The Negative Impact of the Growing Number of offenders in Community Corrections

Critical Issue In Community Corrections 

The goal of community corrections was to create ties that can effectively integrate the offender with the community. Their operations are based in believe that the offenders can change and becomes productive members of the society. Given the diverse nature of community-corrections, their main objectives remain the same. According to (Barton-Bellessa, 2012) the primary objectives of community-corrections are to facilitate rehabilitation, re-integrate offenders into the society, and assist offenders in becoming more accountable for their actions. The author provides another main objective for corrections centers, which is to provide punishment and sentencing options as a way of reducing prison overcrowding.  However, despite the positive impact that community corrections play in offender re-integration and reduction of recidivism, it faces serious challenges of overcrowding. For example, it is the major source of burnout among corrections practitioners; it has increased case workloads which reduce efficiency, it has significant impact on offenders, and is a corrections cost driver.

Read also Policy Recommendations for Community- Based Corrections Practitioners

Implications of Growth in Number of offenders in Community Corrections

            The number of people under incarceration in the United States has grown to staggering numbers over the past 40 years. According to (Desmarais, Johnson & Singh, 2016) in 2013, the number of offenders under supervision was 7 million, which represented 1 in every 35 Americans. The author asserts that this represents approximately 1 in 51 adults on parole or probation and 1 in 110 adults in prison (pp. 206). Although the population of the United States constitutes less than 5% of global population, yet its number of offenders is close to the quarter of the world’s prison population. The authors point that this numbers is over four times the average number of prison populations in most countries. The ever increasing number of offenders under prison and community corrections in the United States poses challenges to the community corrections, practitioners and the offenders themselves.

Read also Community Corrections Recommendations for Larry Greene

            The major source of concern among the community practitioners that arise due to high number of offenders is the increase in burnout. Rhineberger-Dunn, Mack & Baker (2016) defines burnout as the syndrome of emotional exhaustion, and a reduction in personal accomplishment, which is observed among people working with others in some capacity. The authors further assert that burnout is associated with on the professionals as well as the clients that such professionals worked with (pp. 1).

Burnout has been shown to have significant implications on health and safety f community corrections staff and the successful rehabilitation of offenders who are under community corrections. According to (Rhineberger-Dunn, Mack & Baker, 2016) parole/probation officers often share intimate relationships with offenders, which is a significant predictor of emotional exhaustion compared t residential officers. Given that the number of offenders entering the community corrections is higher than those in prison, and keeps increasing, this is going to increase impact of burnout among the corrections staff.

Read also CJ503 – How Poor Attitudes among Correctional Staff in a State Prison Might Affect other Aspects of that Prison

Since the number of offenders continues to increase, this poses another great challenge to the community corrections. The high numbers of offenders who are transferred to alternative form of punishment, in form of community corrections has led to an increase in case workloads. According to (DeMichele & Payne, 2012) the parole and prison officers are assigned different tasks, which can be classified under either supervision or administrative tasks. These tasks vary across the various jurisdictions, but include verification of offender contacts, conducting presentence investigations, performing drug tests, visiting the homes of the offenders, administrative tasks, processing of violations, taking the offenders in and out of jurisdictions, verifying employment status, performing motivational talks, appearing in courts, and other tasks that may be assigned and which are specific to the offender. All these tasks become tedious, and given that the increase in number of offenders is not proportional to the increase in the number of corrections staff, it increases the work pressure on the few correctional staff.

Read also Types of Misconduct by Community Corrections Professionals

            Moreover, the increased workloads have led to diversion of the focus from the correctional officers. It is imperative to note that the major role of a correctional officer is to meet the goals of supervision. However, since they have a lot of tasks to complete, their focus is shifted a bit towards meeting those tasks other than performing the actual supervision of the offenders. DeMichele & Payne (2012) notes on average, the correctional officer spends 105-114 hours a month in supervision of offenders. This excludes time spend in the training, sick leave, vacation, time for performance of administrative tasks, and breaks.

            However, there has been a growth and total shift in the system perspective in the community corrections. According to (DeMichele & Payne, 2012) the past decades have seen the emergence of a number of new tasks that must be performed by the correctional officers.  For example, the Michigan parole and probation agents have adopted new changes such as intensive monitoring, SCRAM- a new form of electronic monitoring system, GPS, financial assessments after collection as well as their monitoring, polygraphs to be used for sex offenders, and other specialized case lads such as drug curt, mental health, and felony nonsupport (pp. 376). Considering the weekly time available to the correctional officers and the increasing tasks that correction officers must accomplish, it means that these officers afford less time to the supervision of the offenders. In addition, the increase in case workloads means correctional practitioners have to devote more energy in the completion of the administrative and the supervision tasks. Given that there is already evidence of burnout owing to the correctional officers supervising a high number of offenders entering the community correctional facilities, the increase in number of case is even likely to compound on the problem. These two factors have significant impact on the performance of the correctional officers and their ability to meet the goals of the community corrections.

Read also Role of Intermediate Sanctions in Corrections

            When parole and probation were established in 1876 and 1841 respectively, their core mandate was to shorten imprisonment for rehabilitation or to steer individuals from harsher punishment into supervision in the community. However, the increase in the number of offenders has increased case workloads, which has negatively hampered on the efficiency of the community corrections practitioners and their ability to meet the intended jurisdictionally appropriate goals. DeMichele & Payne (2012) points that correctional staffs in charge of parole and probation spend so much time performing tasks that are not relevant to the core purpose of rehabilitation. Researchers begun to ask whether this alternative form of punishment was serving its purpose or was it was just a form of social control.

            Moreover, (DeMichele & Payne, 2007) argues that the growth in the number of offenders under the community corrections over the past years has further complicated the caseload and workload decision making process. For purposes of clarification, caseload refers to the number of offenders under the supervision of an officer, whereas workload refers to the amount of time that an officer needs in order to accomplish the various tasks related to their caseloads. The authors assert that though the caseloads have witnessed growth over the years and the offender population increased, the workload per officer has remained stagnant. This has meant that there are now many working hours for every correctional officer in each day, week, month and the year. The increase in workload do not only impact the workload decision making process, but has negative impact on the efficiency of the officers, which negatively impacts on their ability to meet the locally designed correctional goals. Similarly, there could be a potential for a spill-ff effect, which may be experienced in increased rates of recidivism among the offenders, who may end up in the prison, which is already under scrutiny for its huge funding.

            In addition to the caseloads and workloads, the there is a growth in supervision conditions, while ultimately adds up to the already huge workload.   According to (DeMichele & Payne, 2007) as the offender number increase, so do the conditions of supervision provided by the policy makers and other non-community professionals. The offenders who are released from prison to serve their sentences under community corrections are often released under certain conditions determined by the judges, releasing authorities, and legislators. However, these authorities make their decisions based on the style of “one size fits all”, creating an application of standard conditions on the offenders. This reduces the consideration of the specific offender characteristics that determine individual behavior and their criminal tendencies. For example, regardless of the history of substance abuse, an offender, o ne must be available for drug tests done on periodic basis.  

            The other challenge that arises from the growing number of offenders in the community corrections is the rising costs of maintaining community corrections. The United State prison population has kept growing and many of the offenders who exit prisons to serve shorter term sentence end up in community corrections. In addition to those who exit prisons, there are offenders who are ordered by courts to undergo rehabilitation under the community corrections as an alternative to prison sentence. This creates new challenges of managing the ever increasing number of offenders in community corrections under the limited resources. According to (Lawrence, 2014) states spend about $40 billion to incarcerate and supervise offenders. This represented an increase of about 2.5% compared to the previous years’ allocation. Forty of the states in the country have seen an increase in allocation to prison and community corrections than the previous year, while six states that included Nebraska, Maine, Mississippi, Connecticut, Puerto Rico, Oklahoma, and North Dakota, had spend by over 5%.

            The state budgets often cover services such as environment, social services, education healthcare, transportation and other areas that are critical to the lives of the citizens. Most state corrections take about 5% of the general funds and this is projected to increase.  The increasing spending in corrections continues to take substantial amount of money meant for the vital services such as healthcare, Medicaid and education. Lawrence (2014) asserts that corrections rely almost entirely on state general funds in funding its operations. Whereas there is no alternative source of funds for prisons and community corrections other than the general funds from state budgets, their continued growth is going to create a huge challenge.

            In spite the large and ever increasing budgetary allocations, the prisons consume a huge percentage of the general fund allocation to the prisons and other correctional facilities. According to (Lawrence 2014) for every 10 $ spend on corrections, almost 9 $ are allocated to cater for the prisons. This occurs despite the fact that majority of the offenders are in the community corrections compared to those in prisons. Also, the offenders that leave prison continue to be released to the community corrections. This creates inadequate funding which further compounds on the problem of burnout and increased workload among community corrections officers. As unlined earlier in the paper, most of the community corrections officers have been burdened with high number of offenders, leading to long working hours. The inability of the community corrections to receive adequate funding despite the increasing allocation of funds to the corrections department is likely to derail the ability of the department to meet their locally designed goals. The High number of offenders and fewer community corrections staff will continue to be a common occurrence. This will have series negative implications on the offenders as well.

            The implications of high offender growth does not affect only the ability of the community corrections to meet their goals but also produce negative impact on the offenders themselves. First, community corrections officers are tasked with the challenges of handling a workload of over 100 and improving life of offenders who are mostly mentally ill, substance abusing, homeless, sometimes unemployed, and poor. Tasked with the responsibility of assuring public safety in an external political environment that shows almost zero tolerance to risk, the community correction officers are often forced to issue revocations for the offenders who are serving on probation or parole in the community corrections centers. In effect, this would negatively affect the reintegration efforts, as the re-incarcerated offenders lose the benefits fund in community corrections centers such as counseling, job training, and other psychological treatments.

