Numerous research has been carried out to explain the development of IT in decision-making. Different researchers use a variety of methodologies and develop different arguments in approval or disapproval of the hypothesis. Most credible sources of information on IT integration in decision-making apply the quantitative and qualitative research methods. An example is the study by Leidner and Elam (1994), which empirically examined effects of Executive Information Systems on decision-making. The method was advancement from the descriptive method. However, some studies applied the qualitative method that relies on descriptions and observations. A study by Janssen et al. (2016) emphasized on qualitative research method in understanding of factors affecting the decision-making process. This method does not provide high quality and reliable empirical evidences that certify its credibility. Another study by Steiger (1998) applies the theoretical approach in enhancing the use of Decision Support Systems. Theoretical framework does not give empirical evidences that are crucial when selecting credible sources for research purposes. Similarly, several authors develop arguments that seem to be in contradiction with others.
In understanding the use of information in decision-making, researchers try to certify the quality of their arguments and approach. Others offer solutions basing their argument on facts that contradict works done by other researchers. In their study, Leidner and Elam (1994) argue that descriptive research offers only the how and why hence they carried out a study to empirically examine impacts of Executive Information Systems. On another study, Janssen et al. (2016) insist on qualitative approach, which is a descriptive method, being the best in understanding the factors that affect effectiveness of decisions. The two contradict each other on the best method to apply for reliable findings that can be used in further studies. On the other hand, despite the method applied in a research, limitations are inevitable.
Every researcher aims at providing solutions to past problems and minimizing limitations in the study substantially. However, the limitations of a research method or design cannot be eliminated fully. Despite studies on IT integration in decision-making stressing on the quantitative approach, there are limitations as to the level of evidences. The approach makes it difficult to analyze the findings. On the other hand, the qualitative method stresses more on interviews, which focuses on the top-level managers, at the expense of diverse analysis emphasizing on both the managers and subordinate to acquire adequate and comprehensive data. The focus should be to the organization as a whole and the positive and negative results from use of IT in decision-making. An example is the comprehensive evidence provided by Marsden (2007) in the study on impacts of real-time data on Decision Support Systems. Additionally, to facilitate credible information, researchers need to apply the correct methods in any particular study.
The methodology is crucial in determining the evidence level and reliability in any study. The reliability in the evidences provided is what determines a credible source. However, different methodologies have been applied in IT integrations to the decision-making process. Despite that, each methodology provides a verifiable argument, which means that they are important. This implies that regardless of the evidence level provided by a particular method, it cannot be termed as unworthy or a bad method. Additionally, most researchers work towards a similar goal.
Arguments by authors incredible sources of information on information use in decision-making are mostly similar. The researchers agree with each other. This is more profound in current studies in the dynamic business world. Big data is a critical issue both scientifically and in engineering (Wang et al., 2016). The idea has been identified in the study by Power (2015), who states that new data streams require professional analysis for effective support on decision-making. Janssen et al. (2016), identifies the rapid transformation into Big Data and the complexity of dataset streams that calls for technical capabilities. Integration of “real-time business intelligence” in the decision-making process has minimized the complexities (Tank, 2015, p.43). In his study, Tank (2015) stresses that in the competitive business world, integration of IT in decision-making is crucial. Similarly, Leidner and Elam (1995) state that reliable information, which is computer-based, contributes to quality decisions. A study by Marsden (2007) gives a detailed discussion on the real-time data application in the decision-making process. In addition, despite the numerous studies on IT and its effect on the decision-making process, more extensive researches need to carried to address this dynamic issue.
“There is a big potential for a real-time business intelligence implementation as today’s decisions are taken on a poor foundation” (Tank, 2015, p.47). IT integration in the decision-making process is a broad and dynamic issue that calls for more studies for comprehensive grasp of the concept. More emphasis should be put on Real-Time Data and Real-Time Business Intelligence for credible source of information that will facilitate their implementation. Additionally, Tank (2015) signifies that automation of the decision-making process will result to more accurate information and effective decisions. It is therefore important for more studies to elaborate more on this area.
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