Sexual Harassment as a Growing Ethical and Legal Concern for Businesses Today

High-profile sexual harassment scandals, such as allegations against Bill Cosby, Harvey Weinstein of the Weinstein Company, and Bill O’Reilly and Roger Aisles of Fox News, are changing the landscape of workplace sexual harassment claims and litigation. 

Conduct a roundtable discussion (in person, web conference, or via e-mail, text, etc.) with your Learning Team members regarding sexual harassment as a growing ethical and legal concern for businesses today. Each Learning Team member must be prepared to discuss each topic. Assign a group moderator to keep the discussions on track. Your discussion should last at least 45 minutes to one hour and include the following:

Read also Breach of Ethics in the Workplace – Vice Media Holdings Sexual Harassment

  • Define sexual harassment and discuss applicable law (such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964). How does the state law in your state address sexual harassment?
  • Discuss a recent sexual harassment claim in the news and whether media coverage is beneficial or detrimental to reporting and reducing sexual harassment claims in the workplace. Should sexual harassment claims be addressed publicly or handled privately?
  • Explain the ethical and legal considerations of a business protecting its employees (the accuser, the accused, and other employees in the company) while a workplace sexual harassment investigation is underway. Does your answer change if the allegation is a widely known scandal-making front page news?
  • Compare the sexual harassment liability of a business entity that is a sole proprietorship with an entity that is a corporation.
  • Recommend risk management procedures a business can implement to avoid or reduce sexual harassment claims from occurring in the workplace.

Sample Answers

Define sexual harassment and discuss applicable law (such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964).

Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII applies to employers with 15 or more employees, including state and local governments. It also applies to employment agencies and to labor organizations, as well as to the federal government.

Read also Sexual Harassment in the Work Place – Discussion

Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual’s employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work performance, or creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.

Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of circumstances, including but not limited to the following:

  • The victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man. The victim does not have to be of the opposite sex.
  • The harasser can be the victim’s supervisor, an agent of the employer, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or a non-employee.
  • The victim does not have to be the person harassed but could be anyone affected by the offensive conduct.
  • Unlawful sexual harassment may occur without economic injury to or discharge of the victim.
  • The harasser’s conduct must be unwelcome.

Read also Mitigation of Legal Issues : Diversity Along With Sexual Harassment Policies

It is helpful for the victim to inform the harasser directly that the conduct is unwelcome and must stop. The victim should use any employer complaint mechanism or grievance system available.  (“Facts About Sexual Harrassment”, n.d.)

How does the state law in your state address sexual harassment?

The Florida Civil Rights Act prohibits employment practices that discriminate based on sex, pregnancy, or marital status (FL Stat. Sec. 760.01 et seq.). Sexual harassment is considered a form of unlawful sex discrimination. The Act covers public and private employers with 15 or more employees. (“Florida Sexual Harrassment”, 2018)

Read also Employment Law – Sexual Harassment Case In “You Be The Judge”

Discuss a recent sexual harassment claim in the news and whether media coverage is beneficial or detrimental to reporting and reducing sexual harassment claims in the workplace. Should sexual harassment claims be addressed publicly or handled privately?

The Harvey Weinstein sexual harassment claim that has been in the news a lot and along with the “me too” movement has prompted companies to take a look at how harassment is handled within the work place. People must stand up and let management know it is not okay as well as the companies having strict punishment for the type of behavior. I think publicly announced is good. The offender needs to be known for this unwanted behavior as well as being publicly shamed for it.

Explain the ethical and legal considerations of a business protecting its employees (the accuser, the accused, and other employees in the company) while a workplace sexual harassment investigation is underway.

The ethical and legal of a business protecting the employee in which was harassed Is very important. The person does not need to be harassed by any other people or employees. I think keeping everything quiet while investigating and no names mentioned until needed will protect all involved. No need to make the accuser guilty until innocent because you cannot take words back once said.

Does your answer change if the allegation is a widely known scandal-making front page news?

If the scandal is brought to front page news then I sure hope that they have most of the facts behind the case in order. I am not one to judge off the first site of news. I also think that if money is involved some jump on the bandwagon to get paid or publicity.

Effect of Domestic and International Regulatory Agencies and Court Systems on Business Transactions and Dispute Resolution

The purpose of this assignment is to analyze the effect of domestic and international regulatory agencies and court systems on business transactions and dispute resolution.

Read the following scenario:

You are the CEO of Bonner, a U.S.-based farm equipment corporation. Bonner recently announced the release of an innovative new tractor with technology based on a patented invention developed by Bonner’s engineers. Bonner’s vice president, who is aware of the upcoming product offering, bought 100,000 shares of Bonner stock prior to the announcement. You found out about the vice president’s stock purchase on the day of the announcement.

One week after the announcement, Bonner received a letter from a German farm equipment corporation, accusing Bonner of patent infringement based on the new tractor’s technology. 

Bonner’s board of directors asked you to assess the vice president’s liability for the stock purchase and the company’s options for resolving the German corporation’s patent infringement claim.

Prepare an infographic for the board (e.g., Piktochart, Publisher, Glogster, Microsoft PowerPoint, etc.) in which you discuss the following:

  • Compare the resolution of the patent dispute in a U.S. court with the resolution of the dispute using the World Intellectual Property Organization’s (WIPO) dispute resolution program. Search the internet to review WIPO’s dispute resolution program. (Information about WIPO’s dispute resolution program may be located on their website by searching the Internet for WIPO).
  • Assess the liability of Bonner’s vice president for purchasing the corporation’s stock prior to the announcement of the new tractor. 
  • Assess whether Bonner has any legal or ethical duties to disclose the stock purchase, and if so, to whom?
  • Discuss risk management procedures Bonner can adopt to avoid or reduce situations like these from happening in the future.