            The decreasing prison populations and the increasing number of offenders in the community corrections place great pressure on the limited resources in such programs. Research has shown that community corrections programs play critical role in offender reintegration efforts, especially offenders that have mental problems and those who abuse alcohol and drugs. Frazier, Sung, Gideon & Alfaro (2015) points that the large number f prisoner releases calls for adequate treatment services in the community. When prisoners are released from prison or those ordered to serve on probation or parole by the courts, it is the community under the community corrections centers that are tasked with the provision f treatment and other services in order to reduce recidivism.

            However, in their study, (Frazier, Sung, Gideon & Alfaro, 2015) fund that the change in prison populations was negatively associated with the rate of abuse f substances and mental health admissions in the community corrections. What these means is that though the populations reduce in prisons, there is negative change in terms of substance abuse and mental admissions among the ex-offenders, which highlights the lack of adequate facilities and services. This negatively impacts the achievement of the rehabilitation goals. The inadequate services provisions may be lined to high offender growth coupled with minimal or no growth in community corrections services and the personnel who serve in these jurisdictions.

Conclusion

            The community corrections in the United States play a significant role in offender reintegration efforts. The increasing numbers of offenders who enter the community corrections highlights this critical role the sectors plays in the community. The rising populations of people under incarceration sparked a huge debate on its sustainability, which led t o the de-incarceration efforts, leading t o many offenders being placed under the community corrections. This has seen the number of offenders under the community corrections rise over the years, while those in prison have declined remarkably. Whereas this can be regarded as a massive step, in a country with the highest number of incarcerated people in the world, it has become another source of challenge to the community corrections practitioners. The growth in the number of offenders entering the community corrections has increased costs of management of community corrections, which has worsened owing t o reduced allocation of funds commensurate with the offender growth. In addition, the increased offender growth has led to burnout among community corrections officers; it has increased workload, and has led t o negative impact on the efficiency of the programs thus negatively affecting the offenders.  There is need for urgent measures if this core component of the criminal justice system is to continue meeting its core community specific goals.

Recommendations

Adopt evidence-based practices in order to allow courts to makes better decisions based on offender needs.

It was earlier pointed that one of the major causes of growth in offender populations in community corrections is due to “one size fits all” thinking among the court judges and other sentencing jurisdictions. However, DeMichele (2014) asserts the need for use of evidence-based practices that involves the use of target interventions for effective correctional programmes. The courts and other sentencing jurisdictions should consider the target interventions that work for the offender through liaising with appropriate community corrections programs to ensure they place the offender in right programs. This will not nly assist offenders but will also help in reducing workload among the correctional officers and avid arbitrary release of offenders into community corrections. The same practices should be adopted within the community corrections as this would help in reducing recidivism among offenders and their likelihood of readmission into prison.

Read also Correctional Substance Abuse – Case Study on Best Practices in Corrections

Increase funding into community corrections for employment of more correctional officers.

As outlined in the paper, on average, due to growth in offenders in community corrections, a correctional officer spends 105-114 hours a month supervision offenders. This creates huge workload among the community corrections officers, who are sometimes forced to revoke the parole or probation of some of the offenders, sending them to incarceration. Increasing funding, which stands at 1 in every 10 $ spend in prisons will ensure the community corrections are able to acquire more facilities and hire more correctional officers. This will reduce e workload, increase efficiency and ensure the overall goals of community corrections are attained.

Early prevention as a remedy towards delinquency.

The major cause of burnout and huge workload affecting the community correctional officers can be reduced by reducing the number of youths and other offenders who are involved in criminal activities. As outlined the number of offenders entering the community corrections is increasing wing to the increase in the number of the offenders leaving prison. This group represents people who have been incarcerated for different crimes. However, this group who leave prison or those who are sentenced by the sentencing authorities to serve in community corrections without going to prison can be reduced through effective prevention strategies. Many studies done have shown that early prevention of deliquescent behavior is critical in prevention of future offending. MacKenzie & Farrington (2015) found that strategies such as early interventions based on restorative methods and skills training are very effective.

Eliminate the paperwork and employ support staff to handle them.

The high offender populations in the community corrections have been linked with reduced motivation, increased workloads, and increased burnout among the community correctional officers. DeMichele & Payne (2012) points that the directors may not realize the amount of time that administrative tasks done by community corrections officers consume yet it is one of the major factors that cause the increased workload. These tasks must be demonstrated to the directors, who might realize the need to provide support staff to handle them leaving the correctional officers to focus on offenders.  This will ensure rehabilitation gals are attained, thus reducing recidivism which is another source of offender re-incarceration.

What is a Mole?

The term ‘molar” was derived from the Latin moles meaning a large mass. The concept of mole was first introduced by August Wilhelm Hofman the German chemist into the chemistry. Therefore, mole is the unit of measurement in the International System of Units (SI) for amount of substance (Jensen, 2004). The relationship between mole and Avogadro’s number i.e. 6.0224 * 1023 came as result of equating 1 Mole to the value of Avogadro’s number. This means that when a matter is described to have 1 mole in quantity, the matter under consideration constitutes exactly 6.0224 * 1023 number of particles such as electrons, ions, molecules, atoms or any other elementary entities.

            The concept of mole was needed because it was very challenging to carry out calculations when dealing with very small particles in the size of molecules and atoms since they are present in a very large number. The number of elementary particles in a small sample of a chemical compound or an element exists in the higher order of 10 (Onishi, 2004). As a result, the introduction of mole made it simpler to do calculations when dealing with small size particles such as atoms and molecules. Also, it was necessary to define a mole in reference to an element that contain as many elementary entities as there are in exactly 12 gm of Carbon – 12. Therefore, Avogadro’s number is the number of atoms in 12 gm of Carbon – 12.            

The definition of mole depends on its application; the mole can be defined in terms of particles, volume and mass (Mihir, 2017). This means that the mole concept can be used to carry out various other calculations in the field of chemistry.

Criminology Article Critique – Extralegal Disparity in the Application of Intermediate Sanctions: An Analysis of U.S. District Courts

Franklin, T., Dittmann, L., & Henry, T. (2015). Extralegal Disparity in the Application of Intermediate Sanctions: An Analysis of U.S. District Courts. Crime & Delinquency63(7), 839-874.

Purpose

The authors noted that intermediate sanctions can help alleviate the problems caused by mass incarceration among the minorities (Franklin, Dittmann & Henry, 2015). However, if specific offender characteristics such as age, sex, and educational attainments influenced the use of intermediate sanctions, then it may negate its positive impact. Therefore, the authors sought to examine the influence of offender characteristics such as race, educational attainment, age, and ethnicity on the application of intermediate sanctions.

Assumptions or Hypothesis

            The authors pointed that since intermediate sanctions are less restrictive and more lenient compared to prison sentences, there is likelihood that certain offenders could be deemed less fit. Thus, this led the authors into forming six hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that Black, Hispanic, male, and younger offenders will be less likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with prison. The second hypothesis was that Black, Hispanic, male, and younger offenders will be more likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with probation. The third hypothesis was that offenders with greater levels of education will be more likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with prison. The forth hypothesis is that offenders with greater levels of education will be less likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with probation. The fifth hypothesis is tha among race, sex, and age combinations, young, Black and Hispanic, male offenders will be least likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with prison. The final hypothesis is that among race, sex, and age combinations, young, Black and Hispanic, male offenders will be most likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with probation (Franklin, Dittmann & Henry, 2015, pp. 9-10).

Methods

            The authors undertook the study on the use of intermediate sanctions among the offenders as an alternative to incarceration. The research was done amongst the offenders from the minority groups since the authors wanted to determine whether the offender characteristics such as age, educational level, and sex influenced its use. The research was conducted among the minorities of the Hispanic and African American ethnicities.  The authors had no personal experiences with the research topic as they stated in the article that the topic has received less study and thus undertook the study to investigate the topic, while making reference to other published literature on the research subject.

Conclusion

            The authors fund that there was less likelihood for Hispanic offenders to receive intermediate sanctions when compared with prison sentence. Moreover, the authors found that though the African American offenders were not treated differently than White offenders. However, when examining probation and intermediate sanctions, the authors found that the odds of receiving intermediate sanctions was 20% greater for Hispanic offenders when compared with white offenders. Alls, the researchers found that Black offenders were less likely to receive intermediate sanctions. When considered n basis f sex, the researchers found that male offenders were less likely to receive intermediate sanctions compared to female offenders.

Critique

            Although the authors performed rigorously study that allowed it to answer the intended research questions, the researchers must broaden some aspects concerning their research findings. It is of the opinion that there is need for the authors t expand more on the reasons that lead to less numbers of Hispanic offenders and Blacks from being given the opportunities to be enrolled in intermediate sanctions. It is believed that there are more factors other than age, sex and educational attainment that can contribute t less number of Hispanics and Blacks from being given chances t serve in intermediate sanctions compared to White offenders.

            The authors failed to consider the roles of other factors such as social inequality and the differences in employment rates among Blacks, Hispanics and Whites. In their study, Pettit & Sykes (2015) found that the percentage of Whites working in paid labor was as high as 84%, whereas employment rates were consistently lower among Blacks. That the authors considered only age, sex, and education, does not provide real picture. This provides a major source of bias, since the reduced chances of the minorities to be given intermediate sanctions could be as a result of other factors such differences in unemployment rates. It is of the opinion that these other underlying factors must be examined since the chances of recidivism among a group that is likely not to get employment would be high, and such groups would rather be given to serve full prison sentence than intermediate sanctions.

