Protestant Reformation Leaders That influenced the Roman Catholic Church’s Response

The Protestant Reformation was one of the 16th century major European movements that initially aimed at reforming the practices and beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. Its religious features were complemented by determined political rulers that wished to extend their control and power at the church expense. The Reformation destroyed the unity created by medieval Christianity and initiated the start of the modern era based on the view of many historians. The Protestant reform was highly facilitated by three leaders that included Martin Luther, John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli. Martin Lither dispatched 95 theses on the Wittenberg university town church door, a common act which acted as an invitation for debate. His propositions confronted some parts of Roman Catholic practices and doctrines. Initially, the church ignored Martin Luther, though his ideas spread quickly throughout Europe, he was requested to recant but refused and consequently he was excommunicated (History, n.d.).

John Calvin wrote about the Christian Religion Institutes and Reformed doctrines that insisted on the Power of God and predestined fate of humanity and put them in practice. This resulted to enforcement of theocratic regime referred to as austere morality. Calvin did this in exile and hence the catholic counter-reformation in this case was made to be more spiritual, more educated and more literate. Novel religious orders such as Jesuits, integrated rigorous spirituality with international minded intellectualism came up during this period (Saint-Clair, 2006).

Zwingli focused on sacraments with the major variation being based on the Eucharist where he strongly countered the transformation of bread and wine into body and blood of Jesus. He on the contrary argued that it was just a symbolic commemoration of death of Jesus and how he surrendered his life for the sake of the mankind. This view contradicted the Martin Luther view on sacraments and thus marking the initial division among Protestant Reformists. Zwingli Reformation contribution was terminated suddenly by his murder after German Lutheranism refused to support his army (Saint-Clair, G.  (2006).).

American Nursing Association – Professional Organization for Nurses

Introduction

One of the profession characteristics is the presence of a professional culture that nurture the ethos and values of the profession in the midst of its members. In most cases, this professional culture is maintained and nurtured via the actions of organizations profession. In nursing profession, professional organizations are established to advocate collectively on their members behalf as well as on behalf of other constituents, representing the central nursing profession values to other publically. There are various nursing professional organizations that foster professional development among nurses in the country (Halsted, n.d.).This paper will focus on determining how the American Nursing Association influences professional development of nurses in America.

American Nursing Association

The selected nursing professional organization is American Nursing Association (ANA). ANA was the second nursing organization to be established in America. It was established in 1896 as the Associated Alumnae of Trained Nurses of the United States and Canada. It later evolved to ANA. ANA is the only full-service nursing professional organization representing the 3.6 million nation registered nurses interests. The ANA, promotes nurses rights on healthcare issues in the regulatory agencies, lobby congress and workplace via its constituent nurse’s associations members and its organizational affiliates (ANA, 2017). It also supports various subsidiary organizations associated with nursing. Some of these subsidiary organizations are the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), which is among credentialing programs which attests nurses in practice areas of specialty. The programs also acknowledge healthcare organizations for enhancing positive, safe work environments via the Magnet Recognition Program (Halsted, n.d.). They also act as excellence pathway and excellence pathway in Long Term Care Programs. The programs also provide accreditations to continuing nursing education providers. American Academy of Nursing (AAN) is another ANA subsidiary which is an organization of eminent leaders that have been acknowledged for their exceptional contributions in research, nursing education, practice and management. Another subsidiary is the American Nurses Foundation (ANF) that is an arm of national philanthropic that enhances the continued development and growth of services and nurses (ANA, 2017).