Create a 350- to 525-word letter in response to the German farm equipment company in which you:

  • Explain why Bonner is the owner of the invention
  • Discuss the intellectual property rights owned by Bonner in the invention
  • Suggest a method of dispute resolution (e.g., arbitration, mediation, litigation, WIPO dispute resolution), why that method would be desirable for resolving the dispute, and how and where the dispute resolution should be held (United States, foreign country, online, etc.). 

Unpleasant Symptoms Theory – Middle Range Nursing Theory Review

Over the years, middle-range nursing theories have been identified as an essential element of practice and research. They are highly recommended owing to fact that they are perceptible and verifiable using standard testing techniques. The Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms is one of the most well-known middle-range theories in the nursing profession. Thus, it is essential to conduct an in-depth evaluation of this particular theory by exploring its purpose, conceptual definitions, theoretical statements, structure and linkages, assumptions and nursing implications

Read also Middle Range Nursing Theories and Evidence Based Practice

Purpose

            The Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms was first presented in 1995 with the sole aim of aiding nurses in the identification of symptoms in their patients. In particular, the theory sought to equip nurses with knowledge regarding the assorted groups of symptoms they were likely to encounter to ensure they were acutely prepared in every scenario.  Knowledge of innumerable symptoms now allows nurses to implement non–pharmacological interventions during common routine interventions (E Haas, 2017). Thus, the theory essentially functions as a framework for developing the meaning behind specific symptoms which allows nurses to make accurate diagnoses.  Additionally, theory’s purpose was also to highlight the central position occupied by symptoms during nursing care and how best to measure them when seeking to introduce self-management practices.

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Concepts and Conceptual Definitions

            Three major concepts underpin the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms; patient symptoms, influencing factors and outcomes. Here, symptoms are defined as a set of manifestations that are evident from a particular sufferer. They go on to affect their ability to perform optimally and even affect their quality of life. Normal cognitive and physical functioning is then adversely affected in the individual in question. Influencing factors represent aspects which affect symptom and can, therefore, be identified using the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms. These include physiological, psychological and situational factors.

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 Physiological factors encompass anatomical and genetic variables indicative of an underlying anomaly attributed to disease. They may influence the patient by introducing a complex interplay as an indicator of pathology. On the other hand, psychological factors represent cognitive and affective variables which influence an individual’s overall wellbeing. The resultant psychobiology may affect their experience of the symptoms and their cognitive coping skills when confronting illness (Lee, Vincent, & Finnegan, 2016). Influencing factors represents a patient’s immediate environment and is basically situational. Individuals from different cultural backgrounds may have a unique experience of symptoms and their ability to cope in different situations. Socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviors and physical behavior ultimately influence the symptom’s intensity in addition to their degree of manifestation.

Read also Social-Constructivism Theory – Interprofessional Theory Review

Theoretical Statements

            The major theoretical statement made in Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms is solely based on the fact that symptoms are a major part of diagnosis which is why they are typically underscored. Furthermore, a symptoms-focused intervention eventually aids patients during the recovery process through regular self-monitoring and the application of workable management strategies. The complexity of symptoms is emphasized, which is imperative in the creation of management strategies for sufferers. Performance is, therefore, a central focus in the theory which is related to its performance. The pragmatic orientation explored explores physical and cognitive impairment which may be proximal depending on specific symptoms.

Read also Impact of Mid-Range Nursing Theory on Healthcare Organization

Structure and Linkages

            The structure of Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms is based on practice applications that are consistent with its basic tenets. It is based on an elaborate symptom assessment structure which aims to address the timing and intensity of symptoms evident in a patient. It is linked to the quality of care that will then be provided in an attempt to reduce the distress experienced by the sufferer. Patient history is also regarded as an essential part of the theory’s structure (Mary Jane Smith & Patricia R. Liehr, 2015). It endeavors to provide a comprehensive assessment of the psychological and physiological environment in an attempt to reveal any link that may exist between the two.  Influencing factors are then addressed by the type of intervention applied to make sure that amenable change is realized while providing holistic care. This is then linked to performance linkages which can be reviewed regularly when tracking change. A care plan is then developed to foster self-care and encourage patients to participate fully in self-monitoring.

Read also Application of Nursing Theory – Peplau’s Nurse Patient Relationship Theory in Advanced Clinical Practice

Assumptions

            The Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms is based on one major assumption; commonalities are present within dissimilar symptoms.  Using this premise, symptoms can then be understood through experience which is essential in the development of important plans to treat the symptoms.

Nursing Implications

The Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms is also bound to address some of the major challenges experienced by nurses when endeavoring to implement solutions to patient’s afflictions. Since the theory is practical and veers away from esoteric ideals, it is easy to comprehend which ultimately bolsters a nurse’s ability to provide care to patients. An emphasis on symptom prevention will consequently result in improved management plan which will contribute to a patient’s wellbeing. Furthermore, multi-professional teams are bound to fully adopt the theory since it is a feasible and reliable option in the quest for positive patient outcomes.

What is Your Philosophy of Nursing?

What is your philosophy of nursing? Examine how a personal philosophy of nursing  influences doctoral level nursing practice. Describe your philosophy of nursing. Discuss how your philosophy of nursing will influence your role as a doctorate of nursing practice-prepared nurse. 

Personal Philosophy of Nursing

Defining one’s personal philosophy of nursing represents a significant step in the profession. According to Brencick & Webster (2014), aspiring nurses and those seeking to advance within their careers should develop a set of ideas while remaining aware of their influence on their decisions. Owing to my altruistic disposition, I have always endeavored to care for individuals in need and the primary reason why I eventually pursued a career in nursing.  My philosophy of nursing is based on medical principles that combine compassionate care with the development of strong interpersonal relationships with patients. Consequently, it focuses on providing holistic care while ensuring patients are also empowered in the process. A discussion of this philosophy of nursing is, therefore, essential in addition to an examination of its influence on doctoral level nursing practice and impact on my role as a doctorate of nursing practice-prepared nurse.