Implications

There are several components of community-based sanctions such as probation, parole, and intermediate sanctions, which are carried within the community. According to (Krohn & Lane, 2015) these community based corrections allow offenders to be close to their pro-social peers and family social groups. Among these community-based corrections, probation appears to be more effective. This is because they provide an avenue where offenders who are seeking re-entry gain strong social support system, hence reducing chances of recidivism. Moreover, they are cost-effective and provide additional support such as counseling and other employment and life skills, which are invaluable for offender re-entry into the society.

McDonald’s Corporate Social Responsibility Analysis – Business Ethics

This paper examines business ethics by critically analyzing McDonald’s Corporate Social Responsibility.

Read also Operations Management As A Competitive Advantage For McDonalds Restaurants

McDonald’s Corporate Social Responsibility

McDonald’s is in the business of providing food to the public with its corporate social responsibility (CSR) being captured in its Scale for Good initiatives that aim at provision of food that is sustainable for the customers, producers and the environment. The initiatives have an online reporting platform that shows the latest updates with respect to the CSR’s “strategy, global priorities, policies and performance”. Notably, Scale for Good impacts on the company’s Velocity Growth Plan that aims to attract more customers to McDonald’s by making the customers feel good about the food, the company and its impact on the world. Scale for Good is hence an ongoing effort that adopts to a changing environment to define the standards for addressing social and environment challenges especially with regard to utilization of scarce food and water resources. The CSR’s initiatives are achieved in collaboration with such stakeholders as customers, suppliers, employees and franchisees.

Read also A Multinational Corporation Has No Moral Or Social Responsibility To Engage In Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Programs

The Scale for Good CSR objective is based on various business ethics theoretical approaches, with a major basis being the Common Good Approach that bases ethical decisions on what is good for the entire community, with McDonald’s aiming to produce food that is good for all the company’s stakeholders by serving all their interests. The CSR also adopts a Rights Approach framework by respecting the rights of all the stakeholders in business decision-making. Further, the Scale for Good objective is based on the Utilitarian Approach that aims to produce the most good while minimizing harm to the environment with regard to use of food and water resources.

Read also Discussion : Extent to Which A Company Embraces Corporate Social Responsibility

Scale for Good ensures McDonald’s has a responsibility to improve its business by adopting modern, best business practices in food provision. This impacts on the company’s expenses through Research and Development (R&D) that ensures McDonald’s is always improving its product portfolio by developing products that embrace healthier lifestyles for an increasingly informed and aware populace that demand “quality, nutrition and choice” (US SEC, 2018).  The R&D is reported as non-material expenditure in the company’s financial statements.

Read also McDonald’s SWOT Analysis

On the other hand, the CSR initiative is an opportunity for the company to evolve by offering innovative products that resonate with the masses, hence positively influencing the company’s profitability in the long-run. In its risk analysis, McDonald’s notes that “if we do not successfully evolve and execute against our business strategies, we may not be able to increase operating income” (US SEC, 2018). Scale for Good, a recent CSR initiative that is developed from earlier CSR initiatives, aims to contribute in increasing the operating income that has remained steady from 2012-2017 (US SEC, 2018). Notably, McDonald’s has gradually become more reliant on franchisees at the expense of company-owned restaurants, with sales from franchisees rising from $9 billion in 2012 to $10.1 billion in 2017 compared to revenue from company-owned restaurants that fell from $18.6 billion to $12.7 billion over the same period. It is hence imperative McDonald’s boosts its company-owned companies that it has most influence over by setting a comprehensive CSR objective.

Read also Is Pursuing a Policy of Corporate Social Responsibility a Useful Part of a Company’s Competitive Strategy

Nonetheless, franchisees, as part of the McDonald’s system, are important in realization of the Scale for Good CSR initiative. The 2017 Annual Report notes that

“The strength of the alignment among the company, its franchisees and suppliers (collectively referred to as the “System”) is key to McDonald’s long-term success. By leveraging the System, McDonald’s is able to identify, implement and scale ideas that meet customers’ changing needs and preferences. McDonald’s continually builds on its competitive advantages of System alignment and geographic diversification to deliver consistent, yet locally-relevant restaurant experiences to customers as an integral part of their communities” (US SEC, 2018)

Read also McDonalds Restaurants Talent Management Program

Moreover Scale for Good offers McDonald’s the opportunity to be the industry trendsetter in terms of food standards. That the company is multinational means that it has the opportunity to sample alternative practices from different locations before selecting the most suitable to scale to its many restaurants. According to Steve Easterbrook, McDonald’s President and CEO, the company is “proud to build on our strong commitment to the communities where we operate… embracing our leadership responsibility and demonstrating the incredible opportunities we can create… when we harness our Scale for Good around the world. Francesca DeBiase, the company’s Executive Vice President and Chief Supply Chain and Sustainability Officer, notes that “We want to use our Scale for Good and always keep raising the bar on what it means to be a responsible company committed to people and the planet.”

Read also Issues of Quality and Corporate Social Responsibility in Supply Chain Management – Annotated Bibliography

Priorities

An analysis of McDonald’s Scale for Good CSR initiative shows that the company – based on its scale and reach – has identified areas of global priority that it can mostly make a major difference in and lead to change in the industry. The global priorities are a reflection of the social and environmental impacts of food and its provision business as well as the material social and environmental issues that affect McDonald’s stakeholders who include stockholders, customers, employees, suppliers and franchisees. 

As a result, McDonald’s has prioritized the following CSR initiatives:

  • Climate action which McDonald’s cites as “the biggest environmental issue of our time, affecting McDonald’s customers, employees and everything from our supply chain to the thousands of communities around the world in which we operate” (McDonald, 2018). As a result, the company has Science Based Targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along its supply chain, which state that “The Company will partner with franchisees to reduce greenhouse gas emissions related to McDonald’s restaurants and offices by 36% by 2030 from a 2015 base year. Through collaboration and partnership with our suppliers and producers, the company also commits to a 31% reduction in emissions intensity (per metric ton of food and packaging) across our supply chain by 2030 from 2015 levels” (McDonald, 2018). Hence, McDonald’s aims to reduce its carbon footprint by 150 million metric tons of C02 equivalents by 2030, with a focus on improvements and innovations on LED lighting, kitchen equipment, packaging, recycling and sustainable agriculture support. This commitment has led to various company and collaborative initiatives such as McDonald’s Energy and Climate Position Statement effective from 2014, the 2015 White House American Business Act on Climate Change Pledge and the 2015 Commitment on Forests. The company submits an annual report to CDP Climate Change. McDonald’s France in conjunction with MoyPark Beef and France’s National Breeding Institute developed CAP’2ER, the European Union’s official tool for its “beef carbon” program (Cop21),
  • Beef sustainability whereby as one of the largest buyers of beef worldwide and as a founding member of the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB), McDonald’s collaborates with farmers, environmental groups and governments in advancing beef farming and production practices through discovering, practicing and scaling sustainable farming methods. This involves supporting environmentally-friendly beef production, advancing animal welfare and health as well as improving the livelihoods of beef farmers. The beef sustainability initiative impacts on McDonald’s behavior and performance by making it gradually source from suppliers participating in beef sustainability programs and practicing forest conservation and preservation, initiating and participating in farmer outreach programs where they share tools and knowledge to promote best practices, selecting and showcasing best practices in McDonald’s Flagship Farmers program, and pioneering new practices through trialing and discovery. Measurement of progress in all of these goals is pegged to 2020, with many McDonald’s restaurants and franchisees in Brazil and Canada already sourcing only sustainable beef. As noted by Dennis Laycraft, the president of GRSB, “Without McDonald’s, the roundtable would not have made the global, industry-wide inroads it has toward making beef a socially responsible, environmentally sound and economically viable product”.

Read also Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability – BUACC5934 Financial Accounting

  • Packaging and recycling with the company having progressive goals to reduce and improve packaging, innovate in sustainable packaging and recycling, and influence its worldwide customers to recycle more. As an interim goal, the company targets to have all its fiber-based packaging being from recycled or certified sources and where there is no deforestation by 2020, with the company having achieved this in 64% of its market (McDonald, 2018). Overall, McDonald’s aims to have all of its packaging being from renewable, recycled or certified sources by 2025. This target has already being achieved in the US, UK, Canada, France, Germany, Russia, Japan and China. McDonald’s has recycling and litter programs in 12 of its top markets. The company will eliminate foam packaging from all its operations by the end of this year (2018).
  • Commitment to families. In 2013, McDonald’s partnered with Alliance for Healthier Generations to introduce Happy Meal product that constitutes of food with more fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. This has directly impacted on the company’s performance, with parents being enthusiastic about the more nutritious meals. Removal of soda from the Happy Meal menu board saw a spike of 14% in uptake of meals served with water, milk or juice. Apart from offering balanced food choices from recommended food groups, the company also has the Happy Meal Readers Book Program and the Ronald McDonald House Charities. The Happy Meal Readers Program inspires a reading passion among children, having distributed over 370 million books globally since 2001. The program has also started distributing toys with the Happy Meal. The Ronald McDonald House Charities is another initiative that shows commitments to families by keeping sick children together with their families. His program started over 40 years ago and constitutes 364 houses, 227 family rooms, and 49 care mobiles in over 64 countries. The program provided “care and resources to more than 5.5 million children and families” in 2016.
  • Youth opportunity where in partnership with the International Youth Foundation (IYF), McDonald’s offers training, employment opportunities and workplace development for youth. In so doing, McDonald’s aims to access and attract high-quality talent as well as enhance its corporate brand’s reputation and trust. McDonald’s Youth Opportunity initiative was launched in 2018 with the aim of offering job readiness training, employment and career opportunities to two million young people globally by 2025. McDonald’s has also joined the International Labor Organization’s Global Initiative on Decent Jobs for Youth. The pre-employment job readiness training is currently piloting with 4000 youths in Chicago, with the aim being to scale it out to the rest of the US and globally from 2019. The company’s Hamburger University has seven campuses spread around the world, and has so far trained over 360,000 students to be leaders in the restaurant industry. The Archways to Opportunity career pathway program enables McDonald’s employee development in about 25 countries.

