’ six-decade career of an individual that truly appreciated the beauty of photography as fine art and developed enough close ties with the landscapes that gave him his stunning images to want to protect them. His stunning photography, books and techniques will forever immortalize him as one of the greatest photographers of the 20th century.

Drug Trafficking Organization in America

The aim of this paper is to explore the history of drug trafficking organization in America, the evolution of drug sale and distribution syndicates and the major driving forces behind this evolution. This paper will also attempt to provide a description of the major socio-economic and legislative impacts of past drug syndicate activities in the United States as well as possible future ramifications of current activities.

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History of drug trafficking organizations in the United States

Drug trafficking in the United States can be traced back to the introduction of opium smoking in California by Chinese immigrants in the mid-1800s. Although unorganized, this early introduction led to the spread of opium sale and distribution activities throughout the American west coast. Not long after, Americans had started experimenting with variant opiates such as morphine which led to massive addiction especially among union confederate officers. After the use of opium for non-medical purposes was outlawed in the United States through the Harrison act of 1914, a black market for opium opened up in Chinatown and illegal distribution continued through the 1930s and 40s.

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The activities of American Mafia families in the smuggling and distribution of illicit drugs in the 1950s marked the earliest form of organization in drug trafficking and laid the foundation for more organized drug cartels that whose sole economic focus would be drug trafficking.  US involvement in the Vietnam War was greatly contributed to the increase in the distribution of heroin due to the onset of heroin addiction among soldiers on active duty. It is estimated that throughout the Vietnam War, 15% of active soldiers frequently engaged in heroin injection and leisurely consumed Marijuana and other illicit drugs ( editors, 2017). An increase in the number of people dependent on heroin and other illicit drugs necessitated the presence of constant supply which could only be accomplished through the high level of organization present in drug trafficking cartels.

The presence of these untapped markets led to the rise of the Medellin cartel in the late 1980s. This cartel was an organized group of smugglers and suppliers based in Medellin, Columbia Led mainly by Pablo Escobar, Juan David, Jorge Luis, Fabio Ochoa Vasquez, Carlos, George Jung, and Jose Gonzalo. This organization was particularly ruthless in its operations. For instance, when Columbian police seized 600 kilograms of cocaine belonging to the cartel from a plane, the organization retaliated by killing more than 40 people in what would come to be known as the Medellin massacre ( editors, 2017) and initiated a wave of violence that would involve numerous assassinations and kidnappings.

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 The cartel was also incredibly successful in its undertakings. It is estimated that the organization brought in up to 60 million US dollars in drug profits on a daily basis ( editors, 2017). However, the organization’s reign came to its end when Manuel Noriega’s secret undertakings with the cartel that involved granting permission to Pablo Escobar to smuggle drugs through Panama were discovered by the South Florida drug task force set up to combat cocaine trading in Miami. After the discovery, the organization’s top leaders were indicted by a Miami grand jury. Manuel Noriega, Pablo Escobar, and the Ochoa brothers surrendered in 1989, 1991 and 1990 respectively while Jose Gonzalo was killed during a raid by the Columbian police and Carlos Lehder was captured and extradited to the United States where he was convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment+ 135 years without the possibility of parole.

After the fall of the Medellin cartel, a new cartel known as the Cali cartel took over in the early 1990s. Led by brothers Gilberto and Miguel Orejuela, Jose Santacruz and Helmer Herrera, the organization quickly developed into a multi-billion dollar drug trafficking business. However, this incredible success was short-lived as top Cali kingpins were captured, arrested and imprisoned in 1995. The fall of the Cali cartel and the establishment of the Mexican border as the major transport route for cocaine and marijuana into the United States would pave way for the establishment of Sinaloa federation led by “El Chapo” who is one of the most notorious and powerful drug traffickers in the world ( editors, 2017).

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The Sinaloa federation became and is still one of the most recognized and largest Mexican drug cartels responsible for the importation and distribution of over 200 tons of cocaine and large amounts of other illicit drugs between 1990 and 2008 ( editors, 2017). Other Mexican drug cartels such as the Gulf cartel emerged to rival the Sinaloa federation and by the late 1990s, the drug trafficking industry in America was almost completely dominated by Mexican drug cartels which contributed directly to the introduction of methamphetamine (Meth) to the variety of illicit drugs already in distribution in the United States.

Moreover, these dominant cartels typically operating in extremely lethal planes. The Gulf cartel, in particular, worked in close association with Los Zetas, an organization made up almost entirely of the Mexican military elite. Representatives from Los Zetas would serve as hit-men for Gulf and facilitate the settlement of turf wars with other cartels and any other disputes within the cartel ( editors, 2017). However, the two groups did not split on amicable terms. In fact, the bloody chaos that followed the dissolution of their partnership marks what was probably the most violent period in the history of organized crime in Mexico. It was not unusual for killings to be posted on the internet or for Gulf cartel members’ body parts to be left in public places after they had been assassinated by Los Zetas hitmen ( editors, 2017).

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During the reign of the Sinaloa federation, law enforcement would make several futile attempts to capture and detain “El Chapo”. Not only was he quite successful at evading law enforcement but he also managed to escape from Mexican authorities after capture and from prison on several occasions. However, the infamous drug lord was finally arrested and extradited to the United States to face several criminal charges in 2017. In spite of this major accomplishment for drug law enforcement agencies, drug trafficking still remains an incredibly lucrative business, newer cartels are still springing up and others are forming after the dissolutions of larger organizations.

Today, radical organizations in the Middle East such as Taliban and Al-Qaida have established themselves as major players in the production, shipment, and distribution of illicit drugs. Activities involving Mexican drug cartels were already an incredible problem for the DEA. The addition of a drug terrorism dimension to the war on illicit substances is bound to be dangerously challenging for law enforcement.

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Impact of drug trafficking activities in the United States

The presence of an overwhelming number of Marijuana, Cocaine and Heroin addicts and users in the United States is arguably the main contributor to the presence of large networks of well-financed drug trafficking organizations in Latin American countries (Bagley, 2012). If the United States was not the heaviest consumer of illicit drugs on the planet then the production of these illicit substances would be greatly curtailed. It is, therefore, accurate to posit consumption as the main driving force behind drug trafficking organizations and important to examine the impact of drug consumption on social and economic bases and drug trafficking itself on security and legislative bases.

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Social impact

The effects of drug usage and consumption on social systems can be traced back to the role of drug abuse and addiction in the disintegration of the family unit and with it, the supervisory role of the parent upon the child. To illustrate how drug consumption erodes the social order within a society this paper will utilize an example that is not too far-fetched from the current state of affairs within American society.

As stated earlier, drug usage in America can be traced back as early as the 19th century. It is therefore not unusual to find many young people actively engaging in drug consumption. As drug usage is responsible for reduced economic productivity among users, it is not unusual that most of these users and addicts will come from impoverished backgrounds. Take the example of a young American girl, who has grown up in this kind of background and though frequent exposure and pressure from peers, has become addicted to heroin.

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While at the onset it might be possible for her to attain doses of the drug from her friends or the dealers themselves, these benevolent gestures will quickly fade once she is addicted. The young girl would then have to find a source of income to sustain her addiction. If prostitution does not present itself as an option to her initially she might feel the need to give sexual favors to the dealer in exchange for the drug and may get pregnant in the process.