Professional Development and other chances the Professional Organization Would Offer to the Members

ANA acts as an effective means in which the nursing profession can protect and represent nurses’ interests, influence healthcare policy, advocate for the best possible quality care to the public and offer continuing education chances for nurses.  The organization mission encourages nurses to advance in their profession to enhance healthcare for all. ANA mission and vision include policy advocacy discussion to enhance the nurses right in the workplace, promote nurses image, and lobbying government for alterations on health-related and nursing issues. ANA is the biggest nursing professional organization which stands for the needs and views of its members in different arenas of policymaking. The organization through its legislative and political program has taken action on issues that include enough healthcare services reimbursement, suitable nursing staffing ratios, and access to healthcare. This provides nursing with a healthy working environment, where they have the required services and logical working schedules, and hence preventing possibility of burnout among nurses (Catallo et al., 2014). The organization also contains programs that center on the safety and health of the nursing profession and individual nurse. For instance the ANA Healthy Nurse, Healthy Nation and Healthy Nurse programs encourage s health habits that include getting screenings, sleep, managing stress, living a lifestyle that is smoke-free and physical exercise for nurses.

Beside this, being a member of ANA offers nurses with a chance for certification, education advancement, educational conferences, and role-associated competencies. The organization ensures that its members have acquired the relevant knowledge to practice in a specific nursing specialty. It also ensures that its members maintain current competency and knowledge in their specific nursing practice unit. The organization has affirmed consistently the baccalaureate degree in nursing as the ideal educational preparation for nursing practice entry. ANA members must registered nurses (RN)who have obtained the RN licensure. The organization provides credential as a way of promoting healthcare service quality and safety. Credentialing act as a form of acknowledging specialized experienced and knowledge needed in the nursing field. The organization manages particular requirements for nursing education and timely experience and knowledge demonstration in specialty practice. The ANA provide nonlinear monitoring of nursing education after the entry to ensued individual career and professional growth. This gives individuals an opportunity to advance in their professional with high level of flexibility based on individual life (ANA, 2010).

Importance of Being a Member of American Nursing Association

ANA provides a number of benefits to its members. Some of these benefits include continuous commitment to the profession. ANA ensures continuous learning and consolidation individual practice in diverse practice settings to all nursing personnel. This ensures continuous personal growth that promotes individual personal life in all ways. The organization provides a code of conduct that serves as the ethical nursing framework irrespective of practice role or setting, and offer future guidance. Adherence in the set code of conduct mold a nurse into ethical practices which enhances quality of services offered at the individual level of operation in any specialty. This makes an individual to be committed to his or her profession giving a person a great chance to grow. ANA also ensures a good working environment to all its nurses, an aspect that benefits individuals by ensuring high job satisfaction and healthy living. It also provide professional network that promotes individual knowledge and knowledge sharing to enhance performance. Other benefits include provision of long term healthcare insurance for its members, auto insurance, professional liability insurance, life insurance, to benefit members’ dependents after death, retirement financial planning, and student loans solution (ANA, 2017b).

Plasma – Forth State of Matter

Plasma refers to hot ionized gas containing about equal number of negatively charged electrons and positively charged ions. Plasmas characteristics vary considerably from those of normal neutral gases such that plasmas are regarded as a distinctive fourth matter state. However, plasma behavior is highly comparable to that of a gas since plasma contains no defined volume but it instead assumes the containers volume. It also has pressure and density just like gases do. Irrespective of all the essential particles being charged, plasma typically contains no overall charge. Nevertheless, some non-neutral plasma can be generated with a general charge negative or positive and are comprised of pure antiproton, positron, ion, or electron plasmas. Plasmas contain particles that are electrically charged, and hence they are strongly impacted by magnetic and electric fields whereas neutral gases are not. Plasma also traps particles that are energetically charged in geomagnetic field lines to create the Van Allen radiation belts. The plasma magnetic and electric fields can impact plasma over big distances, shaping, warping, and pinching them as in the large, twisting flares perceived on the sun surface. Plasma is applied in various cases in real life situation. This include application in plasma in daily life include use in display TV, and lighting in various places, and welding among others. Plasma is also used to create laser energy which is used for various applications including printing.  There is continuing research on plasma with high probability of advance discovery in its use and application. Advance research creates a possibility of discovering more light related technology using plasma energy especially in compact accelerators.