United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Further, the Scale for Good initiatives are in tune with the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of ending poverty, protecting the planet and ensuring prosperity for all; with various initiatives touching on all the SDGs. However, McDonald’s has identified six SDGs where it commits resources to make the greatest impact, namely:

  1. Zero hunger (Goal 2) where McDonald’s “is committed to serving delicious food, sourced in a way that is better for both the planet and the communities in our supply chains and where we operate”.
  2. Decent work and economic growth (Goal 8) where the company and its franchisees has the opportunity and responsibility to provide meaningful work, development opportunities as well as diversity and inclusivity to its one million global workforce that consisted of 235,000 employees as of 2017(US SEC, 2018).
  3. Responsible production and consumption (Goal 12) with the company being committed to “sourcing high-quality raw materials long into the future” through using natural resources efficiently, minimizing negative impacts in food production and consumption, and responsible food supply chain management.
  4. Climate action (Goal 13) where as a global citizen and the world’s largest restaurant, it has a major impact through such initiatives as beef sustainability, recycling and smart restaurant design.
  5. Life on land (Goal 15) with McDonald’s collaborating with various public and private stakeholders in initiatives on deforestation elimination and responsible forestry and production.
  6. Partnerships for the goals (Goal 17) through expert and community partnerships, McDonald’s is involved in prioritizing business and societal issues for innovative solutions.

Read also McDonald’s Franchise Sample Paper

Conclusion

McDonald’s Scale for Good is a CSR initiative that encompasses various programs geared towards aligning the company’s business with ethical practices for societal good. It leverages the company’s reach and scale to adopt a global perspective. Indeed, its global nature is reflected in several of its partners who include IYF, ILO and the European Union. Moreover, it has adopted some global sustainable goals as articulated in the UN’s SDGs. Its partnerships also include governments, NGOs and communities; reflecting the tailoring of its CSR initiative to local needs.

Read also A Comparison of Management Information Systems of Wal-Mart and McDonalds

A recent initiative to replace earlier CSR initiatives in the company, the Scale for Good initiative has already started positively impacting on the company’s behavior and performance. The initiative has a section on McDonald’s website dedicated to environmental and social performance goals and indicators that is in effect “a living reporting platform where readers can see how we’re doing year on year, and find the latest updates on our strategy, global priorities, policies and performance (McDonald’s, 2018).

Policy Recommendations for Community- Based Corrections Practitioners

The states in the United States now have over 1 million cells that houses over 2 million offenders. About 95% of these inmates are eventually released to serve in community corrections programs. This serves to show the important role that community corrections programs and the practitioners serve in maintenance of community safety. Although these community corrections programs appear to meet its objectives and goals, there remain a number of issues that affect community corrections practitioners, which are critical in attainment of effective future community-based corrections programs. Among the issues that face the community corrections practitioners are the reduced staff morale, the increasing number of offender populations, and the issue of funding and scarce resource allocation.

Read also Community Corrections Recommendations for Larry Greene

            The most fundamental issue that faces the community corrections practitioners is the increasing number of released inmates. According to (Desmarais, Johnson & Singh, 2016) the number of released inmates and offenders under correctional supervision in the United States is one of the highest in the world. The authors point that about 7 million people or 1 in 35 adults was under the supervision of correctional system as of 2013. The country has close to one quarter of world’s prisoners though its population is less than 5% of global population. This trend is unlikely to slow and growth in people under incarceration and those in parole or probation will continue to put more pressure on the community correctional practitioners.

Read also Codes of Ethics for the Corrections Officer

            The second issue that faces the community corrections practitioners is the reduced work moral owing to increasing work pressure. There has been a rise in the population of offenders under parole and probation. According to (DeMichele & Payne, 2007) the parole and probation populations have been on the rise in the United States since 1980. This has consequently led to increased workload among the community corrections practitioners. The authors assert that increased offender populations have led to an increase in case load and workload in corrections practitioners, which may negatively impact on the effectiveness of community corrections programs.

            The third significant issue that the community-based corrections practitioners face is the community corrections practitioner morale. There is low moral from the community corrections practitioners owing to a number of factors. First, the huge caseloads and workloads have increased pressure on the correctional officers, who are forced to attend to large number of offenders. Secondly, there is low compensation of the community-based corrections practitioners. The combination of these two factors has led to a demotivated workforce, which negatively impacts on their job productivity.   

            Although the offenders under the community corrections are mostly required to pay for their correctional services, there is significant funding problem that affects the effective operation of the community corrections practitioners. Although the dominant parole and probation community corrections programs have witnessed a substantial growth in the populations of offenders, there has been smaller growth in its budgets (Christian, Martinez & Veysey, 2013). According to the authors, as much as eight times of state budgetary allocations go to prisons compared to those allocated to the community corrections programs (pp. 197). This stifles the development of community programs directed at offenders serving in those programs. In addition, the less focus and allocation of inadequate resources to the community-based corrections programs negatively impact on the efficacy of such programs and effectiveness of the community corrections practitioners.

Policy Recommendations to Address the Issues

            The adoption of appropriate policy recommendations can be an effective way of ending or drastically reducing the issues affecting community corrections practitioners. As population of the incarcerated individuals and those under parole and probation, it is imperative that urgent measures be adopted. The paper suggests the following policy recommendations be utilized by practitioners to improve performance and service delivery.

            Adopt early prevention. The societal and demographic trends can be blamed reduced efficiency of the community-based corrections programs. The practitioners are now facing staggering growth in offender population and changing characteristics of correctional population. The criminal justice department must take a leading role in development of interagency early preventive efforts. Evidence has shown that early prevention is linked with reduced crime rates. Successful implementation of early prevention efforts would reduce the number of children and adults that commit crimes. This will translate into reduced number of people under incarcerations or those under parole and probation.

            Adopt innovative tools for case management. The increasing number of offenders under the community corrections programs increases caseloads and workloads among the practitioners. In order to improve their performance and service delivery, there is need for the criminal justice department to adopt innovative offender risk and needs assessment tools. Schaefer & Williamson (2018) points that despite the evidence that risk and needs assessment tools are critical and effective in improvement of correction practices, probation and parole officers have always shown little compliance with these case management tools. As such there is need for increased training and sensitization among parole and probation officers to ensure the increased adoption and use of case management tools as this would reduce case and workloads.

            Increase fund allocation. The number of offenders in community corrections is higher than those in prisons, yet it receives less funding compared to prison allocation. The criminal justice department must increase funding to the community corrections programs as it plays a huge role in offender rehabilitation and reintegration efforts. The funding for these community programs must be comparable to those allocated to prisons. The increased funding would ensure adequate services are provided, while also ensuring the parole and probation officers receive adequate remuneration thus increasing their motivation and performance levels.            

The policies presented are the most efficient for addressing issues that confront the community-based corrections practitioners. The policy recommendations touch on the key areas of concern in the community corrections which are the major sources of the issues that affect the practitioners. These areas are funding, increased case and workloads and reduced workforce morale. Moreover, the policy recommendations suggested have been shown to be most effective and are supported by evidence. For example, Dodge et al., (2015) found that early prevention strategies such as psychosocial interventions have been shown to reduce crime among problem-children. Therefore, addressing the three critical areas through the suggested policy recommendations is akin to reducing the problems that hinder effective performance and service delivery among the community-based corrections practitioners.

Community Corrections Recommendations for Larry Greene

The Philosophy of Community-Based Correctional Programs – Assignment Instructions

Community Corrections primary function and mission is to protect the community by supervising offenders and reporting non-compliance to the sentencing or releasing authority. The standard conditions of supervision stipulated by state statute as well as special conditions imposed by the court or sentencing authority including victim restitution substance abuse and/or mental health treatment programs and other sanctions or restrictions. Offenders are monitored through field contacts at their residences employment sites and other locations in the community. A probation officer conducts investigations including pre-sentence investigations other state investigations and violation reports.

Read also Correctional Substance Abuse – Case Study on Best Practices in Corrections

For this weeks Assignment you will write a report outlining appropriate referrals which will assist the belowoffender Larry Greene with available resources. Consider the following offender profile.

Mr. Greene has little motivation to accomplish many things in life. At 20 years old he has completed some courses at the local community college and maintained a 2.85 GPA. Mr. Greens parents are very supportive of him always providing parental guidance and love needed to progress through life. Mr. Green is unmotivated to achieve much in life and likes to spend his days with his friends that are equally unmotivated.

Write a 3 page expository essay on discussing the philosophy of community-based corrections programs based on Larry Greenes profile. Your paper should address the following elements:

  • Describe at least three goals of community corrections.
  • Identify at least three types of community corrections that would benefit Mr. Greene.
  • Discuss how Mr. Greene can engage with community correction programs.
  • Discuss a minimum of four benefits of community corrections for Mr. Greene.
  • Identify the intended outcomes of Mr. Greene participating in the programs you identified.

Read also Final Paper ECE303 – Issues Regarding Corrections System

Community Corrections Recommendations for Larry Greene – Expository Essay

The probation officer on request of the court must prepare a Presentence Investigation (PSI) report. According to (Alarid, 2017) the PSI refers to a document prepared by the probation officer to assist the court judges in making decision about an offender who has violated probation and is due for incarceration or for use against persons facing felony judges. The main purpose of PSI is to assist judges in making rational decisions rather than changing their minds about a specific case. In order to have a comprehensive PSI, the document must describe the nature of the case, the characteristics of the offender, loss to the victim, the criminal history of the offender and provide recommendations. In the case of Larry Greene, it is recommended that the offender be placed under the community-based program.