In the event that the child is born healthy despite continued drug usage during the pregnancy, then the child will have been born to a parent who lacks the capacity to provide moral direction, instruction or even support of any kind. This child would then become vulnerable to the negative influence of peers and in the absence of parental authority and proper education on drug usage might venture into drug usage herself. Drug usage and/or addiction at such a young age would result in impaired short term memory, tracking ability, emotional and social development as well as reduced cognitive efficiency which will lead to poor academic performance. Moreover, constant preoccupation with acquiring the drug will mean that once the low self-esteem caused by poor academic performance sets in, the child’s main options will involve the consumption of more drugs which will further exacerbate her already poor academic performance. If by some stroke of luck the child manages to graduate high school, then she will have done so with poor grades which will make it impossible for him/her to find meaningful employment. The frustration caused by being unemployed will necessitate the consumption of more drugs and the need to find alternative ways to finance her addiction which could make the child venture into prostitution and in doing so, complete a vicious cycle that is likely to affect generations of children after her. 

Apart from the effects included in the example above, the risk of mortality from drug consumption is high as is the risk of mortality or lifetime morbidity from engaging in drug trafficking due to the high level of violence associated with the business especially in prominent user cities such as Los Angeles, Seattle, Denver, Houston and San Francisco (Chalk, 2011). Moreover, addiction brings about adverse health impacts such as impaired immune response with Marijuana, depression and chronic rhinitis with Cocaine and psychotic breaks with hallucinogens in addition to the incredible financial and emotional burden it places on friends and relatives (Chalk, 2011).

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Economic impact

Drug usage and addiction in the United States has impeded fiscal growth and stability by diverting scarce resources meant for more productive uses towards efforts to control distribution channels, fight the infiltration of drug trafficking cartels into mainland America, treat widespread addiction within the population and prevent current users from becoming addicted. Between 1981 and 2008, it is estimated that state and federal governments spent over half a trillion dollars on drug interdictions and other drug-related efforts (Chalk, 2011). This number is only half the number that would be arrived at if the treatment and rehabilitation of addicts were accounted for (Walsh, 2008).

While losses amounting to trillions of dollars are significant they are completely diminutive compared to the invisible losses the economy suffers every day through curtailed employment opportunities and the reduced productivity typical of addicts and drug users in the workplace (Singer, 2008). For instance, drug users in the workplace are more likely than not to cause accidents even in a fairly safe work environment, injure themselves and others and necessitate worker’s compensation claims amounting to thousands of dollars. The financial burden of having addicts is shared by all members of society through higher taxation (Singer, 2008).   Moreover, drug usage in the workplace consistently make jobs requiring a high level of skill and concentration increasingly vulnerable to drug usage which places an even heavier burden on the American society.

Legislative and security Impacts

Due to the incessant activity of drug cartels in the U.S-Mexican border, drug enforcement agencies have been forced to deploy officers and agents without first subjecting them to appropriate vetting procedures. These efforts geared to increasing the law enforcement presence south of the border have produced a crop of border officials who are highly corruptible and increased the probability that border officials will be compromised. Over 40,000 agents and officials have been deployed south of the border by drug agencies in the United States (Chalk, 2011). Increasing syndicate infiltration to these ranks poses dangers to the war against drugs in America that is difficult to ignore.

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Drug trafficking organizations and their activities are pertinent to US national security interests due to the presence of existing interactions with other transnational legal challenges as well as their potential to interact with these challenges (Chalk, 2011). There exists a direct correlation between the activities of drug trafficking organizations, trafficking of illicit firearms and increasing bouts of drug-related violence. Thousands of firearms brought to the US eventually find their way south of the border and account for almost all firearms used by drug syndicates operating in Baja California, Sinaloa, and Sonora (Dookey & Meddler, 2008).

 Illicit trading of firearms though drug trafficking channels has increased the availability of firearms for smugglers and facilitated the escalation of gun-related violence in all their undertakings. Although this violence has not yet spilled over into mainland America, it has created rampant problems of cross border violence especially in Arizona and Texas (Chalk, 2011). In Arizona, heavily armed men fired more than 100 rounds in the targeted killing of a deviant Jamaican drug dealer in 2008 in Arizona while similarly armed men have been responsible for the rampant kidnappings in Phoenix (Ross et al, 2009) and are responsible for narcotic related murders and extortion threats to wealthy merchants in Texas.

The drug trafficking business continues to attract the involvement of more gangs and with this attraction, comes the necessity for more organization in loosely configured gang structures. This higher level of organization will facilitate rampant criminal activity in mainland America and diminish the capacity of law enforcement to curtail gang activities (McLean, 2018). Moreover, the emergence of a nexus between Latin American syndicates, Mexican narcotic groups, and Islamic jihadists is of particular concern. Drug trafficking might prove a lucrative way to finance terrorist attacks and the instability in Mexico and Latin American countries close to the US border might become a viable launchpad for the execution of highly effective attacks against the United States (Chalk, 2011). Additionally, current human smuggling channels used by Mexican cartels might prove especially useful for Islamic terrorists’ covert entry into the US the consequences of which could be disastrous.  Moreover, currents sustained pressure from syndicate groups on Mexican stability could lead to a descent into chaos that would have serious implications for homeland security (Chalk, 2011).

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Since the 19th century, drug trafficking organizations have grown into a highly organized multidimensional industry, with a capacity for violence, social and economic destruction that cannot be overlooked. The high demand for drugs in America has led to the development of a vicious cycle of family and societal degradation, addiction and its associated health and economic burdens, drug related violence, gang criminal activity in mainland America, gun violence in southern border states such as Phoenix, Arizona, and Texas, and might lead to the eventual metamorphosis of drug syndicates into drug-terrorist organizations. Saint Leo University maintains its zero-tolerance policy to the illegal use, possession and/or distribution of drugs and other illicit substances in accordance to its core value of community which emphasizes the importance of a socially responsible environment and mutual trust in all members of the community. As part of a community, individuals should act in line with the doctrines and principles to which the community subscribes and maintain expected standards of behavior in order to maintain their worth to the community.

Lone-wolf Terrorists, Their Operations and the Threat they Pose


Lone wolf terrorists pose a tremendous threat to the United States, as they are challenging to detect using traditional intelligence methods. Moreover, in the presence of robust counterterrorism activity that deters organized terrorism, lone-wolf terrorism has become easier to accomplish. This paper seeks to provide an understanding of lone-wolf terrorists, their operations in the United States, the threat they pose and possible avenues that counterterrorism agencies can exploit to detect and apprehend them.

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White supremacists leaders Tom Metzger and Alex Curtis, were responsible for popularizing the term “lone wolf” in the 1990s. They encouraged their supporters to carry out acts of terror on their own for tactical reasons and to avoid detection. A lone wolf terrorist is defined as one who commits acts of terror, without orders or connections to any radical organization. Lone wolf terrorism is frequently associated with individuals who prefer to limit interactions but have a tendency to disseminate their extremist ideologies before attacks.

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 There is a high likelihood that individuals who engage in lone wolf terrorism suffer from psychopathologies and psychological disturbances. Today, lone wolf terrorism is one of the most challenging and unpredictable form of terrorism. It is difficult to detect potential lone actor terrorists by traditional police means since perpetrators typically plan and carry out acts of terror on their own. Unlike organized group terrorist attacks, it is incredibly challenging to predict; who might engage lone acts of terror, what their objective(s) will be, how they will carry out the attack and what will motivate them to attack the first place.

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Trends in the work of lone-wolf terrorist

Due to the increasing availability of powerful weapons, lone wolf attacks have been increasing steadily in the western world. Although lone actors make up a small percentage of all terror attacks, they remain an incredible threat. Solitary acts of terror may still result in massive fatalities when properly executed. This threat is evident from the increase in the number of deaths from lone-wolf terror attacks from five in the 1990s, to twenty-nine in the 2000s (Teich, 2013). According to a Spaaij’s 2010 study, the United States has had an exceptional increase in the number of lone-wolf attacks in the past three decades compared to countries such as Canada, Russia, Portugal, Sweden, Netherlands, France, and Spain. In the 1990s the United States witnessed four attacks from lone-wolf terrorists. This number rose to twenty-four in the 2000s and has been rising steadily from eighteen in 2003.