Islam in the Seventh Century And The Early Muslim Culture

Islam religion was established by Muhammad in the 7th century in Mecca near the red sea. Muhammad who claimed to be God’s messenger similar to Jesus and Moses was receiving messages from God which he wrote in Quran. These messages acted as the law that governs Muslims’ ways of life today. Muslims believe is based on five pillars. The first one is known as shahada which is a testimony of oneness of God. They believe that there is no any other God other than Allah. They also believe in Muhammad as God’s prophet (Mckeefery, n.d). The second pillar is salat which is the prayer where every Muslim is required to pray five times a day including in the evening, early in the morning, sunset, noon and in the mid-afternoon. The prayer should be done while prostration and bowing to show submission to Allah, and facing Mecca. They also perform Dua which is impulsive private player though below the normal worship.  The third pillar is zakat that represents giving in charity. The fourth pillar is sawm which represents fasting in the designated month of Ramadan during the day with exception of the sick and pregnant women who are required to compensate while they can. Children are also exempted. Fasting is broken in the beginning of the following month at a feast known as Id al-Firt. The last pillar is Hajj which is a pilgrimage to Mecca which every Muslim is required to participate in Mecca pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime (Mckeefery,n.d).

Muslim culture changed the life of the people a great deal. It introduced the culture of women covering themselves completely and set other rule such as number of women to marry, how to handle various life related cases, gender role division and way of conducting business among other issues. Islamic established a law that governed its followers on how to live their life. The main Islamic culture accomplishment includes enhancing literacy to permit people to read the Quran and other religious stories written by Muhammad. They also made a great contribution to the industrial development, change of women life and spread of their religion (Mckeefery, n.d).

Islam versus Christianity – Compare And Contrast Essay

Islam and Christianity are both Abrahamic monotheistic religions, with both believing in one God though Christians believe in One God in holy trinity; God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. The two religions have holy book containing God’s message to His people, with Muslim Quran being written by one prophet; Muhammad and Christians’ bible being a collection of many books written by different God’s prophets, Jesus disciples and kings. They both believe in prayers, fasting, worship and charity. However, Christians believe in sacraments while Islam believes in pilgrimage. While Christians are founded on Jesus Christ, Islam is founded on Prophet Muhammad. While Christians believe in original sin, with purification through baptism, Islam believes in purity during birth and duty to retain this purity by doing what is right. While Christian congregation is led by priests, nuns, bishops, monks and monks, Islam congregation is led by Imam, Mufti, Sheikh, Mullah and maulana. However, unlike Christians, Muslims do not embrace women leadership (Diffen, n.d.).

Another major difference is that Christianity literary means Christ’s followers while Islam is an Arabic word that means obedience, peace, submission and purity. While Christianity perceive marriage as a holy sacrament and involving only one partner, Muslim believes in marrying at most four women, and harshly oppose celibacy and monasticism. The official Islamic language is Arabic while the official Christianity language includes Latin, Greek and Aramaic. Islam is extensive spread in Asia-Oceanic, Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and Middle East-North Africa with only a small percentage in America. Christianity on the other hand is found in Europe, New Zealand, South and North America, Australia and Parts of Africa and Asia (Diffen, n.d.).

Christianity was widely spread during the middle age. It was also experiencing division between Christians and Protestants. The Christianity states were normally governed by bishops who were acting as the main church leaders with assistance of priest and other church leaders. They also worked in collaboration with the empire of the region in most cases. Islam was spreading during that the middle years. It was mostly characterized by crusades to spread the religion. The Islam was headed by caliphs with the main focus of the religion at this age being spread wide.

CMIT 321 Executive Proposal Project

The purpose of this project is to evaluate the student’s ability to research and evaluate security testing software and present a proposal for review by executive team members. By completing the document the student will also gain practical knowledge of the security evaluation documentation and proposal writing process. The project will enable the student to identify and understand the required standards in practice, as well as the details that should be covered within a proposal.

