Relationship Between Strategic Planning and Budgeting

Strategic planning refers to a planning process which combines an organization’s major action sequences, policies and goals into a cohesive whole. A strategy that is well formulated assists to allocate and marshal resources of an organization into a viable and unique posture, founded on the comparative internal competencies and shortcomings, anticipated environmental changes and contingent moves via intelligent opponents. Strategic planning has the role of defining the expectations and directions of a firm that are founded on the stakeholders’ vision. It is a process of a progressive reflection. Budgeting on the other hand refers to a forecast of all expenses and income, and assists a business in identifying future financial plans and needs according to anticipated cash flow, expenses, and profit. A budget is used to support the strategic plan of an organization. Thus, a budget is a reflection of an organization strategic plan whereby it is highly influencing strategic planning (Lalli, 2012).

Read also Comparing Strategic Planning, Long Range Planning And Budgeting

The two processes differ in that strategic plan is an independent document or process that focuses more on the organizational objectives and how they can be achieved. On the contrary, budget is reliant on the strategic plan. It is created with intention of ensuring that the strategic plan is achieved by allocating it enough monetary resources to ensure its accomplishment. Budget can also be used in a reverse way to influence strategic plan, based on the amount anticipated to be acquired and the main strategic goals that must be accomplished.

Read also Strategic Planning Process Discussion – Sample Paper

Strategic planning can be adjusted to either delay or fasten some activities based on the likelihood of getting enough sources of funding. Thus in a way, the strategic planning is done to identify processes needed to ensure organization growth, and stability. Budgeting is done to identify the resources available for funding those processes. While doing so, the strategic planning must define the level of priority to identify those processes that must be considered first in the budgeting and those that must follow or be considered in the future.  This highly influenced by the organization need.

Read also The Relationship Between Strategic Marketing and Strategic Planning Process

In most cases strategic planning and budgeting focus on identifying opportunities that can fit the organization budget to bring change in an organization. For instance, an organization may realize that it needs more workers training to enhance individual level of productivity. This activity is listed in the strategic plan as one of the year main strategic goal. The company budget should then be used to identify the amount that can be set aside for this specific activity. This should be considered after funding other necessary activity such as fixed operational charges, and important variable charges such as workers payments.  Hence the part of budget that considers the strategic planning aspect is regarded in the organization capital budget. This means, when strategic planning focus on processes that can bring change, budgeting focuses on adjusting funding in different sectors to create enough resources to accommodate the strategic planning goals, based on their level of priority. Thus, the planning period need to match the organization budget capability. The budgeting section that consider the strategic planning act as a form of investment set aside to accomplish projects likely to bring change in an organization.

Types of Budgets

There are five types of budgets that can be used to enhance financial planning in an organization. They include performance budgeting, program and planning budgeting, zero-based budgeting, site-based budgeting, and outcome-focused budgeting (NCES, 2003). Below is a table offering a comparison of the five forms of budgeting.

Types of budgeting Key features Uses
Performance budgeting expenditure involves inputs standard cost  multiply by number of units offered in a time periodtotal budget involves sum of all standard unit cost multiply by expected unitsNarrative description of every program budget organization into quantitative costs estimates and accomplishments   Centers in evaluating and measuring outcome
Program and planning budgeting Expenditures are based on work programs and objects Expenditures are based on work programs and objectsIt involves identifying fundamental objectives and matching them with activities expenditure.Flexible enough to be used in different ways based on organization needs less evaluation and control oriented Budget reports and requests are summarized based on a few extensive programs Centers on long range planning Focus on determining the cost of the program and workers involvement cost 
Zero-based budgeting Program services and activities need to be justified every year in budgeting processBudget preparation involves dividing all operations of government into decision units at cooperatively low organizational levelsEliminates old expenditures and efforts and concentrate on most effective resources Annual review of all expenditures and activities of the program Individual units of decision are  then aggregated into package on organizational units, program activities, and goals Allocation decisions information improvement Effective development need paperwork,, planning and staff time Centers on enhancing improvement in the work operations by maybe defining incentives that can result to positive change
Site-based budgeting Resources allocation happens at the siteManagement have the main authority of controlling the budgetstresses on the budgetary decision making decentralization It enhance effective understanding of the organization needs it increases participation level by staffs and immediate managers Members are offered a chance to voice their needs (NCES, 2003) Focus on improving workers moral, ensuring enough provision of resources and general satisfaction of workers.
Outcome-Focused Budgeting Enhances linking the resources allocation to the outcomes productionEntity objectives, goals and outcomes must be tied and identified to the budget allocations for objectives accomplishmentFocus on allocating resources to programs or service providers who utilize them effectivelyIs more effective and efficient in offering desired results More flexible and innovative, ensuring high workers morale (NCES, 2003). Focus on improving individual performance by ensuring their operational needs are satisfied

Entrepreneurial Orientation: International, Global and Cross-cultural Research – Critical Analysis

Critical Analysis Instructions: International Business Strategies and Foreign Market Penetration

Locate and critically analyse a recent article on a topic concerning international business strategies and foreign market penetration.In preparing your business article critique you should:

  1. Provide a brief discussion of the article and point out the three most important issues contained within the article. Do not simply summarise.
  2. Point out the underlying theoretical concepts which are relevant to the article
  3. Point out the related policy issues (e.g. what government policy is or should be) and debate around the issue.
  4. Provide a critique if the article contains discrepancies/ ignores important policy problems or issues, or is inconsistent with economic or other theories studied in this unit.

Wales, W, Gupta, V.K, Marino, L & Shirokova, G 2018, ‘Entrepreneurial orientation: International, global and cross-cultural research’, International Small Business Journal; Researching Entrepreneurship, vol.37, no.2, pp.95-104. – Article Critique

Brief Article discussion Pointing Out Three most Important Issues

This article focuses on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) in a global environment. The paper aims at improving knowledge on EO and its application in cross-cultural and international context. The authors of the article try to demonstrate the need for change in the original entrepreneurial framework that focused on business operations in America, to a new design that can fit in other upcoming market environments that include Asia. The article features a number of important aspects surrounding EO. One of these important aspects is the review of the dominant design of the EO which was invented by researchers around 30 years ago, and which acts as the basic design of EO. The dominant design according to the article plays a great role in determining whether a business can be regarded as an entrepreneurial or not.  The article posits that the EO of an organization is characterized by three dimensions that include risk-taking, pro-activeness and innovation. In case any of the three dimensions are absent entirely, an organization would not be recognized as an entrepreneurial. The article appreciates the acceptance of dominant design by acknowledging its extensive use by researchers in the past. The authors however point out that the dominant design which was tested in the developed economy may not fit very well in emerging economies that have different characteristics.

Another important issue addressed in this article is conceptualization of the dominant design to fit the characteristics of emerging economies with diverse sociocultural features. According to the authors, various concepts developed initially in mature market are challenged when used in emerging markets. Thus, further adaptation and consideration may be needed in the dominant design to fit the new business environments. Researchers have also demonstrated the likelihood that EO most suitable conception in other cultures might include aspects which are regarded important or desirable in those cultures. Thus, EO may need to be restructured to fit the characteristics of different cultures in different emerging economies, to create an international perspective in EO. The article authors reviews various ways in which the dominant design can be revised to create international EO. Most of researchers propose additional of new dimensions in the current dominant design to create a multicultural or international EO. The new proposed dimensions capture differences in the means in which different organizations might pursue or support international entry. The two added dimensions include autonomy which is used as a strategic posture, and competitive aggressiveness.