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            The primary objective of my personal philosophy of nursing is the promotion of health while providing holistic care to patients. Care goes hand in hand with the nursing profession which is why it is imperative to focus on various aspects of human dignity when taking care of patients. Its influence on doctoral level nursing practice lies in its emphasis on using medical knowledge to institute care procedures and implement best practices. Furthermore, my personal nursing philosophy espouses continual research to ensure that one continues learning and is proficient within the field.  A doctoral level nursing practitioner should adopt constructive attributes such as a compassionate care outlook while also making sure that they gain a deeper understanding of their patient’s values.

Read also How Four Concepts in Nursing’s Meta-paradigm Influential Practice and Philosophy of Nursing

Connecting with individual patients will enable a practitioner to hone their care skills and strive to safeguard patient’s wellbeing at all costs. Nurses should always adopt a self-sacrificing attitude when attending to patients and providing holistic nursing care (Boykin & Nursing, 2015). My personal philosophy is bound to encourage patient participation in the care process, fostering a collaborative relationship significant for their wellbeing.  Developing trust between patients ensures their values are always under consideration during treatment, while gaining an understanding of their perspectives.     

Read also Personal Theoretical Framework for Advanced Practice Nursing

My personal philosophy of nursing will also have a major impact on my role as a doctorate nursing practice-prepared nurse. Valuing individual patients will encourage the adoption of various aspects of ethical responsibility when providing care to patients. This ensures that patients receive a high quality of care which eventually assures them of the best possible outcome. Furthermore, my philosophy of nursing will also develop crucial relationships with other healthcare professionals tasked with providing care to patients. Open and honest conversations about the quality of the care on offer will encourage healthcare professionals to strive for the introduction of measures to serve patient’s needs.

Read also A Personal Human Resource Philosophy for Managing People

As a doctorate nursing practice-prepared nurse, my personal philosophy of nursing will encourage inter-professional collaborate practices for all parties involved. Teamwork is an essential element of the nursing profession and critical to patient care.  Maintaining a positive attitude also creates an ideal work environment where everyone involved can communicate and develop workable solutions to solve any emerging issue plaguing the facility. Elements of my philosophy of nursing express my dedication to public service and providing for my community’s needs. As an important resource to the community, my doctorate nursing expertise will be reliable to patients in need and in line with my vision for the practice.

Sigmund Freud and Harry Sullivan Theories – A Comparison of Two Mental Health Theories

Within the past century, mental health theories have emerged as part of a wider strategy by medical experts to aid in the diagnosis of psychiatric ailments and determining the type of care needed. Mental health theories are now an integral part of care systems and proved instrumental in the development of ideal therapies for patients. This paper, therefore, seeks to compare and contrast mental health models presented by Sigmund Freud and Harry Sullivan in order to gain insight on their propositions.

Read also Psychodynamic Theory and Cognitive Theory – Comparing and Contrasting Mental Health Theories

Sigmund Freud was an Austrian national of Jewish descent born in 1856. His parents were keen on his education and ensured that he joined the University of Vienna before finally becoming a licensed physician. Freud was soon known for his groundbreaking medical techniques that sought to improve the quality of care provided to patients with psychiatric disorders. One such strategy focused on the introduction of equilibrium to the human psyche to treat neurotic symptoms. Today, he is best known for authoring Studies in Hysteria and The Ego and the Id which introduced innovative ideas in psychiatry.

Read also Sigmund Freud And His Contribution To The Era of Early Psychology

            Sigmund Freud introduced the Psychoanalytical Theory to explain various aspects of mental health in humans. In this theory, the mind is divided into three distinct layers; the conscious, preconscious and unconscious. The first layer is responsible for the prevailing awareness, the second functions as a shadow of actual consciousness while the third stores fundamental memories (Gelfand & Kerr, 2013). It was through this model that Freud sought to treat patients with turbulent emotions by exploring the unconscious mind. His idea of “free association” was meant to explore the depth of his patient’s mind and expose any repressed memories

            The field of nursing has benefitted greatly from Feud’s contributions. His theory is particularly invaluable to the practice since it now aids practitioners gain a better understanding of human developmental stages and phases where mental health issues are likely to develop (Taylor, 2019). For instance, a medical practitioner reviewing a child thought to be within the autism spectrum would use these stages to assess their behavior and strike a correlation. This would then allow them to prescribe appropriate care and a fitting implementation plan.

            On the other hand, Harry Stack Sullivan was an American theorist born in 1892 in Norwich, New York. His path in medical sciences began in 1917 after enrolling in the prestigious Chicago College of Medicine and Surgery to pursue a bachelor’s degree. Soon, Sullivan became a household name within the medical circles and a regular contributor to mental health matters. Owing to his expertise in psychiatry, Sullivan founded the Washington School of Psychiatry in 1937 and greatly influenced American psychoanalysis.

            Sullivan is renowned for his Interpersonal Theory which focused on the undercurrents existing between individuals. His initial assessment of these subtleties led him to conclude that social forces buffeting an individual were responsible for the mental disorders they ended up developing. One of the key ideas presented in his theory was that the mother was at the crux of personality development in children (Conci, 2012, p. 12). The absence of a mother in a child’s life was linked to constant anxiety disorders and may impact their self-esteem negatively. His “hands-on” treatment of mental health disorders, therefore, sought to treat inappropriate perceptions linked to an individual’s angst. Sullivan’s theory is hailed for developing a workable relationship between nurses and patients receiving a prescribed intervention. Nurses are now capable of applying the theory when treating bouts of anxiety to reinforcing comfort and a sense of well-being in sufferers.

