Toxicants And The Body

Three systems of the body in which toxicants can enter, how this may occur and an example of a toxicant that can enter the body through each system.

The three common forms of body exposure to toxicants include inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Inhalation is the main entry route for most chemicals that are in form of particulates, mists, gases or vapors. Once chemical are inhaled, they are either deposited in the respiratory tract or exhaled. When deposited, damage can take place via direct contact of chemical with tissues or chemical might diffuse into the blood via the blood-lung interface. Upon the lungs or upper respiratory tract tissues contact, chemicals might result to health impacts that range from severe destruction of tissues or simple irritation. Chemicals absorbed into the blood are distributed and circulated to organs which contain high infinity to that specific chemical. Health impacts can then happen in the organs that are sensitive to the toxicant. Some of the inhaled toxicants include ammonia gas, sulfur dioxide, ozone, butadiene, diesel exhaust, acrolein and metal fumes (University of Nebraska Lincoln, 2002).  

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Skin is another toxicant entry point. Skin contact can result to effects which are comparatively harmless for instant mild dermatitis or redness to more severe impacts that include skin tissues destruction or other devastating conditions. Various chemicals can as well cross the skin barrier to be absorbed into the system of the blood. Once absorbed, they might create systemic destruction to internal organs. Eyes are specifically sensitive to chemicals, such that they can be severely impacted even by a short exposure time, where chemicals are absorbed and transmitted to other body parts resulting to harmful body impacts. Chemicals that enter to the body through contact include metal powders, acids such as sulfuric acid, and ammonia acid among others (University of Nebraska Lincoln, 2002).

Ingestion is another source of chemical entry to human body. This involves chemicals which get into the mouth inadvertently and they are swallowed. These chemicals do not necessarily destroy the gastrointestinal tract specifically unless they are corrosive or irritating. Chemicals which are insoluble in the gastrointestinal tract fluids are usually excreted. Others chemicals which are soluble are absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract lining. They are transmitted to internal organs by the blood where they cause harm. Most of ingested chemical are mostly in powder or liquid form such as acids such as ammonia hydroxide and benzene among others (University of Nebraska Lincoln, 2003).

Processes used by the body to eliminate a Toxicant and an example of a situation where one of these processes might be inhibited and how the inability to eliminate the toxicant might impact the individual.

To be able to maintain health, it is important for the body to be in apposition to handle the toxins and to manage to effectively eliminate them. The human body has secondary and primary routes to eliminate these toxins, which have to be working effectively to as to avoid toxins storage and ensure disease prevention. All basic routes of toxins elimination contain direct entree to outside the body. They are a point of transition between normal processes in the body and excretion. Some of the primary elimination routes include bowels, skin, bladder, menses and breathing. Skin removes body toxins through excretion of sweat. The urinary complex system assist in blood filtering via the kidney as a way of upholding homeostasis and body physiological PH. This system assist in metabolic waste excretion, with main bi-products being nitrogen originating from breakdown of protein and uric acid from metabolism of nucleic acid. These wastes are eliminated through urination. Lungs eliminate carbon dioxide from the body tissues via breathing system. Bowel eliminate toxin from ingested products after useful nutrients are absorbed into the body (Lloyd, 2015).

Read also Difference Between Toxic Chemical, Toxic Substance, and Toxic Agent

The secondary elimination routes are used when the basic routes are overloaded by toxins. Secondary toxins elimination routes include sneezing, nasal discharge,, flatulence and gas, coughing, blood or mucus in stool, ear wax, phlegm, tears, leucorrhea and hair. Another major organ used in toxins excretion is the liver. Liver plays different detoxification roles. It filters the blood to eliminate large toxins, get rid of and synthesizes of bile containing cholesterol and other toxins soluble in fat. Other unwanted chemicals are also eliminated by live enzymatic process. This process involves two main processes that include oxidations and conjugation. Oxidation stage involves changing toxic chemical to activated intermediate form which is neutralized later by the next enzyme system. In phase two, other substances such as sulfur, glycine or cysteine molecules are added to the toxic chemical by the liver cells to make them less harmful. This make new toxin water-soluble in order it might then be excreted from the body through water fluids, urine or bile (Cornell College, n.d.).

Factors that can affect the distribution of a toxicant in the body and how manipulation of these factors can increase toxicity.

The distribution of toxicant in the body is determined by a number of factors. Some of these factors include molecular shape and size, solubility at absorption site, level of ionization, and relative lipid solubility of unionized and ionized forms. Although weight of the molecule is essential, it is not as essential as the toxicant lipid solubility with regard to assessment of passive diffusion rate across membranes. The nonpolar substance permeability via a cell membrane is reliant on membrane solubility which can be demonstrated as the drug partition coefficient between membrane phase and aqueous phase and diffusion coefficient or diffusivity that assesses drug molecule mobility in the lipids. Toxicant can be ionized and unionized form. Generally toxicants have to be in the unionized or uncharged form to be transported across biological membranes through passive diffusion. This is due to the fact that biological membranes are made of lipids which are less permeable to the chemical in ionized form (Baynes & Hodgson, 2004). Toxicity can be increased by adding unionized toxicants. The environment PH can impact toxicants transfer which is ionized by decreasing or increasing the amount of toxicant nonionized form. Toxicant is also influenced by level of toxicants absorption into the blood such that the level absorbed requires being high enough to be able essential impact at the action site in other body areas. Toxicant distribution can also be influenced by a number of complex factors that include tissues perfusion, protein binding, and elimination processes that include biotransformation and excretion. The absorption route also determine on the extent of distribution. Toxins absorbed through various sources can be easily transported to the blood system than when absorbed through a single source. Ingestion and inhalation may provide a faster way of toxicant distribution compared to skin contact due to extensive skin layers. The concentration where high concentration means more molecules to be bombarded may fasten the speed of distribution (Baynes & Hodgson, 2004).