The third important aspect in the article is the review researches conducted on entrepreneurial orientation in the context of international SME. The reviewed article demonstrates how EO drives performance of internalization by regarding the experiential learning role in developing networking and contextual intelligence as an important strategy through which company gain complementary resources to utilize opportunities. This section provides practical or real situational analysis of how OE internalization can be handed to ensure success.  

Underlying Theoretical Concepts Relevant to the Article

This paper focuses on entrepreneurial orientation in an international market. Thus the theoretical concepts relevant to the article may include global business environment, where different business culture are reviewed based on the regions. For instance, American business environment vary greatly from Asians business environment. The two regions adopt different business cultures that make them unique in different ways. Understanding business aspects valued by different people in different cultures or environment may provide a better understanding of the international business market and how one can adjust into operating in different market. Another theoretical concept suitable for this article is organizational factors for multinational organizations. Multinational organizations operate in different countries where they experience different challenges. More information on external and internal factors of multinational business operation may be considerably important in this case. This should especially focus on government influence on business. Foreign business environment is also likely to be influenced by the government through foreign business operation policies. This may influence the business environment in different foreign nations. More theoretical information on government-business relation in a foreign environment may be highly important. In addition, information on business internal factors that assist in the adaptation of international organization in a new business environment will provide a better understanding of what may be needed to ensure effective conceptualization of EO to fit an international operational level.

Related Policies

Internalization of entrepreneurial orientation can be influenced by a number of policies government policies. These include policies that the government employs to promote or block foreign investment or to protect local SME from international competition. Licensing policy in a country dictates on aspects that local and foreign entrepreneurs should fulfil to be permitted to operate in a country. Other policies include business tariffs in a foreign country among other policies that define rules to be fulfilled before licensing. These policies increase the expenses incurred in a foreign entrepreneurial investment, and hence influencing the level of risk taking in international entrepreneurial orientation. If the level of risk is manageable, the organization opts to continue with its foreign investment but if unbearable, then it may opt out. Another policy related to this article includes environmental policies that mostly dictate the operational process of entrepreneurial operations, especially in the manufacturing industry. Policies governing the rate of carbon emission and demanding green production may push the aspect of innovation much harder for an organization originating from a country where such policies are not there.    

Article Critique The article centres more interaction between organizations in an international market. It is in a way focus on what an entrepreneur should work on to be able to fit in a foreign market and to effectively compete with other similar businesses in international environment. Entrepreneurial orientation in this article focuses on internal measures or dimensions that an organization may need to adjust on or work on to fit in a foreign market. Having been initially design for one form of economy, the design does not consider external factors that may influence business, despite being structured in a manner that it would work effectively without external forces. The article highly disregards how government policies can influence business orientation in a foreign market. The only external aspect emphasized in this design is cultural variation. Government policies can be a major determining factor to the success of foreign business in a country. Ignoring this aspect may results to the development of a shaky model that can easily fail if subjected to an environment with tough governmental regulations targeting foreign investors. The new international EO dimensions also fail to consider the political environment in a foreign country. An entrepreneur may be able to handle internal environment to ensure success. However, External business environment particularly political and economic climate may result to more challenges and maybe failure. The article fails to consider those aspects in the new international EO design. 

A Theoretical Perspective of Crime – Homicide

Final Project Instructions

For this project you will write about a category of criminal activity you studied and found most compelling during the course of this class. In general, your assignment is to examine this criminal activity, its theoretical perspectives, and the underlying factors in an effort to explain the behavior and reduce recidivism in the future. Use your critical thinking and research skills to compose a paper that demonstrates what you have learned in this course.

Choose a category of crime from the range of criminal activities you studied this semester, such as homicide, economic/white collar crime, family violence, school/workplace violence, sexual assault, terrorism, etc. Select a specific individual or group that perpetrated this type of crime

Project Outline

  1. Define and describe the category of crime, its characteristics, typical offenders, and the theoretical perspectives attributed to it.
  2. Identify and describe your chosen individual or group that perpetrated this type of crime.
  3. Explain the perpetrator/s background. For example:
    • If an individual, explain where they were born, their family structure, the socioeconomic conditions, education, their life events that led up to the criminal act, etc.
    • If a group of individuals or political faction, explain how and why the group was formed, when they were active, where they were located, how they were organized, etc.
  4.  If you have identified a specific exemplary incident describe the crime. Explain what happened, when it happened, where it happened, the conditions that led up to the crime (s), what if any gain the perpetrator realized as a result of the crime etc.
  5. Explain the factors or predictors that may have influenced this criminal behavior such as, but not limited to:
    • Risk factors (as outlined in your textbook)
    • Psychological disorders
    • Mental illness
    • Substance abuse
    • Motivations
    • Political ideologies
  6. Explain whether the offender (s) were able to follow through with the crime (s).
    • If they were able to, how did they achieve it? Over what time period?
    • If not, why not?
  7. Identify and describe the legal, corrective, and/or rehabilitative action that is appropriately directed to perpetrators of this criminal activity. Is there evidence (or do you believe) the punishment and or treatment programs can be effective in reducing recidivism?
  8. Describe and evaluate any associated outcomes/impact emanating from this criminal activity or specific incident, such as increased social awareness, change in policy or laws, negative backlash or unintended effects, etc.
  9. Concluding statement

A Theoretical Perspective of Crime – Homicide

Definition and Description of Homicide

Homicide refers to any human being killing by another human being that is not excusable or justifiable. Criminal homicide might be regarded as killing by accident or intentional killing or killing that result from criminal negligence based on circumstances surrounding the killing and the killer state of mind.  Criminal homicides can be classified into two different forms which include manslaughter and murder.

Read also Abandoned Heart Homicide and Involuntary Manslaughter Essay

Murder is regarded as unexcused, unjustified killing of a human being by another with malevolence aforethought. Manslaughter refers to unexcused, unjustified killing of one human being by another with no malevolence aforethought. Malevolence aforethought refers to the state of mind that distinguishes manslaughters from murders. Murder with intent to kill is regarded as first degree murder while second degree murder refers to killings with intent to cause serious injury (Brookman, 2010).

Chosen Group

The homicide crime was committed by a young teenage aged 16 Dawson, against his own grandmother.

Dawson Background

Dawson born of black American parents was the only a child of his parents. They parents separated when Dawson was eight due to irreconcilable differences. During his growth, Dawson experienced violence between his mother and father and he was once hit by his father while trying to defend his mother. The mother won the child custody after the separation. However, she was not able to handle the baby and her demanding job which was considerably poorly paid. She decided to take Dawson to her mother; a retired teacher, who was only living with her house help after the death of her husband. Dawson thus grew under the care of his grandmother. Although Dawson mother would visit frequently, the situation changed when she remarried when Dawson was only 10 and divorced again after one year. After the second divorce, Dawson mother stopped visiting as frequent as she used to. Her life also changed. She started taking drugs and binge drinking. His father had also taken into alcoholism and he never cared about anything. Dawson thus felt as a rejected child who only had his grandmother to depend on.