A number of elements in the case of Larry Greene qualify him to be placed under the community-based program. The first element is that his lack of motivation that can be attributed to association with his peers of similar behavior. Placing Greene under the supervision of a community-based program will seclude him from his peers and offer him an opportunity to learn through the program services such as counseling, training and possible job placement.

The other element that makes Larry Greene to qualify for community-based program is his training and qualifications. Greene has maintained an average of 2.85 GPA with qualifications from local community college. Placing him under the community-based program will ensure he gets appropriate skills on how to maintain a job employment. In addition to getting employment skills from the program, the extra motivation provided to him during the program period will ensure he is able to maintain his job and have extra motivation to achieve more an possibly progress in his job.

Moreover, the fact that he is young, only 20, offers an opportunity for him to be trained on life skills rather than be placed in incarceration. An according to (Stohr, Walsh & Hemmens, 2013) community program offers an opportunity of monitoring offender behavior, preventing them from coming in contact with chronic criminals. Since he is young, Larry Greene can be rehabilitated effectively through community-based program, whereas incarcerating him would aggravate rather than attenuate his behavior.

Read also Codes of Ethics for the Corrections Officer

            A number of community program options available for rehabilitation of Larry Greene. One option which is recommended to be used in the case of the offender is probation. Elrod & Ryder (2011) asserts that probation offers an unconditional release of an offender into the community under the court’s supervision. The option will ensure Greene is released into his family but he must observe certain conditions while serving under probation. These conditions include following home rules, be home every day by certain time specified by the court, meet with the probation officer when requested, avoidance of unmotivated friends, and abiding by all state and federal rules.

The second option is day treatment program, which is designed to equip offender with certain skills. According to (Elrod & Ryder, 2011) day treatment programs provide services or treatment to the offenders during the day, releasing them during at night. The day treatment services such as job preparation, job placement, academic remediation, job skills training, counseling, and social skills training are invaluable to Larry Greene. These the array of these services, Larry can increase his motivation and success in the workplace, thus reducing the chances of associating with unmotivated peers.

The other community-based program options that are available for Larry Greene are the group home or half-way houses. These are community placements, which will be used as half-way in programs for Larry Greene. In these programs, intermediate sanctions and more impersonal and less family-like environment will be provided for the offender. The goal is to provide a rehabilitation framework that is provided by other personnel different from those from his parents. Also, it is suitable since Larry is about to attain emotional detachment from his parents.  

The success of community-based program options in the rehabilitation of Larry Greene will partly depend on the community sanctions that would be provided to him. These sanctions define the code of behavior or actions that should be displayed by the offender. The community sanctions include abiding by the laws and rules, non-association with unmotivated peers, reporting to the probation officer or program personnel on daily basis or as requested, respecting home rules, and be home always at the determined day.

The recommended community-based corrections program for Larry Greene is probation. In this correction program, the offender will be required to meet certain sanctions. One of the sanctions is to obey the house rules that would come from his parents. In the case file, it is stated that Greene’s parents have been supportive of him, so ensuring the offender obeys all the house rules will ensure he gets the best from the desire of his parents to ensure he succeeds in life. The second sanction is to avoid coming in contact with unmotivated peers. The rationale is to ensure any actions to motivate Greene are not subject to negative influence from his unmotivated peers. It would be a waste of time to motivate the offender if he continues to associate with unmotivated peers since any progress made would be negated by his peers. The third sanction is that Larry must always report home at designated time. This will be aimed at instilling self-discipline and reducing the likelihood of coming in contact with negative influence. In addition, the offender must meet the probation officer when requested. This is to ensure the probation officers checks on his rehabilitation progress and address any issues that may have come up. The sanction will also allow the probation officer to determine whether the correction option is working and if not, to determine alterative option to be implemented or seek for more sanctions to be imposed on the offender.

The probation officers often face conflicts in their duties, which arise mainly from the enforcement of law and assisting the offender (Clear, Cole, Reisig & Turpin-Petrosino, 2014). However, the presence of good management plan ensures that such a conflict is reduced and that the offender is assisted to change their behavior. The management of Greene’s case will begin with the comprehensive performance of the offender background to determine the offender risks and needs. The offender will then be placed in a local treatment center to assist the offender overcome his lack of motivation. In addition, a source of employment should be provided for him. The probation officer should then supervise the progress of the offender under the treatment and job placement to monitor his progress.

Read also Types of Misconduct by Community Corrections Professionals

The effectiveness of the offender case management is dependent of the response of the offender towards supervision. Clear, Cole, Reisig & Turpin-Petrosino (2014) asserts that some offenders are resistant to supervision, whereas other go along well with probation officers and respond to probation in a favorable manner. In the case of Larry Greene, the probation officer should exercise close supervision. This will ensure the offender completely attends the support services (counseling programs) and follows the sanctions provided. Larry is a highly risky offender and any laxity from the probation officer could result in ineffective probation program since the offender is young and can be subject of easy influence from his peers.

Dealing with Risk, Asymmetric Information, and Incentives – Southwest Airlines

Assignment Instructions – Dealing with Risk, Asymmetric Information, and Incentives

Earlier in the quarter we discussed Southwest Airlines’ use of game theory to create new strategy. Continue to research Southwest Airlines or a company of your choice and write a seven (7) page paper in which you:

  1. Evaluate a company’s recent (with in the last year) actions dealing with risk and uncertainty.
  2. Offer advice for improving risk management.
  3. Examine an adverse selection problem your company is facing and recommend how it should minimize its negative impact on transactions.
  4. Determine the ways your company is dealing with the moral hazard problem and suggest best practices used in the industry to deal with it.
  5. Identify a principal-agent problem in your company and evaluate the tools it uses to align incentives and improve profitability.
  6. Examine the organizational structure of your company and suggests ways it can be changed to improve the overall profitability.
  7. Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: One of your references regarding your should have been published within the last 6 months. Note: Wikipedia does not qualify as an academic resource.

Dealing with Risk, Asymmetric Information, and Incentives – Southwest Airlines

Evaluation of Actions of Southwest Airlines in Dealing with Risk and Uncertainty

            The complexities in operations that are inherent in airline business, in addition to extensive regulations and fierce competition have made exposed the airline industry players to risks. According to (Sparks, 2013) risks are defined as threats to humans with probability of suffering a loss, whereas uncertainty refers to that that one cannot be sure about its outcome. In the airline industry risks and uncertainties can result from regulations, changes in fuel prices, acts of terrorism, aircraft accidents and pandemics. In order to deal with the numerous risks and uncertainties in the airline industry, the Southwest airline has often adopted a number of ways in the recent past.

Read also People Management Practice – Southwest Airlines

            Some of the ways the company has utilized in the past one year include the use of trust in responding to adverse situations. Early this year, Southwest airlines had an accident that involved one of its airlines, where one of the airline engine broke down, leading to emergency landing. Having built good reputation that has led to strong trust among its customers; the airline employed this to assure its customers that it would inspect all its flight engines before takeoff and that it would also investigate in collaboration with other authorities on the cause of the accident.

            The other strategy that Southwest airlines have used to respond to risks and uncertainties is having a team of dedicated individuals that help in disaster response. The company has a groups of specialists named the Southwest Airlines Baker group based in Network Operations Control (NOC) nerve center (Hagel, Brown, Wooll & de Maar, 2018). Also, the company has adopted fuel hedging in order to mitigate against risks and uncertainties associated with changes in fuel prices. According to (Weener, 2018) the company has a higher growth in terms of the ASM per gallon of fuel, making it more efficient.

Read also Mission Statement Analysis – Southwest Airlines Vs Starbucks Company

Advice on Improving Risk Management in Southwest Airlines

            The airline industry is often full of many risks and uncertainties. It is imperative that the Southwest airlines improve its risks and uncertainty mitigation measures in order to have a better control of its future market performance. One of the strategies that the paper offers for implementation by the company is the adoption of the concept of organizational agility. Organizational agility is the maintenance of constant state of innovation (Teece, Peteraf & Leih, 2016). This involves a comprehensive understanding of the underlying uncertainties, possible solutions and options. Since Southwest Airlines has consistently made profits in over four decades owing to its low-cost strategy, to sustain such a trend, there is need for the company to forecast, maintain redundancy and keep its options open at all times.

Read also Super-Packs Company Risk Matrix – Project Risk Management Techniques

            Risks are often associated with outcomes that are known and the probability of their reoccurrence can be calibrated (Teece, Peteraf & Leih, 2016). Since Southwest Airlines can predict the changes in fuel prices, in addition to its fuel hedging, the company should adopt the strategy of forward contracts to minimize financial risks associated with changes in fuel prices. In doing so, the company can enter into valid contracts with fuel companies in order to ensure stable prices over the predetermined time for which the contract is valid.

            Moreover, there is need for the company to manage its uncertainty in a systematic and explicit manner as a way of managing its risks. According to (Grote, 2015) uncertainty is the ability of “not knowing for sure” owing to lack of abundance in information. However, the author points that through a quantitative and qualitative exploration of uncertainty in risk assessment, a company can fully manage its risks. Through a creation of uncertainty rather than avoidance of uncertainty, a firm can have a better ways of understanding and managing risks.