Main Components of each of the Psychoanalytic-Social Personality Theories

The psychoanalytic-social personality theories are composed of the individual psychological theory, psychosocial development, and interpersonal psychoanalytic theory. In the individual psychological theory, Alder proposed that people should be characterized by a social perspective, and not biological. In other words, Alder argued that we should focus on a person’s individual goals and how it shapes an individual. Adler’s inferiority complex is a concept that a person is overcome with a feeling of lack of self-worth. This suggest that each person has a felt minus, since all people began life as a newborn, inferior to others and relying on the needs of others for their survival. Any short comings may encourage an individual to excel further to achieve their desire outcome the “aggressive drive”.

Read also Exploring Psychological Theorist Erik Erikson – Cognitive Theory

Likewise, Erikson’s psychosocial development theory argues that a person develops based on its culture or society. The main components of this theory are the psychosocial stages which incorporate culture starting from infancy. Erikson further explains his theory with the epigenetic principle, which states that psychosocial development based on a biological model. Karen Horney’s psychoanalytic-social personality theory’s main components consist of neurosis and psychoanalysis involving inner conflicts. Langenderfer (1999), “The personality she gave is an example of children and how parents as well as other socializing factors influence their personality. For instance, a normal child goes through life having certain characteristics of themselves when relating experiences with school, hobbies, and home. However, when looking at a child that is neurotic the environmental factors isolates their true self.” Horney believes that Freud’s theory about sexuality and continuous compulsives, is interfering with an individual, the family, and social factors where there is organization of values, and attitudes. Freud believes they are compulsive drives from nature, involving every human being. She believes they are compulsive drives but become neurotic by a human feeling isolated, helpless, afraid, and hostile.

The Complexity of Connection: Writings from the Stone Center’s Jean Baker Miller Training Institute – Book Review

Relationships as Developmental Achievements

In this book the three scholars deepen and expand the centre’s psychology connectivity theory that is the core for human development and growth. In this extensive and integrative volume the three scholars present a practical examination and philosophy of both connectivity and disconnection at the individual as well as societal levels. Basically, thirteen chapters comprised in this text cover issues relating to sexual orientation, ethnicity and experience of the race and gender relationships by examining various ways in which people can come together irrespective of their differences or disagreements.

Nonetheless, besides philosophical theory, the book presents a material that is practical by discussing the implications of psychotherapy theory that summarizes human development and how an individual ethically interacts with others as a functional person. Historically, the kinds of projects that the centre has supported are wide and concern a varying human behavior, such as African partner violence, development of connections, harassment and bullying, empowering vulnerable children, early childhood studies, gender and teacher studies, men and women’s selfesteem, recovery from sexual harassment among many others. Mutual collaboration between the Stone Center’s Jean Baker Miller Training Institute and Centre for Research on Women has facilitated the inter-disciplinary research, training and release of various publications that have in overall helped to shape the world. The book explores fundamental and deep issues embracing the vision of advanced knowledge for working and survival. Marilyn Newman in her review noted the book’s impressive ability to influence the leader in a considerable manner due to its compassionate, accurate and multifaceted understanding of what heals and detours human relationships.

In chapter one, toward competence and connection, the desire and pursuance of connection considering the Stone Centre model are presented as the keys factors in human life while the element of isolation and chronic disconnection is taken as the most common source of human sufferings (p.11). Despite human inability to authentically represent in a relationship, one must detach falsification from suppression of authentic responses, while at the same time accepting the fact that we cannot impact relationships of other people where we have interests. The theme explored in this text is that of individual’s competence, need to connect, be creative in the modern world that values individual’s goals and competition that results to conflict of primarily relational individuals. Nonetheless, the book brings out the sense of immobilization, isolation, relational incompetence and self-esteem.

In this book, the authors connect the dominance of competence with masculinity (pp. 13- 14). However, both relational and instrumental competence portray the ability to bring a difference in the relationship or cause a difference of all individuals in a relationship. Moreover, such a capacity does not necessarily refer to influencing other people, but instead considers mutual influence. This follows a statement given by Jean Baker Miller, who stated that for an individual to grow in a relationship, both individuals must grow. As such, the authors feel that it is being in touch with both our feelings and own hearts, that we can touch other people’s hearts and help them grow.

In chapter two, Relational Resilience, one of the authors, Judith Jordan, says that life subjects all humanity to suffering and tension, and that individuals, as well as relationships, are circumvented by forces that cause pain and threat to dissolutions while, at the same time, causing pain, thus the need for transformation or relational resilience. On page 28 the author indicates that people’s inability to shift from disconnection to connection could result to isolation and immobilization that might turn into a prison. Judith goes further and discusses the traditional perception of resilience proposing that traumas experienced in life can lead to the burning desire to help others. The author goes on stating that helping others alleviates isolation and private pain from humans. Nonetheless, the author stresses that nobody would choose to undergo pain, but such pain provides a valuable lesson and develops an individual wisdom. In this book the authors also give a description of how relational resilience can be applied as a therapy to guard against vulnerability, hence assisting an individual to develop confidence, flexibility and awareness through reworking and negotiation of emphatic failures and misunderstanding.