Read also Routine Activities Theory Delinquency And The Case of Tanaya Lewis who was charged with first-degree premeditated murder in school stabbing incident

According to his statement, he wished his grandmother would die so as his parents could take their responsibilities of raising him. But that too did not happen. His performance was poor at school and he was always being reprimanded by teachers due to his deteriorating behaviors.  He also felt his granny was struggling to pay the school fees and to feed him. He thus decided to drop out of school silently at the onset of his 16th birthday. He then joined a gang of boys, who seemed to understand his problems, since according to him, no one else did. The group made it easier for him to fun and forgets his troubles. But his granny was so determined to stop him from seeing the gang, especially after she was informed that the boy does not attend the school anymore.  This must have irritated Dawson to the point of considering ending the problem by committing the murder.

Specific Exemplary Incident Describing the Crime

Dawson was living with his grandmother at the time of the crime. In the fateful night, he wanted to go out but the grandmother blocked him. He ran back to his room and locked the door.  He later sneaked out of his room to his grandmother’s room in the middle of the night, carrying a strong piece of metal. He however changed his mind when he found his grandmother in the peace of her sleep and decided to use her pillow to suffocate her. The lack of enough air awakened her and she struggled for survival. When she overpowered Dawson, the boy picked the piece of the metal rod and hit his grandmother on the head three times before she was overpowered and fell down. This commotion woke the house help who was sleeping in in the basement. Dawson managed to flee the crime scene after the act back to his room. The house help called an ambulance, though the granny was pronounced dead upon arrival.

Read also Social Factors Responsible for Murderer Henry Lucas’ Behavior

The main explanation that can be given to explain the crime would be psychological instability. Dawson had a rough childhood with experience of violence and deprived parental love. The desire to have what he could not get may have initiated anger. In an attempt to attract his parents’ attention, Dawson developed behavioral disorder which was never resolved. His constant thought of his grandmother as the reason he was rejected or abandoned by his parents, and irritation of her interference with his life must have provoked him to end the problem. The inner aggression may have been stirred every time Dawson reflected on his life, this time resulting to impulsive reaction. Dawson may also have been introduced into drugs which distorted his reasoning and aggravated the urge to act irrationally.  Dawson main gain would be his freedom and maybe his parents’ attention after the death of his grandmother who was taking care of him.

Factors that could have resulted to This Crime

Risk Factors

There are a number of risk factors that attributed to Dawson criminal act. Some of these risk factors included his age and gender. According to Bookman (2010), homicide is a crime dominated by males, especially young male. More than 90% of homicide offenders are male. Another main risk factor is ethnicity. According to research, Asian and black persons are over-represented as homicide offenders in the United States prisons. Blacks account for 12% of homicide offenders in the US prisons. Another main risk factor is socioeconomic and education. Dawson came from a broken family characterized by drug used, violence and lack of parental love. As a result, he was adopted by his grandmother who would compensate for his parents’ failure to raise him. His poor background somehow influenced his learning ability, making it hard for him to concentrate and focus on his studies. Poor social status is likely to result to distress, which would influence individual learning ability. In addition, lack and desire for parental attention and attachment initiated behavioral problems, which negatively influence child’s social life and academic performance. The uncertainties created by poor social status initiates anxiety and poor state of mind, bitterness and aggression. The other main risk factor was possibility of using drugs. It is not clear of how Dawson used to fun with his friends. However, the possibility of using drugs could have also increased crime risk factors (Bookman, 2010).  

Read also Root Causes of Specific Crimes that Occurs in Low-Income Neighborhoods

Psychological and Behavioral Disorders

There are a number of theories that can be used of explain the behavior behind homicide offenders or crimes. Some of the theories that can be used to explain homicide crime include behavioral theories. One of the main predisposition behavioral features of murder crime is being violent, aggressive and impulsive mostly featured among young people at teen age. According to behavior theory, all human behavior is learnt via social environment interaction. According to theorist, individuals are not born with disposition of violence, but they learn to act and think violently through their daily experience. Individual living in violent environment learn to model their neighbors aggressive behaviors (Ontario, 2016). Dawson early exposure to violence may have contributed to his actions. In addition, violent behavior can be facilitated by a stressful stimulus or event such as assault, challenge or threat which increases arousal, aggressive techniques or skills learnt via observation, a believe the violence or aggression has social reward for instance earning praise, and a value system which tolerates  violent acts in specific social contact.  The confrontation between Dawson and his grandmother may have aroused his anger. A reflection on his life may have acted as stressful stimuli, invoking the desire to kill.

Read also Factors That can be Associated with the Cause of Violent Crime

According to cognitive development theories, human develop in a logical and systematic ways. During the growth different people may acquire different understanding of laws. Some may avoid violent crime for the fear of the consequences while other may avoid violent crimes due to moral implications or for sympathizing and recognizing the fundamental rights of other people. Individual with high degree of moral reasoning are less likely to engage in violence and crime, compared to people who obey the law to avoid punishment. In this case, Dawson did not seem to understand the moral implication of his act. His moral reasoning must have been poorly developed, especially since in his opinion, his parent did not have the moral reasoning of caring for him. After feeling rejected and abandoned, it would be unlikely for him to develop sympathy or consider the moral implications (Ontario, 2016).

 Another aspect used to explain homicide crime is personality-violence relation. Personality is perceived as stable patterns of actions, thoughts or behaviors which differentiate an individual from others.  According to theorists, some forms of personality are more disposed to criminal behaviors (Ontario, 2016).  For instance, violence is associated with personality traits that include suspicion, self-assertiveness, narcissism, defiance, and extroversion.  Violent behaviors are also associated to traits that include hostility, jealousy, egoism, spitefulness, self-centeredness, and lack of empathy for or indifference to others.  Criminals are also said to lack perseverance and ambition, and also find it hard to handle their impulses and tempers.  Crime prone youths are also found to be hostile, impulsive, quick to act against threats, paranoid and aggressive.  They also feel irritable, anxious and stresses in the face of hostile social condition. Dawson seemed to have been experiencing all this.

Dynamic and Social Theories Explaining

There are also a number of theories that explain causes homicide offenders behaviors.  Some of these theories are dynamic theories and static theories.   According to these static theories, the persistent criminal antisocial behavioral pattern can be explained by specific static traits that can be traced back to the person’s early childhood.  The presence of traits that include problematic family background, male gender and masculinity, psychopathic personality, and lack of self-control, will result a manifestation of their fate to crime at their early age (Liem, 2013).  Dawson violent early childhood, problematic family background and other psychological conditions that emanate from his situation may have contributed to development of antisocial behavioral conditions that could have pushed him into committing the crime. According to static theory, once an individual is involved in criminal behavior, the person has a high possibility of being a criminal forever. This demonstrates a great that Dawson has a high possibility of reoffending in the future.