Project Deliverable 

  • Using the Case Study presented in this document, to complete an executive proposal.
  • Provide a threeto five page proposal summarizing purpose and benefit of chosen security software to the executive management team.
  • The student will evaluate and test security testing software for purposes of testing corporate network security. The purpose of the software is to measure the security posture of the organization by identifying vulnerabilities and help prevent future attacks and deter any real-time unknown threats.
  • The proposal should effectively describe the software in a manner that will allow the executiveteam members to understand the purpose and benefits of the software to approve purchase.

Guidelines

  • Evaluate and select a security tool for recommendation that you learned about in theiLabs modules or the EC-Council text books.
  • The proposal document must be 3 to 5 pages long, conforming to APA standards. See “Writing Resources” in the online classroom where you’ll find help on writing for research projects.
  • At least three authoritative, outside references are required (anonymous authors or web pages are not acceptable). These should be listed on the last page titled “References.”
  • Appropriate citations are required. See the syllabus regarding plagiarism policies.
  • This will be graded on quality of research topic, quality of paper information, use of citations, grammar and sentence structure, and creativity.

Project Description

The purpose of project is to write an executive proposal for a fictitious company called Medical Solutions Systems. The goal of the proposal is to persuade the executive management team to approve purchase of security testing software that can benefit the company’s corporate network security by testing and identifying vulnerabilities before they are exploited by hackers. The proposal must include a detailed description of the software, its purpose and benefits.

Suggested Approach 

  1. Research a security testing software tool that you practiced using in the EC-Council iLabs or from the textbook.
  2. Determine whether the tool would be beneficial in testing the security of a corporate network.
  3. Use the vendor’s website to collect necessary information about the tool to be able to explain its purpose and benefit.
  4. Include 3rd party endorsements and case studies about the tool.
  5. Integrate the information from your own experience with the tool into your proposal. This may include results from the iLab exercises or your own test lab.

Parenting Styles in Caribbean, Dominicans Relating to Gender From an Anthropological Perspective

Introduction

Parenting refers to cultural attainment activity, which mediates via the prevailing molarity grammar and subject to the effect of competing claim-makers groups. The fathers and mothers transformation into parent historically coexists with the increase in the affinity to reinterpret rearing of children as a skill, instead of an integral characteristic of a relationship of an integral family. As a result, the fathers and mothers relationship with their children has been detached from parenting skills possession. These skills are progressively represented as traits of science and expertise that have been away from direct child-rearing experience (Faircloth & Hoffman 3). This is where the parents adapt the parenting style to impose on their children. Parenting style refers to the typical behaviors and attitude of parents that create the emotional climate where in children are raised. Parenting style has been said to play a significant role in emotional and social development of the children (Zarra-Nezhad et al. 1). This paper focuses on analyzing parenting style for Dominicans people in Caribbean, as per the child’s gender based on an anthropological view.

Parenting Styles and Their Impact on Children Emotional, Psychological and Emotional Well-Being

Relation between individual identity and parenting are central problems in psychological anthropology. The level to which parents monitor their kids in great part stems from their parenting style choice. For example, warm and effective parenting which is attributed by involvement, supportiveness, and responsiveness; together with behavior control that include limit and clear rules setting;which are clearly given by parents have been demonstrated to be associated to lower levels of depressive and symptoms of behavioral issues among children. High level of parental psychological control which include controlling emotion and behavior of children, via psychological ways that include guilt induction,is said to be related to increased depressive, distress and anxiety symptoms among both adolescents and children.

Early children emotional development happens in the vibrant interaction between the environment that they grow in and child-parent relationship. Parenting style is one aspect of this environment, where comparatively, stable parental attitudes and behaviors toward their children establish the family emotional climate (Zarra-Nezhad et al. 2).  There are various parenting styles that parents can adopt while raising their children. Some of these styles include authoritative, authoritarian, permissive and neglective among others. Permissive parenting is typified by low behavior control and by provision of high affection. Authoritarian parenting is typified by low affection and a punitive and harsh control. Authoritative parenting is typified by a high level of both behavioral control and parental affection, while neglective parenting involves not taking care of the child and not instilling any control or offering any emotional support. This is one of the most destructive parenting styles.

