A Research Paper on Virtual Private Network (VPN)

What is Virtual Private Network (VPN)

Virtual Private Network (VPN) represent a novel technology developed with the sole aim of providing users with private and secure communication over the internet. They are frequently utilized by users who typically wish to privately access certain online services and websites often restricted in their location. VPNs have also been used to encrypt data transmitted across public networks or during instances where individuals actively attempt to bypass geo-restrictions set up by specific streaming services. At the very core of VPNs is the integration of security mechanisms bolstered by the use of encrypted tunnelling systems that connect an individual’s device to the internet (Siraj & Aslam, 2020).

The tunnels in question establish the VPN connection required at any given point in time and are operated by third-party providers who forward the traffic to a final destination. It is worth noting that the encryption that takes place during this process prevents unauthorized access thus protecting users from third parties such as government agencies and hackers. Today, VPNs are often utilized in the promotion of personal privacy and corporate security within a commercial setting. This is achieved by masking individual IP addresses while also encrypting internet traffic to ensure that third parties are completely unable to track their online activities, especially through internet service providers (ISPs). Moreover, VPN use provides companies with secure remote access that allows them to track company resources while also being connected to the internal network. This is crucial for companies with employees who work remotely while actively preventing unauthorized access from malicious actors such as hackers.

Virtual Private Network Operation and Significance in Network Security

VPNs function by providing much-needed private network connections, particularly over public network infrastructure. User data is often encrypted and routed within a private network to function as an online security resource and is often valuable in maintaining internet security. VPN servers also play a fundamental role as the sole intermediary between users’ devices and the internet, before decrypting key information and forwarding it to the final destination. VPN servers rely on a series of encryption points to ensure that the information shared is safe and cannot be accessed by third parties; According to Tahir & Kalia (2020), the most common protocols used by VPNs include Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP), Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), Internet Protocol Security (IPSec), and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS).

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These protocols are all similar in action and actively attempt to maintain a high level of digital security while maintaining the best speeds based solely on device compatibility. This is significant as a way of maintaining a high level of privacy and confidentiality for users and preventing the transmission of private information across data networks. It also allows secure remote access and the access of files from a different location, which goes a long way in maintaining network security. VPNS are also popular today for the protection they offer against immediate cyber threats while also allowing users to bypass censorship imposed in the form of geo-restrictions.

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Virtual Private Network Technology and Virtual Private Network Protocols

VPN technology is designed to provide private and secure access to networks through a series of encrypted connections from users’ devices to remote servers. This, therefore, plays a crucial role in the protection of individual and private data by protecting online activity while also allowing users to bypass any form of censorship imposed. According to Abdul-Malik & Mohamed (2021), PPTP, L2TP/IPSec, OpenVPN, SL/TLS VPN, IKEv2/IPSec, SSTP, SoftEther VPN, GRE (Generic Routing Encapsulation) VPN, and MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) VPN are the most common types of VPN technology in use today.

The emerging use of Remote Access VPN has also played an important role in allowing individuals and companies to securely access networks from a different geographical locations. The Site-to-Site VPN types are also an interesting development credited for allowing users to access multiple networks when connecting to the internet. This is particularly critical for companies with premises in multiple locations, which now makes it possible for them to use and share resources efficiently. SSL VPNSSL VPNs have been known to require the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol to guarantee users of a secure connection when using various web-based applications. On the other hand, the SSL VPN uses Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) for encryption which then guarantees privacy in the information shared between networks. The Multi-protocol Label Switching (MPLS) protocol is commonly used by the MPLS VPN-type and also functions by connecting two or more networks such as branch offices in remote locations.

The Importance of Virtual Private Network Technology

Virtual Private Network technology plays an essential role in guaranteeing user privacy, securing data transmission, enabling access to restricted content, bypassing censorship, and in ensuring company employees can access corporate resources. VPNs protect privacy and confidentiality by encrypting all data transmitted through networks thus preventing unauthorized access to private and sensitive information. It also protects users’ privacy by masking their IP addresses, making it increasingly difficult for government agencies, advertisers, or hackers to intercept private data. According to Sharma & Srivastava (2021).

VPNs also secure data transmission over a network by blocking vulnerable interceptions likely to lead to the theft of private data. Network encryption ensures that individuals can now access public Wi-Fi networks without the fear of losing private data to hackers. Moreover, VPNs allow individuals to access restricted content over the internet. Internet restrictions are the most common forms of censorship used today and are often a manifestation of government regulations on publicly-available content. VPNs help bypass these restrictions; making it possible for individuals to access much-needed online services anywhere in the world. VPN use also creates a scenario where individuals can maintain anonymity online bypassing censorship. This feature promotes the concept of unrestricted internet access to all regardless of location or barriers imposed by third-parties.

VPN Software and Vulnerabilities

Commercial VPN service, open-source VPN service, and built-in VPN clients in operating systems are the main variations of VPN is used today. Commercial VPN service software is normally provided by third-party services providers offering network encryption services to clients. They rely on high-speed servers for their day-to-day operations which then make it possible for them to access multiple locations globally. They are service-based subscriptions and the services and duration provided are solely based on the subscription selected (Kim & Kim (2021).

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On the other hand, open-source VPN software is free; with code made available for modification and improvement. They rely squarely on donations for development by a community of the willing who also provide customer support.  According to Chen & Gu (2021), built-in VPN clients in operating systems, such as those found in Linux, Windows, or MacOS provide VPN services without the need for additional software. VPN protocols offered herein range from PPTP to the more complex L2TP/IPsec. The most common vulnerabilities associated with VPN software include DNS leaks, IP address leaks, VPN logging problems, and existing vulnerabilities in VPN protocols. However, most services offered are user-friendly, offer a great deal of operational transparency, and secure clients from third-party intrusions.


Virtual Private Network (VPN) technology has become an indispensable tool for internet users seeking improved online security and privacy. VPNs use encryption and tunnelling protocols to provide secure access to private networks over the internet. They are available in different forms, including commercial VPN services, open-source VPN software, and built-in VPN clients in operating systems. VPN software offers numerous benefits, including enhanced network security, improved online privacy, access to restricted content, and increased productivity and flexibility. By encrypting internet traffic, VPNs prevent data interception and protect sensitive information, making them an effective tool for safeguarding online activities.

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Despite their benefits, VPNs also have vulnerabilities, which include security breaches, weak encryption, and DNS leaks. It is, therefore, essential to choose a reliable VPN service provider or software, ensure strong encryption, and perform regular security checks to prevent security breaches. The importance of Virtual Private Networks for network security cannot be overstated. In today’s world, cyber-attacks are on the rise, and cybercriminals are constantly developing new and sophisticated methods to exploit vulnerabilities in networks. VPN technology plays a crucial role in ensuring network security and online privacy. VPNs offer numerous benefits, including enhanced security, improved privacy, access to restricted content, and increased productivity and flexibility. However, it is essential to choose a reliable Virtual Private Network service provider or software, ensure strong encryption, and perform regular security checks to prevent security breaches. The importance of VPNs for network security cannot be overstated, and businesses and individuals should consider incorporating them into their online activities to enhance their security and privacy.

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