Read also Psychological Vs Labeling Criminal Behavior Theories

Dynamic theories hypothesize that change in life situations influence criminal behavior directly. This means age has great effect on individual ability to commit crimes since age changes come great changes in individual life. An example of dynamic theories is the life course theories. According to these theories, there is a change of criminal behaviors as change of important events in life takes place. According to life-course research parental and marital attachment and stability in job are essentially associated to modification in criminal behaviors (Liem, 2013).  Dawson had experienced serious life events which included separation with his parents, total rejection after his mother stopped visiting and also body and hormonal changes as a result of adolescence.  These major life changes could have molded change of his feelings, behaviors and life perceptions at different magnitudes, resulting to who he is today. Dropping out of school was another major change. Dawson felt detached from his parents, and as a matter of fact, he has never developed attachment with his grandmother and instead he hated her and blamed her for taking his responsibility rather than permitting him to be raised by his mother.

Substance Abuse

It was highly suspected that Dawson was using drugs, especially after being associated with the gang for more than two weeks.  Although it is not clear on when he started taking drugs, the immediate assessment of Dawson after arrest demonstrated high marijuana content in his blood. This could have highly influenced his behaviors and maybe distorted rational thinking making forcing him to commit crime.

Motivations

Dawson’s action could have been motivated by a number of factors. These included his hatred for his grandmother after blaming him for denying him his relation with his parents. He felt that with absence of his grandmother, his parents could have had no option but to raise him themselves. Another motivation was his gang. After joining the gang, Dawson felt some sense of satisfaction and self-fulfillment than before. The fear of losing that feeling might have motivated him to eliminate his grandmother, who acted as a barrier to access the joy of being with people who understood him.  

Whether Offender was Able to Follow Up

The act happened in the offenders’ house. He managed to remain in his room by effectively avoiding the crime scene.  He did not go back go to pick the metal rod nor did he go to collect any other evidence he may have left behind. The fear of being caught or the trauma waves sent by the act may have prevented him from revisiting the crime scene. The interrogation by the police added to his fear and tried as much as possible to avoid the room. He did not go to see his grandmother’s body in the mortuary and neither did he go to view her body during the burial. His weird reaction which seems like mental trauma and guilt are some of the thing that prompted his cousin to dig deep, forcing him to confess.

Identification and Description of Legal and Rehabilitative Action

Dawson was arrested after his confession. He was charged with first degree murder and was supposed to take plea in a juvenile court, but later transferred to adult court. Before taking plea, the judge authorized for mental assessment. This assessment indicated that Dawson was not in his right mind while committing the crime. He was experiencing mild personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug use. The assessment data was supported by his life history which was characterized by aspects that would impact his psychological well-being. He was thus referred to inpatient rehabilitation center under justice system for mental condition to appoint that the forensic psychiatrist would be certain of his inability to cause harm to the society after his release. The rehabilitation involved the employment of cognitive behavioral therapy CBA to handle PTSD and ADHD integrated with a trauma-focused emotional regulation intervention (Young, Greer & Church, 2017). He was also provided with drug use therapy. Other intervention measures include family therapy in an attempt to bring the family together to reduce cases of recidivism. Other correction measures included engaging Dawson into craft related training as a way to empower him financially once released back to the society. The who process took about six years before Dawson was released back to the community through parole, with condition of not associating with any gang and living a crime free and drug free life. The parole terms also included visiting his parole officer after every two weeks for a period of two years.

Read also Custodial Model of Incarceration Vs Rehabilitation Model In Correctional Setting

 The program focuses on addressing the underlying issues that forced Dawson into committing crime. They were anticipated to be effective in addressing his unaddressed psychological issues, drug use issues and family relation issues. It was expected that, eliminating the underlying issues would help in eliminating the problem.  The chances of recidivism are highly explained by various theories.  According to social learning theory, recidivism is influenced by the primary variables which influence first criminal behavior for instance differential imitation and differential association. According to researches assessing this theory, gang-affiliated homicide juvenile offenders were more probable to reoffend than juveniles without gang-affiliation (Liem, 2013). Thus, with elimination of the initial variables, and elimination of chances to regroup with gang, the techniques were highly viable in eliminating recidivism. Another theory used to explain recidivism among homicide offenders is developmental theory. Instead of centering on reasons for recidivism, developmental theory focuses on the reasons for abstaining from criminal related behaviors. According to the theory, desistance is a usual and anticipated behavior in the lifespan. The theory postulates that violent delinquents will diminish or even end completely as individual identity change (Liem, 2013). The intervention measures employed to rehabilitate Dawson play a great role in changing his identity. Unlike when his behaviors were controlled by psychological disorder, recovery from these disorders and age advancement by the time of release has played a great role in changing his identity. The decline and peak of psychological and biological aspects that include psychological drive, physical energy and strength, coincide with decline and peak of general deviant behavior (Liem, 2013).  This means that homicide offenders that are older or well treated during the release time would be less probable to reoffend. This demonstrating that Dawson may be less likely to offender after his parole is over.

  Description and Evaluation of any Related Outcome or Impact Emanating from the Criminal Activity

The case added to the statistics on juvenile offenders as results of many factors including drug use, peer pressure and behavioral issues. This case may have initiated initiation and development of anti-drug campaign among youths. This may also have provoked the recent anti-drug policy that fight drug use and consider drug use as a crime in the United States.  

Conclusion

Juvenile homicide among family members is becoming a popular problem in our society. Although these problems have in past been blamed on drugs, there are other underlying factors that are deeper, especially among children from broken families. More may need to be done to assist such children to heal from past trauma and to focus on life like other children without thinking of how disadvantaged they are. Parents may need to sacrifice more for the sake of their children’s psychological wellbeing. Good parenting skills and family therapy may need to be trained among young couples to ensure proper parenting.  This will play a great role in fighting delinquent among adolescence especially from black and Asian families.

Fire and Life Safety Education Program for All Grades in K-12 Education System

Fire Prevention and Code Enforcement Unit 8 Project Instructions

The department has been approached by the school superintendent about starting a Fire and Life Safety Education Program for all grades, K-12. As the fire inspector, this project will fall under your responsibility. The superintendent has asked that you submit your program plan in writing so that it can be reviewed and discussed at the next school board meeting. If your plan is approved, the program will begin the next school year. However, there are budget constraints, and several members of the school board feel like there are more important areas and programs that need funding.

You are to create a plan for a Fire and Life Safety Education Program. Given the circumstances with some of the school board members, your plan should begin with a summary of a comprehensive overview of general fire safety for occupied buildings. You should also demonstrate rationale for the general fire safety provisions as methods of fire protection. Let them know how important this program is through the short-term and long-term benefits to students and to the community as a whole. Also, be sure to include the following:

  • goals for the program
  • organization of grades (Will you group some grades?)
  • a broad outline of the topics to be taught,broad details of any special events/activities
  • a plan to keep the program going, year after year. (Will certain grades be taught certain topics each year so that, as student progress, they learn new things?)

Fire and Life Safety Education Program Plan

Program Goal

This paper focuses on developing Fire and Life Safety Education Program for all grades in K-12 education system. The purpose of this program is to educate learners on the fire risk, prevention and intervention measures. The main goals of the program is to ensure that the learners are able to prevent situations that can result into fire risks and that they are able to take the right measure either to eliminate the hazard or to safe themselves and others from dangers related to the hazard during their education program and in the future life.  The program will offer a lifetime fire safety skill.