Research has extensively proposed that the methods which parents utilize to discipline and guide their children impact their emotional, social, and academic development. For instance, emotional socialization study suggest that punishing kids for showing negative emotions or reducing their emotional expression, augment intensity of children’s emotional expression, making these children to be less self-regulating emotionally and more emotionally reactive. In addition, authoritative parenting has been demonstrated to be prognosticof more established emotional functioning that include responding to empathy in children with time. Authoritarian and permissive parenting on the other hand have been depicted to be associated to emotional dysfunctioning of children, which is reflected in aggression and poor strategies of emotion regulation. In addition, a high parental level of psychological control has been depicted to result to internalizing issues that include internalized distress, anxiety, and depression. This can easily influence the child behavior during teenage and in adulthood (Zarra-Nezhad et al. 2).

Parenting Style in Dominica and Its Impact

The adopted parenting style plays an essential role in dictating the general emotional, psychological and behavioral health of a child. Past research has in particular proposed that parenting practice might influence the mental health of adolescents. This is no different in Caribbean. Majority of researchers have proposed that Caribbean parents predominately use authoritarian style of parenting. However, as reported by teenagers in Lipps et al. (8), research, parents apply different styles of parenting with two most prevalent parenting styles in the area being neglectful parenting and authoritative parenting. Authoritarian according to this research only accounted for about 20.3% of all parenting styles. The research also established a significant parenting style variation with regard to gender. Female respondents reported higher level of authoritative parenting style, while male respondent reporting a higher level of neglectful parenting style. This implies that girls attract more parental attention and control compared to boys in the Caribbean region (Lipps et al. 9).

Caribbean parenting style is highly influenced by the Latino culture. Latinos share the same culture despite originating from different regions and nations. Based on this Latinos have shared norms, attitudes, values, and beliefs that define Latinos heritage, which is decisive for the creation of family, personal and worldview decision making as well as context-particular behaviors that include parenting practices. They are therefore known to have collective worldview, which might express higher concerns on family wellbeing and family values, rather than individual chances to develop their personal aspiration. Based on these shared family values, Latino women are traditionally given the primary responsibility of taking care of the entire family in a nuclear family set up. Latino families also believe in respect of the elder, harmony among themselves, trust and reduced conflict. They consider children obedient and discipline compared to white. Parents and elders in this culture are also known to be less consultative,while decision making about their teenage children. Male are highly dominant in the family while female are anticipated to be submissive. Thus, serious decision making is normally done by men. The parenting style in this culture is highly influenced by gender role set by the society. In this regard, according to Guilammmo-Ramos et al. (19), permissive parenting style is said to be mostly applied when raising sons compared to girls, due to gender biasness embraced by Latino culture parenting practices. Latino parents are also thought to be highly probable to adopt egalitarian and authoritative parenting style while handing teenage sons, but more authoritarian and stricter parenting style while handling teenage girls.

In a research determining the relation between parenting and gender among Dominicans, it was established that the community employ different parenting practices as a gender function of their teenagers (Guilamo-Ramos et al. 22). Generally, the gender differences were attributed to the Latino cultural norms of female submissiveness and male liberty. Boys according to Dominicans mothers need to be raised with extra freedom compared to girls. In this regard a higher parental control is employed on girls who are encouraged strongly to take part in household activities, as boys are permitted more freedom to discover and explore external activities. Other than gender role-based parenting control differences between girls and boys in Dominica, parents tend to employ similar parenting techniques to their children in other aspects. Based on Guilamo-Ramos et al. (23) research findings, Dominican parents maintain supportive and warm relationship with their children. This relationship is typified by high level of teenager-parent sharing and interaction. They are also highly inclined into explaining parental actions and decisions to their children, an aspect that play a great role in building positive relationship with their children. Parents, in most cases Dominican mothers make an effort to improve and build relationships with their children (Guilammmo-Ramos et al. 17).