In chapter three, Transforming Disconnection, the book explores self-sufficiency models and autonomy by examining how the element of separation is a key to the human condition. Notably, the authors argue that disconnection from other people forms the beginning of human suffering. To support this, a number of psychoanalysis’s theories are discussed elucidating the fact that people bear distinct habitual ways of responding to certain conditions leaving them vulnerable to disconnection. With the goal of therapy being to transform disconnections to connections, the chapter concludes that the ability to understand one’s disconnection is a key to developing a compassionate attitude that helps an individual to identify his or her needs, causes of disconnection and the need for reconnection (p. 63).

Part two of this book addresses the relationship. Chapters seven and eight cover relational possibilities and racial images and hoe racialism affects women. Moreover, therapy in groups and limited therapy topics are covered in chapters ten and twelve. Chapter eleven covers the use of models to understand both men and boys, whereas chapter thirteen dwells on utilization of relational thinking in the workplace and, more so, the entire organization. The authors express their goal of writing this book as to help the readers to find a sense of possibility and resilience. The authors have discussed the ideas underlying the marriage, religion, child bearing and upbringing and, more importantly, bring out gender identity in consideration of the family institutions. However, the basic question that the authors have tried to explore is what causes a change of a therapy? In this regard the authors agree that skills learnt in the treatment room can be used to effect the change through commitment to learning and responsiveness. The authors conclude by stating that through our ability and commitment to connection we are able to get a hope.

This book is provocative and well-structured. It raised quite a number of questions which it also follows with concrete answers. Notably, the book is highly suitable for individuals whose minds can accommodate to both uncertainties and opportunities, but, on the other hand, is highly unsuitable for people who are firmly held to a certain philosophy of treatment. The book explores practical considerations including short-term therapy and periodic counseling (p. 265). It portrays presentation of problems as a way of shaping treatment with no particular way of given consideration as the most favorable one for all individuals. The book focuses on the processes by stressing them as the primary therapeutic ingredient in the relationship as working together between a client and the therapist (p. 266). The authors express that no matter the course of treatment, it is always beneficial to be aware of transitions and shifts to better address the issues brought forward during the treatment course. In this regard the client will return to the path of development and fulfill his or her potential to the optimum, while, at the same time, adjusting to the prevailing demands and shifts. Regrettably, the danger arises where people’s coping strategies are rendered paralyzed, hence forcing them to retreat to their old coping patterns. People in time of stress tend to resort to what they understand best (p. 262). In conclusion, this informative book excellently presents a thoughtful map for the growth, development of ourselves and mores of our patients.

Plato – Philosopher Biography

Culture and Time Period that Influenced Plato’s Ideas

As a student of Socrates and a teacher to Aristotle, Plato; an ancient Greek Philosopher, explored the issues of equality, justice, beauty, aesthetics, philosophy of language, epistemology, cosmology, political philosophy, and theology in his writings. As a child of Greek aristocracy, the social class that his parents were a part of, Plato received the finest education from the finest educators. As a young boy from an elevated social class, it is highly likely that he was exposed to doctrines of Parmenides, Pythagoras, and Cratylus (Finnis, 2015). These doctrines were fundamental to his interests in the study of knowledge (epistemology) and the study of nature (Metaphysics). Two major events are seen to have changed and greatly influenced the life of Plato: The war between Sparta and Athens; Peloponnesian and his encounter with Socrates the great Greek philosopher. Although briefly, Plato served in the Peloponnesian War, which saw Spartans defeat Athens bringing an end to their democracy and replacing it with oligarchy (Bhandari, 2010). In the new oppressive government, two of Plato’s relatives served prominently, albeit as part of notorious tyrants who largely deprived rights to the citizens of Athens. When the oligarchy was finally overthrown and replaced with democracy Plato considered a career in politics. A life in politics was however never to be since when his great teacher Socrates was executed, Plato devoted his life to philosophy and study out of some degree of bitterness. Before he began his extensive writing, Plato spent 12 years travelling throughout the Mediterranean region studying religion, astronomy, geometry, and geology in Egypt, and mathematics with Pythagoreans in Italy (Finnis, 2015).

Plato’s Contributions to the Field of Philosophy

As a great philosopher and the founder of the Academy, a school of learning founded around 385 B.C.E., Plato made great contributions to philosophy, political theory, mathematics, biology, and astronomy. The Academy was closed by Roman Emperor Justinian I in around 529 C.E. for fear that it was not only a threat to Christianity but also a source of paganism. Plato’s school of learning, however, had the noble vision of providing future leaders with a place where they could discover how to build a better government in the city-states of Greece.

The idea of justice is given a prominent place in the philosophy of Plato. This was especially so because Plato was greatly dissatisfied by the prevailing conditions in Athens, which were degenerating and eventually resulted in the death of his teacher and friend Socrates. Due to this, Plato constantly criticized and attacked excessive individualism and amateur meddlesomeness and always recommended that an ideal be society be constructed (Bhandari, 2010). This ideal society in the perception of Plato would be ruled supremely by the justice. Justice, to Plato, was the cure of all evil in society because it is a virtue that makes people inherently good and self-consistent. Since justice is a social consciousness, Plato believed that it would make society not only inherently good but also internally harmonious (Bhandari, 2010).

Key Concepts and Analyses that Comprised Plato’s Theories

Scholars divide the period of Plato’s writings into three main periods: the early, the middle and the late periods. The early period is classified as the time during which Plato travelled throughout the Mediterranean region, right after the death of Socrates. During this period, Plato wrote the famous ‘Apology of Socrates’ among other pieces such as ‘Ion’, ‘Hippias Major, and Minor’, ‘Euthyphro’ and ‘Protagoras’. Most of the influence to Plato’s writings during the early period was drawn from the teachings and philosophy of Socrates. Socrates was executed in 399 B.C.E.