            A major correspondence between the Psychoanalytical and Interpersonal theory is the use of developmental phases to explain the human psyche and trace origins of psychiatric disorders. Freud’s “free association” strategy during therapy follows the client’s development stages from the Oral (Id), Anal (Ego), Phallic (Superego), Latency to Genital Phases. Similarly, Sullivan drew links between psychiatric disorders and stages of development in children. He linked personality to Infancy, Childhood, Juvenile, Preadolescence, Early Adolescence and Late Adolescence stages capable of impacting individual’s mental health. The major difference between the Psychoanalytical and Interpersonal theory was the attitudes adopted by their originators regarding anxiety. Freud opined that anxiety in individuals with psychiatric originated internally as a result of personal distress. Sullivan, on the other hand, linked anxiety to problems with social interaction and other interpersonal issues. It is noteworthy to acknowledge that Sullivan initially aped Freud’s psychoanalytical theory to model theory. He later improved this theory by linking psychotic episodes to stages of development in a child which eventually linked anxiety to social interactions. In finality, I believe that Sullivan’s theory is best suited for modern psychiatry. It focuses expressly on interpersonal aspects of mental health problems which is also why the theory is fundamental when seeking to explain personality.

State Regulations for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Prescribers

Review state regulations for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) prescribers in the state in which you live or the state where you plan to be certified.

  • Summarize which agency/agencies regulate/oversee Advanced Practice Registered Nurse prescribing in your state.
  • Summarize the educational requirements for prescribing as an APRN
  • Differentiate the regulations in your current state and state(s) you are considering practicing in.
  • Create an outline of the actions required to prescribe in your identified state.
  • Summarize the Controlled Substances regulations in your state and the process for obtaining your DEA registration.

State Regulations for Advanced Practice Registered Nurse Prescribers In California – Sample Paper

The State of California Board of Registered Nursing

            Prescribing for an Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) in California is overseen and regulated by the state’s board of registered nursing. The board is responsible for outlining the scope of practice for nursing practitioners and skills required to practice in the state. Additional competencies such as psycho-social assessment and physical diagnosis of various ailments are reviewed by the board to ensure that they conform to standards set by the State of California. An APRN’s skills must, therefore, be in tandem with the California Code of Regulations to assure patients of accountability and adherence to the highest standards of care (California Board of Registered Nursing, 2019).

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The board also stipulates the capacity under which an APRN can serve as a health professional and the list of standardized procedures they will be allowed to conduct in the state. Primary health care takes precedence in the state which is why restorative measures and mental assessment are encouraged as essential skills. The board is responsible for overseeing the order of medical equipment which now becomes the responsibility of a registered nurse (RN). Furthermore, they will also be responsible for certifying disability in patients after performing a thorough physical examination. The board also stipulates standards that should be adhered to in the case of patients receiving home health services from APRN’s.

Read also American Nursing Association – Professional Organization for Nurses

Educational Requirements for Prescribing as an APRN

APRN’s are tasked with providing essential primary health care services which is why educational requirements are always underscored. Advanced degrees such as a Doctor of Nursing Practice and Master of Science in Nursing are a basic requirement for all candidates seeking to serve as APRN’s. Additionally, it is prudent for candidates to obtain a national certification to practice in combination with state APRN licensure. Institutions of higher learning have also been known to offer bridge programs which allow individuals with associate degrees to earn their credentials and eventually serve as APRNs. The entire process of certification may be completed within a year after proving that the candidate has satisfied the mandatory 400 to 1,000 clinical hours required.

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It is critical to acknowledge that the State of California also certifies candidates with online nursing degrees given that they are obtained from acclaimed institutions. Candidates must be holders of a BSN from a reputable institution and provide sufficient proof proving they completed transitional coursework. Successful candidates are then placed under rigorous assessment requiring them to provide academic transcripts, GRE scores and recommendation letters. Adult-gerontology, midwifery, nurse anesthesiology, psychiatric health and neonatology are some of the main areas where APRN’s can concentrate on when seeking to earn their MSN degree. After completing their program in two years, they will then be required to prove their full-time commitment to the profession by proving their clinical eligibility.

Difference in Regulations in the State of California and Nevada

There are several stark differences in regulations within the State of California and Las Vegas, Nevada where I intend to practice in the near future.  Regulations in the State of California adhere to the Nursing Practice Act which is tasked with delineating the scope of practice for all qualified APRNs. Section 2700 of the California Business and Professions Code defines professional activities that APRNs can engage in as determined by the State of California Board of Registered Nursing (Justia US Law, 2018). California’s Nursing Practice Act is responsible for shaping the scope of practice by providing educational standards, board composition and important requirements for licensure.

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Furthermore, the act also goes a step further and outlines requirements for licensure and grounds for remediation. On the other hand, Las Vegas adheres to an updated APRN regulation model which was adopted in 2015. Certified nurse anesthetists (CRNAs), clinical nurse practitioners (CNPs), certified nurse midwives (CNMs) and clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) all have defined roles under this regulation model (“Nevada State Profile,” 2018). All applicants seeking to prescribe as APRNs within the state should hold a graduate degree or a post-masters certification from an accredited institution of higher learning.

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The primary objective of enforcing regulation within the larger State of Nevada is the provision of concise scope of practice for all APRNs while still enhancing the utilization of critical patient services by citizens. Additionally, Nevada promotes a system that champions the presence of an independent prescriptive authority which evaluates the level of education and experience held by APRNs. The Nevada Nurses Association (NNA) is tasked with enforcing the aforementioned regulations while ensuring that an APRN’s role of providing competent healthcare services is always underscored.