The above findings are partly contrasted in a different research conducted to determine the influence of parenting on teenage alcoholism in the Dominican community (Decker and Flinn 204). In this research, Dominica parents demonstrate low parental affection or caringness and high parental controllingness or intrusiveness. This influences increased danger of negative results that include substance abuse in adulthood and adolescence. Similar toGuilamo-Ramos et al.research, this research also acknowledged the parenting variation based on gender. The distinct sex differences parenting patternwas found to contribute to variation between boys and girls drinking behavior in the community. The connection between substance use attributes, parental rearing and adult personality proposes that ecological or cultural dimensions such as gender identity and matrifocality, might create intense interactive impacts in putatively universal connection for humans between caregiver or parental style and adult results.

 

Community matrifocality has been linked with higher daughter-biased parental care prevalence. These findings support the conclusion that daughter-biased parental care and matrifocality add to boy suffering from higher degree of social marginalization at the community level, which puts them at higher danger for negative outcomes. The daughter-biased parental care and matrifocality in Dominica is also linked to increased male alcoholism, poverty, increased in boys high school dropouts and reduced chances for boys to migrate for work (Decker and Flinn 204). Boys in this community are said to experience reduced maternal care compared to girls. This is said to contribute to high level of alcoholism among male adolescents and adults. It also creates great disparity between the men involved in alcoholism and cigarette smoking compared to women. As an adaptation to heightened risk and resource scarcity, daughter-biased parental care and matrifocality might influence female folks groups toward less controlling or intrusive and less affectionate parental styles subsequently, contributing to likelihood for boys to be extra prone to coping by reduced punishment sensitivity. This can alsopush boys to be involved in risky ”male-typical”sensation-seeking behaviors that include excessive consumption of alcohol (Decker and Flinn 204).

The alcoholic behavior of male children in Dominica during their adolescence can be attributed poor parental monitoring. Parental monitoring and support according to Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez (117), are strong predictors of the results of adolescent problems, even after managing family alcohol abuse history, socioeconomic status, race, age, family structure and gender. According to social theory of learning, children learn via imitating and observing the parent of the same gender. Based on this theory, it has been established that parent who employ coercive control that include hitting, yelling, screaming, slapping and shouting, had teenagers who were more probable to act out and show deviance at school. In addition, adolescents that reported having the highest levels of parental monitoring and extra house rules demonstrated the lowest degrees of behavioral problem that include school misconduct, deviance, use of illicit drugs and drinking. Parental monitoring in addition plays an essential environmental role in the intergenerational alcoholism transmission in families. One manner in which parental alcoholism presumably results to the drinking problem transmission to adolescent offspring is via decreased children monitoring by parents. This is clearly depicted in Latino culture while handling boys. Low parental monitoring is said to create a probability of children having to spend extra time with deviant peers, who are likely to influence their behaviors and drinking habits (Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez 117).

Different parenting style are related to different level of monitoring and hence difference in children behaviors.According to Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez (118), teenagers exposed to authoritative parenting might be at reduced risk for substance abuse and use compared to their peers. For instance, when contrasted to adolescents raised by authoritative parents, teenagers exposed to indifferent, authoritarian, and permissive parenting were 1.8 to 5.9 times as probable to deny authority of parents concerning alcohol use. This is backed by the research results that demonstrated that positive processes control mediated the relation between perceived control and parenting styles over individual drinking (Patock-Peckham and Morgan-Lopez 118). This is supported byGuilammmo-Ramos et al. (19) finding which proposed that Dominicans provide permissive parenting style to. It can thus be said that male children in Dominica community lack proper parental monitoring, with most parents employing other parenting methods other than authoritative parenting to raise boys, which increase their risk of being alcoholic.