Typology (Who?)

Lone wolf terrorists may exist in five main variants; the lone vanguard, the lone soldier, the loner, the lone follower, and the lone wolf killer. “The lone vanguard” often authors his own idiosyncratic ideology. He/she may craft this ideology with inspiration from a formal terrorist ideology but is not likely to have any ties to any radical organization (Beydoun, 2013). He/she will often execute acts of terror in an individual capacity and function and a one-man organization. Examples of lone vanguard act of terror are the July 2011 attacks of Oslo by Anders Breivik. Breivik formulated a radical manifesto that blamed Islam and feminism for the decline of Europe. He pioneered his own movement, and acting on individual capacity, carried out two terrorist attacks that resulted in the death of ninety-nine people (Beydoun, 2013).  

“The lone soldier” acts on his own to further the ideology of an existing terrorist organization. In radical Islamists circles, small scale, loosely organized terrorist attacks are incredibly popular. Osama bin Laden sympathizers were often encouraged to act on their own without awaiting instructions from the organization (Beydoun, 2013).  This call for action was often widely disseminated on the internet, where lone soldiers often maintain an active social life. The internet allows lone soldiers to belong to a community. It offers a platform where unacceptable extremist ideologies can be normalized. It also creates an opportunity for known terrorist organizations to encourage and support individuals with deviant beliefs and attitudes. These individuals can then be used to further extremist causes through individual acts of terror. An example of a lone soldier act of terror is the shooting of three South Asian men in Texas by Mark Stroman. Stroman had lifelong ties with the Aryan brotherhood, who gave consent and support to murder two men he believed to be Muslim as revenge for 9/11 (Beydoun, 2013).  

“The loner” typically presents as an individual with low social competence, rebuffed by terrorist organizations despite having strong desires to become a member of one.  While the lone vanguard carries out his/her cats of terror individually out of choice, the loner is forced to become a lone wolf terrorist out of circumstance. “The loner” shares somewhat similar characteristics with the lone follower. This type of lone-actor may find the ideology possessed by a radical terrorist organization particularly attractive and seize it.

While “the loner” may desire to lead a group of their own, the “lone follower” desires to become a formal member of the group but lacks the social competency to do so. An example of a lone follower act of terror would be the attack in South Carolina in June 2015 by Dylann Roof (Beydoun, 2013).  Driven by an ideology similar to that of the Council of Conservative Citizens (CCC), Roof proceeded to open fire in a church and killed nine African Americans. When called to comment, representatives of the CCC condemned the shooting, denied knowledge of Roof but stood by his ideology since it was mostly their own. Another example could be the work lone wolf terrorists, Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev. These two brothers killed three people and injured close to three hundred more in a premeditated attack of the Boston Marathon (Beydoun, 2013). The brothers lacked the social competence and knowhow to become members of a terrorist organization such as ISIS. However, they did execute an attack driven by ideologies similar to those held by formal terrorist organizations, albeit in an individual capacity (Beydoun, 2013). The final lone wolf variant is the “lone wolf killer” who is often a white male. This kind of lone-actor does not get the classification of a terrorist since he lacks the defining religious and racial/ethnic attributes of a typical terrorist or does not belong to any organization that has already been pegged as a terrorist group (Beydoun, 2013).

Read also The Role Of Fusion Centers In Counterterrorism Strategies

How? (Radicalization)

Lone wolf terrorists may also be categorized according to the extent of radicalization, motivation, and risk awareness. The internet has been an essential factor in the radicalization lone wolf terrorism by providing access to information. Freely available books, manifestos, and articles are essential tools to promote self-radicalization of lone-wolf terrorists from any corner of the world. For instance, Dzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev were radicalized through access to jihadist articles on the internet, which even provided instructions on how to make explosives from household items (Beydoun, 2013).

Moreover, recruiting followers via the internet tends to attract a younger, more impressionable people compared to traditional recruiting methods such as radio broadcast (Brynielsson, et al. 2012). The internet enables individuals to share ideas, opinions, and grievances in online chat rooms. Although this exchange could harmless, the presence of at least one radical Islamist member could expose members to the externalizing narrative of radical Islam. These enticing narratives could trigger radicalization within the group.

Read also Role of Terrorism in the Creation of Israel

Why? (Motivation)

Lone wolf terrorists often have personal grievances of their own or become increasingly angry after traumatic events exacerbate preexisting psychological problems. Exposure to externalizing narratives formulated by terrorist organizations gives these individuals someone/something to blame for their situations. Lone wolf terrorists then merge their personal frustrations, with the political or religious aims of a terrorist organization. The terrorist organization narrative categorizes the world in to “us” versus “them.” This enables the individual to dehumanize/demonize his enemy and removes any preexisting deterrence to violence (Beydoun, 2013). For instance, John Allen Muhammad endorsed the 9/11 attacks out of support for Jihad and anger toward his ex-wife and Mir Aimal Kansi was motivated by Jihad, and a desire for vengeance against the CIA who had mistreated his father in Afghanistan (Beydoun, 2013).

Read also The Greatest Motivator of Terrorism

The threat of lone-wolf terrorist in the United States

The United States exercises a variety of counterterrorism objectives that make it practically impossible for terrorists acts carried out by large terrorist organizations to go undetected. The substantial number of huddles that terrorist organizations have to face to execute successful attacks on US soil makes it necessary for small loosely organized groups or lone wolves to carry out the attacks instead. The failure rate for lone-wolf attacks is exceptionally high. However, a successful attack can be almost as lethal as one that involved multiple members and a high level of organization. Lone wolf activities are challenging to detect, so they’re less likely to be apprehended before they carry out their attack.

Read also Number One Terrorist Threat To The United States, It History And What United States is Doing About It

 Moreover, they are not constrained by being a member of an organization. They do not have to follow the kind of vigorous decision making process that a large scale organization employs (Phillips, 2017).   This freedom allows them to apply creativity and ingenuity while carrying out the attack. Lone-wolf terrorists typically work on their own. This independece means that they do not depend on motivation from others. The lethality of their attack is also not affected if a member decides to back out of an attack. For instance, Breivik considered taking on additional members to carry out his attack but rejected the idea due to the potential risk of apprehension the increased capacity would bring. Acting on an individual capacity reduces the probability of infiltrated by undercover law enforcement or leaking of confidential information by informants (Phillips, 2017).

Read also Terrorist Group Profile : The ISIL and the US Policy against It

 Organizations may not use weapons of mass destruction to carry out attacks out of fear of backlash from the community. On the other hand, lone wolves do not depend or expect any support from the community. It is, therefore, possible for them to use any weapon available to them as long as it suits their purpose (Phillips, 2017).   Traditional government counterterrorism responses such as travel bans and intense government crackdowns on specific communities are less likely to have any effect on the lone wolf terrorist especially if he does not fit the profile of a typical terrorist.

Moreover, the lone actor often possesses underlying psychopathologies and psychological disturbances. These disturbances may trigger the formulation of irrational, costly attacks that may not be undertaken by members of a terrorist organization (Phillips, 2017). Psychological disorders may also render the lone actor unaware of the consequences of his/her actions and therefore, capable of committing extremely harmful acts.

Read also The Correlation between the Concept of Globalization and International Terrorism

The threat of lone-wolf terrorists is further exacerbated by the neglect of white radicals by counterterror objectives. Vivid illustrations can be found from the refusal by counterterrorism agencies to label white male perpetrated mass shootings as acts of terror (Beydoun, 2013).  Moreover, violent acts committed by lone wolves affiliated, or expressing ideologies similar to anti-abortionist and white supremacist are rarely labeled acts of terror since these groups are not considered terrorist organizations despite engaging in violent acts of terror.

