What are the primary three gases comprising the atmosphere?
atmosphere is made up of three gases that include nitrogen at 78%, oxygen at
21%, and argon at 0.93%.
Explain how temperature varies with altitude.
a situation where there are no clouds, snow or rains the temperature reduces by
about 5.4oF in every 1000 feet increase in altitude. However, if it
is raining or snowing or there is cloud, the temperature reduces by about 3.3oF
in every 1000 feet increase in altitude.
Describe the environmental lapse rate.
lapse rate refers to the rate in which earth atmospheric temperature reduces
with altitude increase or the rate at which the earth atmospheric temperature
increases with increase in altitude. The environmental lapse rate refers to the
actual rate at which the surrounding temperature fluctuates with height (Nathanson
& Schneider, 2014).
Why are sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead of such important that they are criteria pollutants under the NAAQS?
dioxide, lead, and carbon monoxide are regarded as important criteria pollutant
under the NAAQS because they can be found anywhere across the United States and
they can harm the environment and people health and cause damage of property,
even in small portion or light exposure.
What is the range of particle size for fly ash?
ash particle sizes range from 0.3 to 250 µm with a major percentage of these
particles ranging from 20 to 25 µm. The mean volume-based size of particle
being 112.3 µm, and over 90% of particles are less than 197. 39 µm. In
addition, ash fly is typified by bimodal distribution
Explain the greenhouse effect.
greenhouse effect refers to a natural process which wars the surface of earth.
When the energy of the sun reaches the atmosphere of the earth, some of it is
echoed back to space and the remaining is absorbed and radiated again via
Describe carbon capture and sequestration. Do you think it is viable?
capture and sequestration also known as carbon capture and storage refer to a
low carbon technology that captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from
burning of gas and coal for generation of power and from cement and steel
manufacturing among other industrial facilities. The captured carbon dioxide is
the shipped through ship or pipeline for permanent and safe underground
storage, safeguarding it from getting into the atmosphere and adding to
anthropogenic change of the climate (Herzog, 2001). The carbon capture and
sequestration is viable in managing high rate of carbon emission especially in
industries. However, there is that small fear of what would happen if there is
a leakage in the carbon dioxide storage area.
Discuss the operation of a high volume sampler. Why does it need an air pump?
samplers refer to instruments employed to gather air particles samples. A high
volume air sampler characteristically sample over 1500 cubic meters (m3)
of air in a period of 24 hours. A high volume sampler, air is drawn inside the
sampler via a quartz filter or glass fiber using a blower in order for
particulate material gathers on the surface of the filter. The particles
measuring 100µm and below get into the sampling inlet with no a 10µm
size-selective inlet and are gathered on downstream filter. The efficiencies
for collecting particles greater than 20 µm reduces with augmenting particle
size, and it extensively varies with wind angle with regard to the sampler
shelter roof ridge. The sampled air volume is determined by the indicator
flow-rat and airborne particulate matter held on the filter might be analyzed
or examined chemically using various methods. The sampler needs a pump to be
able to acquire the needed flow rate without drop of pressure (Nathanson
& Schneider, 2014).
If the concentration of carbon monoxide is 2.9% at a location along the highway at 70oC, what is the concentration in ppm?
2.9% = 2.9%/ 1% x 10000ppm
= 2.9 x 10000ppm
Describe three air pollution control strategies listed on
page 374 of our textbook.
are various strategies given to control air pollution. They include complete
source shut down where the uncontrollable source of pollutant is identified and
closed down completely, despite the economic challenges it may bring. Complete
shutdown however normally happens during the emergencies. Another option is
source location where community air zoning is done to be able to position
industries and plants in areas where there are fewer individuals living in the
region. Other aspects such as weather conditions and prevailing pattern of wind
should be considered. The third option is process change or fuel substitutions.
For instance fossil fuel should be substituted with renewable clean energy or
less pollutant for instance natural gas to substitute coal. This will reduce
the magnitude of pollution (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).