Conclusion

Parenting style is said to have a great influence on the child general behavioral, emotional and psychological development. This has clearly been seen in the role the parenting style play in influencing boys drinking in the Dominican community. Dominicans exercise less parental control when raising boys and strict control while raising girls. This can be related to all other form of parenting other than authoritative parenting style. As a result some boys may feel less loved or cared for compared to their sisters turning to wrong peers or alcohol for comfort. Others may just exercise their freedom a great deal turning to alcohol as a form of amusement.

Intimate Violence in the United States

Intimate violence is a form of abuse that is experienced among sexual partners. It can be manifested in different methods that include psychological, physical and sexual abuse. Intimate violence can happen in different circumstances that include instant violence initiated by normal argument, relation terrorism where one person assume a more powerful position in the relation and dominate the other through intimidation and violence, and resistance violence as one person tries to counter a violent partner. Intimate violence can easily be explained by dominance factor (Strong& Cohen, 2013). This is when one party mostly a woman, is fearful of the reaction of the other party in daily life operation. The other party normally handles any small mistake done by the partner by beating or forcing him or her to do things one would consider to be abuse. The presence of physical abuse, emotional distress, sexual abuse that includes rapes in a relationship can be termed as intimate abuse.

Intimate abuse has become a common thing in the United States. It has subjected most people into violence in their own homes, where one would anticipate being experience peace and relaxation. Intimate violence is attributed to a number of factors which include economic factors, cultural norm, illness, and other life distress. The best way to reduce intimate violence is by reducing social distress and improving quality of life among low income earners. Intimate violence is also increased due to lack of consequences. Mostly when violence is inflicted on a neighbor, one is likely to be punished even by a jail term. However, most intimate violence victims persevere silently. There should be a way in which punishment is inflicted in intimate violence, increasing the cost of engaging in this kind of behaviors. People should also be encouraged to walking out of or terminating the relationships that mud by violence.

Vulnerability Assessment of Critical Infrastructure Assets – Texas

Describing the Assets in the Public Location Environment

  • Tornillo Port of Entry is the most recent border crossing point at Mexico-US border after the closure of Fabens Port of Entry that had served this purpose for years.
  • El Paso International Airport is a public airport that acts as a gateway to Northern Mexico, Southern New Mexico, and West Texas. It offers services to airline passenger, general aviation services, and air cargo (El Paso International Airport, 2017).
  • The Texas Crosby Manufacturing plant is known for producing liquid organic peroxides which are utilized in thermoplastics manufacturing.
  • Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant situated as the Somervell County in Texas. The plant contains around 1300 workers and it is run by luminant generation a Vistra energy subsidiary and produces around 1245 MWe.
  • Fabens dam is located at latitude 31.184835o and longitude -106.1253178 in Fabens, El Paso Country, Texas. It has an elevation of 3701ft. This dam is regarded as a cultural feature in the area (TX HomeTownLocator, 2017).

Description of the Threats

Tornillo Port of Entry

With increasing cases of terrorism and crimes, Tornillo Port of Entry faces man-made threat of terrorism and other crimes such as human and drugs trafficking. This threat is considerably high due to high criminal cases in Mexico, and the possibility of Mexico being used as the easiest gateway to US by international terrorists.

El Paso International Airport

This asset is also prone to international terrorism which is manmade threat and accidents. International airport acts as an entry point by foreigners to a country, and without proper measures, it can be used to by terrorist to access the US. Aircraft is also subject to accidents due to various factors that include mechanical problems and poor weather condition (El Paso International Airport, 2017).

Crosby manufacturing plant

Chemical plants are prone to accidents that can subject the operators to serious health hazards. Their poor operations that include poor chemical waste management can easily results to the environmental pollution which can also results to health consequences.

Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant

Nuclear plants also pose great danger to the operators and the surrounding community, especially in cases of accidents, caused by either human error or natural calamities. Poor management of the raw materials and waste products can also be disastrous to the health of the surrounding community.

