Communication Barriers between Police and Community

The police often communicate to people from diverse backgrounds, preconceptions and attitudes (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). The police often face a challenge when communication to the people and this could be attributed to many factors. Sometimes the police are required to communicate to people who are under the influence of drugs or alcohol. The use of drugs or alcohol causes mood swings, disorientation and even passing out. Due to the effects associated with the use of alcohol and other drugs, the police have a challenge in communicating with individuals under drugs or alcohol and difficulty of attaining possible outcome.

Read also Police – Community Relations

            The police often serve communities with diverse culture, beliefs and values (Thurman, & Zhao, 2004). Sometimes a police officer can be posted to serve in a community, whose values, beliefs and culture are different from the one of the police officer. The variations in culture, beliefs and values can cause a barrier in communication for example the differences in languages or dialects. Moreover, the differences in values, culture and beliefs can be a source of misunderstanding, which hampers effective communication by creating confusion.

Read also Community Policing Concept – Introduction to Law Enforcement Paper

            Sometimes the police officers can misuse their power while exercising their duties (Du, 2004). Since the police officers have the power to arrest individuals who have been suspected to breach the law, if such police officers abuse their powers, for example through threats, intimidation or belittling people, such people may get scared, upset and confused. When people lose their cool, they may not be able to communicate well and thus leading to ineffective communication with the police officers. Finally, when police officers make assumptions about other people, they can cause poor communication with such individuals. For example, if a police officer views those who breach law as troublemakers, such a view on a first time offender may hurt them; make them lack confidence thus hampering communication.

Read also Defining Police Ethics

What Police Officers can Do to Reduce Communication Barriers

            According to (Shah, Rahman, & Khashu, 2007), police officers cannot perform well if they cannot attain effective communication with the people they serve. One way of breaking the communication barriers is for the police officers to have comprehensive knowledge about the population that they serve. This entails knowledge in the changes in demographics of communities and the languages. One they police officers develops an understanding of the language of the people they serve, they can allocate appropriate resources for their services. For example, if they serve non-speakers of English, the police officers can employ translators or interpreters. Moreover, the police officers could learn the language of the people they serve in order to bridge language barriers.          

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

The police can overcome the barriers that result from abuse of powers by developing understanding of what is wrong and right in how to treat other individuals without bringing their power into the situation (Shah, Rahman, & Khashu, 2007). An example is learning ways of making arrests without use of force. Strategies such as polite arrest requests and giving full information can calm individuals and facilitate communication. Giving people chance to talk without judging them and allowing them to talk with what the police officers believe helps in overcoming the communication barriers associated with making assumptions and those associated with beliefs and values. For example, appreciating the differences in values and accepting to be addressed under the unique religious or cultural values by those being served can enhance communication between the police officers and the people they serve.

Do Employees Favor Defined Benefits or Defined Contribution Retirement Plans

The qualified plans can be classified as either defined benefits or defined contributions (Mathis et al., 2013, p. 459). The defined contribution is a retirement plan where the employee, employer, or both make contributions with no promised payout of future funds. In contrast, the defined benefits plans offer automatic payouts upon the employee retirement, at employer set formula that factors the years of service and salary scale. The defined benefits plans are most common and are preferred by the employees.

Read also Retirement Opportunities between United States of America and Germany

            The defined contribution plans involves the employee and employer contributions, upon which the contributions are invested at the discretion of the employer (Mathis et al., 2013). However, the capital gains and losses affect the contributions. When the employer retires, s/he receives the balance on the account after the employer has factored the effects of capital investments. The value of the defined contributions plans are often affected by the changes in the investments and market conditions. Most employees would prefer a retirement plan that guarantees them definite returns. As explained the changes in market and investments affects greatly the contributions in the defined contributions, unlike in defined benefits where the retirement benefits are determined solely based on the employer’s and employee contributions. The fact that defined benefits guarantees definite amount of money, unlike the defined contributions, that is affected by capital gains and losses, makes the defined benefits plan a favourite among the employees.     

Read also Importance of Social Security Benefits – Retirement Income, Life Insurance, Disability Income and Medicare     

However, employers are more likely to prefer the defined contributions plans as they offer capital for investment at no risk. Moreover, since the defined contributions are calculated after factoring the effects of market conditions and capital losses on the defined contributions, it means the employers stand no risk of meeting the losses that may result from their investments on the contributions. This makes the defined contributions favorable retirement models for employers, while proving to be too risky for employees, who are not guaranteed a definite payout upon retirement.