Read also Arizona Nurse Practice Act Review

Actions Required to Prescribing in the State of California

Practicing as an APRN in the State of California can only be performed after a series of steps that nursing practitioners must go through to improve their scope of practice. Typically, it begins with application for APRN licensure which will eventually allow successful applicants to practice in the state. This submission is often done alongside a Furnishing Number Application which eventually allows an APRN to prescribe within California. Applicants must verify their knowledge of pharmacology content to ensure that they are conversant with the state’s requirements.  Nursing practitioners must demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the state’s program curriculum while ensuring that it is in tandem with the educational requirements. Prescribing within the State of California for APRNs also requires obtaining a DEA number. This allows them to prescribe a host of controlled substances while remaining true to the original aim of meeting education objectives. Applicants are also required to complete a mandatory prescribing course focusing exclusively on approved continuing education. The California Association for Nurse Practitioners is responsible for offering this particular course to applicants before making a final approval (LawTech Group, 2019, p.56). The final action required to prescribing in the State of California is the application of a Schedule II Furnishing License after completion of the requisite education. Successful completion of this stage will ensure that applicants are provided with a completion certificate as per the request. Approval will make sure that nursing practitioners are capable of administering Schedule II medications devoid of any qualms.

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Controlled Substances Regulations in California and Process for Obtaining Drug Enforcement Administration Registration

The State of California is renowned for robust pieces of legislation focusing on the regulation of controlled substances. These substances can only be obtained by individuals through a prescription from a licensed physician. The Business and Professional Code also prohibits clinics from distributing controlled substances without proper authorization from relevant authorities. The state adheres to the Drug Enforcement Administration’s classification of controlled substances with the exception of codeine, paregoric and anabolic steroids (Scope of Practice Policy, 2019)

Read also Timeline of Major Legislations on the Enforcement of Drug Laws in the United States

Bottom of Form. Schedule I drugs include substances such as salvia, peyote and salvia whose medical use is largely unaccepted within the United States. Schedule II drugs include depressant, narcotics and stimulants with acceptable medical use but with a high potential for dependency. Furthermore, practitioners will also be required to obtain a DEA number which allows them to prescribe scheduled substances legally.  The Drug Enforcement Administration number will only be activate after providing personal information, a report of business activities, licensure information, payment and confirmation of the application.

Purpose of Joining an Accountable Care Organization

Urban and rural health care organizations throughout the industry are working together to coordinate care for Medicare patients. Accountable Care Organization (ACO) programs were established by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to help facilitate this cooperation. Select a type of health care organization that would accept Medicare patients (e.g., family practice, hospital, urgent care, or nursing home).

Write a 1,050-1,200 -word executive summary that discusses the purpose of joining an ACO and the funding available through one. Ensure your summary does the following:

  • Describe the organization you selected and the general services that would be offered to Medicare patients.
  • Describe the types of Accountable Care Organizations recognized by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services.
  • Evaluate industry dynamics that would influence your organization’s decision to participate in an Accountable Care Organization.
  • Identify the steps needed to participate in an ACO.
  • Justify participation in an ACO for your organization.

Executive Summary That Discusses the Purpose Of Joining An Accountable Care Organization And The Funding Available

Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) are increasingly becoming a common feature in the healthcare landscape. They represent groups of healthcare providers who collaborate voluntarily to provide first-rate care to Medicare patients. ACOs have now become a welcome addition owing to their efficacy in enabling patients acquire much-needed healthcare services. Long-term care organizations would benefit greatly by partnering with ACOs, precisely because of a substantial population of Medicare patients in dire need of their services. This executive summary will explore the general services offered to patients from long-term care organizations, types of ACOs recognized by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and an evaluation of industry dynamics. Furthermore, the steps required to join an ACO will also be discussed in addition to a justification of participation by long-term care organizations.

Long-Term Care Facilities

            Provision of long-term care is an essential part of healthcare organizations. Services offered by long-term care facilities mainly focus on personal and medical care to individuals who are incapable of managing autonomously. Assisted living facilities, skilled nursing facilities and care homes are some of the most prominent long-term care organizations. The population requiring care in these organizations are senior citizens with a variety of staid needs. Since most of the patients in long-term organizations are covered by Medicare, their daily care needs are usually provided by skilled nursing facilities (Cimasi, 2016). Nursing care is also provided to senior citizens in an organization’s care as part of the assisted living care program, which aims to improve their quality of life.  It is critical to acknowledge that Medicare plays a significant role in the provision of care to patients by covering their Hospice use in long-term care facilities. Ambulance services are also provided to patients and may involve picking patients from their homes to receive the services required. Prescription drugs are also offered under this particular cover using pharmacies outsourced to supply medication. The collaboration between long-term care facilities and ACOs, therefore, allows Medicare to enable the provision of care to a vulnerable population.

Various Categories of Accountable Care Organizations

            ACOs are currently an emerging aspect of healthcare which aims to improve the quality of services provided while ensuring that they are also cost-efficient. ACOs litter the healthcare landscape in the United States and are placed under several categories. These models include the Medicare Shared Savings Program, Advance Payment ACO and Pioneer ACO model (Zander, 2017). Under the Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP), healthcare providers are expected to liaise to provide superior care to recipients of Medicare Fee-For-Services (FFS). The Advance Payment ACO plan was designed for rural providers of care to coordinate their services within a specific locality. Under this dispensation, practitioners receive their monthly allowance upfront, which ultimately ensures that care infrastructure is coordinated appropriately. Similarly, the Pioneer ACO Model targets long-term care facilities with proficiency in organizing care for patients. It is a fast-moving approach which utilizes a payment model based on the specific needs of the target Medicare population. The aforementioned categories intend to coordinate care activities with private payers as a way of improving patient outcomes. 