Fabens Dam

Dams are mostly used as a source of water or hydroelectric power. However, they can become a threat to human life during rainy seasons or natural calamities such as hurricanes. Breaking of the dam’s banks can result to floods which can results to death, destruction of properties, and development of communicable diseases.

Asset Rank Based on Value

  1. Tornillo Port of Entry
  2. Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant
  3. Crosby manufacturing plant
  4. El Paso International Airport
  5. Fabens Dam

Types of Threatening Activities that Could Occur

Tornillo Port of Entry and El Paso International Airport has been wrongly been used to allow illegal immigrants into the country creating insecurity and economic risk. Negligence at these points can results to entry of illegal weapons, terrorist suspects using false ids, and drugs among other illegal products.Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant and Crosby manufacturing plant are involved in dangerous activities even without involvement of any illegal activity. They need too much cooling, and they become a great threat when there are other calamities that such as hurricanes that risk the destruction of the physical properties. Cases of nuclear waste and reactors and chemical waste mishandling increase the plant risk.There are no illegal activities taking place at Fabens dam. However, floods, earthquakes and other natural calamities risks breaking of banks that can results to disastrous floods and contamination of dam water.

Potential Measures in Place to Prevent Threats

High level of inspection, and surveillance cameras have been employed in Tornillo Port of Entry. A well-established cooling system and waste management techniques have been used to enhance smooth operation for Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant. There are also laws restricting the plant operations.Legal measures, and waste management systems are in place to control the Crosby manufacturing plant operations. Tight security measures to all passengers have been employed in El Paso International Airport. Well maintained banks with inlets and outlets to control flow in the Fabens Dam.

The Decline of the Roman Republic

The Roman republic decline was facilitated by a number of factors. They included profits and booty of war where Roman conquest produced so much creating surplus in the country and hence reducing the cost of agricultural products. The rich also acquired free labor from the slaves reducing cost of production and hence reducing cost of agricultural goods. This faced poor farmers out of the market since they could not afford cheap labor. They eventually sold their lands and migrated to urban area looking for jobs. The rate of unemployment increased causing inflation and cost of living. Inhabitant were demanded to pay unmanageable tithe to the empire which stirred rebellion. The cost of running the empire increased as more people migrated to the urban centers. There was also increased Roman senators’ status that started imposing their will in the empire. There was also modification in the military. During this time there was formation of the first triumvirates which involved Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, and Marcus Licinius Crassus and the second triumvirates that included Octavian Caesar, Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus. These two triumvirates were formed for similar purpose which was to consolidate power by combining their influence across Rome and sharing power and in ruling the developing Roman Empire (Jauntingjen, 2015).

The first triumvirate fell out leaving Julius Caesar as the only ruler after the killing of the other two in the war. Caesar was given a chance to rule as a dictator for 10 years after defeating all the Roman enemies. The main purpose was to restore the Roman republic. He enhanced a number of reforms in the republic including flooding prevention in Tiber River, and establishment of various colonies and being generous in extending citizenships to Spain and Gaul cities. He regulated Rome traffic, imposed tariffs on imports to assist Italian industry. Julius also started an aspiring building program. He can therefore be regarded as a hero. He was assassinated by the Senate. Julius Caesar was succeeded by Octavian who formed the second triumvirate. Similar to Julius the two parties were eliminated and Octavia became the empire of Roman under the name Augustus. He built a foundation of Roman Empire that lasted for 1500 years and he can thus be described as a hero. Marc Antony on the contrary spent most of his time in Egypt with his lover Cleopatra who he had children with. He even abandoned his Roman wife, sister to Octavia and provided his children with Cleopatra more inheritance than others. He even wanted to be buried in Egypt and not Rome. This lead to his rejection and forced to kill himself together with Cleopatra. Based on his abandonment of duties, and bad treat to his wife and children, he could be considered as villain (Jays Roman History, n.d.).