 When Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols planned and executed a bombing of the Alfred Murrah building in Oklahoma and killed a hundred and sixty-eight people, they were not labeled lone wolf terrorists (Beydoun, 2013).  On the other hand, the involvement of any individual with a Muslim identity in any violent act almost qualifies that attack as an act of terror. These double standards exist even after a KU Klux Klan plot to blow up gas refineries that should have killed tens of thousands of people and a plot to kill Barrack Obama and murder hundreds of African Americans by white supremacist were uncovered (Beydoun, 2013).  

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While the potential for lone and organized terrorism by white males increases, counterterror agencies direct all their energy and resources to the deterrence of Islamic terrorism. Moreover, agencies have now completely neglected efforts to combat the radicalization of white males and focused all their attention to the prosecution and investigation of Muslim residents (Beydoun, 2013). These institutionalized racial and religious stereotypes increase the probability that a white non-Muslim individual who desires to carry out a violent act in the United States will not be detected and the fatal consequences of his actions will not be prevented (Beydoun, 2013).

Read also Terrorist Attacks : September 11 2001 Attacks Essay

Combating lone wolf terrorism in the United States

Although lone-wolf terrorists are difficult to detect using traditional intelligence techniques, counterterrorism units may be able to track them down by analyzing their online activity. Many lone terrorists are often only loners in their offline life. Observing online activity may assist in the detection of radicalization processes, terror plans, and apprehension of individuals before they execute them (Brynielsson, et al. 2012).

Read also Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper

Lone wolf terrorists often leave behind manifestos and articles for law enforcement to find later. Some perpetrators may even leave hints that the attack is about to happen. This information can help law enforcement detect and prevent attacks before they happen. Counterterrorism agencies could benefit from law enforcement direction on discerning the validity of threats. Monitor potential radical individuals’ online activities will provide to explicit information about attacks and prevent the promotion of extremist ideologies. (Brynielsson, et al. 2012)

Read also Ways of Preventing Terrorists and Terrorism Acts in United States

While the objective of many terrorist organizations is widely known, lone wolves may have varying objectives for committing violent acts. Counterterror agencies should examine motives to determine where ideologies came from and if they are similar to those propagated by any terrorist organization. This information might guide agencies in countering radicalization and establish new areas that need monitoring. The modus operandi, or how the attack was carried out, can reveal similarities between perpetrators. If two or more actors carry out attacks in the same fashion or utilize the same weapons, then more appropriate security measures can be taken.

Read also Using Mobility and Anomie Criminological Theories to Explain Oklahoma City Bombing


Lone wolf terrorists are classified into; lone vanguards, loners, lone wolf killers, lone followers, and lone soldiers. Although lone wolf terrorists account for a small proportion of terrorist acts, they still have a highly lethal capacity, especially in countries with robust counterterrorism activities. Counterterrorism agencies must examine the modus operandi of violent acts and the objective/motivation behind lone wolf terrorism. This examination will assist in the formulation of strategies to intercept threats, discern their validity and prevent solitary acts of terror. Sacrificing honesty, accountability and consistency to engage in violent acts is contrary to Saint Leo University core value of integrity. Members of the University have a duty to be honest, just, consistent in words and deed and observant of the law at all times regardless of personal grievances. Utilizing campus facilities for their intended purpose, and taking responsibility for the safety of every member, are pertinent to these duties. Maintaining integrity in words and actions means that members are expected to have strong principles that cannot be swayed by extremist groups under any circumstance.

Adidas Pricing Strategy

Pricing decisions are among the most crucial decisions that company’s make. It is important for a company to make highly informed decisions on the prices of commodities and services in order to make business sense in the market (Kienzler & Kowalkowski, 2017). The prices determined by a company should reflect the prices that buyers can afford, and easily help to push the company’s objectives. Pricing strategies involve the measures that a company takes to determine the base prices of its products, the discount rates, and the commissions that can be offered. The strategies also involve the activities taken to develop pricing objectives and policies. Pricing strategies are among the most secretly performed activities in a company.

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Adidas is a Germany-based multi-international corporation that deals in luxury items such as footwear and apparel. The company is a leader in the market and directly competes with such companies as Nike and Puma. The company markets itself as the best in luxury footwear. The company’s main marketing strategy is through the use of successful and football clubs, as well as using famous sports personalities as the ambassadors of the company’s products. As the biggest manufacturer of sportswear in Europe, the company is associated with many big clubs in Europe such as Chelsea, Manchester United, and Newcastle.

Read also Skimming Pricing Strategy

Pricing Strategy

The company uses a number of price strategies that serve the best interests of the business. The employed pricing strategies also help the company to adequately adapt to a diverse and competitive business environment. The company consistently employs a premium pricing strategy. Based on the company’s continuous innovations and production of high-end products, the company appeals to wealthy clients and those that have a taste for luxury goods. One of the main strategies that the company uses in this regard is price skimming. Price skimming helps the company to price its products very highly. Another pricing strategy that the company uses is competitive pricing. This is based on comparison with the prices that its competitors such as Nike and Puma offer on similar products.

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Evaluation of Pricing Strategy

The pricing strategies adopted by the company have been at the center of the company’s success for many years. Price skimming is a type of price strategy where a company initially charges the highest price possible for a commodity. Adidas uses this price strategy while launching new and innovative products. It helps to mark the products as very luxurious and attractive (Du & Chen, 2017). As such, many people who can afford them usually rush to buy the products as soon as they are released into the market. Another component of price skimming is that the company initially seeks to satisfy the needs of those who do not care about the high price. Once their demand is satisfied, the company lowers the price in order to attract another set of customers who are price-sensitive. Competitive pricing is another strategy that the company uses. This approach mainly helps the company to directly compete with Puma and Nike (Gupta et al., 2020). As such, the company ensures that it can effectively compete in the market.

Read also Generic Drug Pricing Strategies


Pricing strategies are at the center of the success of many companies. Adidas uses pricing strategies that help it to position itself in the market competitively. Price skimming ensures that the company can sell at the highest price possible initially, and then lower the prices later to meet the needs of price-sensitive customers. Competitive pricing allows the company to have competitive prices for its products in order to remain competitive in the market. This approach has made it possible to be one of the biggest companies in the world.

Read also Advertisement Analysis – “Catch him if you can” Adidas Advertisement

HIV / AIDS – Comprehensive Medical Report

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was initially acknowledged as a novel disease in 1981. The disease was recognized after a growing number of young homosexual men were reported to succumb to rare unscrupulous infections and unusual malignancies. Subsequently, a retrovirus currently regarded as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was identified as the contributing agent of what turned out to be the most overwhelming infectious disease to have appeared in the modern history (Sharp & Hahn, 2011, p.1). HIV clinical presentation is regarded to be complex since the description of AIDS in 1981. The disease can manifest in different ways based on the affected organs and simultaneous infections prevalent in the region. The first clinical presentation might mimic symptoms of the usual endemic disease in that specific region. Nevertheless, the manifestation severity relies on the health status baseline of the infected person. The most essential early HIV manifestation in Africa was patent by slim diseases such as wasting and diarrhea, dermatological symptoms, tuberculosis, fever, weight loss, and different opportunistic infections. Apart from tuberculosis that continues to rise, other AIDS-associated diseases are reducing gradually as a result of extensive application of opportunistic infections (Boniphace et al., 2011, p. 9). Other commonly reported symptoms according to Vogl et al. (1999, p.256) include cough, dry mouth, asthenia, pain, shortness of breath, and anorexia. HIV/AIDs is also associated with psychological symptoms that include worrying, feeling nervous, lack of energy, difficulty sleeping, feeling sad, feeling irritable,  feeling drowsy, difficulty concentrating.