Explain the operation of a wet scrubber.
scrubbers are effectual devices for air pollution designed for eliminating
gases and/or particles from streams of industrial exhaust. A wet scrubber works
by introducing the stream of dirty gas stream with the aid of a scrubbing
liquid, characteristically water. Gases or particulate are gathered in the
scrubbing liquid. Normally, wet scrubbers are the most suitable devices of air
pollution for gathering both gas and particulate in a single system (Nathanson
& Schneider, 2014).
Describe how sound is produced and how we hear it.
is produced through vibration of objects. When a body vibrates it makes the
medium in its surrounding to vibrate. Air vibrations are regarded as travelling
longitudinal waves and they can be heard.
Sound waves contain areas of low and high pressure regarded as
rarefactions and compressions, respectively. The created sound waves travel
through the ear canal to the eardrum. The eardrum permits the vibrations via
the ossicles or the middle ear bones into the inner ear regarded as cochlea.
There are thousands of small hair cells in the cochlea that translate the
vibrations into electrical signals which are sent via the hearing nerve to the
brain. The brain interprets the signal to the sound that one can understand (Nathanson
& Schneider, 2014).
Due to the large number of runners, you are starting a quarter mile behind the starting line in the New York marathon. How long (seconds) after the starting gun is shot from the starting line do you hear the sound?
Speed of sound is 345 m/s
Speed = distance/ time
the distance = ¼ miles
1 mile = 1609.34meters
¼ miles =402.33meters
time taken to hear the gun =distance/speed
time = 402.33m/345m/s
= 1.17 s
Explain the difference between loudness and pitch.
loudness relies on the sound wave amplitude. In case the sound wave amplitude
is large, then loud sound will be produced.
Loudness is directly relative to square of vibration amplitude. This
implies that if the sound wave amplitude is double, the sound loudness will be
quadrupled. Pitch on the other hand is the sound aspect that relies on the wave
vibration frequency. High vibration frequency result to shrill sound with high
pitch and if a sound contains low vibration, then, it contains lower pitch.
Pitch is what is used to differentiate bass and soprano in a choir. While sound
loudness relies on the wave energy or amplitude, sound pitch responds to the
sound frequency (Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).
Search the Internet for a hand-held sound level meter. Briefly present its specifications and cost.
internet search directs me to Amazon which is selling Pyle PSPL25 Digital
Handheld Sound Meter with C and A frequency weighting for sound audio professional
and musicians. The device operates at a
frequency range of 31.5 Hz to 8 kHz and has strong temperature ability of -10
to 60oC. It accuracy level is -/+ 1.5dB and operating humidity of 10
to 90% RH, and weighing 7.20 oz. Level range is low at 30 to 100 dB and high at
50 to 130dB, and operating temperature of 0 to 40oz, and dimensions of 9.06’’ H
x 2.17’’ W x 2.17’’ D. it has auto power off time, weighting, fast,
slow-battery type 9 V, included. The device costs $41.39
Describe health effects of noise exposure.
to noise of high levels can result to permanent hearing loss. The extent of
damage is determined by the level of loudness and the duration of exposure.
Exposure to loud noise for a short term can result to temporary change in the
hearing ability which includes ringing in the ears or feeling of stuffed up
ears. This may disappear after a while. However, long term exposure to loud
noise can result to hearing loss of permanent ringing ears effect. Loud noise
can generate both psychological and physical stress, interfere with
concentration and communication, reduce productivity and contribute to injuries
and accidents due to inability to hear warning signals (Basner
et al., 2014).
Explain how to make an effective noise barrier.
basic purpose of noise barriers is to safeguard receivers from unwarranted
noise created by road traffic. There are various factors that require to be
considered in the noise barriers detailed design. These include that the
barriers need to be acoustically enough and should satisfy both acoustic and
non-acoustic factors. Considerations to be given in acoustical design include
barriers locations, barrier materials, shapes and dimensions. In addition,
non-acoustical design considerations that include maintainability, aesthetics,
structural integrity and safety among other factors must be considered
(Nathanson & Schneider, 2014).
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