The Adverse Selection Problem that Southwest Airlines is Facing

            An adverse selection problem or what is also referred to as information asymmetry occurs when one party in a contract is not able to observe the characteristics of the other party (Nechyba, 2017). In the airline industry, adverse selection problem occurs when one party has more accurate information about than what the other party has. Such information asymmetry is likely to lead to one party taking advantage of the other and possible have negative impacts on the transactions. In the Southwest Airlines, one of the adverse selection problem the company faces is in its use of the Early-Bird Check-In system in the online boarding.

            Although the Early-Bird Check-In is credited for driving company revenues, it creates information asymmetry. The company often has the information about the availability of seats offered through the online boarding system, while the customers are left in a disadvantage since they often do not have any information whether the required number of travelers has been attained. This is evident in the higher number of users of the online system that has even prompted the company to issue notices that using the system may not guarantee one a seat of their liking.

            In order to reduce the negative effect on transactions of asymmetric information created by the Early-Bird Check-In system, the Southwest Airlines should strive to provide more information to the travelers. Although the online boarding has added significant revenues to the company owing to the additional 10 dollars, this should not be employed at the expense of travelers. There is likelihood of negative effect of this on a traveler who uses the service more than two times and ends up on the lottery seating. Therefore, once the capacity for favorite seating has been reached, the company online booking system should notify the travelers. This will ensure continued satisfaction from the travelers and renewed interest to make an early booking next time.  

Read also Comparing Southwest Airlines and Koch Industries Organizational Culture

The Way the Southwest Airlines is Dealing with Moral Hazard

            The moral hazard problem occurs where one party in a contract is involved in a risky event with the knowledge it is protected the other party who will incur the cost. Nechyba (2017) points the moral hazard problem as the individual behavior change upon entering into a contract, which makes the contract execution by the other party to the contract to be expensive. In the case of the Southwest Airlines, the moral hazard problem occurs when the travelers pay for their tickets and choose their seats knowing that the company will guarantee safety on the flight. In response to the moral hazard problem that occurs whenever Southwest Airlines enters into a contract with a traveler, the company has safety and security commitment.

The company security and commitment policies outline the security measures for the travelers and their employees. According to (Southwest, 2016) the company continually creates and fosters a culture of safety and security. The company makes annual reviews of its specific safety-related objectives, monitors, measures and tracks safety objectives, creates and maintains a proactive reporting culture and establishes, maintains, and periodically exercises emergency response plans and procedures to ensure smooth transition from normal to emergency operations.

            Human factors have been highlighted as the contributor of over 70% of commercial airplane accidents. In regards to traveler safety, the suggested best industry practice is the use of sound scientific basis in the assessment of human performance implications in the design, training and procedures. It is important that a shift from reliance on intuition and experience in human performance be made.

The Principal-Agent Problem in Southwest Airlines

            An agent refers to the individual who is hired t act on behalf of the other individual called the principal. According to (Nechyba, 2017) it is often difficult to observe the actions of another individual under ordinary circumstances. As a result, a principal-agent problem occurs where the principal cannot observe and monitor the actions of the agent. The main principal-agent problem in the Southwest Airlines occurs in the behaviors and actions of the company airline crews. The Southwest Airlines is a company that relies on high level f cooperation and teamwork from its employees. However, the principal (company President, the CEO, and stakeholders) cannot observe the actions of the airline crew but rely on the company culture of teamwork and cooperation from their employees.

            There never exists a unique solution to principal-agent problem in any firm. However, in the presence of externalities, Coasian theory provides a description of economic efficiency of an economic allocation and an outcome (Nechyba, 2017). The theory is based on two outcomes namely zero transaction costs and freedom of individual choice. Different firms that have intra-organizational transactions can be structured based on the employment contracts that reflect different conditions in the firm. The common contractual forms inherent in different firms are incentives, monitoring, and cooperative. In the Southwest Airlines, the contractual forms that are in operation in the company are those of cooperation and teamwork. The tools the company uses to align incentives and improve profitability include use instilling high levels of cooperation and teamwork from its employees. For example, the company has employed debit memos for agents who make seat reservations to ensure any booked seats and not used are paid for.

The Southwest Airlines Organizational Structure            

Southwest Airlines has adopted primarily a functional organizational structure. According to (Daft, Murphy & Willmott, 2010) a functional organization structure occurs where activities are grouped based on common function from the bottom to the top of the organization. In the Southwest Airlines, there is the top executive management lead by the company CEO, Gary C. Kelly, the middle level management and the junior employees.

Although the company may credit the organization structure for its success and continued profitability, even greater success can be achieved through an improvement in the organizational structure. According to (Daft, Murphy & Willmott, 2010) functional organizational structure there is consolidation of human skills and activities specific to specific activities. However, it may lead to slowed decision making, poor horizontal coordination, less innovation, and restricted view of the organization goals.  In order to improve on the structure, it is suggested the organization creates a structure based on the needs of the company business model rather than the one based on the needs of the staffing levels. This would allow organization restructuring without regard of the current employees but based on the realities in place.

Use of Game Theory to Maximize Profits in Southwest Airlines

Case Study: Use Of Game Theory To Maximize Profits

The following article describes the unique boarding process used by Southwest Airlines. Southwest Airlines boarding and game theory. Use this article and three (3) others to answer the following questions in 5–7 pages.

  1. Describe the change in Southwest Airlines’ boarding process. 
  2. What was Southwest’s main goal introducing the early-bird check-in?
  3. Explain how Southwest Airlines used the game theory approach to increase its profits.
    • What is the outcome of the game involving early-bird check-in?
    • Identify what is the passengers’ dominant strategy.
    • Determine why travelers face the Prisoner’s Dilemma with the early-bird check-in process.
  4. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the early-bird check-in process for Southwest Airlines.
  5. Suggest ways in which other companies, or the company you work for, can utilize similar game approach to maximize profits.

Read also Applying Game Theory to Pricing Strategy

The Use of Game Theory to Maximize Profits in Southwest Airlines

The Change in Southwest Airlines Boarding Process

            The boarding process in Southwest airlines has often been based on “open seating”, where travelers can seat in any available seat during the boarding process. Being a low-cost airline, the model of “open seating” is critical in the reduction of time at the gate, saving the company millions of dollars, thus allowing it to offer low-cost flights. However, over the past nine years has seen a change in the company boarding process. According to (Talwalkar, 2015) prior 2007, Southwest airlines offered flight services where its customers were allowed to board on first-come first-service basis. This created a dilemma as many people would camp out at the gate to have their favorite seats. This prompted the company to alter its boarding strategy, introducing the process of assigning travelers boarding groups.

Read also People Management Practice – Southwest Airlines

            The Southwest airlines introduced the boarding group numbers classified as A, B, and C. Those travelers in boarding group A would board first, followed by those in group B and then C. The traveler assigned the lowest boarding number within each group is allowed to board first. However, the ability to make a choice of individual favorite seat still remains in place (Talwalkar, 2015). Each member on boarding has the chance to choose a seat of their liking. The process of assigning of boarding groups and numbers is based on the time the travelers checks in at the company physically or through their online booking in the early-bird check-in.

The Main Goal of Southwest Airlines in Introducing the Early-Bird Check-In

            The introduction of the early-bird check-in system by the Southwest airlines was done so as to create prisoner’s dilemma through game theory by creating strategic behavior among its customers. According to (Robson, 2015) game theory is employed in the description and prediction of strategic behavior. The author notes that strategic behavior encompasses situations where one person is interested in taking into account how other people will behave in making theory decisions and the second person would also prefer to do it in a similar way (pp. 527). The adoption of early-bird check-in was designed to create strategic behaviors, which would in turn spur up demand for Southwest airline tickets. In order for a customer to have their favorite seat, then they have to make an early booking. However, (Talwalkar, 2015) notes that this would come at an extra cost of $10 to the customer. A customer can choose to forego and get a ticket at the gate, but this reduces their possibility of getting their favorite seat keeping in mind that there are many other customers who are willing to check-in online and book their tickets. This forces the customer to check-in online and book their ticket noting the behavior of the other customers and the desire to get priority sitting.

Read also Mission Statement Analysis – Southwest Airlines Vs Starbucks Company

How Southwest Airlines used Game Theory to Increase its Profits

            The use of game theory enables companies or firms to create conflicting situations. According to (Robson, 2015) the game theory utilizes the payoff matrix, which helps in the identification of strategies and possible payoffs to the consumers. In the case of Southwest airlines, the use of game theory is evident in the check-in system, where customers are advised to increase their chances of getting priority sitting by booking their flights through the company’s online boarding. The development of online boarding offered a new way in which the company would reap in extra profits through the additional online fees, but the exact source of increase in the company’s profits can be attributed to the game theory involving the use of the online-boarding.

The Outcome of the Game Involving Early-Bird Check-In

The Southwest airlines online boarding system offers an opportunity for customers to book their tickets for their favorite seats. However, there is no guarantee that making an online booking of the ticket guarantees a priority seat. There are two ticket allocation systems that the company offers, the early-bird check-in and the lottery seating. The early-bird check-in costs an extra $10 for travelers who wish to make online boarding. Since there are two options, the traveler can choose to forego the early-bird check-in and go for the lottery seating.

However, a traveler will be faced with a decision to make, to pay the extra 10 dollars and get priority seat or forgo paying it and go for lottery seating. Since the traveler is aware that many other travelers are competing to choose early-bird check-in, the traveler together with the other travelers are more likely to choose to pay the extra money and be in for a priority seat.  The outcome of the game is an increase in online boarding from travelers wishing for their favorite seats, which has driven their profits tremendously. Talwalkar (2015) points tha the company has seen rise in revenues owing to the early-bird checking system since the company is able to gain extra dollars they charge. This has seen the company make publications that early-bird check-in does not guarantee priority seating, owing to the numerous tickets it sells through the strategy.