Use of Pharmacotherapies

The perspective that addiction is a disease has seen the use of drugs in the treatment of substance addiction. Although there has been extensive use of counseling in modern addiction treatment strategies, according to (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009) those individuals who use drug in addition to counseling experience better rates of recovery. However, there are pros and cons that are associated with the use of Pharmacotherapies in treatment of addiction. The following are the major benefits and drawbacks of pharmacotherapy, especially the use methadone maintenance for opiate addicts.

            The use of methadone maintenance for opiate addicts can enhance their recovery from heroin addiction if they stick to the medical prescriptions. Most addicts experience relapse, due to the graving and thus the use of methadone maintenance for opiate addicts helps in replacing the graving and thus treating the withdrawal effects and helping in effective addiction treatment. According to (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009, p. 3) the use of methadone for opiate addicts is good in stabilizing their lives and helping them to reduce the illicit drug use.          

However, (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2009) points that there are dangers associated in employing pharmacotherapy in the treatment of opiate addicts. The author points that, for instance, methadone should be used under strict prescription or in controlled conditions. The use of methadone offers the danger of abuse especially from patients who are very impulsive in their self-care habits. It is worth noting that most of the cocaine abusers have weak discipline and offering a substitute drug for cocaine is likely to expose them to the misuse of a drug that is supposed to save them.

Network Design Document For BLDRS-DC – ITCO103

ITCO103 Unit 5 Individual Project

Network technologies can be employed in various ways to meet business needs. Developing a solution begins with a set of requirements that must be understood and addressed. Following is a scenario that requires you to use a variety of network components and technologies to develop a networking solution. When working on developing a solution, all requirements may not be explicitly stated. When making assumptions, be sure to include them in your design document.

The construction industry has struggled over the past years due to the economy. Nearly a dozen companies, including builders and subcontractors, banned together to develop a strategy to increase their business in the greater Washington, D.C. area. This consortium of builders and subcontractors called themselves BLDRS-DC.

BLDRS-DC engaged a well-known marketing company that recommended that they a.) use a Web site to exhibit their services, capabilities, and availability. Other social media sites would be represented in the final solution as well. This site would tie together their sales and scheduling information. They also identified the need for the project managers to b.) have access to project details from the construction sites. This remote access would ensure tasks were completed correctly and decrease construction time considerably.

In addition to engaging a marketing firm, BLDRS-DC hired a company that develops and manages Web sites. The Web site management company would be responsible for developing the software to connect sales materials and scheduling information to the Web site. Fortunately, all the companies involved use the same scheduling software and database software for sales material.

As the network specialist selected to plan and coordinate all of the activities, you need to develop a design document that outlines the technologies needed at each company to connect their unique information to the Web site. Specify the necessary network components that each company would need to enable customer access and scheduling.

In addition, you need to identify a solution for allowing construction managers to securely access drawings and other pertinent construction details remotely.

Prepare a Word document that is approximately 3–5 pages in APA format. It should be professional in appearance and suitable for review by network novices. Present the information in laymen’s terms.

Be sure to include the following.

  • Title page
  • Introduction summarizing the problem being addressed and solution highlights
  • Description of the network technologies and components required to implement a Web site providing marketing materials and scheduling information. See a) above.
  • List of the specific technologies and components needed to allow construction foremen remote access to project details. See b) above.
  • Explanation of any challenges or considerations uncovered from the research conducted
  • Provide references in APA format as appropriate

Network Design Document For BLDRS-DC – ITCO103


            Having coordinated activities in the construction industry is important in ensuring efficiency and effective construction process. However, having a set of technologies is important in ensuring effective coordination of the activities. Assuming I am a design specialist for BLDRS-DC, the following is an outline of the technologies that are needed in the individual companies to connect their information to their website. The necessary network components needed by the individual construction company to enable customer access and scheduling are discussed. Finally, any challenges and considerations uncovered from the research that was conducted are discussed.

Read also Assessment Paper – Telecommunications Network Design

The Network Components Needed To Allow Access to Marketing Materials and Scheduling Information

            The first network component that is essential for all the companies is the virtual private network. The Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a private network that employs public network (the internet) (Cisco, 2008). Thus, this allows for an easy access to marketing materials and scheduling of information. The BLDRS-DC has a number of employees, who would wish to connect remotely to the company LAN remotely in their various locations. The VPN needs a connection to an internet service provider, to provide internet dial-up account for successful use of the VPN.