In what scholars classify as the middle period, Plato wrote a prominent piece dubbed ‘The Republic’, which heavily reflected on the ideals of wisdom, courage, justice, and moderation of not only the society but also the individual. In ‘The Republic’ Plato explored philosopher kings and just governments in a voice that was predominantly his. The third period is representative of Plato’s early ideas on metaphysics assigns Socrates a rather minor role. During this period, Plato explores roles played by drama, music, dance, architecture, morality, and ethics in society (D’Angour, 2013). According to D’Angour (2013), Plato appreciated the notion of play especially in view of the background that the idea of play was shifting in classical Greece. Plato’s view was indeed central to the Hellenic culture and in particular to its development. As opposed to being associated intrinsically with children, play began to assume increased cultural and literally significance, which eventually impacted education in the broader sense. This is especially so because Plato recognized that the development of children into adults largely influenced by the notion of play, thereby recommending that play be regulates for social ends (D’Angour, 2013). In his work the ‘Theory of Forms’, Plato made a very bold assertion by suggesting that the world as perceived through our senses is not only changeable but deceptive, implying that the world of ideas is the only constant.

Role of International Non-Governmental Organizations in Combating Terrorism – Sample Research Paper

Introduction

Since the United States terrorist attack of 2001, international non-governmental organizations have had a significant impact on the fight against terrorism globally. After recognizing the crucial role that international, non-governmental organizations play in fighting terrorism, the United Nations General Assembly agreed to support a global strategy that permits different stakeholders, including international non-governmental organizations, to work in collaboration to counter terrorism . Since 2006, the United Nations General Assembly in particular has been encouraging international, non-governmental organizations to join hands with governments of different nations in combating terrorism. A number of authors have documented the importance of involving international non-governmental organizations in addressing terrorism threats. While working together with governments to counter terrorist activities, international, non-governmental organizations are advised to observe the rule of law and human rights. International, non-governmental organizations play a significant role in combating terrorism which has become a common threat in many countries today2 . This research paper explores the role of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The research method that has been applied in this research is theoretical study through a comprehensive review of available literature.

Research Questions and Hypotheses

The research questions and hypotheses that guide this study are listed below;

  1. To what extent are international, non-governmental organizations involved in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations are extensively involved in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations are not involved in combating terrorism
  2. Do international, non-governmental organizations play any important roles in combating terrorism?
    • H1: International, non-governmental organizations play very important roles in combating terrorism
    • H0: International, non-governmental organizations do not play any important roles in combating terrorism

Review Of Literature

In March 2007, the Office for Democratic Institution and Human Right identified specific roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in countering terrorism. Some of the identified roles include legal roles, community roles, advisory and educational roles, as well as advocacy and research roles3 . International, non-governmental organizations provide advice and educate institutions on how they can prevent terrorism.The expertise and policy that international, non-governmental organizations give to institutions cannot be provided by the government. In certain instances, individuals may find it difficult to combat terrorism due to lack of proper language that they can use to address the problem. International, non-governmental organizations provide public officials with appropriate terminology and language that they can use address issues related to terrorism.

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International, non-governmental organizations normally encourage public officers to stick to the law as they attempt to counter terrorism. As they do so, these organizations always understand that they must comply with the government laws of countries within which they operate. Similarly, public officers should obey laws of different nations as they continue to engage in activities that are aimed at combating terrorism. International, non-governmental organizations also provide advisory roles by guiding public officers and individuals to avoid supporting policies and measures that terrorists may use for their own benefits. It is important to remember that non-state actors should obtain detailed information concerning the extent of terrorism threat for them to provide sufficient and effective response.

Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations play very crucial community functions which are related to combating terrorism. They push for the development of strong groups in the community where people can share ideas and opinions on how they can effectively deal with terrorism threat. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations create forms where communities can meet to discuss their differences at a personal level. This helps to minimize tensions that may fuel terrorism activities.These organizations take quick and appropriate actions that are aimed at addressing the root cause of tensions among different communities. In this manner, they play a crucial role in creating strong societies who will resort to solve their differences peacefully by not through acts of terrorism .

As far as educational role is concerned, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize human rights as a very important factor when it comes to section of the most appropriate counter-terrorism strategies. These organizations take their time to explain to school children, law-enforcement officers, and the police about the importance of human rights in implementation of counter-terrorism strategies. International, non-governmental organizations enter into partnerships with law enforcement agencies with the aim of increasing awareness concerning effective diversity management strategies. For instance, to promote an understanding of understanding cultural diversity among law enforcement officers, the Arab-American AntiDiscrimination Committee worked in collaboration with the Office of Civil Liberties in the United States.

Additional examples that demonstrate how international, non-governmental organizations fight to counter terrorism by advocating for human rights are the partnerships that have been formed between governments and non-governmental organizations which have been extremely effective in countering terrorism. The IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism (ICPAT), works closely with partners to help counter terrorism at both local and global levels. Many countries become victims of terrorism because they lack adequate resources to effectively counter such activities before they can cause serious harm. ICPAT strives to ensure that relevant resources are supplied to various countries across the world where terrorism poses the biggest threat. International, non-governmental organizations appreciate the role they play in providing technical support to nations that face serious terrorism threats .