The Passenger’s Dominant Strategy

            In game theory, the payoff matrix provides an indication of the payoff for each player for the combination of strategies that are adopted by the players (Hall & Lieberman, 2008). The dominant strategy is what is best for the particular person regardless of the choice of the rival. In the case of the Southwest airlines, the passengers’ dominant strategy is paying for early-bird check-in. Those travelers wishing to have best seats compete for the early-bird check-in and are forced to pay the extra$10 with the hope of having the best seats.

Read also Comparing Southwest Airlines and Koch Industries Organizational Culture

Why Travelers Face Prisoner’s Dilemma with Early-Bird Check-In Process

            The early-bird check-in offers prisoner’s dilemma to the travelers since it offers possibilities for good seats at extra cost, yet it also does not guarantee that a traveler will get a good seat. What this means is that, a traveler using the early-bird check-in process will be faced with two options, whether to pay the extra $10 and be in for best seats or pay nothing and line up for lottery type sitting. The two options can be worth, since it is not a guarantee for best seat in making the online boarding and at the same time, using the online boarding at an extra 10 dollars could provide one with an opportunity for best seats, thus creating prisoner’s dilemma for the travelers using Southwest airlines.

Read also Profile of a Successful Company – Southwest Airline – Principles of Management

Advantages and Disadvantages of Early-Bird Check-In Process for Southwest Airlines

            The use of game early-bird check-in by the Southwest airlines has brought in positives to the company. One of the advantages of the use of the early-bird check-in is that it has allowed the company to reduce the costs associated with times spend by travelers at the gate while buying their tickets. The other advantage of the adoption of early-bird check-in is that it has increased the number of travelers that use online boarding process. This increase in the number of travelers who use early-bird check-in has allowed the company to increases its revenues due to numbers and the additional $10 for those who purchase their tickets through the process.

            Although early-bird check-in has produced benefits, the process offers some disadvantages. One of the disadvantages of the process is that it would lead to erosion of value of the process especially if a lot of travelers use it and they get bad seats as the airlines cannot provide good seats for all the passengers. Robson (2015) outlines the production of different equilibria as one of the major downsides of the use of the game theory, which can be a challenge to the users of the early-bird check-in process.

Ways in Which Other Companies Can Utilize Game Theory to Maximize Profits

            Game theory can be utilized by other firms in order to increase their profit margins. One of the ways in which a company such as Wal-Mart could use game theory to maximize its profits is to use change the perception of the consumers. One of the greatest challenges that retail store face is that most consumers are reluctant to buy new products but would rather wait for prices to drop so that they can buy them. One way in which consumers can be encouraged to buy more is to alter their perception by making the products seem “hot” and that they will run out of stock. The process has been employed by Amazon to increase its sales. According to (Goggin, 2018) Amazon created perceived shortage through its duped “Prime Day”, where consumers were offered products on limited offer within the company website. The strategy created high demand, allowing the company to sell all its products.

Read also Wal-Mart Stores Inc Gaining Control over Target – Business Acquisitions

The other way in which a firm can maximize profits using game theory is to use loyalty program. When one makes a purchase or signs up for a certain service, the individual is given reward points, which can be redeemed by the service user. Moreover, every time the individual uses the service, they are awarded more points making them hooked up with the service in the hope of getting more rewards or reaching the redeemable limits. According to (Dickler, 2018) Capital One Venture has employed the strategy to their advantage, which has seen many subscribers scramble for the company credit cards that offers rewards to those who sign up and make purchase using the cards. This has seen the company increase its sales, thus maximizing profits.

Censuring of Brock Schechter & Polakoff LLP – Litigation, Censures, and Fines

Recent Litigation, Censures, and Fines – Brock Schechter & Polakoff LLP

The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board censured Brock, Schechter & Polakoff, LLP, (BSP) owing to its failure to comply with the PCAOB standards on quality control. The company’s registration was revoked and a civil money penalty was imposed. According to (Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, 2012) the company failed to develop policies and procedures that were sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that it undertook the audit engagements that they could manage with professional competence.

Read also Recent Litigation, Censures, and Fines – Ernst & Young and Four of its Partners

The Primary Accounting Issues and Impact of the Litigation on BSP

            The primary accounting issue that led the censoring of BSP was the company’s failure to comply with auditing quality control standards. First, the company allowed unqualified staff with no prior experience in auditing of an overseas company to oversee its audit engagements. Secondly, the company had insufficient internal controls to provide reasonable assurance of its audit competence. According to (ICPA, 2018) the accounting standards 1015 provides the need for professional care in planning and audit performance and preparation of the report. Section 06 of AS 1015, demands that an auditor should be assigned with tasks and supervised commensurate with their level of knowledge, skills and ability (pp. 33). Instead, BSP assigned James Waggoner to be practitioner-in-charge of audits yet he had never audited a public company. In addition, PCAOB provides that an audit firm should have monitoring procedures, which includes postissuance or preissuance of reviews of its selected audit engagements. The rationale is to provide reasonable assurance that there is an effective system of quality control. However, BSP failed to select any of the two audits involving the Chinese and Taiwanese company for peer review or its internal review program.

            The censuring of BSP had significant impact on the company’s operations. First, the company was placed under probation, leading to impact on its financial capacity. Secondly, the registration of the company was revoked, which halted its audit engagements, causing severe economic losses to the CPA firm. Lastly, the company was fined $10,000 and Waggoner fined $3,000, which further created significant financial loss to the company.

Inferences of Corporate Ethics Related To Internal Controls and Accounting Principles that Led to BSP Censuring

            It is a primary duty of every employee of a firm to ensure proper management of company internal controls. The company chief executive officers, the departmental heads and all the other employees have a responsibility of ensuring the presence of effective and appropriate controls are in place. However, as it concerns Brock, Schechter & Polakoff, LLP, there is an evident of weak internal control system. This is evident from the fact that the audit firm failed to implement internal controls that led to violation of the accounting standards. The weak internal controls did little in dissuading the audit firm from allowing people with low technical skills and experience to oversee audits.

Read also Development of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)

Evaluation of the Primary Ethical Standards of the Accounting Organization’s Leadership

            Any audit firm has a fiduciary responsibility to provide relevant and accurate information that offers a true reflection of the position of a firm. In order to meet this objective, an audit firm must implement the ethical standards and values required of an audit firm. According to (Weygandt, Kimmel & Kieso, 2012) the PCAOB standards require that any audit commitments must be done with professional scepticism. However, the failure of BSP to have effective internal controls and use of staff with less experience and skills, showed lack of desire to provide effective audit procedure in accordance with the guidelines of PCAOB, which is a violation of the professional duty and ethical standards and accounting principles.

            The audit firm knew of that Waggoner lacked professional experience to oversee and audit of international firm yet the company proceeded to allow him to oversee the audit process. In addition, the company deliberately (I say knowingly because it had been providing reviews before) failed to provide internal reviews as a source of assurance of its competence. These are violation of principle of corporate ethics as it could lead to provision of false information to potential investors, shareholders and stakeholders.

Specific Conduct Violations Committed

            The BSP made two specific conduct violations, regarding the professional care in planning and conduct of an audits and monitoring procedures to provide reasonable assurance of the audit firm’s effectiveness. These conduct violations were in breach of the PCAOB standards that govern professional competence and due care. The decisions to fine Waggoner and BSP and to censure the firm were justified. The audit firm deliberately neglected its core ethical responsibility of proper audit planning and instead went ahead to perform an audit with no effective monitoring system and used inexperienced staff to over the audit process. The decision to fine Waggoner was also justified because he failed to adhere to his professional duty and ethical principles that govern conduct of audit staff by accepting to oversee an audit process for which he had neither prior experience nor skills.

Recommendations

            The paper recommends that BSP develops and implement monitoring and controls systems that would ensure the company’s audit engagements are subject to internal controls which would help in identification of possible anomalies of the company auditing procedures before committing to audit engagements. Moreover, the presence of a strong and effective monitoring system will ensure the conformity to all audit assurance procedures.

Comparison of Criminal Justice Systems – United States, Canada and Saudi Arabia

Canada, Saudi Arabia and United States have different history and culture, thus leading to difference in criminal justice system in the three countries. For example, history and culture of Saudi Arabia was founded in Islamic region which is totally different from those of Canada and the United States. Although, Canada and the United States have history and culture stemming from their colonies, they differ significantly.

Brief description of history and culture of each country

Canada

            Analysis of Canadian history and culture showed that government at municipal, provincial/territorial and federal level shared an intertwined culture. The cultural policies are influenced by investment opportunities, foreign trade, multicultural society, Canada’s two official languages, social benefits, economic growth, national and regional interests and perception of public good (Nunn, 2012). Studies have showed that Canada’s cultural fabric has been influenced by several factors including diverse Aboriginal cultures, official linguistic duality (English and French), a distinct blend of multicultural demographics, ubiquitous proximity to U.S., the high cost of production and limited economies of scale as well as small and geographically dispersed population. These are the historical and cultural perspectives that have shaped the criminal justice system of Canada.

Saudi Arabia

            The analysis of history showed that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is the original homeland of the Arab people and of Islam and it occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula. The historical and cultural identities of Saudi Arabian people represent principally the Arab and Muslim (Fadel, 2013). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a contemporary state whose national culture is connected to the dynasty of Al Saud and it forms the basis of geographic and state’s cultural setting. The constitution of the country was derived from Islam which is the Koran and Islamic law (Sharia). The ruler is the custodian of the constitution and the citizens sees him as the symbol of the state’s policing, administrative and technical functions.