Read also Network Design Sample Paper

            The other network component that allows access to marketing materials and scheduling information is the public network. Through a local connection such as the VPN, the company can connect multiple sites over the public network, thus ensuring easy access to marketing materials, monitoring and scheduling of construction information. Typically, an extranet VPN would be essential since the companies and the sites could be located in different geographical locations. Moreover, there is need for standard switches to enable the connection of the virtual machines to the virtual networks. Similarly, the host must have VPN client software, which encapsulates and encrypts the traffic before it sends it over the internet to the target public network.

Read also Complete Home Network Design – Budget 1000 USD

            The multiple organizations must be equipped with the necessary equipment that links to the VPNs through the public network. Therefore, it is essential that networking is established within every organization, linking all the departments. In order to achieve internal organizational connectivity, a number of network components are essential. These components include the cables, switches, hubs, routers, bridges, gateways, wireless access points, and network controllers for automatic configuration and troubleshooting of the network connectivity.

Specified Technologies Needed to Allow Construction Foremen Remote Access to Construction Details

            The construction managers or supervisors often need to keep track of the construction progress and often need to access information such as the quantity of materials used or required, construction employee relationships, and the levels of construction. However, it requires network technologies in order to create a link between the construction foremen and the construction site employees. The host-to-site network provides the required connectivity for this kind of remote access, where the host computer from the foreman is able to access the client computer in the construction site. The following technologies are need for this remote access.

Read also Designing a Network

            First, there is need for an establishment of network connectivity between the host and the client in the construction sites. This requires the use of public network, the internet connection, for the remote access. The technologies required for this remote access are Ethernet or dedicated private lines that allow the foremen to access the information in the construction sites, as well as enabling the construction workers to communicate with the foreman. Moreover, the dedicated private lines allow restricted access to the corporate network of the BLDRS-DC company.

Challenges or Considerations Uncovered from the Research Conducted

            Having a remote network connection can offer challenges, which the organization must envisage for smooth operations. One challenge that was uncovered was the security of the corporate network. There is need for effective security measures to be provided to ensure that access to the BLDRS-DC network is only restricted to its employees and the authorized people. The organization must develop tough security measures, which include strong encryption to protect its network from unauthorized intrusion. Moreover, installation of security measures must be followed by regular system checks in order to identify any weaknesses and take appropriate security measures.          

Finally, it was discovered that there are various remote access softwares and hardware offered by multiple vendors. The increasing adoption and use of Smartphones and tablets has accelerated remote access by employees. This has made it hard for enterprises to offer secure and easy remote access. Despite the security concerns, the benefits of remote access exceed the risks. For example, through remote excess, workers become more flexible; it lowers administrative costs and enables the companies to hire far-flung workers.

The Major Consequence of World War I on the United States Society

The World War I had major impacts on the European and American society both politically, economically and socially. Initially, the ideology of isolationism by the United States meant the country remained secluded and did not see the need to participate in the First World War (Dunn, 2013). The then United States President, Wilson, felt that the country had nothing to do with the war but an attack by the German submarines on the United States shipping and the former encouragement of Mexico to attack United States, left the country with no option but to enter into the war. However, the War went on into shaping the country’s economy, making it world economic superpower.

Read also Events and Causes That Led To World War I

            Although United States lost thousands of its soldiers to influenza and attacks during the war, the war brought many economic changes (MacMillan, 2014). The war helped to end depression in the country, creating a number of employment opportunities for the unemployed United States citizens. Some employment opportunities for blacks and women were created. The post-war women revolution empowered women economically, and changed the status of women in the United States society. The minority groups began to receive recognition and economic livelihood in America.

Read also Impact of Geography on the Conduct of War

            The World War I weakened established monarchies like Austria and Germany and the unrest disrupted the productivity as most industrial productions diverted their efforts towards the war (MacMillan, 2014). The superior European economy was largely affected and powers shifted to the United States, which became the largest creditor in the world. Moreover, the war boosted the American manufacturing industry and other industries. It led to fast conversion of the economic strength of the United States into military and diplomatic superpower. Before World War I, the British had the biggest navy. However, the war propelled United States into the world’s leading manufacturer with the largest amount of gold to back its dollar. Therefore, the World War I brought huge economic changes, boosting the American economy and the life of the entire population.