Industry Dynamics

            Long-term care has recently emerged as one of the most noticeable hallmarks of the healthcare industry, currently experiencing steady growth. This development is widely attributed to a growing population of senior citizens who are a product of the Baby Boomer generation who now required long-term care. Entering the industry presents numerous benefits to those willing to embrace various dynamics present. The competitive environment created by the industry has introduced numerous improvements in the manner in which significant players provide long-term care. Many now go the extra mile when providing these services to ensure that clients receive the best quality of care while standing out among competitors. The provision of high-quality services is one of the primary strategies employed by practitioners in long-term care whose main objective is to remain ahead of the rest (Singh, 2014). Availability and easy access enable long-term care facilities to thrive in the provision of medical care using an engaging technique which often involves patients and their immediate family. By so doing, the highest level of care is provided, which benefits patients struggling with debilitating health conditions.  Long-term organizations in the industry also apply cost-effective strategies which help them while remaining within the confines of state and federal regulations. Compliance to Medicare regulations also ensures that patients receive quality care when required.

Steps to Becoming an Accountable Care Organization

            The process of becoming an ACO requires following a set of clear steps to ultimately assure patients of the highest quality of care within the industry. It begins with having a clear understanding of the model which a long-term care provider endeavors to implement. The primary purpose of this step is incentivizing the provision of care, which will ensure that patients receive high-quality services. This stratagem ensures a steady decline in care costs while still motivating providers to provide post-acute services. Becoming an ACO also requires dedication to the provision of care while investing time and money in the industry to create a fully-functional healthcare system. Furthermore, it also involves the recognition of information technology and its importance when providing the aforementioned services in a continuum of care. Robust systems represent transformative technology critical in the management of patient care which often aims to introduce aspects of efficacy in the management of specific patient populations (Harris, Karabatsos, Samitt, Shea, & Valentine, 2010, p. 89). The execution of clinical strategies also ensures that all care initiatives are aligned with guidelines. Medical practitioners should always be available for clinical decision support to improve patient outcomes. Patients are then stratified according to risk, which is regarded as an essential monitoring step towards becoming an ACO. Adherence to CMS quality metrics ensures that the efficacy of care is always assured which then improves performance.

Justification of Participation by Long-Term Care Organizations

 ACO participation for long-term care organizations is a relatively simple process. Organizations are required to complete an application as an initial step towards cooperation. It is fundamental to collaborate with ACOs since they seek to improve healthcare and introduce benefits. Providers and patients now have a unique opportunity to interact directly while participating in the improvement of care. It also ensures patients receive high-quality care at the lowest available price.  Additionally, ACOs provide long-term care organizations with an opportunity to offer continuum-wide services to their target market.  ACOs guarantee that long-term organizations are continually improving while transitioning to a new competence tier.

Conclusion

Long-term care facilities endeavor to provide essential services related to assisted living facilities, skilled nursing facilities and care homes. A large number of patients relying on Medicare coverage is the chief reason why joining an ACO is now imperative for long-term care facilities.  It results in a high quality of care which is also cost-effective and accessible to patients. Joining an ACO thus ensures long-term care facilities remain relevant in a rapidly transforming healthcare environment.

Value of Having a Diverse Workforce

Over the last decade, the role of HR has evolved to include a variety of areas. These areas include, but are not limited to: (a) the value of having a diverse workforce, (b) inshoring and outsourcing personnel management, (c) repatriating employees from foreign assignments, (d) ethical leadership methods and corporate culture, (e) local and global security against terrorism, and (f) upward career pathing to counter possible perception of a glass ceiling.

For this interactive assignment, you will take on the role of an HR professional who has been tasked with researching potential areas that have evolved over the past decade. You will create a business case, to be delivered to the director of HR, justifying the value of an area of your choosing.

Select one of the areas above, and evaluate the potential challenges and conflicts of your selected topic.

Value of Having a Diverse Workforce – Sample Paper

Researching potential areas that have evolved over the past decade is the foremost task of any Human Resource professional. Pursuant to this aim, the value of having a diverse workforce was selected as an ideal area of focus that has, over the years, undergone numerous transformations. This business case will justify the aforementioned area of choosing by focusing on how a diverse workforce drives economic growth, increases market share, results in a more qualified workforce, and a reduced employee turnover cost. Furthermore, a comprehensive evaluation regarding why a diverse workforce is necessary for a competitive economy in a global market will also be provided.

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How a Diverse Workforce Drives Economic Growth

 Diversity in the workplace has recently emerged as a significant force driving economic growth. The unique talents and aptitude introduced by a diverse workforce facilitate innovations currently linked to high returns. It is estimated that 85% of successful enterprises attribute their growth to a diverse workforce utilizing innovation to drive economic growth (Brief, 2014, p. 23). Top entrepreneurs in leading economies such as the United States now serve as a representation of a diverse workforce. They painstakingly ensure that diversity is implemented in the workforce with a specific focus on driving economic growth within a varied talent pool.

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Increased Market Share

            Diversity shapes the entire business environment and is responsible for an overall increase in market share. Major firms typically set goals with the aim of realizing them within a specific period. According to Mor-Barak (2015), a diverse workforce is an essential constituent when seeking to achieve company objectives and increase market share (p.40). An immediate impact of a diverse workforce is an increase in a firm’s bottom line. Coupled with improved financial performance, diverse management teams now attribute their success and increased market share to an assorted workforce. Revenue is, thus, generated successfully using fresh approaches and ideas which introduce new modes of operation.

A More Qualified Workforce

 Diversity in the workplace incorporates uniquely talented employees, which results in a more qualified workforce. Sourcing staff members from a diverse pool results in the selection of the best candidates bound to introduce a new set of skills to an organization. These in-demand skills often include multi-lingual capabilities, experience working in an international setting, and ideas that will aid a firm transition into the global arena (Scott, 2012). The current wave of diversity witnessed globally after the outgoing Boomerang generation presents a progressive culture based on competence and qualification.