HIV-1 has a complex life cycle and its outcome and duration are reliant on the type of the target cell and cell activation. In the initial stages, HIV-1 gains cells access without triggering immediate fatal damages though the entry process can arouse intracellular signal forces that consequently may enhance viral replication. According to Simon, Ho, and Karim (2006, p.491), the two molecules on the envelope of HIV-1 that include the transmembrane protein (gp41) and the external glycoprotein create the spikes on the surface of the virion. In the process of entry, gp120 gets attached to the cell membrane by binding to the CD4+ receptors first. Later connections between chemokine co-receptors and viruses activate permanent conformational modifications. The actual fusion occurrence happens within minutes by the formation of pore and releases of the viral center onto the cytoplasm of the cell. The center stripping of the core is followed by the reverse transcription of the viral genome into DNA via the reverse transcriptase enzyme of the virus. During this process, association though different viral alternatives can be created because reverse transcriptase is prone to error and does not contain proofreading activity (Simon, Ho & Karim, 2006, p. 491).

At the infection midpoint, the host DNA repair enzyme together with viral protein integrase introduces the viral genome into gene-rich. The lens epithelium-derived froth factor (LEDGF/p75) which is a binding host factor for integrase enhances integration that marks the defining moment by permanently changing the cells into a possible producer of the virus. In the last stages, the creation of viral particles needs virus motivated and host motivated transcription. Viral proteins assembled in proximity and transported to the cell membrane. Virus outlet is none lytic and exploits the vesicular sorting path that usually mediates the endosomes budding into multivesicular bodies.  HIV-1 gets access to this protein-ordering pathway by binding TSG101 through its late domain, a small sequence motif in Gag p6. The Gag-Pol poly-protein cleavage through the viral protease produces developed infectious virions (Simon, Ho & Karim, 2006, p. 491).  

The HIV pathogenesis according to Calles, Evans, and Terlonge (n.d., p12) is primarily a struggle between the patient immune response and HIV replication, through immune-mediated and cell-mediated reactions. The HIV viral overload mediates the destruction of CD4+ T-cell indirectly or direct. Mature CD4+ cells are destroyed. These include CD4+ cells in the nervous system for instance microglia, bone marrow CD4+ progenitor cells, peripheral lymphoid organs, and the thymus. This destruction results in T-cell production failure and ultimate immune suppression. According to Calles, Evans, and Terlonge (n.d., p12), there are various CD4+ cell depletion mechanisms by HIV infection. The direct effect of HIV-mediated cytopathic includes syncytium formation or cell fusion and single-cell killing. The syncytium regards a multiple uninfected CD4+ cell fusion with a single HIV-infected CD4+ cell through interaction with CD4-gp120. This fusion yields to a giant cell or multinucleated syncytium that might eventually serve as a way to create more virions. The natural immune responses of the host also participate in CD4+ cell depletion, mostly via natural killer cells, cytotoxic CD8+ T-cells, and cellular cytotoxicity. Other techniques include programmed cell death also known as apoptosis, autoimmune killer cells, T cells superantigen-mediated activation, and anergy (Calles, Evans & Terlonge, n.d., p12).

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Physical examination is one clinical routine that is used to identify some of the guiding symptoms in disease diagnosis. According to Amsterdam et al. (2017, p.4), HIV-infected patients need routine physical assessment, to determine new development. Normally, there are no static kinds of signs or symptoms to be identified in HIV patients. However, there could be some physical body changes that can act as guidance. Some of the positive physical examination findings include hypertension, lipodystrophy, and lymphadenopathy, which are found to be non-malignant. Other positive physical examination findings include an enlarged prostate, gingivitis, anal skin tags, poor dental condition, simple common skin lesions, incisional hernia, and eczematous. Candida infection in the mouth is another common physical examination result characterized by white plague on the gum, tonsil, or the tongue (Amsterdam et al., 2017,p.4).

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HIV infection is recognized either by showing the virus presence through nucleic acid discovery using p24 antigen testing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or by culturing by growing the virus in cell culture, though in rare cases. HIV infection can also be diagnosed by detecting specific HIV antibodies in plasma or serum. The most frequently used test to identify HIV infection is antibody testing. According to Fearon (2005, p.25),  seroconversion can be identified after the first two weeks of infection in most cases, due to the availability of highly sensitive HIV-1/HIV-2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test in the market today. The p24 antigen might turn positive before the detectability of antibodies in a minute number of early seroconverters that ate still in the window period. Thus to allow the laboratory to choose suitably testing, it is essential to offer a clinical history that includes symptoms or signs that align with seroconversion illness or recent high-risk behavior. All HIV diagnostic laboratories repeatedly confirm positive EIA screen tests with a different assay. According to Fearon (2005, p.25), the Western blot is a highly precise immunoblot that permits for the antibodies visualization to the HIV structural polypeptides.

Read also Disease Control and Education Plan – HIV

 Radiommunoprecipation assay might be used by some laboratories as part of the HIV testing algorithm or as a confirmatory assay. In this particular assay test, the serum of the patient is reacted with radiolabelled viral proteins to create radioactive antigen-antibody complexes. In a situation where antibody testing might be inadequate to establish if a patient is infected, it is important to conduct DNA PCR, a method of nucleic acid amplification that permits the identification of viral DNA assimilated into the genomic DNA of the host cell. PCR is specifically helpful in testing infants born of HIV-positive mothers. It helps diagnose patients that are agammaglobulinemia or where patients seem to demonstrate advanced HIV infection symptoms but without demonstrating specific HIV antibodies. Other than diagnostic testing of HIV, laboratories might also provide quantitative PCR (RNA) testing to determine the viral load. This test is used to assist in determining drug therapy initiation and monitoring therapy effectiveness. Fresher patient management; HIV genotyping is also being used to help in tracking the drug resistance development and guide the antiretroviral drug selection modification (Fearon, 2005, p.26).

Read also Legal Ethics, Patients’ Rights, and HIV / AIDS

The HIV infection contains extremely complex pathogenesis and substantially differs in various patients. Thus, it can be regarded as a very host-definite infection. The pathogenesis specificity of the disease normally complicates treatment choices that are currently accessible for HIV infection. Nevertheless, effective HIV infection management is probable using various combinations of accessible drugs. This treatment technique is collectively regarded as antiretroviral therapy (ART). According to Bhatti, Usman, and Kandi, (2016, p.5), standard ART is consists of a combination of not less than three medicines regarded as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Mostly, effective ART assists in controlling HIV multiplication in infected individuals and augment the CD4 cells count. This helps in delaying the asymptomatic infection phase, slowing the disease progression. It also assists in reducing transmission risks. According to Bhatti, Usman, and  Kandi, (2016, p.6), the latest recommendation for ART by WHO includes the first-line ART that focuses on treating adults with a single NNRTI and two NRTIs. They includes efavirenz (EFV) + emtricitabine (FTC), or Lamivudine (3TC) + Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) as a fixed-dose. In case of contradiction, FCT or 3TC+ TDF+ nevirapine (NVP), or 3TC +zidovudine (AZT) + NVP, or AZT+EFV+3TC can be used. If the first-line ART treatment fails, a second line can be used. This combines a ritonavir-boosted PI and NRTIs (Bhatti, Usman & Kandi, 2016, p.6).