Read also Impacts Of Second World War On Canada

            In addition, the war created a new perception regarding the leadership and government control of the American citizens. Through the war, over fifty thousand American soldiers died, while many others were wounded (Salvante, 2013). Those who returned home helped to carry the Spanish flu back home. It is estimated the flu killed over two million people worldwide, as soldiers who returned home unknowingly took the virus with them. In America, the loss of its soldiers led to development of new ideas, which shaped the country’s sensibilities. President Wilson introduced the idea of self-determination and the introduction of democracy to make world a better place to live.  

Read also American Art Before and After the Second World War

Actually, World War I changed the role of the United States in the world (Salvante, 2013). The initial ideology of isolation was discarded and the country changed its foreign policy and participated in shaping the world democracy. Through its position as the world’s superpower that was attained through the war, the United States began to participate and express concern for world peace and respect for humanity. The Americans initially felt that they were safe and immune to external attack. However, the German navy attack changed the isolationism of the America and led to their participation in the war and creation of world democratic societies. Moreover, the American citizens begun to realize that they needed to be more unified in order to stand against external aggression.

Reaction to “Developing alternative frameworks for exploring intercultural learning”

The article “Developing alternative frameworks for exploring intercultural learning: a critique of Hofstede’s cultural difference model” by Paola Signorini, Rolf Wiesemes and Roger Murphy, seeks to expose the flows in the cultural difference educational model as presented by Hofstede’s. The authors further propose new cultural dimensions that can be put into consideration when exploring the concept cultural effect on education. The article discusses the five cultural dimensions presented by Hofstede with the view to critic them. These five these dimensions are power distance, masculinity, individualism, uncertainty avoidance and short term/ long term orientation.

This article discusses flaws in each of these cultural dimensions. According to the authors, Hoftede urges that countries with small power distance exhibit interpersonal interactions that are independent of people’s social status. The level of interaction in large power distance countries is shaped by people’s social standing. This leads to an informal teacher student relationship and consequently freedom and student centered learning in SPD nations while the teacher is seen as the undisputable source of information in LPD nations (Signorini, Wiesemes & Murphy 2009).

The second dimension that the article discusses is the individualist-collectivists dimension. The authors argue that this dimension categorizes society into two: collectivist nations and group nation. According to the article, teachers in collectivist nations handle students as a group. The students work together as a group. Individualistic community, on the other hand views success as the effort of an individual.

Muscular feminist society dimension urges that muscular dominated nations are more assertive and competitive as compared to their feminist counterparts.

The article further depicts uncertain avoidance as a measure of level of threat towards uncertain situations.

The main problem that this article addresses is the flaws and the short comings of the cultural difference model proposed by Hofstede. According to the authors, the ideas presented by Hofstede are not entirely true and may not be relevant in the contemporary cultures and education settings.  The article addresses several limitations of Hofstede’s model. To begin with, the empirical data that Hofstede presents are not from the education sector and cannot therefore be used to draw conclusions in the education sector. Secondly, Hofstede has oversimplified the cultural differences in making his argument. Thirdly, there seems to be no consistency in the categories he presents. This, according to the article, makes his argument baseless. The article therefore seeks to expose these limitations and propose a better model (Signorini, Wiesemes & Murphy 2009).

Read also Culture Analysis Using Geert Hofstede’s 6 Dimensions – USA, Mexico, China, Israel And UAE

The major arguments that this article is presenting is the fact that there is a problem in holistic adoption of Hofstede’s model since it has several flaws. The author argues that Hofstede assumes that culture and nation are the same yet they are different. The author further argues that Hofstede’s model does not take into account the ever changing nature of culture and hence has run irrelevant in this current world. He further urges that the model does not specify the level of education.

The author has made a number of assumptions while making his argument. While disregarding the muscularity and femininity element, for instance, the author assumes that the nature and of both male and female changes with change in age and level of education. It is worth noting that the feminist and masculinity nature remains with both the female and the male throughout all the levels of life. Moreover, in their conclusion the authors disregard equating nation to culture. By doing so they make the assumption that nations don’t have specific cultures. The truth is that every nation has a culture and a way of life that is associated to it.

The strength of this article lies in the fact that the authors have strongly defended his argument. They have been successful in showing the flaws in Hofstede’s model step by step rather than just generalizing the argument. He breaks down Hofstede’s model into the five elements and exposes the specific flaws in each of the elements. The article further makes specific recommendation that should be put into consideration when reviewing the Hoftede’s model of teaching. By doing so, the authors have not only criticized Hofstede’s model but have given a way forward as well.

The article is however, not without weakness. The major weakness of this article is the fact that the authors do not give empirical and statistical data to authenticate their argument. Their point of view is based on statistical data presented by the very article that they purport to critic. This denies the article originality and authenticity of arguments.        