The advocacy role of international, non-governmental organizations is evidenced in the manner these organizations engage with the media as they try to influence the public’s perception concerning terrorism concept. As the media and the entertainment industry may spread information that encourages terrorism activities, they can as well be utilized to inform the public about the negative consequences of terrorism and to encourage people not to engage in such inhumane act. International, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration with the media and the entertainment industry in general with the aim of influencing them to spread information that support respect for human rights and that encourage the public to promote national security10. Of the most importance as far as advocacy role is concerned is the effort that international, non-governmental organizations have put in supporting the media to encourage minority groups to always remain on the forefront in connection with fighting terrorism. These organizations work with the media to help minority groups understand their responsibility in avoiding stereotypes and prejudices that may heighten terrorism activities.

Moreover, international, non-governmental organizations carry out meaningful research in order to identify factors that encourage terrorism activities as well as the most appropriate ways to address them. High quality research is very important when fighting terrorism because it provides vital information that that can positively influence prevention efforts. These organizations extensively conduct surveys and studies which generate results that have brought about significant impacts on counter-terrorism measures. International, non-governmental organizations also engage in dialogues with governments in order to monitor the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures that have already been implemented. This may include an evaluation of funds have been spent as well as how tangible resources have been utilized.

One counter-terrorism role that has for a long time been performed better by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in dialogue with groups or individuals who are believed to perpetuate acts of terrorism. It is always more difficult for the government to engage in dialogue with such groups than it is for international, non-governmental organizations. When trying to influence groups and individuals to avoid terrorism activities, international, nongovernmental organizations should use human rights-based approach which involves maintenance of high levels of neutrality. This is because taking sides when engaging in such dialogue may encourage even more harsh terrorism activities instead of minimizing them. A valuable example that shows how international, non-governmental organizations have successful utilized dialogue to counter terrorism is the peace process that took place in Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland, international, non-governmental organizations engaged the government in dialogue to condemn all forms of terrorism acts irrespective of their motivation.

These organizations work very hard to minimize psychological and emotional effects of terrorism by encouraging victims of unlawful counter-terrorism and terrorism activities to report address their concerns through human rights agencies . International, non-governmental organizations are actively involved in activities which are aimed at addressing conditions that encourage the spread of terrorism. For instance, the United Nations works with Civil Society Organizations to prevent and manage conflicts among communities, fight for human rights, provide humanitarian relief to terrorism victims, and to expand group and individual participation on countering terrorism . In a specific example, IGAD Capacity Building Program against Terrorism recently worked with an Indonesian artist to create an album that supports are promotes Islamic religion. This works contributes greatly towards minimization of terrorist activities by attempting to counter the negative thoughts that tend to associate all Muslims with terrorism acts. Although some people may view this work as a way of branding Islamic religion with terrorism, it is important to acknowledge its relevance in minimization of terrorism activities. Basically, international, non-governmental organizations work to stabilize warring communities especially in situations where the government is not providing any relevant support.

International, non-governmental organizations also promote good governance across nations in order to increase the ease with which various nations can handle terrorism threats. This is because these organizations believe that nations that are properly governed are always united and top leaders can easily come up with solutions that can help them to curb terrorism threats.This role is built upon the premise that lack of good governance provides a very conducive environment that encourages the spread of terrorism. Notable examples concerning how lack of good governance can lead to the spread of terrorism include; the rise of Hamas in Palestine, the growth of Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, and the popularity of the terrorist groups in Somalia. This explains why international, non-governmental organizations are focused on promotion of democracy. They also demand accountability from politicians as a strategy towards promotion of stable governments.

Terrorism threat compels nations to make changes on their security policies to allow them to effectively prevent deadly attacks. International, non-governmental organizations assist different nations in making meaningful and relevant security reforms that can enable to properly combat terrorism. These organizations guide governments to make security reforms based on their abilities and with reference to other successful counter-terrorism measures which have successfully been utilized in the past. Some international, non-governmental organizations often foster cooperative initiatives that are aimed at stakeholder involvement in order to improve awareness of terrorism threat as well as the specific actions that can be taken to address vulnerabilities.

These initiatives are chosen and implemented as per the opinions and views of the United Kingdom Department for International Development. According to the United Kingdom Department for International Development, the initial point for improving a country’s security forces in order to effectively address terrorism threat is improvement of civic awareness of security issues. International, non-governmental organizations play a very crucial role in expressing their opinions regarding the status and strengths of national security policies. These opinions are extremely useful when the government lacks the capacity to effectively analyze its security issues and to make appropriate changes on security policy to help curb terrorism threat.

International, non-governmental organizations provide technical expertise that help with the implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives. For a long period of time, international, nongovernmental organizations have provided counterterrorism related assistance to nations that want to implement strategies to combat terrorism threat. The implementation and capacity building assistance that it offered by international, non-governmental organizations have more advantageous as compared to those offered by government institutions. For instance, when international, non-governmental organizations push for implementation of security initiatives to curb terrorism, their efforts are rarely thwarted by political sensitivities which are very common when such implementations are supported by national governments.

Another reason that makes international, non-governmental institutions better than national governments as far as implementation of counter-terrorism initiatives is concerned is the presence of a diverse pool of individuals with good knowledge and linguistic expertise. As compared to state organizations, international, non-government organizations are better suited to manage language and cultural barrier that may hamper successful implementation of counterterrorism initiatives.

Although majority of international, non-governmental organizations play roles that are directly involved in combating terrorism, some of them are engaged in activities that indirectly influence terrorism but which are of great importance in combating terrorism. For example, the Terrorism Prevention Branch enhances international cooperation as well as a coordinated government approach both of which enhance response to terrorism. The Terrorism Prevention Branch establishes links with national and international governments to come up with a law enforcement framework that can help them to handle terrorism threat. This agency teaches governments to how they can detect and do away with money laundering activities which is widely used by organizations and individuals to finance terrorism activities. The practice of advising governments to cut financial support for terrorism activities is a good example of an indirect role played by international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism.

The roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism which have been discussed in this section are well demonstrated in Afghanistan terrorism case. According to the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Strategy documented in 2006, nongovernmental organizations have a positive influence on how nations respond to terrorism threats. As part of implementation of the 2006 United Nations strategy, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank, and UNESCO, all joined hands to help address the terrorism problem in Afghanistan. Other Afghan-based nongovernmental organizations worked together with these international agencies to provide counter-terrorism services in the region.

In the Afghanistan case, international, non-governmental organizations worked in collaboration with the United Nations to educate public officers, monitor human rights issues, and to improve governance. The strength of the relationship between the United Nations and international, non-governmental organizations helped to control the Afghanistan situation. The performance of international, non-governmental organizations was enhanced by counterterrorism-related subsidiary bodies of the Security Council. International, non-governmental organizations require detailed information from state governments for them to effectively combat terrorism. The United Nations provided the agencies involved with relevant information that remained helpful during their entire period of struggle against terrorism in Afghanistan.

International, non-governmental organizations require more space to interact independently without any interference from the national government. At the same time, they need to acknowledge the fact that good governance will determine the nature of information they can receive from state governments which will also determine the outcome of the actions in combating terrorism. To some extent, international, non-governmental organizations must be cautious about how they associate with national governments to prevent the governments from undermining their own legitimacy.

When developing the 2006 strategy, the United Nations decided to create a boundary between international, non-governmental organizations to give states an opportunity to view these organizations as extremely relevant. In Afghanistan, international, non-governmental organizations are working in an extremely difficult environment which is characterized by lack of sufficient information from the government.This is happening because the Afghanistan’s security situation is highly dangerous and complicated. This has greatly interfered with good governance which makes exchange of relevant information between the international, non-governmental organizations and the government difficult.

To a large extent, numerous international, non-governmental organizations have worked together to control the Afghanistan situation. They are working by delivering healthcare and counseling services, offering basic community needs, and providing women’s education. The United States as a country has greatly acknowledged the important role that international, nongovernmental organizations are playing to reduce terrorism-related violence in Afghanistan. For this reason, the United States government is always interested in giving support to international, non-governmental organizations with the aim of strengthening their capabilities and to help them establish self-sufficiency at the community level. This support has highly encouraged the development of several pathways that the international agencies can use to resist Taliban and other forces which are trying to destabilize Afghanistan. The United States however has a new plan to allow local populations to work together with international, non-governmental organizations. The biggest challenge that this will bring to the international agencies is how they can organize their activities without being compromised by intimidation and violence

Findings And Discussion

A large volume of international documents have stressed on the important roles that are played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. The need to involve international, non-governmental organizations by states in the fight against terrorism was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2006 and was documented in the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. The main reason for involving international, non-governmental organizations in fighting terrorism threat is because the United Nations believed that these organizations will bring about great contributions in finding common political grounds and in addressing human rights issues, which would eventually result into prevention of terrorism.

Out of the articles reviewed, the authors support that international, non-governmental organizations have very crucial and meaningful roles to play on combating terrorism. It is widely agreed that international, non-governmental organizations have valuable expertise and experience that work best to address issues that encourage the spread of terrorism. Many authors have given specific examples concerning how international, non-governmental organizations work in collaboration to strengthen respect for the rule of law and the human rights. In addition, many documents support that the response initiated towards terrorism threat depends on genuine partnerships between the state governments and international, non-governmental organizations. They have further stressed on the effort that international, non-governmental organizations are putting in promoting diversity inclusion and democratic accountability. Although the existing literature has documented numerous roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism, this paper has summarized the roles into broad categories to enhance clarity.The possible roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, educative roles, and advisory roles.

Roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism

Research roles

From the literature review, it has been revealed that international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that enable them to come up with appropriate strategies that they can use to best counter terrorism. These organizations often conduct high quality research in several areas including the political situation, the root-cause of violence, the motive of terrorism attack, and the most appropriate prevention strategies that can be applied to generate positive results . Additional research that international, non-governmental organizations always concerns factors that may result into spread of terrorism, the impact of possible counter-terrorism measures on the current situation, and how the adversaries involved in the violence would respond following successful implementation of counter-terrorism measures. By conducting comprehensive research when faced with a terrorism-related violence, international, nongovernmental organizations find an opportunity to utilize a practical approach to counter terrorism. A practical approach has been found to be more effective than a theoretical approach in generating meaningful results that can be used by international, non-governmental organizations to execute the best counter-terrorism approach.

By conducting empirical and statistical research, international, non-governmental organizations are able to examine the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures in generating the desired results. These organizations can use the information gathered through research to know the type of data that they should request from governments. When requesting for this data from the government, international, non-governmental organizations often recognize the fact that public security issues are a matter of concern and should not only be left to the security experts alone. For this reason, it is important to treat the government and any other security agencies that may be interested in joining hands to fight terrorism. Consequently, international, non-governmental organizations perform research roles that determine the effectiveness with which a counterterrorism response is executed.

Advocacy roles

International, non-governmental organizations strive to condemn all forms of violence that go against human rights irrespective of its root cause. These organizations act as advocates for human rights by writing letters addressed to terrorist groups informing them about how their activities are a violation of human rights. International, non-governmental organizations normally communicate the correct human rights standards to the armed terrorists groups while stressing on the applicability of those standards. Another advocacy role performed by international, non-governmental organizations is engaging in activities that allow terrorism victims to report any acts that go against human rights, either by terrorists or agencies that pretend to be engaged in combating terrorism. In this manner, these organizations help to reduce the psychological and emotional effects of terrorism activities on citizens.