Read also A Comparison Of HIV-AIDS Prevalence In USA, Haiti And Rwanda

HIV is a life-long infection that cannot be treated completely but can be managed to ensure low virus count and improvement of CD4 cells in the patient body. With early diagnosis and proper ART therapy, an HIV patient has a chance of prolonging the asymptomatic infection phase that results in AIDS and ultimate death. A patient has a chance of living for up to five decades with the disease, especially when proper management is employed. However, when no treatment is offered, the patient is likely to turn asymptomatic within ten years after the infection and to succumb from the disease within three years after reaching the asymptomatic stage (Nettleman, 2019).

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Based on the analysis, HIV is a complex disease with an individual based clinical presentation based on the level of the immune system and the region. It also has a complex pathophysiology that makes it hard to address the disease. Once infected, the patient has to accept his or her status and live with the disease through proper disease management through ART therapy. When effectively managed a patient can live for decades and live a normal life. However, if ignored, the patient is likely to die within a decade. It is therefore important for a person to ensure early testing and diagnosis, when one is exposed to high virus risk or when one has a medical history demonstrating exposure to the virus. Early start of the disease management increase chances of controlling the viral load and improving CD4 counts easily. However, where possible, people should focus on employing preventive measures to avoid a lifetime struggle with the disease.

Walmart Compensation Philosophy

Evaluate the current compensation philosophy for your organization or an organization of your choosing (from a third-person perspective).

  • Evaluate the organization’s current compensation philosophy and propose ways to enhance or revamp the current compensation philosophy to meet the changing needs of the organization and its employees.
  • Examine key factors within the internal and external environment including the mission and strategic focus of the organization, as well as the financial and cultural aspects of your organization (i.e., they cannot have a compensation philosophy where they “lead” the market if the organization does not have the financial resources) that should influence this philosophy. The proposed philosophy itself should be no more than a short paragraph.
  • Identify the key factors that should contribute to the organization’s development based on your proposed organizational philosophy.
  • Remember to write from a third-person perspective. Do not include wording like “my company’s philosophy is …” Instead include wording like “XYZ Company Name’s philosophy is …” Remember to write about the company and the company’s philosophy; do not refer to you or your connection to the company.

Read also Impact and Effect of Compensation Within an Organization

Walmart Compensation Philosophy

Compensation philosophy refers to a formal statement that documents a company’s position on employee compensation. It explains the reasoning behind how much employees are paid as well as creates a framework for consistency. Compensation philosophies are usually developed by the human resources department with the help of the executive team (Zacharuk & Doney, 2016). Some of the factors that determine compensation philosophy include the financial position of the company, the size of the firm, the industry that the company is in, business objectives, level of difficulty in finding competent employees, and market salary information (Ferguson & Reio, 2010). A company’s compensation philosophy should be reviewed and updated according to the changes in the factors affecting business (Ferguson & Reio, 2010). A well designed compensation philosophy will support the strategic plans of an organization, its competitive outlook, operating objectives as well as total reward strategies (Ferguson & Reio, 2010). Most compensation philosophies seek to identify the pay programs and reward strategies, acknowledge how the pay programs support the business strategy, attract employees to join the organization and motivate employees to perform at the best of their skill competencies.

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Current Compensation Philosophy of Walmart

The compensation philosophy of Walmart is based on the internal equity compensation approach. Internal equity based compensation consists of rewards and compensations being given to employees fairly according to the value of the job they do within the organization (Thompson, 2017). Walmart gives fair compensation to employees based on their performance and contribution in order to attract and retain skillful employees. As is advised for any compensation philosophy, Walmart conducts an annual review of the company’s management and employee performance so that relevant changes to the compensation philosophy are made. Some of the factors that Walmart puts into consideration when conducting reviews include level of skills, efforts of employees, responsibilities of employees as well as the working conditions of the employees (Thompson, 2017). Internal equity based compensation encourages the employees at Walmart to perform well and increase their contribution to the organization. Walmart also uses a competency based pay compensation philosophy approach whereby employee wages and salaries are dependent on skills, knowledge and behavior as opposed to the position that they hold. This approach based on competency is effective in addressing the needs of the organization and motivates employees at the same time.

Read also Compensation and Benefits Management – Holland Enterprises

Factors that Influence Walmart’s Compensation Philosophy

While Walmart is dedicated to motivating employees and attracting highly skilled employees, there are other factors that influence the compensation philosophy at Walmart. The human resource management approach in employee compensation and career development is founded on the minimization of costs (Thompson, 2017). Walmart is committed to minimizing the compensation packages without compromising the performance of employees. The company has put in place career development strategies whose aim is to minimize turnover among employees by ensuring that there is maximization of the level of fit between the worker and their job positions (Thompson, 2017). The considerations by the human resource department at Walmart are important in making sure that employees are in a sufficient position to support the growth of the company.

Read also Employee Staffing and Compensation Plan for a Small Size Public Traded Company

Improvements to the Compensation Philosophy

Walmart’s compensation strategy is most identifiable by the ‘low price, low wage’ policy. The low wages that are given to employees are often points of criticism on the management of the company. The current minimum hourly wage for employees at Walmart is significantly lower than that of the national average (Thompson, 2017). While the basic pay for minimum wage employees is relatively lower than that of other workers, the company provides other benefits for its employees. Some of the benefits include company-matched 401(k) contributions, some of which consist of up to 6% of salaries (Thompson, 2017). In addition to that, employees enjoy associate discounts, associate stock purchase plans with company match and health insurance plans that are comprehensive (Thompson, 2017). The listed benefits maintain motivation among employees, and they address some of the human resource goals of employee retention. Other ways through which Walmart motivates its employees is the use of incentives. For instance, the company gives special recognition to employees that perform exceptionally well. While benefits and incentives are recommended, Walmart should review its compensation philosophy in order to raise the wages given to employees. Doing so would make the company competitive in terms of human resources and dedicated staff.

Read also Reaction – Compensation has no bearing on a Company’s Performance


A compensation philosophy is an important part of a company’s strategy. The compensation philosophy should be aligned with the goals and objectives of the concerned firm. At the same time, a compensation philosophy should seek to motivate employees, retain employees and attract potentially skilled employees. In the case of Walmart, the main factor determining the company’s compensation philosophy seems to be the minimization of cost. The company is reputable for offering lower wages than the national average. Such a reputation is bound to jeopardize the firm because it does not motivate employees nor does it attract new staff. A recommendation on improving the compensation strategy at Walmart would be to base the philosophy on attracting and retaining employees.

Teaching Resource for Inclusive Education – EDMAS 6025

EDMAS 6025 – Understanding and Supporting Young People

In this task you are to create a resource that demonstrates your understanding of inclusive education.  It will demonstrate the theoretical and legislative elements of inclusion, and build on these to identify pedagogical approaches, practical strategies and resources to move towards inclusion in education.  It also incorporates elements of collaboration with parents/ carers, respect and confidentiality, and how you could involve them in the planning and teaching process.  This task aims to provide a foundation of options to draw on for AT3, where you can draw on this knowledge and understanding to apply your knowledge as you plan for a class cohort.  This resource file can be thought of in four parts:

  1. Understanding development and issues that impact individual development
  2. Rights, legislation and inclusion
  3. Inclusive education pedagogies and strategies
  4. Developing connections to learning

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Teaching Resource for Inclusive Education

Childhood and Adolescent Development

Childhood and adolescent development have a significant impact on the education. This fact explains why it is important to understand various stages that children go through in their development in order to understand how each learner’s education is impacted by their development. Early childhood covers the period between infancy and 8 years. During this stage, a child undergoes tremendous growth and development. This growth encompasses physical growth and weight increase. There is a doubling of the child’s weight and height. There is also acquisition of many skills such as sitting, walking, sufficient hand-eye coordination, and scribbling, among others. There is also development of fine-motor skills which enables them to have a better grasp of such items as pencils and crayons. These children also develop their language and cognitive skills. This allows them to build a vocabulary of between 300 and 1000 words. Language development also helps to advance the children’s cognitive skills and their social development by promoting interactions.