The argument that I find most interesting in this article is the fact that, by disputing Hofstede’s cultural point of view, the article suggests the cultural layers notion. This notion suggests that an individual can have several and deferent set of values and cultures that are independent of each other and each depends on the cultures of the deferent groups to which the individual belongs. I find interesting that one individual would have several cultures and exhibit several sets of values. In conclusion, the article has presented ideas and arguments that are valid and should be put into consideration in the process of reviewing Hoftede’s cultural model of education.

Response to “An Eclectic Method?” By John F Haskell

In the article “An electric method?” by John F. Haskell, the author gives a summary of the various methods that are used in teaching the English language as well as a summary of how these methods have evolved over time. The author makes “eclectic” conclusions on each method discussed. The point of consideration is which of these methods is the most effective.

The first method that this article addresses is Grammar-translation method. According to the author, this article, grammar-translation method of language teaching can be done in five different models. This includes where a teacher reads words or sentences in the target language then translates into a language that the students understand. The second mode is where the teacher explains the rules of the target language into the student native language. In the third model, the teacher helps the student memorize some vocabulary, and then defines these vocabularies in the native language of the students. In the fourth model, the student uses the words and rules they have memorized to create sentences. In the final model, the learners are allowed to learn by reading complex literature in the learner target language.

Whereas I agree with the author that this method of teaching a foreign language was intended to enable the learner write and read the target language, I think the learners in this method where in effect able to speak the target language as well. According to me, the continuous reading practice leads to proficiency in speaking.

The second method that this article addresses is the direct method. According to the author, this method was devised in the in nineteenth century but most people were unable to use it and hence abandoned it. According to the author, this method consists of six basic elements. The first one is where the target language is used exclusively in classrooms. The teacher does not translate the target language in the students’ native language. The second element is the progressive exposure of students to material in the target language from easy to difficult. The third element involves the learner exercising the target language. The fourth element has to do with writing in the target language while the fifth involves the learner in correcting the mistakes they make. The final element is the formation of rules.

I agree with the author of this article that the direct method has formed a greater part of the methods of teaching extensively used in the twenty first century.

The third method of teaching explained in this article is the audio lingual method. According to this article, this method of teaching developed in 1940’s in response to the then growing need non English speakers both in the US armed forces as well as diplomacy fields. The method, according to the author, resulted from interplay between the direct method, behavioral psychology and structured linguistics. According to the author, structured linguistics depicts language learning as a three stage process; listening, speaking, reading then writing. This process of learning, according to me, is subject to debate since some learners may not necessarily observe that chronological order. Some learners have been observed to write and read languages concurrently. He further makes an interesting statement saying, “language appropriateness is determined by usage and not by prescription”. I choose to disagree with this statement to some extent. Whereas I agree that informal conversations may show variation in conventional rules of the language, other formal forms of communications have to adhere to language guidelines and rules. The appropriateness of the language is therefore in the adherence to the language conventional rules.   

The article further addresses Transition as a method of teaching language. This method, the author argues, was developed based on researches carried out in the field of linguistic, Cognitive mentalist psychology, sociology as well as pedagogy. In view of the discussions on the findings of the research in the various fields, the author seems to bring out the similarity of these findings that led to the transition method of teaching. To begin with, most of these research findings point to the fact that the process of learning a language involves thinking and use of brain and is not about habit forming. In addition, the research points out the similarity in structures between deferent languages. Given this similarity, the method used in learning the first language can be utilized during second language acquisition.

Finally, the article discusses the Eclectic method of teaching. This method, according to the author, involves choosing the most appropriate method of teaching from the ones discussed above.    This in my opinion is the best approach to take. This is because each individual learner has a unique background, first language structure as well as level ability to grasp concepts. The teachers, therefore, need to assess his learner and decide which method suits them most. It is this understanding that makes the author concludes that learning needs not only to be real but meaningful as well. Such leaning must be centered on the student needs and best approach. In conclusion, the author of the article has clearly demonstrated to us the various methods of teaching English language and has given us the freedom to choose the best.

Police Mission – Fighting Crime or Public Service

There roles of the police has been changing since the inception of the profession in the United States. The roles of the police have been under progression since their introduction to the public in 1840s and 1900s (Kelling & Moore, 1998). The political era defines the time when the police were introduced to the public in 1840s and early 20th century. Then followed the reform era that occurred in the late 20th century, the modern community policing introduced in 1970s, which defines the roles of the police in the modern American society. The modern policing have moved from the old roles of police officer of crime prevention to include a cohesive community that works in partnership with the police department in roes that go beyond just fighting crime to include public service.