United States

            United States is a nation that was formed built on immigration from other countries. As a result, the United States is one of the most culturally diverse countries globally. The history of the United States showed that nearly every region of the world is represented. This makes the United States the most culturally diverse nation in the world. Although the most evident culture is the English due to colonization that began in early 1600s, Asians, Africans, Latin Americans and Native American have shaped the history and culture of the United States. All these historical and cultural factors have shaped the criminal justice system of the United States.

How culture has impacted the development of criminal justice system in the three countries

            Canada criminal justice system operates on principles and processes stemming from civil and common law histories. From the cultural perspective, the Canadian criminal justice system has incorporated international conventions and it strived to respect for the separation of powers between judicial, executive and legislative arms of government as well as commitments to balance the needs of offender and victims. Although the criminal justice system in Canada was meant to be a just and fair to all Canadian citizens, analysis showed that the justice system targets Aboriginal population unfairly. Statistics showed that Aboriginal population represent the higher number of people incarcerated. This means that the culture of the Aboriginal people does not work in datum with current criminal justice system. Analysis showed that Aboriginal people have practiced distinct cultural entities from the mainstream culture. As a result, the culture of the mainstream society has influenced the criminal justice system work against the Aboriginal people culture.

            The criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia stemmed from the Islamic and Sharia law. The basic system clearly states that the Kingdom’s Constitution are the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (Al-Hamoudi, 2014). Further analysis showed that Islamic culture has great influence on the Saudi Arabia criminal justice system because the basic system clearly stipulate that the roles and objectives of the state is to enforce and protect the principles of Sharia and Islam respectively. The other cultural influence on criminal justice system in evident from the fact that the basic systems confirms the monarchial system of the state. For example, it reaffirms principles of government such as equality, consultation and justice of citizens under Islamic Sharia.

            In the case of the United States, the criminal justice system was founded on common law. The structure and design of the criminal justice system of the United States was majorly borrowed from the English version due to colonial historical perspective. As stated earlier, United States the most diverse culturally with majority of the region being represented. However, the European has greatly influenced the criminal justice system of the United States. For example, recent statistics showed that law enforcement agencies have killed and arrest African American more than any other racial group in American society. Similarly, judicial system has handed convicts more African American than any other racial group in the society. As a result, correctional facilities hold high number of Africa American both at the state and the federal level as compared to other racial groups.

Recent changes

            Canada and United States reformed the criminal justice system to ensure that minority groups access a just and fair justice system. This include incorporating the cultures from the minority by bringing onboard majority of them. These reforms have changed the criminal judicial system in these two countries (Rodriguez, 2016). For example, the law enforcement officer found discriminating minority groups are interdicted and prosecuted. The main objective of these reforms is to minimize unfair and biases in the criminal justice system. In Saudi Arabia, some of the proposed reforms on basic system is to eliminate penalties that are against human rights such as death penalty. Due to these changes on the criminal justice system, it has influenced greatly on the culture of the people it serves.

The legal issues

            Some of the issues that have raised concern in the criminal justice of the three countries are the issues affecting significant groups such as youth, minority groups, women, aging and ailing offenders. The other issues relate to maintaining fairness such as access to legal aid, plea bargaining, wrongful convictions and victims (Perrin, et al., 2016). These issues majorly affect Canada and United States criminal justice system. One major issue that affect the criminal justice system of Saudi Arabia is the award of minimal penalty. Analysis showed that most of these issues impacted the culture of the people it serves. For example, the crime rate in Saudi Arabia is very low due to maximum penalty given to the convicts

The role of the politics            

The development of the criminal justice system in Canada and United States was influenced by politics. This because the legislative arm of government in the two states have the authority to legislate and changes law in the constitution. However, the development criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia had minimal influence from the politics because basic system was founded on Quran and Sharia. 

Comparison of Criminal Justice Systems – United States, Canada and Saudi Arabia

The criminal justice systems vary from one country to the other, with some drawing the structure of their legal systems from those of other countries. Having knowledge of the criminal justice systems of countries is critical to the understanding about their relevant differences as well as the similarities that exists between them. According to (Siems, 2012) justice system comparisons must involve three countries to allow for determination of the differences and similarities. In this paper, a summary of the policing model, the judicial structure and corrections systems and the legal traditions of the United States, Canada and Saudi Arabia will be undertaken.

Read also A Comparison of the U.S and Canadian Justice Systems

The United States

The Policing Model

            Police organizations in various countries are rooted in the historical background and the socio-cultural developments. In the U.S, the police are organized on federal, state and local basis. Law enforcement is decentralized, with federal authorities dealing with violation of federal laws, while state and county authorities deal with violations of state and local laws.

The Judicial Structure and Correction Systems

            The U.S is a federal system with the federal government and the individual state governments. According to (Hatch & Hatch, 2011) the United States has three levels of government, the federal, state and local governments. The country’s judicial system is based on these three levels of governments with each having legislative, executive and judicial branches. Consequently, there are federal, state and local courts. There corrections system consists of the probation authority, the jails, community corrections, prisons and the paroling authority.

The Legal Tradition

            The U.S legal is rooted in the common law tradition that was brought England. However, within the country’s a state legal system can be found civil law traditions, for example the Louisiana that is based on civil law owing to the state being French and Spanish territory. The common law relies on statutes and court precedence.

Influence of Culture on the Development of the Country’s Legal System

            The development of the United States legal system was influenced greatly by the culture. Founded on Christian faith, the protestant culture influenced the formation and execution of laws in the U.S. According to (Harr, Hess, Orthmann & Kingsbury, 2016) the public schools in the U.S provided the agenda for social reforms that led to formation of denominational colleges. However, the beginning of 1830’s saw the challenge of the protestant faith with migration of Catholics, Jews, Muslims and even Hindus, which further influenced the U.S legal system.

Read also Restorative Justice Policies and Potential Future Criminal Justice Policy Evolution

Canada

Policing Model

            The Canadian police system is both complex and unique, comprising of three levels. We have the federal, municipal, provincial/territorial policing under the federal, municipal and provincial governments respectively (Conor, 2018). Depending on where the citizens live, there are various police services that are available depending on the location. Those people who live in Quebec and Ontario are served by municipal or provincial police officers, people living in western and Maritime Canada are serviced by municipal or Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), while Labrador and Newfoundland are under the provincial police, Royal Newfoundland Constabulary and RCMP for rural policing.

The Judicial Structure and Correction Systems

            The Canadian Judicial system can be considered as unitary, consisting of a single judicial system that makes interpretation of both the provincial and federal laws. According to (Morton, 2009) the Canadian judicial structure consists of the section 92 courts, superior or section 96 courts (trial and appeal courts) and the Supreme Court of Canada. The country’s correction systems are under executive and can be categorized into pre-trial, pre-sentence and post-sentence services (Ekstedt & Griffiths, 2013, pp. 7). Once an individual is found by a judge to be guilty, they are placed either on federal, provincial or territorial correctional programs, depending on the nature of their offence (Correctional Service Canada, 2008).

The Legal Tradition

            The Canadian legal tradition is largely based on the British common law tradition (Department of Justice, 2017). However, there is a civil law tradition, which arose owing to the French territory that was established in Quebec. Under the civil tradition, the Canadian judges liberally and strictly interpret laws under the circumstances of that particular case.

Influence of Culture on the Development of the Country’s Legal System         

            Canada has a unique history having been under the French and English colonies. Traditionally, the people of Canada have long respected individual rights as long as the actions of other do not infringe on other people’s rights (Burrows, 2005). This greatly influenced the current federal structure.  The founders of Canada also rejected the forced cultural coercions as they encountered differences as they arose due to British and French occupation. As a result, the legal system remains a product of the British, French and traditional influences.

Saudi Arabia

Policing Model

            The Saudi Arabian police force is typically a centralized one, having singular line of command that arises from the King. The country’s public security police have a responsibility of general policing throughout the country having authority from Shariah and executive orders. According to (Dammer & Albanese, 2013) the police are further divided into Special Investigative Police (SIP) or “Mubahith” and the Regular Police. The regular police fall under the directive of ministry of interior, while SIP fall under the Director of Public Safety.

The Judicial Structure and Correction Systems

            Saudi Arabia is predominantly an Islamic nation, which follows the Shariah law (basic law). According to (Bowen, 2008) Quran is the official constitution of the country and the court system is complex. The lowest courts are the qadis or judges, who make rulings on minor criminal and civil cases based on Shariah law and Saudi Traditions. The next court levels are high courts, presided by 2-3 qadis. Above the high courts are two courts of appeal, based in Riyadh and Mecca and having same powers (pp. 14). After a high court decision, one can lodge an appeal personally to the king. Saudi Arabia does not use prisons as conventional sentencing resource owing to tendency for other forms punishments such as corporal punishment. However, (Dammer & Albanese, 2013) asserts that there are prisons, which are under the Interior Ministry.

The Legal Tradition

            Islamic nations such as Yemen and Saudi Arabia were less influenced by western law traditions. According to (Merryman & Pérez-Perdomo, 2007) in the Islamic nations, even those rule by western countries such Lebanon and Algeria colonized by French, they experienced a vigorous revival of their religions emphasizing on Islamic legal traditions. As a result, the legal system of Saudi Arabia is based on the Sharia law, an Islamic law that was derived from Sunnah and Quran traditions of Prophet Mohammad.

Influence of Culture on the Development of the Country’s Legal System         

            The legal system of Saudi Arabia is influenced largely by the country’s traditions and Islamic culture. All cases are determined according to Shariah law and Saudi traditions.

Conclusion           

The components of the criminal justice system vary from one country to the other. Many of the individual country legal systems have been influenced by their initial culture and culture inherited from their colonial powers. Although, most of the legal traditions resemble those of former colonies, the Islamic countries such as Saudi Arabia held firm to their traditions and Islamic Shariah law.