Another issue related to advocacy roles that have been discussed in the reviewed articles is working in collaboration with the media to help reduce terrorism. International, nongovernmental organizations work to shape the public’s perception around terrorism. By forming constructive relationships with the media, these organizations play a crucial role in creating a balance in a community that had a negative perception about terrorism and in initiating a public debate to address matters that pertain to human rights and public security. Debate that is encouraged through media sources is extensively used by international, non-governmental organizations to encourage minority groups not to spread violence but to spread a message of peace. By playing their advocacy roles effectively, international, non-governmental organizations have managed to successfully implement counter-terrorism activities.

Advisory roles

The choice of the best response depends on knowledge of the right approach that will help address a given terrorism situation. International, non-governmental organizations provide expertise and policy advice that can help nations to determine the most appropriate counterterrorism response. In order to perform meaningful advisory roles to properly counter terrorism, international, non-governmental organizations must be allowed to have a sense of ownership of the situation at hand. Furthermore, addressing a security issue should be a common concern to both international, non-governmental organizations and the government. For this reason, these organizations are not allowed to take sides as this may interfere with the process of violence reduction. Majority of reviewed literature have documented how governments can interfere with the role of international, non-governmental organizations in providing valuable assistance. For instance, pressure from the government demanding for a quick response from international organizations may make it difficult for these organizations to offer meaningful counter-terrorism response.

Legal roles

International, non-governmental organizations extensively work on the legal issues related to counter-terrorism. In this manner, these organizations contribute greatly to the strengthening of legal frameworks which are concerned with counter-terrorism particularly those laws related to strengthening the rule of law and human rights. The main challenge that international, non-governmental organizations face as they attempt to perform their legal roles is the actual act that qualifies to be referred to as “terrorist act.” Additionally, international, nongovernmental organizations have formulated international human rights standards that are used as a reference when prosecuting terrorists and other criminals who have been arrested for getting involved in violence related to terrorism activities.

Although criminal investigation institutions have the power to perform their roles independently without interference from external organizations, international, non-governmental organizations often require courts to adhere to internationally set human rights laws to conduct criminal proceedings involving perpetrator of terrorism-related activities. Furthermore, substantial volume of literature have documented the role that international, non-governmental organizations play in setting laws that are used to reduce and even prevent youth radicalization.In order to allow international, non-governmental organizations to effectively perform their legal roles related to reduction of terrorism-related violence, criminal justice systems have sufficient provisions that define how it should work with these organizations in fighting terrorism. This demonstrates the degree of commitment that the criminal justice has in working with nongovernmental organizations to create productive laws that are aimed at addressing terrorism threat.

Community roles

Various authors of reviewed literature support that international, non-governmental organizations take part in providing opinions and ideas that are used to build strong communities. Fighting terrorisms can be very difficult in a community that is filled with fear all the time. International, non-governmental organizations try to create safe space for citizens and organize discussion programs where community members can share their experiences at a personal level . Therefore, these organizations play a very important role in reducing tensions that occur in the community as a result of terrorism activities. Furthermore, existing literature has documented that international, non-governmental organizations take active steps to determine community factors that might result into terrorism-related violence. They also carry out outreach activities in the community which are aimed at strengthening the rule of law and human rights. From the research, it has been discovered that when international, non-governmental organizations fight for the support of the rule of law and human rights, they contribute to building of a stable democratic society which allows citizens to actively participate in social and democratic activities.

As part of their community roles, international, non-governmental organizations organize dialogue sessions with victims and perpetrators of terrorism. When compared with the response received from dialogue sessions conducted by international, non-governmental organizations, those conducted by the government do very little in reducing terrorism-related violence. International, non-governmental organizations utilize rights-based approach when interacting with people in the community as this is extremely essential for development of positive relationships.

Educative roles

Another important role played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism as per the literature review is educative role. These organizations adequately recognize the significance of using proper language to address communities which are involved in terrorism-related violence. For this reason, international, non-governmental organizations take an active part in educating public officials on the right language that they should use to address communities that are involved in terrorism-related violence. Furthermore, international, nongovernmental organizations offer guidance to governments on how they should approach different terrorism situations without spreading the violence.

International, non-governmental organizations also take their time to explain to armed bodies and citizens about the importance of demonstrating respect for human rights in all their activities. They also inform warring communities about the negative impacts of choosing war instead of peaceful negotiations as a method of resolving disputes. The specific activities obtained from the reviewed literature and that define the educative roles of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism include; teaching students, youths, and police officers about the negative impacts of terrorism-related violence; informing public officers about the importance of involving people from diverse cultural in decision making to combat terrorism; and working in collaboration with warring communities to explain to them the positive impacts of resolving their conflicts using available methods of alternative conflict resolution.

Challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations when combating terrorism

Implementation of counter-terrorism strategies is not such an easy task, and international, non-governmental organizations have to be prepared to mitigate a number of challenges that they are likely to encounter as they perform their roles. Challenges that international, nongovernmental organizations face as they attempt to combat terrorism tend to interfere with their capacity to effectively prevent terrorism-related violence. This is because international, nongovernmental organizations require relevant information from the government in order to execute their terrorism-prevention roles effectively. This information is always difficult to obtain in countries with broken government or political structures. One of the major challenges faced by international, non-governmental organizations is poor governance. Poor governance in a country results into disintegrated civil organization structures that create room for tremendous terrorism recruitment.