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Reduced Employee Turnover Cost

 Lower turnover costs typically result from enterprises with a diverse workforce. The implementation of policies that focus on reducing discrimination is standard in business entities with a diverse workforce.  The effect is a company that embraces cultural and ethnic diversity while motivating staff members to display a level of social responsibility. Inclusivity introduces a low turnover cost since it avoids exclusionary policies, which may be regarded as hostile by a diverse workforce. Diversity in the workplace also attracts talent from across the globe, attracting top performers who are more likely to be retained by the company.

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Value a Diverse Workforce for a Competitive Economy in a Global Market Place

 A diverse workforce is a critical element of a competitive economy since it markets the goods and services on offer to diverse demographics. Tapping into staff members with a diverse background enables businesses to increase their competitive edge and are, therefore, better positioned to market their goods to a broader consumer base. A diverse workforce is also fecund and regularly offers solutions that will increase a firm’s competitive advantage within a global market place. A heterogeneous workforce is ideal for brainstorming and introducing new insights in a rapidly transforming global economy.

Chancellor Angela Markel – An Epitome of Effective International Leadership

The drive towards effective international leadership is currently considered one of the most prominent hallmarks of the 21st century. It traces its origins to the Second World War in what is, arguably, humanity’s darkest hour; characterized by overt belligerence and disintegration of international leaders. Global leaders failed to reach a compromise on several critical issues and instead chose to conduct a coordinated war of attrition that left 75 million dead in its wake (Qvortrup). The devastation witnessed, particularly in Europe, prompted British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and the then U. S Secretary of State George Marshall to urge global players to embrace cooperation and shun any dangerous ideologies that derail such efforts.

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National-populist forces were identified as a threat to peace and stability, with much of Europe expected to embrace a new disposition with regard to relations. Effective international leadership has since prevailed, with pivotal democratic figures such as the German Chancellor Angela Merkel emerging as the phenomenon’s foremost exponent. Merkel’s efforts were recently acknowledged during the 368th Commencement at Harvard University on May 30, 2019, where she was awarded an honorary Doctors of Law degree. It is, therefore, critical to discuss the importance of attaining effective international leadership with a particular focus on German Chancellor Angela Merkel.

Background and Drive towards Effective International Leadership

 Angela Dorothea Merkel (1954- ) was born during the height of the Cold War in Hamburg, an integral segment of West Germany. Education was of essential importance to her parents, which is why the family moved to Perleberg, East Germany. Here, Merkel expressed her political fervor by taking part in state organizations such as Free German Youth and Young Pioneers.  Merkel also soon emerged as a top-achiever and graduated in 1986 with a doctorate in Quantum Chemistry. Notwithstanding her academic credentials, Merkel still viewed politics as a prospective field for her to provide service to society and introduce positive change. The Revolutions of 1989 presented a unique opportunity for her to enter politics and serve as an instrument for change (Mo and Jongryn 89). She soon joined the Democratic Awakening, rising through the ranks and becoming the official spokesperson for the party in the spring of 1990. After entering the Christian Democratic Union, Merkel emerged as an ardent proponent of the unification of Germany following the fall of the Berlin Wall. Her stint at the helm of leadership began in 1991 when she was elected to the Lower House of Parliament (Bundestag) on a CDU ticket and went on to represent Stralsund-Rügen-Grimmen. In 2005, Angela Merkel was elected chancellor, a position she still holds today. Her noteworthy participation in negotiating treaties, managing the European financial crisis, and the ongoing migrant crisis are some of the reasons why she is widely regarded as the face of effective international leadership.

Angela Merkel Espousing Effective International Leadership

            Effective international leadership skills are effective in a complex, dynamic, and ever-changing world. Meticulous management of national and international affairs requires a prudent leader ready to face a myriad of unavoidable vicissitudes. Such leaders are expected to display intercultural effectiveness, skillful management of paradoxes, and diligence internationally. Angela Merkel’s leadership attributes are, therefore, important in demonstrating the importance of showing effective international leadership.

 Over the years, Merkel has displayed her intercultural efficacy and capability of being a lone voice when clamoring for change. Her appropriate communication skills, both locally and internationally, have enabled her to fit and participate directly in international settings. Merkel has, from time immemorial, championed the rights and freedoms of minorities in society with the primary purpose of introducing this concept internationally. Being a Protestant serving in a Catholic party, Merkel has had firsthand experience as a minority. This background has served as a background for espousing egalitarianism in society with the primary aim of promoting inclusivity in future societies. Merkel also admits that she was inspired by Nelson Mandela during her formative years in politics and on the best direction to follow in an international setting (Décosterd). At the crux of her collective activity, ideology is the idea that effective global frontrunners should always display a degree of purpose-based leadership. Merkel has always urged global leaders to avoid the image of an authoritative power figure and instead serve a nation’s core needs by animating its population. Her staunch principles have been of great importance to Germany in salving its reputation during the post-war period. Germany’s dark past is an inescapable reality constantly haunting in the eyes of the international community. Merkel’s strong attempt to reverse this state of affairs has been displayed constantly through her humanity, liberality, and tolerance. She has avoided protectionism which would essentially revive the wall building mentality in favor of a fresh approach in favor of international cooperation while adhering to steadfast moral leadership