Read also Principles of Police Organization, Administration And Service

            The police departments are not entities to themselves but exist for the purposes of serving the public for which they should bear some responsibility. According to (Gaines & Worrall, 2011), being responsible means the act of responsiveness to the problems and challenges facing the citizens. Moreover, the author asserts that the responsibility extends to effective management of the police resources. The police obtain the mandate from the consent of those they serve and thus their acts should replicate and act of public service and not just crime prevention.

Read also Evolution of Policing and the Training and Skills For Success In Law Enforcement

            The public have a number of diverse problems, in addition to the crimes, for example emergencies in case of fire breakouts and accidents. According to (Gaines & Worrall, 2011, p. 22), police sole focus on the crime prevention will not help in dealing with the diverse problems that confront the police officers and the public. Moreover, the emphasis on the pursuit of administrative efficiency and capability to fight crime isolated the police from crime and lead to ineffective responses to the disorders and crimes affecting the citizens. The police can help in preventing crimes and disorder through a coordinated police strategy that incorporates the public. Such police public service strategy makes the public as police partners and this helps in reporting of crimes and thus assists in prevention of crimes.

Read also Roles of the Community Members and Police in Promoting Good Police-Community Relations

            Most crimes emanate from the social ill embedded in the American society. The development of trust between the police and the public is important in quelling of conflicts (O’shea, 2000). For example, if the youths show some distrust in the police, they are less likely to share information of a crime that is being planned. Moreover, such distrust prevents such youths from testifying in cases that involve crimes. This calls for a shift in change of the basic position of the police officer. For example, rather than react to incidences, a police officer must plan, analyze, and take appropriate initiatives. However, planning and analysis process can only be successful if public participation is encouraged. Through public involvement, effective crime prevention strategies, responses to emergency social crises and dispute resolutions can be achieved.          

Read also Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Treatment – Final Project : Research Paper

The resources and methods of police officers extend beyond citations and arrests (Fielding & Innes, 2006).  The changing policing strategy has altered the content of jobs of a police officer into that of public service delivery. They should be able to make decisions that encompass questions of honor or dishonor. Through public service delivery, the police shift the scope of their work from crime prevention into service to the interests of the public. Such shifts are pertinent in crime prevention and incorporation of public views into the execution of their mandate and this ensuring effective maintenance of order in the society. In conclusion, the service of the police officers must extend beyond crime prevention into public service for effective policing.

Operations Management As A Competitive Advantage For McDonalds Restaurants


            Operations management (OM) is the key method of converting inputs such as proprietary information, labor and materials among others into inputs such as value-added goods, services and products. Operations management includes control of activity, motivating employees, assuring quality, managing inventories, scheduling, capacity planning and forecasting. Operations management focuses on accounting, production management, and quality management, management of information systems, industrial engineering and design engineering (Najdawi, Chung, & Salaheldin, 2008). Through operations management, senior management of the company are concern with utilizing the available resource effectively in order to provide high quality finished goods and services that meets the needs of the customers in a cost effective manner.

Read also McDonald’s SWOT Analysis

Background of the McDonalds Restaurant

McDonald restaurants was founded by Maurice and Richard McDonald brothers in 1940. They expanded the concept of “white Castle” which were the developers of fast-food restaurants, but their initial objectives were to operate fast food restaurant across the United States of America with no mindset of global venture. It is Ray Kroc who brought the mindset of global venture when he took over the company in 1955. Due to Ray Kroc aggressiveness and business strategy, the company gained greater success and soon became known around the world. As the company expanded globally, senior manager altered operation management to fit global business strategies (Schrunder, Galletly, & Bicheno, 1994). The company prioritizes in conducting extensive research about cultural practices in regions that seemed conducive for business operations. The research focused on general interest level in eating or ordering a meal in a fast-food restaurant, the type of food which is popular in the area, average body type and the analysis of the average income.

            With the availability of this information, the company was able to set up fast-food restaurants in different parts of the world. Also, the company was able to appropriately set the price of the items on the menu as well as setting up the type of seating and door frames. Another important issue that needed consideration was the type of food because it influence the consumer attendance. McDonald’s mission statement states “McDonald’s brand mission is to be our customers’ favorite place and way to eat and drink (Liu, & Jiang, 2011). Our worldwide operations are aligned around a global strategy called the Plan to Win, which center on an exceptional customer experience – People, Products, Place, Price and Promotion. We are committed to continuously improving our operations and enhancing our customers’ experience.” Through this mission statement, the company has continuously expanded into various parts of the world.