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In the middle stage and adolescence stage, children undergo tremendous development that advances their growth even further. The middle stage covers the ages between 8 and 12 years. During this stage, children develop the skills of developing hypotheses and classification of information. Children also gain enthusiasm for certain fields and subjects based on their interests. There is significant social development and development of independence. The adolescence stage covers the ages between 12 and 18 years. During this stage, children undergo identity development. At this stage, there is also significant physical and mental growth. Sexual maturation sets in during adolescence, and adolescents develop a sense of responsibility. There is increased ability in the solving of abstract problems.

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Factors that Impact Growth and Development

Many issues can impact the growth and development of children. Hereditary issues are one of the main factors that play an important part in the development of children. Children can inherit such conditions as hypertension and diabetes from their parents. These conditions have a negative impact on the growth of children. The environment is also another important factor that is central to growth and development. The home and the school environment should be made in a way that positively affects the development of children. The impact of sex cannot be left out, as it shows that boys tend to grow faster than girls, while girls mature faster than boys during adolescence. Socio-economic status and nutrition also play an important part in growth and development. Children from poor background tend to grow slowly mainly due to malnutrition. A lack of a regular balanced diet means that children do not develop as fast as those who have access to highly nutritious diets. Developmental stage, such as adolescence also has a significant impact on development and education, as adolescents have high emotional challenges that need to be critically managed.

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Disability also impacts the development of children significantly. Disabilities are of various forms, such as hearing loss, blindness, learning challenges such as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and dyslexia, traumatic brain injury, and developmental conditions such as autism and epilepsy. These disabilities make it difficult for children to grow and develop normally. As such, their normal life is affected, which includes education.  These disabilities may range in their severity, and thus children with disabilities should be managed in a manner that responds to the student’s individual needs. Creating an inclusive learning environment is crucial as it ensures that diverse learners have an environment that meets their diverse needs.

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Rights and Legislation of Children with Disabilities in Relation to Education

All children have a right to education as stipulated in law. Various advantages have been recognized for encouraging inclusive education that encompasses children with disabilities. For example, it ensures that children living with disabilities face reduced stigma in the society. Education also empowers them to be more independent and self-reliant (Tomlinson, 2014). According to the Australian Disability Discrimination Act, children with disabilities should have access to appropriate and free public education (Schwartz & Elder, 2018). Schools should be able to conduct assessments of each child in order to determine the individual needs that should be met. This legislation, which was enacted in 1992, requires that schools should have individualized plans for each child in order to respond to their specific needs. The schools are also required to design programs that facilitate meaningful participation of all children in the education system.

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The Disability Standards for Education of 2005illegalizes all forms of discrimination against people with disabilities in the public service. Public institutions are required to treat people with disabilities like everyone else, and ensure that they have access to education at all levels. Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act seeks to ensure that there is equality in the public institutions, and that people are not discriminated on the basis of disability. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 helps to protect the rights and privileges of people living with disabilities in programs that are financed by the federal government. Schools are required to provide accommodation and support to living with disabilities, according to the legislation. These legislations help to guarantee the rights of all children to education. As such, children living with any forms of disability are nit discriminated against in the education system.

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Inclusive Education

Children with disabilities, just like all other children, have dreams and ambitions for their futures. They need quality education just like every other child in order to develop their skills and build their careers with full potential. Children with disabilities are more often than not overlooked in several ways, ranging from policy making to limitation of their education because they are often regarded as inferior species to those without physical disabilities. They thus face several challenges and barriers to education in form of stigma, discrimination and many others.

Inclusive education is one of the surest ways to ensure that all children are given equal and fair chance to learn. Inclusive education means that all children regardless of their backgrounds and disabilities are in the same schools, same classrooms and given equal learning opportunities (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2017). Inclusive education system values and respects the unique contributions made by learners from all backgrounds and allows these diverse groups top grow together to the benefit of all.

Inclusive education brings with it a lot of benefits both to the learners and to the society as well. An inclusive education system promotes bonding and friendships among learners of varied background; this makes learning easier and fun and generally improves performance (Greenhow & Lewin, 2015). An inclusive education system grants access to the curriculum to all students in equal measure thereby alleviating discrimination. Enhanced skill acquisition and generalization is another important benefit that inclusive education brings, this enables all the learners to develop their skills that later enable them to pursue their careers. Last but not least, an inclusive education system motivates the disabled children to learn.

Inclusive Pedagogical Approaches and Teaching Strategies

Inclusive pedagogy is a student-centre teaching approach that aims at creating an exciting and fully engaging environment to all students regardless of their background, learning methods, and cognitive and physical abilities in classroom. Inclusive pedagogy has been shown to improve learning outcomes among children with disability when the faculty recognizes these differences and take measures to ensure that each and every student feels welcome and that they are just as important as other children. Two of the most commonly used inclusive pedagogies include differentiation and universal design for learning.

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Differentiation is a flexible learning approach when giving instructions to students. It features a flexible and adaptable curriculum that aims at maximizing learner’s potential. It involves features as simple as subtitles on a film and complex ones like media form. A differentiated classroom uses several ways to give instructions to students so that everyone has an equal opportunity to understand. A well differentiated teaching approach is adaptive, malleable, flexible, outcome based, oriented to student growth and success, recognizes learns disabilities and works on them, dynamic and diverse, believes in learners and empathetic.

To ensure that a curriculum is student-centred and well differentiated, the universal design comes in handy. Universal design is a way of thinking about learning and teaching with the aim of ensuring all students succeeds in their education irrespective of their physical and mental disabilities. Its principles are intended to avail course materials and learning experiences to all learners in the most welcoming way possible. The universal design guides teachers and other instructors to vary their ways of teaching so as to meet the learning needs of diverse groups of learners. The principles that guide the universal design for learning are: representation, action and engagement.

Provide Opportunities for Agency, Participation, and Engagement

There is need to adopt teaching strategies that promote agency, participation, and engagement. Learner agency helps to shift the responsibility of learning from being teacher-based, to being based on learners. This approach helps to inculcate a sense of responsibility in learners in order for them to be more conscious of the importance of education in their lives. This approach also ensures that learners can intervene in the learning process in a way that improves the learning environment and learning outcomes. One of the strategies of promoting learner agency is by creating a culture of inquiry and creativity. A culture of inquiry makes children more insightful and engaging while learning. It also increases their curiosity to ask questions on things that they would like to understand better. A culture of inquiry also ensures that learners can engage among themselves in questions and discussions in order to understand things as well as raise even bigger questions. Creativity also promotes innovation and invention in the learning environment.

Promoting learner participation in the learning process helps to create an equal opportunity for every student to have an effective experience in the learning process. It also helps to encourage students to explore issues from different perspectives. As learners will participate in various ways, teachers should understand each learner at a personal level in order to develop the best approach in encouraging participation and engagement. Some learners may participate by raising their hands and answering questions, while others may participate by asking questions. Some learners may also be more comfortable illustrating things on the board or by helping in development of teaching aids. The instructor’s goal is to develop healthy environment that embraces diversity of students.

Development and Recommendations for Individual Learning Plan

In implementing inclusive learning, it is important to develop individual learning plans (ILPs) that help in meeting the needs of each learner. The steps that should be followed while developing an ILP include: understanding the learner’s unique needs, set measurable and meaningful goals, plan the program, implement the developed learning plan, monitor and review the plan and the outcomes. There should be clear goals that should be achieved, such as a learner achieving a good level of social interactions and progressing well in class. While carrying out an individual learning plan, it is crucial to ensure that there are clear mechanisms for evaluating their effectiveness. This step ensures that it is easy to notice if the system is working or not. This makes it possible to make appropriate changes when needed for the benefit of each learner.