General Fire Safety for Occupied Buildings

In a school environment, the occupied building include offices, classes,  dormitory for schools with boarding facility, kitchen and dining halls, laboratories, and libraries. The general safety for occupied building starts by risk assessment, defining the means for escape based on the risk, defining means for fire detection and defining means for fire intervention (Health and Safety Executive, n.d.).

Read also Common Fire Code Violations, and an Inspection Checklist to Promote More Consistent Fire Safety Inspections

Risk Assessment: Risk assessment should be conducted to determine possible fire hazards that are likely to happen in the occupied buildings, their possible source and their possible magnitude based on the source and the surrounding building materials or facilities stored in the structures. The hazards identification should also note any possible materials that would fuel the fire further. The assessment should also identify people that are likely to be at risk. This includes teachers, students, visitors or subordinate staffs, and who are more vulnerable for instance if there are disabled individuals or children they would be more vulnerable. The assessment should also measure possible action that would be taken by those affected and what can be done to safe those that are highly vulnerable. Risk recording, developing plan for fire safety and ensure regular review of individual ability to address fire situation.

Means of Escape: Every occupied building should have fire exit. The fire exit should be strategically position from possible fire sources, should be unobstructed, well lite, and clearly labeled ensure that it is clearly visible to all. The exit should also lead to an open field where evacuated individual can assemble for counting in order to know whether there individuals still trapped in the fire (Health and Safety Executive, n.d.).

Read also Cost-Benefit Analysis of Fire Code Compliance

Fire Detection Means: Every occupied building should have means for detecting fire at early stage. This can include smoke detectors or heat detector with audible and clearly distinct alarm. These detectors should be well maintained and always functional. Their main purpose is to give a signal in case of fire at its early stage to facilitate early evacuation and counter measures.

Fire Fighting Means: Each building should have effecting and functional means of addressing fire incident. This includes fire extinguishers that match possible cause of fire in a building and of enough size to handle the fire in the building. Other interventions include sprinkler system among other means (Health and Safety Executive, n.d.).

Organization of Grades

The Fire and Life Safety Education Program will be taught to all from grade 1 to grade 12. The students will be grouped into four main groups each comprising three grades. The course will be offered to each grade based on their level of understanding and hence, the content will vary in complexity. The grades will be organized as follows:

Group A – Grade 1 to Grade 3

Group B – Grade 4 to Grade 6

Group C – Grade 7 to Grade 8

Group D – Grade 9 to Grade 12

Outline of the Topics to be Taught

Group A:  Introduction to fire safety; what is fire hazard, sources of fire hazards, damages caused and simple prevention and intervention measures.

Read also Triangle Factory Fire Of 1911

Group B: Fire risk assessment; identifying fire risks in different places starting with schools and home, Sources of fire in the selected places to cover all possible sources; kitchen fire, electric fire, chemical fire, or accidental candle fire among others. Identifying possible fuels of fire in different places, identifying people affect in all identified cases (State of India, n.d.).

Group B: Means of fire detection; learning more about fire alarms, how they work and how they should be maintained. Should cover different fire detection systems

Group C: Fire escape; should include fire exits, exits passage, exit field and practical session on individual reaction when fire alarm gets off; A drill practical should be included

Read also The Great Chicago Fire of 1871

Group D: Fire intervention. Learn different fire intervention and how they work, learn how to use those that are readily available such as fire extinguishers. Practical involving a fire drill should be done. The practical should include escape and intervention.

Events: Visit to fire station and have an interactive session with workers and the management for group C and D. Student to learn more about how alarms work and how the firefighters respond to the situation. The learning should include the protective measures they employ to ensure their safety during the firefighting event. Students will be allowed to ask questions and to explore. Note: The topics will be divided to fit new subtopics for the three years to make learning exiting (WHO, 2014).

Root Causes of Specific Crimes that Occurs in Low-Income Neighborhoods

Comparison Of The Root Causes Of Crime – Project Instructions

You are working as a criminal justice research specialist in a local television production company. The managing director has an assignment for you. The company will be producing a documentary on the root causes of specific crimes that occurs in low-income, “inner-city” neighborhoods. The focused crimes are personal assault, robbery, burglary, and theft. While race and ethnicity are not factors, there may be other identifiable factors or theories that motivate or predict a personal propensity to criminal behavior.  Your assignment is to:

  1.  Identify at least three (3) such factors/theories and,
  2.  Compare each with the other two (2) determining which is the most likely to be the primary contributor to criminal activity.
  3. Collectively, these comparisons must be supported by at least three (3) cited sources from the course instructional materials or outside scholarly sources.

Root Causes of Specific Crimes that Occurs in Low-Income Neighborhoods – Personal Assault, Robbery, Burglary, and Theft

Issues of crimes are normally experienced in urban centers, especially in a city surrounded by slums or a huge population of people with low-income. There are a number of reasons people of low economic status are engaged in crime. Some do it for fun, others do it to fight idleness and boredom, while others do it for survivals. There have been a number of researches conducted to develop theories that can explain the root cause of specific crimes which happen in low-income, inner-city neighborhoods. One of theories brought forward to explain this situation is economic theory where poverty is cited as a pushes for majority of people to commit a crime while focusing on survive. Others include social disorganization, local value structure, and offenders intersect of space and time, with attractive target and in guardianship absence (Graif, Gladfelter & Matthews, 2014). This paper focuses on determining the root cause of specific crimes that include theft, personal assault, burglary, robbery, and theft in the low-income, inner-city neighborhood. Three theories or factors will be compared to determine the primary contributor of criminal activities.

Read also Social, Psychological And Biological Theory Of Crime

Economic Theory

The economic crime theory is founded on the notion that people rationally respond to the benefits and costs of criminal opportunities. Therefore, aspects that increase the crime expected costs for instance increasing the apprehension likelihood or punishment severity or reduce the anticipated benefits for instance, improved job or educational opportunities can low crime incidences. The economic structure can in addition entail other crime theories which offer a richer understanding of decision-making and rationality that include the impulsivity biological basis, crime costs that include social capita in anti-social networks of peer and the crime benefits that include the conditions of local economy. In a low-income set-up poverty which is characterized by shortage of financial resources, poor housing, prejudice over people living in poverty, lack of meaningful options of employment, and lack of educational chances can help in propagating crimes (Ministry of Justice, 2009).

Read also Social Class And Unemployment: Relationship To Crime

Sociological Theory

Sociology comprises of a very extensive range of theoretical views. According to social disorganization theoretical perspective ecological conditions that include residential mobility and socioeconomic disadvantages erode social control of the neighborhood and facilitate crime. According to social perspective social ties independence, collective efficacy; an integration of trust, social cohesion, and neighborhood residents’ ability to realize common values and goals, minimizes neighborhood crime.

Read also Does Education Enable Reduction in Crime? – Journal Analysis

In addition, crimes are said to be highly motivated when criminals intersect in space and time with attractive targets in guardianship absence a scenario that is highly common in a low-income setup where most of youths are idle as parents spend most of their time working to make ends meets. In such case the intersection of offender, space, time and target without guardian supervision can be common encouraging spread of crimes such as theft and personal assault. Local interactions and social ties, collective efficacy and norms, institutional resources and routine activities play a great role in determining the spread of crime in an area (Graif, Gladfelter & Matthews, 2014).