Boxing company Cheese Company Marketing and Design Suppliers Tray Suppliers Straw Suppliers Bread Suppliers Ice Suppliers Packaging suppliers Vegetable Suppliers Potato Suppliers Chicken Suppliers Pork Suppliers Beef SuppliersPotato Pop Cheese Lettuce Tomatoes Pork Chicken Beef Sauces Buns Straws Onion Napkins Boxing Ice Wrapping Tray Packaging Salt Ingredients Pop Lids and Cups Burger Fries with salt Meat (Grilled) Soda with IceAdults Children Burger Loving Public Aged CustomersTo go or for here Served hot Hygiene food Tasty food Fresh food Reasonable price Correct order
SIPOC Diagram for McDonald Restaurant

Operations management and Plan of McDonald restaurant

            In order for McDonald restaurants to attain the ultimate goal, there is need for senior management to comprehensively consider process of forming business strategy, making decisions and make actual plan of operations management. Despite the few changes in plan that have occurred in McDonald Company, the operations and expansion of the business has been successful. Initially, McDonald’s objectives was to operate a successful burger restaurant that consistently deliver quality and health food to the customers at a lower prices. The objective remained the same even after Ray Kroc took over the company (Najdawi, et al., 2008). It is only the scope that expanded to provide quality good food to the customers around the world at a lower price. Senior management have used several operational managing tactics that have lead the company to successfully infiltrate into different parts of the world. Some of the common operational tactics that the senior management needs to focus on include quality, service, cleanliness and value (QSCV).

            Quality is an essential aspect in food business because the consumer looks for quality food when choosing a restaurant to order their food. This is one of the aspects that senior management of McDonald restaurant have consistently maintained in the product of food and service to the customer. Operations management emphasizes that quality management is important because it maintains the customer base as well as attracts new customers to the restaurant. One of the operational management tactic that McDonald restaurants have banked on is the maintenance of a pool of experienced and well trained workers for a longer period to serve high number of customers on daily (Schrunder, et al., 1994). This has created good reputation to the company because customer expects quality service delivered by experienced and well trained workforce. Although, it sometimes becomes expensive to maintain experienced and well trained workforce because of the wages, McDonald Company have managed to maintained a competitive wage for the workforce thus remaining competitive advantage. In addition, the workforce is provided with free uniforms, discounted or free meals while on duty and other benefits. This make the workforce to be dedicated and performs their duties in a happy mood thus guaranteeing quality services to the customers at all times.

            It is also important for senior management to understand that it is not only about managing the quality of employees, but also to maintain the quality of food to be above par at all times. In order to assure customers that the food prepared at McDonald restaurants are of high quality, the company has maintained the use of only 100 % pure beef with no preservative and additives. This is in accordance with state and federal laws that regulates the production of food by food industries (Najdawi, et al., 2008). In addition, the company sources vegetables from nearby local farms especially those uses organic inputs in the growth of vegetables in order to ensure that food served to the customers contain to contaminants and are very fresh. This also promote local farmers surrounding the location of their business.  By maintaining the high standard of food quality, the customers keeps streaming back to the restaurant.

            Another important aspects of ensuring that Food Company remained competitive and attractive to many customers is maintenances of hygiene and cleanliness in the operation areas including bathrooms, counters, kitchen, tables and floors. Hygiene and clean environment make customers to continuously come back to the restaurant. Senior management makes sure that supervisors check the bathrooms after every three hours to six hours depending with the number of customers served daily to ensure that they are clean. Studies have shown that high standards of hygiene and cleanliness makes the new customer to feel welcome every time they enter into the restaurant and utilizes the facilities available.

Read also A Comparison of Management Information Systems of Wal-Mart and McDonalds

            The second aspect that operations management focuses on is the pricing of items on the menu. Considering that McDonald restaurant was established with the mindset of “fast-food”, it is crucial for the senior management to price the items competitively in order to rely on product movement and the volume of the orders. By relying on the volume of sales daily, the company is able to maintain their products at low prices. Studies have shown that low pricing is one of the aspects that make McDonald fast-food restaurant to remained competitive advantage in the business (Liu, & Jiang, 2011). The readiness and the convenience of McDonald’s fast-food restaurants to lower the prices of items on the menu to a reasonable and appropriate limits is regularly monitored by senior management through market research. In order to ensure that the company maintained the low pricing as well as remaining competitive and relevant in the market, the administration of the company must remained at the top in making decisions. The decision is to ensure that customers are pleasant and at the same time business operations remains running.