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Strategies for the Involvement of Parents or Caregivers

It is essential to ensure that parents and guardians are well integrated in the education of their children. This approach ensures that children are well supported while at home and in school. A good integration of parents ensures that instructors can meet the needs of the students based on the information provided by their parents and guardians. One of the best strategies for incorporating parents in the development of ILPs is the active integration of teachers in all meetings that focus on development of learning plans. In such a way, the parents will help in outlining the goals they would like to see met in the learning process (Arthur-Kelly & Neilands, 2017). Instructors can also help in containing expectations from parents by explaining to them the best approaches in attempting to meet the learning goals.

Performance Management Plan – John Miller Scenario

C235 Performance Appraisal Task Scenario

You are the human resource manager of a midsize accounting firm. Mary Smith, a new accounting director within the firm, is concerned about how to coach an underperforming manager named John Miller, whom she oversees. A recent performance appraisal of John revealed that there were several areas that needed improvement. Mary is unsure of her next steps with John, and she has asked you to create a three-month performance management plan for him.

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Performance Management Plan For John Miller

Importance of setting performance expectations                             

The setting of employee performance expectations is a major component of successfully guiding an organization and fostering a culture of accountability. Expectations should ideally be set by managers a month after hiring an employee to outline their anticipations during their stint at the organization. Employee expectations are directly linked to job description. It summaries job performance, workplace demeanor and also accords new employees a unique chance to seek clarity. In essence, performance expectations are particularly fundamental in making certain that both employee and manager are on the same page to avert the possibility of the emergence of misunderstandings. Furthermore, it establishes a baseline of measurement that can be applied to gauge the performance of each employee. The act of setting employee expectations also creates a unique opportunity for managers to communicate directly with team members, which improves the quality of their relationship. They also embolden employees to adopt a carefree attitude at the workplace owing to the fact that they are operating within the stipulated structure and guidelines.

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The process of setting employee expectations

Setting employee expectations is a methodical process which follows specific steps to guarantee success during implementation. It typically begins with the alignment of an employee’s goals with organizational objectives, ethics, and culture. This stage is characterized by direct communication between employees and managers do elucidate the formers role in an organization’s grand scheme. It is particularly crucial to simplify the performance expectation as a way of making certain that both parties are acutely aware of the stipulated terms. They process of setting employee expectations should also rely on gaps which currently exist among teams to direct their expectations. Sit-downs typically present a unique opportunity to discuss set standards with employees before writing them down. This is then followed by coming to a mutual agreement between a manager and employees before striking a commitment.

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Areas of Improvement

Essential Tasks Outlined in the Job DescriptionArea in Performance Appraisal Requiring Improvement
To review and homogenize procedures with the aim of bolstering efficiency while bolstering expedite workflow.Meeting company, state, and federal time limits.
Performance supervisory responsibilities as outlined in the firm’s policies and applicable federal regulations.The performance of supervisory responsibilities in adherence to company policies and applicable federal regulations. 

Steps for Areas of Improvement

            John is currently engaged on a three-month performance management plan by the firm after an evaluation revealed signs indicative of underperformance and a dereliction of duties. The aforementioned plan will also incorporate a compressive progress assessment plan on a monthly basis to gauge his ability to attain the goals outlined within his plan. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that John’s capability to maintain a competent and efficient team is largely impaired and in need of extensive improvements. The current level of incompetence and inefficiency witnessed within his team may explain the absence of monthly ledger reconciliation deadlines and payments slated for suppliers.  Improvement from this current state will involve the standardization of prevailing procedures within the department with the main aim of executing a schedule program which will play a major role in making certain that set targets are met. Furthermore, absenteeism is an emerging problem plaguing John’s department and has been taken to the extremes within the past few months. As the head of the department, John needs to reaffirm his commitment to making sure that the emerging absenteeism culture is deracinated and reduced to an acceptable level. Another major reason why improvements are necessary when reviewing the current state of affairs is in the fact that a preemptive approach is required when approaching key firm policies. For instance, a proactive approach is required when applying the company’s sick leave policy especially since it is an important area to focus on when endeavoring to reduce malingering and absenteeism within John’s department.

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Additionally, John has been accused of providing preferential treatment to some of his employees which currently doesn’t sit well with some team members. Favoritism is a major issue plaguing the contemporary workplace environment and linked to the development of poor relationships among employees and reduced productivity (Cardy, 2016). It is also worth noting that favoritism is unacceptable as per the company’s policy and regarded as a form of unfair treatment which cannot be tolerated. It is incumbent upon John as the head of the department to address this issue head-on and institute necessary changes to avert the possibility of dealing with an unmotivated workforce as a direct result of his actions. John will also be expected to demonstrate an improvement in his ability to fairly allocate workloads and an equitable distribution of workloads. This will only be achieved through the provision of a resource list by the Director of Human Resource with the aim of bolstering John’s efforts to effect necessary changes within his department. This will also create a unique opportunity turn to other executives for guidance. The leadership training seminar will provide John to gather necessary skills which will be essential in imparting important skills which will allow him to make improvements within his department. An increase in budgetary allocations will, therefore, prove useful in allowing John to realize his objective while still benefitting from key lessons picked from the policy review training

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Evaluation of Progress

            The Human Resource and Accounting directors will serve as an important element in the evaluation of progress. They will play a major role in reviewing John’s new-found ability to maintain a competent and efficient team by scoring his performance using a 3-point scale.

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The application of this all-encompassing scale will address the levels of determination, efficacy, and timeliness among subordinate staff within John’s department.  An evaluation of the progress made after training will determine the level of improvement made based on a 2-point scoring criteria proving objectives have been met. A monthly review will be essential in the assessment of each objective especially in relation to the resources provided. The evaluation of progress will particularly be important in identifying areas which still require additional resources in the necessary improvements to be made.

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Outcomes demonstrating success

            Several outcomes will demonstrate John’s success in the aforementioned areas requiring improvement. One of the most reliable outcomes demonstrating John’s success will be in his ability to develop a comprehensive plan for the standardization of procedures. In it, he should demonstrate a deep understanding of the functioning of the new schedule system whose primary purpose will be to prevent late payments and deadline anomalies. John’s ability to organize meetings with team members to discuss absenteeism and its effect on productivity will also demonstrate success. A drop in the absentee rate will also be a clear indication of a successful outcome which is bound to introduce cumulative gains for the company. Additionally, John’s reassurance to sellers regarding timely payments and the meeting of ledger reconciliation deadlines will reveal a great deal of progress.

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Consequences for Non-compliance

            Non-compliance with the company’s employee expectations will be revealed by a score of either 0 or 1.  This will be a clear indication of John’s continued failure to implement necessary changes as proposed in the performance management plan. A practical response to this overt manifestation of non-compliance will be in placing relieving John of his duties and placing him on a one month unpaid administrative leave. This will provide John with an exceptional opportunity to reflect on his overall conduct and work towards making much-needed changes. John’s compulsory unpaid leave will then be followed by a meeting with the Human Resource and Accounting directors to discuss missed targets and a second chance to make the required adjustments.  Failure to meet the same objectives after a second attempt will result in a meeting with the committee of directors to discuss John’s future. The committee will then determine whether he requires additional resources, should be relegated to an accountant or fired.

Final meeting            

Success in meeting the targets outlined in the plan will result in final meeting between John and both directors (HR and Accounting). It will serve as a penultimate plan for improvement while focusing on the fundamental nature of the success of John’s department to the organization. This meeting will discuss the fruitful conclusion of the performance improvement plan and its impact on the company. Outcomes and commendable efforts will be highlighted during this meeting to embolden John within his current position.