Psychology Theory

There are various views on how psychology influences crimes. Psychology theories explore the association between individual personality, developmental and cognition factors, and social factors and crime. Psychological theories contain varying levels of focus on societal, individual, group and family psychology. For instance family psychological theory of crime relates the parenting style with child’s criminal or anti-social behaviors. The parent role with regard to supervision, child-rearing practice, abuse, attachment, neglect, as well as the parents own criminal or antisocial behaviors are likely to influence child’s involvement in crime as a child or in the future (Lewis, 2014).

Theory 1 Compared to 2 and 3

Economic crime theory claims that people focus on the costs and benefits of crime before committing it.  Low income inner-city neighborhoods are characterized by people working for low wages, uneducated people, with poor life condition and little hope for survival. Some maybe not be in a position to cater for their basic needs and survive on one meal a day.  Committing a crime such as theft, robbery, or burglary may offer them a chance to ease their high level of poverty. They can get food, items to sell, money or even food through their crime activities which can ease their struggle. The main cost of crime would be arrest which may not be a high cost if a person is unemployed thus no job to lose and loss of freedom of movement. To the majority imprisonment may come with guarantee for food and other benefits such as technical training and life skills that can improve individual life. Thus, to individual with high level of poverty, the cost of crime is considerably low than its benefits and thus, they can be more inclined into committing crime (Ministry of Justice, 2009).

Read also Organized Crime and Street Gangs Research Paper

This theory has a great weight in explaining the cause of crime in the low income inner-city neighborhood, compared to psychology theory. The benefits of crimes are higher than the cost especially for jobless, school dropout individuals who are struggling to have a single meal a day. This theory thus provides a convincing explanation of the root cause of high rates of theft, burglary and robbery in the area. Its contribution to the three forms of crime may be higher than in sociology and psychology theory since poverty drive and benefits of involving in a crime are much higher than the cost of the crime. However, its contributions to crimes such as personal assaults and robbery associated with crime will be considerably lower than cases caused by sociology theory and psychology theory. In addition, cases of gang robbery will be less in cases initiated in economic theory of crime compared to those initiated by sociological theory. Also the cases of burglary in economic theory of crime may be minimal as more people would tend to steal what they can see and after deciding that the item can address their current needs. Thus, seeing the item aggravates the desire unlike in sociology theory where most robbery and theft cases maybe planned. Ecological theory of crime can highly explain may cases of thefts that include snatch and run or pick pocketing.

Theory 2 Compared to 1 and 3

The second theory is the sociology theory. This theory focuses on social structural aspects that are believed to create arenas or behaviors where socialization to criminal or conventional behavior and values are impacted. The theory focuses on aspects such as social disorganization and poverty, demonstrating how they can propagate crimes. It also touches on how social structures can propagate formation of gangs that would propagate crime in an area. Based on this perspective, poverty and other socioeconomic challenges are likely to push members of a society into a crime, especially theft. Negative peer pressure is likely to recruit more young people into gang crimes which can include drug abuse and crimes such as robbery, theft and personal assault (Krohn, Massey, & Skinner, 1987). Lack of respect and social cohesion is likely to propagate petty theft that includes pickpocketing among members of the society along the streets and in crowded places.  Lack of social cohesion, trust and respect is also likely to encourage the growth of personal assaults and other related criminal behaviors. This is highly likely especially when the target comes from a higher social class that prejudices the poor, due to their lack. The anger, bitterness and desires for revenge are likely to influence offender’s behaviors in a social setting where there is a clear separation between rich and poor and prejudice of the poor by the rich.

Read also Assault, Battery, And Crimes Against Persons

In addition, the intersection of the offender, time, space and a great target in absence of guardian supervision is likely to push offenders into committing any form of crime including burglary, theft, robbery and personal assault. High cases of burglary are likely to be initiated by sociology based situations than economic theory based situation. Idle delinquent teens sited near someone’s home can be tempted into breaking in to find anything they can steal if they realize there is no one home. With perfect target, time, space, and without supervision, their chance of exercising the crime without being caught is considerably high. This means that sociology theory has a high ability to explain the largest percentage of burglary cases in a low income, inner-city neighborhood with high rate of unemployment, high cases of school dropout, drug use and poverty. In addition, sociology theory of crime can also be used to explain high cases of gang robbery where groups of young people perform well planned robberies in an area. Formation of social groups especially among peers is likely to initiate grouping of youth with similar behaviors and life interest, which include youths interested in crimes and easy money.

Read also Variables, Hypotheses, and Relations – Homelessness and Crime

The analysis shows that sociology theory of crime can explain all cases of the identified crimes including personal assault, theft, robbery and burglary. It has high similarity with economic theory initiated crimes since it also considers the socioeconomic aspect of the crime. However, unlike in economic crime theory where crimes are committed by individuals and mostly in circumstantial situation, crimes according to sociological theory of crime are mostly planed and conducted by groups of people rather than individuals. Crimes in this case are more likely to be severe than crimes initiated by aspects identified by the economic theory of crime. Sociology theory based crimes are also more common in a low-income inner-city neighborhood compared to psychological theory based crime. However, the manner in which these crimes are conducted may be influenced by the psychological theory of crime. For instance, the use of violence in robberies activities may be instigated by individual development of violent behaviors that are determined by the form of parenting given to a child. While sociological crime theory can be used to explain all sorts of identified crimes, psychology and economic theories of crime can only be used to explain some of the crimes. This makes sociological theory more superior in explaining the root cause of burglary, robbery, theft and personal insult in a low-income inner-cite neighborhood. .

Theory 3 Compared to 1 and 2

 The third theory is psychological theories of crime. According to psychology theory, children from low-income social set-up are likely to be delinquent due to neglect, lack of attachment with their parents, and experiencing violence through certain parenting techniques where children are subjected to physical abuse. This kind of upbringing is likely to nature antisocial or violent behaviors among children, increasing their chances of being delinquent (Weatherburn, 2001). The poor socioeconomic setup is likely to have a higher number of parents that are depressed and hence increasing the possibility of violent parenting techniques. Life hardship mostly translates to population distress and inability to create healthy relationship. This results to emotional distress, increasing chances of impulsive reaction among members of the society, during normal interaction (Lewis, 2014). Thus, psychological theories of crime can be the main root cause of personal assault related crimes, since majority of individuals are violent, and with antisocial behaviors.  

Read also Digital Crime Theories – Choice theory and Social Process Theory

This theory contributes to the highest cases of personal assaults followed by the sociological theory. However, individual antisocial and violent behaviors are less likely to cause crimes such as theft, robbery or burglar. In addition, psychological theories are more likely to explain the cause of violence in other crimes such as robbery compared to economic theory or sociological theories. An act of violent in an individual or group crime is likely to be demonstrates that the offender may have violent behavior or is antisocial, though this does not necessarily means that the initial crime was initiated by the psychological perspective of the offender. For instance a robber crime can be highly initiated by aspects identified in sociological or economic theory of crime. However, the act of violence in the robbery may be initiated by the psychological aspect of the offender. Based on this analysis, it is evident that psychological theories of crime play a minimal role as root cause of robbery, theft and burglary compared to sociological and economic theories of crime. It however contributes a great deal as the root cause of personal assault crime.