            Recently, the McDonald fast-food restaurant introduced “Kids Meal” into the market with the objective of making a restaurant to attract people of all ages. The company introduced toys, drinks for the kids and small portion meals which is entirely for the kids of two years and above. Since the introduction of the “Kids Meal” the sales has increased significantly because the parents would prefers the easiness of the business (Najdawi, et al., 2008). The management considered the move as an excellent decision because the sale increased rapidly after the “Kid Meal” was introduced. Feedback from the parents indicated that the move was not only beneficial to the parents, but also to the children because they get the time to enjoy the taste of the food. Also, the experience leaves the kids to desire to go back to the restaurant when they grow old.

Read also McDonalds Restaurants Talent Management Program

            Recently, McDonald Company made a bold move and increased the prices of most famous brands by introducing what is referred to a “dollar menu” items. Although, the consumers showed that they were not pleased with the management decisions to increase the price, senior management encounter the outrage by including Grilled Onions Cheddar Burger and BBQ Ranch Burger (Schrunder, et al., 1994). Nonetheless, the senior management admitted that charging the prices of the items in the menu is challenging and difficult because they need to make the customers to understand the reasons that necessitate the changes.

Ten strategic OM Decisions for McDonald Restaurant

  1. Design of Goods and Services: McDonald’s main aim and strategic decisions which is engraved in the mission statement is to tune operations management by providing affordable goods and services. Therefore, the determination of price and serving sizes of the products are normally based on the research conducted to determine the most popular consumer expectations. However, senior managements of McDonald makes their products affordable by minimizing the size.
  2. Quality management: The Company aims at maximizing the quality of the products without affecting the cost of product and price of the items. This is achieved by using a production line method which is known to maintain the quality of the product.
  3. Process and capacity design: The Company’s process and capacity design is founded on efficiency and cost-minimization which supports the McDonalds’ strategies. The operations management emphasizes on efficiency and adequate capacity to meet the need of the consumers.
  4. Location Strategy: The Company ensures that the locations of the business is within the reach of many people by any means of transport. This include the utilization of market mix. Kiosks and company’s website.
  5. Layout Design and Strategy: The objectives of the company is to maximize the utilization of the space within the restaurant, rather than focusing on the spaciousness and comfort.
  6. Job Design and Human Resource: The Company utilizes training skills that is more essential and much needed in the production line and service areas. Also, experienced workers are allowed to train new employees.
  7. Supply Chain Management: The Company utilizes wide network around the world to source for supply. McDonald diversify its supply chain as one of the operations management.
  8. Inventory Management: The Company coordinate with distributors and intermediaries at the local and regional level in order to have their products and ingredients move consistently.
  9. Scheduling: The McDonald use local market conditions and laws to schedule for corporate convention. In addition, they utilize supply chain needs for appropriate scheduling.
  10. Maintenance: The Company allows the franchisees and restaurants managers to choose their own maintenance service providers.

Merit Pay Grids Have the Potential to Undermine Employee Motivation

The merit pay strategy rewards the organizational employees for attaining well defined criteria of performance (Martocchio, 2014). If the employees do not meet the performance criteria, they are not rewarded. This remuneration strategy is based on the believe that the rewards will motivate the workers to work hard and contribute to high organizational performance. However, this strategy neglects the negative impact of the merit pay on employee motivation. Merit pay grids can undermine the employee motivation.

Read also Should Organizations Offer Merit Pay Increases

            Different workers have different capabilities and work in different departments that produce services and goods of different values. Some employees who work on undervalued but important departments of an organization may feel undermined and this may affect their self-esteem, making them frustrated. When such employees feel their efforts are unappreciated, owing to the fact that the organizational management offer less consideration to their services, they lose motivation to work.          

Read also Equal pay for women will be secure only when its justice is adequately understood and practised by men

The use of merit pay grids gives the perception of an organization that values its financial targets over the employee interest. The process of measuring employee output through their ability to meet the pre-determined performance targets creates the notion of more emphasis on organizational goals over employee relationships. Therefore, employees may feel that they are only relevant to the organization as long as they meet the targets. This may have negative impact on employee motivation, who view themselves as means through which organization attains its goals. Indeed, although merit pay offers positives like increased performance, it has inherent negative impact on employee motivation.