 Merkel successfully manages the global paradox and is always ready to embrace and respond to change. This attitude entails accepting change as part of the global environment in which we currently live reside in and accepting the complexities presented. Merkel’s effective international leadership has been displayed by her practical diplomacy skills that have enabled the management of global paradoxes. She has always strived to unite global powers as an effective technique that will ultimately promote collaboration and hinder outright confrontation.  Merkel has effectively employed this strategy in the worldwide stage and urged nations to avoid isolationist policies and become part of the contemporary “international orchestra.” Her approach is informed by an acute understanding of the multilateral system and its role in improving the conditions of billions across the globe. Merkel has done this with full acknowledgment of the fact that challenges to such efforts still exist, which is why it is always critical to adopt a comprehensive methodology.  She advocates for a less confrontational society where nationalism and populism take a back seat while citizens become increasingly aware of the essential nature of cooperation within an international setting. Merkel has effectively employed tools of national power conferred to her by the Federal Republic of Germany to fulfill her vision of containment (Mushaben, 2014). She has always sought to understand the preferences of other nations as a way of ensuring that compromises are always arrived at while avoiding outright confrontation. Apt strategic choice is a typical strategy employed by Merkel during political maneuvering. It has aided her in avoiding political misreading of a nation’s preferences in an international setting.

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            Diligence has emerged as one of Merkel’s notable attributes and a reason why she is regarded as an effective international leader. She has always been prepared to face world leaders and work painstakingly towards the attainment of specific goals bound to benefit significant players and their citizens. Her methodical approach to international relations involves weighing the pros and cons before proceeding with a groundbreaking decision. She has expressed attention to detail by comprehensively reviewing climate change and breaking down its effects on specific countries across the globe. Merkel’s logical approach to international conflict is part of the reason why she espouses effortless performance as a leader. She has always won many nations over using this approach and has been praised for her undying determination in the face of difficulties.  Merkel’s singleness of purpose and extraordinary inner strength has been linked to her success internationally by always urging nations to come together and partner during the conflict. Her ultimate objective is to reach a point of compromise where international leaders can make an informed decision that will accommodate adversaries and avert confrontational politics. For instance, Merkel is a crucial figure within the G20 Group of Nations and among the first world, leaders to respond during the global recession with the hopes that she would forestall another Great Depression (Osland, et al. 72). The sovereign debt crisis experienced in the Euro Area was one of Merkel’s greatest tribulations.  Even so, her unwavering determination was in full display when she took it upon herself to organize continual crisis negotiations to avoid any adverse effects. Merkel triumphed yet again and galvanized international efforts to halt the crisis and promote the creation of clear fiscal rules that finally birthed the European Stability Mechanism.

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Conclusion

Attaining effective international leadership has recently emerged as imperative in today’s rapidly transforming global environment. Chancellor Angela Merkel is an epithet of the worldwide community and an epitome of effective leadership. Her display of intercultural efficacy, skillful management of paradoxes, and internationally diligence has enabled her to chart a new course while encouraging compromise globally. Merkel’s shrewd leadership and the success it has introduced is, thus, the chief reason why it is now vital to attain effective international leadership.

Positional Power for Change

Describe how you are able to change the culture or core values of your organization utilizing positional power. Discuss how you would use different types of positional power to go about changing organizational values/culture. What would it look like? Use characteristics of your own personal values when answering the question. Predict the type of power dynamic you may have to navigate while instilling organizational change. How would you go about navigating the power dynamics present?

Transforming core values is critical to making meaning progress in any organizations and can be conducted using positional power. The process usually begins with a clear understanding of desired values and demeanor that one seeks to implement within the organization. It involves a clear comprehension of the behavioral description of each employee and their value to the organization. The culture is then aligned with various processes that are conducted daily.  For instance, the vision should line up with human resource processes, which focus primarily on performance management and the hiring of talented employees. Furthermore, positional power is invaluable to changing an organization’s culture by enforcing accountability while being responsible for every action. The presence of visible proponents also aids this shift in values, primarily through making it a priority for top management (Boonstra, 2018, p. 34).

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Positional power provides senior executives with a proper understanding of an organization’s cultural framework and its impact on performance. Typically, it involves the application of non-negotiable issues, which then create an imitable identity for the organization. These efforts are then measured as a way of ensuring that their effectiveness is gauged to ascertain their applicability. Positional power also espouses patients when seeking to change values in an organization. A clear rationale allows the top executives to make the right decisions while taking the staff and available resources into consideration.

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 Different types of positional power can be implemented when seeking to transform organizational values. Legitimate power originates from a manager’s position in the organization relative to other employees. Their level of seniority often means that they have a level of authority, which allows them to wield considerable influence within the organization. Legitimate power can occasion the transformation of organizational culture through changes occasioned by new policies implemented by the managers (Yoon, 2016). Their authority and charisma inspire employees who respect their position and are willing to comply with any requests made. On the other hand, reward power allows leaders to introduce change using various incentives to influence change. Reward power enables a leader to appropriately reward any subordinate who displays positive behavior contributing to an organization’s growth.

Personal values such as integrity and authenticity can be rewarded with a promotion, which then allows then to become instruments for change within the organization. This type of recognition and acknowledgment will enable employees to participate directly in changing the prevailing culture. Besides, coercive power can also be used as a punitive measure for failing to implement specific policies and failing to meet performance expectations. It is through this form of positional power that employees strive to make decisions bound to affect the organization positively.  

The legitimate power dynamic is the best option when seeking to introduce lasting change in an organization. It requires careful maneuvering during installation to ensure that top managers are capable of navigating through power dynamics. These efforts must then pass through all layers of leadership in the organization, which allows employees to pinpoint and remove outdated systems. These changes are meant to accelerate the rate of change in the organization while ensuring that employees trust in every decision made by management. Legitimate power also makes it possible to implement an innovative restructuring of the leadership structure to adapt to change. These alterations allow team members to gain an in-depth understanding of best practices while in the workplace environment while striving to establish a set of goals that aim to introduce organizational change.