Conclusion

The three selected theories to explain the root cause of crime in low-income, inner-city neighborhood include the economic theory of crime, sociological theories of crime and psychological theories of crime. Among the three, sociological theory of crime was found to contribute to all the crimes, though with less magnitudes to crimes such as personal assault compared to psychological theories and individual theft crime compared to economic theories. This implies that aspects identified in sociological theories of crime are the main root cause of robbery and burglary in the society and also contributes a considerable magnitude in causing theft and personal assault crimes. In addition, economic theory is the main contributor of theft crime and plays a considerable role in causing robbery and burglary. Psychology theories of crime are the main contributor of personal assault crime. It is also important to note that the three can work together in propagating high spread of crime in the identified settings. This means, the three hardly occur in isolation. This means a child facing violence is highly likely to be delinquent. This child is likely to join peer groups in the society during teenage which he can influence to delinquency. The teenagers’ poor economic status which includes lack of education and unemployment can give them ample time to organize crimes such as robbery.

Advanced Practice Nursing And How it Differs From Nursing Practice

Nursing practice refers to a caring-founded practice where in the treatment and diagnosis processes are employed to human experience of illness and health. The three basic nursing practices include restorative practices, promotive practices, and supportive practices. Restorative practices involve modifying the disease and illness effect on a patient. Supportive practice involves modifying the environment or relationships to support health. Promotive practices involve fostering familial and personal development, mobilizing living patterns and supporting self-defined goals of communities, families and persons (Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Enhancing Environmental Health Content in Nursing Practice et al, 1995).

Read also Application of Nursing Theory – Peplau’s Nurse Patient Relationship Theory in Advanced Clinical Practice

The main difference between nursing practice and advanced practice nursing is that nursing practice can be offered by any trained and qualified nurses with bachelor degree downward. However, in advance practice nursing a qualified nurse need to advance to a minimum of master level. Unlike in nursing practice where nurses concentrate on offering care, advanced practice nursing also involve patient care coordination. Advanced practice nurses have advanced knowledge compared to other nurses. Thus, advanced practice nursing involves the ability to make decisions and expertise in adverse areas that include assessment and diagnosis, implementation and planning, record-keeping and healthcare evaluation (Nurse Journal, 2019).

Read also Example Of An Ethical Dilemma In Advanced Practice Registered Nursing

There is generally a gap between nursing theories and advanced practice nursing. Advanced practice of nursing is highly related to learning theories compared to nursing theories (Wilson et al., 2015). However, according to Butts and Rich (2013) advanced practice of nursing can be related to a few nursing theories. Some of these nursing theories include the middle-range nursing theory and grand theories of nursing which directly translate research findings and theories into practice.   

Read also Middle Range Nursing Theories and Evidence Based Practice

Unique Purpose of Nursing Not Performed by any Other Profession

Identify the unique purpose of nursing that is NOT performed by any other profession.  What do nurses do that no other profession or discipline is dedicated to perform? Identify this concept and link it to a concept in any theoretical framework. 

One aspect that makes the nursing profession unique is development of plans of care. Unlike other professions, nurses are tasked with developing plans of care for patients. A plan of care communicates and organizes the actions that nursing staff execute on a particular patient (Ackley et al., 2019). Thus, it provides direction on the type of nursing care that an individual should receive. Other key purposes of a care plan include documentation, guidance for assigning staff, and reimbursement regulation.

Read also Worldview and Nursing Process Personal Statement

            A plan of care also helps nurses collect information from many scientific sources and exercise critical thinking and problem-solving in their profession. Nurses who have prepared more plans within their career possess tend to develop higher levels of skills in information processing and nursing in general. Nursing care plans vary from place to place but are generally organized into four key categories namely diagnoses and problem lists, care goals and outcomes, nursing orders, and evaluation.

Read also American Nursing Association – Professional Organization for Nurses

            The preparation and use of care plans is closely linked to the value-expectancy theory which states that certain beliefs and values affect subsequent behaviors (De Simone, 2015). Beliefs that nurses have regarding success in care planning and tasks that they will conduct in the short- future and long-term are referred as expectancies. Expectancies shape behavior and choices that nurses make since they are connected to self-concepts and self-efficacy. On the other hand, values are motivations that allows individual nurses to perform the task of panning. Such values may include compassion and intrinsic benefits.

Common Fire Code Violations, and an Inspection Checklist to Promote More Consistent Fire Safety Inspections

Fire codes were defined to protect businesses from severe fire incidences and to minimize the severity of fire damages incase fire occurs. Most of these codes focus on fire prevent and quick or immediate fire intervention. Despite of their importance businesses commonly violate some of these codes, increasing their risk of businesses being destroyed by fire incidence or even causing serious injuries and/fatalities among their workers or customers.

Read also Cost-Benefit Analysis of Fire Code Compliance

Some of the most commonly violated fire codes include obstructed exits and passageways, lack of emergency lighting, non-illuminated exit signs, damaged or missing fire extinguishers, damaged or missing smoke detectors, skipping fire alarm and fire sprinkler inspections, lack of suitable device to ensure that fire doors is self-closing and in other cases leaving wedged opened fire door. Another major violation is the use of extension cables as permanent cables either by attaching them to permanent fixtures or by connecting them to each other.  The fire code demands extension cables be only used on temporal basis. Another common violation is the use of riser room as a store, creating obstruction. Another common violation is invisible exit signs as a result of poor illumination and poor positioning of the exit sign. The final common violation is not covering outlet electrical cables.

Read also Triangle Factory Fire Of 1911

Checklist

  1. fire exit Passage
    • The exit passage needs to be clear with no any form of obstruction at all times.
    • The exit passage need to be effectively illuminated at all time to ease people’s movement in case of an accident
  2. fire exit sign
    • Exit passage sign should be put on a visible position, where it is easy for all people including new customers to see it.
    • Exist sign position should also be effectively illuminated
  3. Fire exit door
    • should contain the tool to aid in making it self-closure
    • should not be left open for easy passage but no ajar
    • Should effectively illuminated
    • should lead to a clear outside pathway to a safe place
  4. Fire Extinguishers
    • The type of fire extinguisher should match the anticipated type of fire
    • The size of fire extinguisher should match the anticipated square size area it needs to cover in fire extinguishing
    • The fire extinguisher should always be places in a strategic position that is easy to access in case of the fire
    • It should always be put in its position to ensure it is available in case of emergency
    • It should be well maintained
  5. Smoke detector
    • Should be well maintained and always functional
    • should be serviced after every fire incidence
    • should be inspected regularly
  6. Fire Alarm
  7. Fire sprinkler
    • Should be maintain after every fire incident
    • Should be inspected regularly as per the schedule to ensure that it is functioning effectively and inspection record and report developed
  8. Use of extension cable
    • Extension cables should only be used on a temporal basis only
    • Extension cables should not be tied to each other
    • Should not be directly inserted in a permanent source
  9. Riser Room
    • Nothing should be stored in the riser room. It should be bare to enhance easy movement
  10. Electrical cable outlet
    • Electrical cable outlets which include circuit breaker panel, junction boxes or any other form of outlet box need to be always covered

Using The Boundary Model of Conflict Management In A Real Conflict Situation

Situation Description

In this particular case, Ben is an auditor in an organization XYZ which has two subsidiaries A and B where James works as the auditor. Ben approaches James reporting that he wanted to write the company XYZ audit report. He is thus intending to do an audit of the company subsidiaries A and B so that he may be have an overview of the company situation and get an oversight of what to include in the report. James disagreed with Ben and demanded that Ben should respect his professionalism boundaries. James urged that Ben should consider taking his report to get the oversight he needed. Insisting on doing the audit himself was demeaning and disrespectful since that what James has been doing. However, Ben was not ready to listen and subsequently, this resulted to a serious conflict between them.

