Compare and contrast two test assessment instruments designed to measure personality. The following provides an outline of a test review:
- Description of each Test including what the test attempts to measure,
- who the test is intended to be used with, basic principles and/or theories upon which the test is based,
- demographic characteristics,
- overall types of scores reported when using this instrument,
- and whether it is projective or objective.
- What are the 3 major differences between each assessment and why is that important. When would one be preferred over the other one?
Sample Solution – Personality Test Assessment Instruments
Psychological assessment is most useful when evaluating the personality of study participants. It is necessary for psychologists to ensure that assessments are carried out based on valid theories of psychology, correct procedures, proper analysis, and truthful reporting techniques. It is equally important to match the test with what it intends to measure. All these requirements are determined by the nature of the test instruments upon which the assessment is based upon. This paper aims to compare and contrast two tests assessment instruments that are designed to measure personality. The author shall describe the structure, the principles, and other characteristics related to each test, and proceed toestablish a relationship between them. The first one is a Myer-Briggs Type Indicator test. It intends to assess personality types in high school and college populationsfor purposes of personality-occupation matching assessments. The second one is based on the Big Five Personality test model and allows the assessor to judge an individual’s personality type based on the Big Five traits of personality.
The Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality test is composed of seventy multiple choice questions. Each question contains two answers that represent two choices which the participants are supposed to choose from. The nature of the questions demonstrates the use of a structured approach where the responses are considered “closed” and inferred according to the theory in use. This is contrary to the “projective” approach, where the test designers and psychodynamic theorists employ the use of images, words, and situations that are ambiguously picked. The test instrument is designed to take 15 minutes, and the test takers are instructed to take the test without looking at the scoring sheet. They are also advised to answer each question based on their own personality in a truthful manner in order to maintain validity and avoid bias. The scoring involves filling in a table that is configured in columns to allow the assessors to establish frequencies and assess the participant’s personality.
The designers of the test intend to measure a person’s MBIT Personality type. This type assumes that every human being prefers some ways of behaving to others and that there are only four major choices in this regard(Bayne, 1995).Theyare established between Judging (J) and Perceiving (P), Thinking (T) and feeling (F), Sensing (S) and intuition (N), and Extroversion (E) and introversion (I).The scores indicate a provisional type from each of these pairs, for instance,ENFJ and ISFJ. Thus, the assessor expects to observe 16 possible combinations or personality types. The central concept ispreference, which means “feeling most natural and comfortable with.” As seen, the aim of the test is to apply the theory of psychological types as described by C. G. Jung in making psychological assessments(de Charon, 2003). The underlying philosophy of this theory is that the much superficially random variation of behavior is consistent and orderly because ofthe basic differences in whichindividuals prefer to use their judgement and perception.Since the test well resonates with “leadership and Personality types,” those taking the tests are more likely to be employees who wish to be recruited,high school, or college students.
The Big Five Personality test includes a set of 50 contrasting statements. For example, the first statement (labeled 1) reads “Am the life of the party” whereas the 30thstatement reads “do not have a good imagination.” The participants are required to respond to the statements using an agreement scale: 1- disagree, 2 – slightly disagree, 3 – neutral, 4 – slightly agree and 5 – agree. The scoring is determined by the use of five letters to represent the big five personality traits. As such, different responses fall on different descriptions that are further consistent with the Big Five personality traits. The five letters are E, A, C, N and O. They represent Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Openness to Experience respectively. Thus, the test is objective in nature because it aims to assess various aspects of personality independent of the rater’s bias and the examiner’s beliefs.
The Big Five personality test and its use in the evaluated psychological basement above attempts to apply the Big Five factor theory to judge an individual’s personality. First, openness demonstrates that the test participant enjoys to learn and do new things, as well as revel in new experiences. It includes traits like being imaginative, being insightful, and having a wide variety of interests(Ravi, 2015, p. 36). Second, a high degree of conscientiousness represents reliability and promptness. Traits of consciousnessinclude being methodic, organized, and thorough. Third, extroversion tries to show how an individual interacts with others(Ravi, 2015, p. 36). Introverts get their energy from within themselves while extroverts gain it from their interactions with others. Fourth, agreeableness shows the degree of an individual’s friendliness, cooperation, and compassion. People with high agreeableness tend to be kind, sympathetic and affectionate. In contrast, those with low agreeableness are more distant. Lastly, Neuroticism or emotional stability relates to one’s sense of emotional stability as well as how one responds to negative emotions(Ravi, 2015, p. 36). Participants who score highly in neuroticism are more likely to experience negative emotions and emotional instability. Therefore, such individuals are prone to mood and anxiety disorders.
The Big Five test can be applied when placing employees in specific duties in a company. This is because it uses the five personality dimensions that Human Resources professionals are interested in when assessing an employee’s disposition. These traits are abiological account of a person’s personality in which experience and learning do not play a role in influencing the five traits. Additionally, the Big Five traits present a useful model of organizing’s people’s perceptions of one’s personality. In other words, they are a model of reality-based person perception and thus useful for Human Resource Professionals.
While closely examining the two tests, one spots three major differences. Firstly, the questions are structured differently. While the MBTI uses closed questions, each with two choices, the Big Five test uses various statements to which the participant is required to agree or disagree. The difference is helpful in creating an efficient scoring method, as well as a valid calculation and assessment of the results. Secondly, the two tests are based on two different theories of psychology. The MBTI uses psychological types described by Jung (1921/1971) whereas the Big Five test utilizes the Big Five factor theory of personality. This is helpful in testing specific temperaments. Lastly, the two tests are evidently dissimilar when it comes to scoring methods. This is associated with the elements that each test intends to measure. Thus, the MBTI test is suitable when matching participants with their occupations whereas the Big Five test is suitable when determining the personality of college students and employees in order to make appropriate placements.
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