Read also Conflict , Why Conflict Occur And Conflict Management

Model Used – Boundary Model of Conflict Management

The model used to resolve this conflict was boundary model of conflict management. This model contains four elements that include behavior standard, jurisdiction, authority and norm. The boundary model evaluates the root cause of conflict from behavioral and structural view point, but proposes that conflict happens due to how individuals interact with or related to boundaries. These boundaries include limits, rules, norms, laws, cultural expectations, and contracts of any kind. The model proposes that conflict happens when parties differ on boundaries, break or expand boundaries or refusal to accept jurisdiction and authority essential in a boundary. It in addition provides unique approaches to work with conflict initiated by boundary issues (Furlong, 2005).  

Read also Team Conflict Management Plan

How the Model was Used?

I used the boundary model to make both James and Ben realize where their work boundaries lie and how Ben’s behavior could be stretching beyond the acceptable boundary limits. The two are auditors of the same operational level in their respective companies. Being assigned duties in the mother company did not give Ben more power or authority over James. Thus, the boundary are set that each should operate in his unit and only consult report made by the other in case there is clarification needed. Even the overall senior auditor of the company always works with them respectfully and uses their recommendation as long as he or she ascertains that the right process was considered. I also used the boundary legitimacy element to determine the law or policy that governs Ben’s and James operations limits.

Read also Use of Johari Window, MBTI, TA or DISC to Analyse and Reflect on Conflict Management

I identified the company’s collaboration policy that clearly shows roles and duties and how any collaboration between workers of similar levels from the mother company and the subsidiaries should be conducted.  I used this policy to determine Ben and James authority towards each other. I established that being in the same working level, they can only collaborate by using other’s report to make deductions. None of them have the authority to overstep the working jurisdiction of the other. I used the norm element of the boundary model to determine the level of tolerance in case the actual boundary was to be violated. With analysis I established that the two auditors could work together to audit each other’s firm with clear agreement from the scratch. This can only be done through consensus and ensuring that the other party does not feel demeaned, supervised or disrespected. I thus talked to the two made them understand their boundaries and the laws that govern them, and also made them consider working together as a team and re-audit the three companies; the two subsidiaries and the mother companies to get the most optimal results that Ben can use to make his report. Ben refused to use James report and James refused to allow Ben to reedit his work. They however settled on proposed norm where they opted to work together to re-audit each company together as a team with intention of offering the most optimal result (Furlong, 2005).

Lesson Learnt

From this incident, I learnt that conflict can be easily be created by one party refusal to acknowledge the set boundary. This is a sense of bride where one person feels superior to others and hence forcing others to only work with what he wants. The refusal to obey the law and to trust others initiated this conflict. I also learnt that conflict can easily be solved by understanding the law that govern the operation in question, and each party mandate to obey the law. I also learnt that the easiest way to address a conflict is determining a point where both parties are ready to compromise to bring equal satisfaction without breaking the law or overstepping the boundary.

Read also Conflict Management Report

Improvement Needed

Auditing is a sensitive activity that requires high level of professionalism. In a merged firm I would propose clear policies stating that being assigned duties in the mother company does not makes you senior than those in subsidiaries. Clear hierarchy of leadership should be defined in the company’s workers collaboration policies to ensure those in the mother company do not show any sense of supremacy.

Question to Mediator

I would ask the mediator whether it is right for one employee to approach another employee in the same level of operation demanding to redo his work to supplement his. I would also ask the mediator, to identify what can be done to enhance mutual respect of all workers in an organization despite of their working position.

Fundamentals of Safety Design Review Process, Systems Safety, and Prevention by Design

Introduction

Occupational safety is highly important in ensuring work efficiency and in reducing unnecessary cost associated with occupational injuries in any organization. It therefore highly important for any organization to consider safety of any equipment or structure they intend to use. This can be done by ensuring safety review during the design stage of any development and employment of possible changes to maximize on the safety of upcoming structures and equipment. Safety review, during design stage increases chances of eliminating or substituting hazards before they take place. This is one of the most effective ways of addressing hazards in an organization. This paper analyses safety design review process, role of safety and concept interrelated with the approach of safety management systems.

Safety Design Review Process

The safety design process contains five main stages. The first stage involves defining safety goals. Safety goals are intended to assist in maintaining safety focus during the design process. Safety goals need to reflect on legislation, regulatory requirements and project-unique risk tolerability criteria and strategies of sustainability and project-unique environmental and safety goals. The second step involves understanding environmental aspects and hazards. Understanding hazards makes it easy to define effective hazards control process.

Read also Role of Safety Professionals and How They Should be held Accountable

The third stage involves implementation of inherent safer principles of design. With the knowledge of possible hazard, the safety professionals should focus on creating a safer design by eliminating hazards, reducing hazards, simplifying the design or moderating the possible hazards that can be found in the design and substituting hazards. The fourth stage involves controlling residual risk which happens if inherent control cannot be attained. This can be done by use of engineering control, administrative control, or by use of personal protective equipment. The last stage in safety design process involves communication and consolidation (Amec Foster Wheeler, 2016).

The Role and Importance of Safety in a Safety Management System

Safety management system is a set of procedures and policies used by an organization to lower illnesses and accidents among workers. Safety in a safety management system is to ensure that all the set policies and procedures put safety in mind and are enacted to reduce, substitute or eliminate hazards in the system. The role of safety is to ensure workers health and wellbeing and to eliminate incidences that would result to injuries, fatalities or loss of properties. Safety in procedures and policies is to ensure that the organization adapts safety culture where workers wellbeing is prioritized on. Safety is important in ensuring that no worker is subjected to injuries or pain while carrying out their duties (Amec Foster Wheeler, 2016).

Read also Ways Establishing a Safety and Health Management System in an Organization Complement and Improve Compliance with the OSHA Standards

How Safety Concepts Inter-Relate with the Safety Management Systems Approach

The safety concept focus on reducing, eliminating or substituting hazards to maximize on a safe working environment free from injuries, pain, fatalities or destruction of properties. While safety is a goal, safety management system provides a mechanism through which this goal can be achieved. An organization can achieve safety goals by defining procedures and policies that when followed they would aid in achieving the organization safety goal. The safety management system can also play a great role in guiding design safety review process to ensure all possible safety measures are considered before approval of any project.

Conclusion

Workers are among the most precious stakeholders in any organization. It is therefore important for an organization to invest on their safety and wellbeing. One way to do this is by ensuring design safety review process where the structure, equipment or system is assessed to ensure that it is safe for use. This ensures that workers can go about their daily businesses without experiencing preventable accidents that can leave them injured or dead.