Another big challenge that faced by international, non-governmental organizations as they perform their counter-terrorism roles is convincing governments and public officials about the effectiveness of their strategies in combating terrorism. Public officers in the community may fail to understand the significance of the counter-terrorism activities being implemented due to limited knowledge and lack of access to information sources. When they come across such communities, international, non-governmental organizations are compelled to find a way through which they can disseminate relevant information before they can proceed with their counterterrorism initiatives. This presents a very big challenge to international, non-governmental organizations especially when there are limited resources available for implementation of counter-terrorism strategies.

Although criminal justice organizations have found human rights standards formulated by international, non-governmental organization useful in prosecuting criminals of terrorism-related crimes, these organizations are faced with the challenge of coming up with common standards that would be applicable for all nations globally. This is due to the variations in the way people define terrorisms and terrorist acts that qualify as crimes. With the absence of a common standard from which counter-terrorism policies can be formed, international, non-governmental organizations find it difficult to come up with relevant universal policies that can guide implementation on counter-terrorism strategies.

The claim that some countries feel that international, non-governmental organizations prevent governments from successfully combating terrorism acts as an obstacle to organizations that may want to fight terrorism.As international, non-governmental organizations strive to play its role of fighting for human rights and the rule of law, some governments argue that they are supporting terrorists. In certain countries, international, non-governments institutions are not paid their salaries in full because they believe that these organizations are offering financial support to terrorism groups. It is quite a big challenge for international, non-governmental organizations to work with governments which are opposing their activities, especially if these organizations feel that the rights of citizens are being violated.

International, non-governmental organizations that operate in countries where a large percentage of the population belongs to one ethnic group mostly face harassment in the hands of governments which do not support their activities. These are countries where minority groups are being mistreated due to terrorism-related violence. As they perform their roles of combating terrorism in these countries, international, non-governmental organizations are often chased away by governments that do not see the significance of their in these countries. Furthermore, international, non-governmental organizations face the challenge of implementing counterterrorism policies in countries whose governments do not have clear provisions communication their involvement in activities that are aimed at fighting terrorism.

Assumptions

There are three different assumptions which have been made when developing this research paper. The first assumption is that all international, non-governmental organizations that are being referred to in this paper have got the same motive which is to combat terrorism in different nations of the world. This assumption helps to eliminate questions that may arise concerning the variations that may exist in the missions and visions of international, nongovernmental organization.

The second assumption that has been made in this paper is that the counter-terrorism approaches implemented by international, non-governmental organizations are aimed at achieving similar goals. This assumption makes it easy for the researcher to focus on the same problem with is combating terrorism threat. Third, it has been assumed that all terrorists utilize the same approaches to execute an attack on their adversaries, and these terrorist approaches can be addressed using similar counter-terrorism strategies. This assumption makes it easy to relate the roles of international, non-governmental organizations with terrorism activities and to create a big picture concerning the roles of these organizations in combating terrorism

Study Limitations

This study has only one limitation that may affect validity of information given in this paper. This research has relied solely on information contained in already available literature. Some of the data contained in secondary sources reviewed may not be relevant today due to changes in techniques that are applied by terrorisms and in strategies utilized by contemporary international, non-governmental organizations to combat terrorism. The validity of conclusions made would have been enhanced had the researcher used statistical and empirical research methods to collect data. Unfortunately, these two approaches could not be used due to limited time and resources that were available for the research.

Recommendations For Governments

Governments should embrace the roles played by international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism due to the effectiveness of these roles in reducing terrorism-related violence in the society. It is recommended that governments should give organizations that are interested in combating terrorisms an opportunity to do so and avoid assigning counter-terrorism roles to criminal justice organizations. Moreover, in order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

Furthermore, nations should refrain from portraying international non-governmental organizations as supporters of terrorists and terrorism activities as this may prevent them from engaging in important counter-terrorism activities that may help to reduce impacts of terrorism. Additionally, governments should support international, non-governmental organizations by helping them to investigate the root-cause of terrorism-related violence, and refrain from interfering with their operations to help bring back peace in the community. Governments of various nations will benefit greatly from international, non-governmental organizations by putting these recommendations into consideration because they will easily combat terrorism.

Recommendations For International, Non-Governmental Organizations

International, non-governmental organizations should consider a number of recommendations in order to enhance their effectiveness in combating terrorism. First, international, non-governmental organizations should not have any fear in approaching communities that are affected by terrorism-related violence, but they should gather courage and join hands in combating terrorism in those communities. Second, international, nongovernmental organizations should allow a large number of minority groups to become part of their workforce to limit cultural barriers that they may face in nations where minority groups are the most affected part of the community .

Third, in order to establish the best counter-terrorism strategies, international, nongovernmental organizations should take appropriate steps to identify specific causes of terrorismrelated violence. Fourth, international, non-governmental organizations should take their time to understand how different governments define the terms “security” and “terrorism” to avoid conflicts that may arise whenever they are performing their counter-terrorism roles in different nations of the world

Conclusion

Rapid rise in the rate of terrorism attacks in various countries of the world today has increased the involvement of international, non-governmental organizations in combating terrorism. Although it is possible to know the roles that international, non-governmental organizations play in combating terrorism through statistical empirical studies, similar information can be obtained by conducting a comprehensive review of available literature. A comprehensive analysis of secondary sources reveals that international, non-governmental organizations play six distinct roles in combating terrorism. These roles include research roles, advocacy roles, advisory roles, legal roles, community roles, and educative roles. It can therefore be concluded that international, non-governmental organizations are involved in combating terrorism to a large extent. In addition, from the study, it is evident that international, nongovernmental organizations play very crucial roles in combating terrorism. These roles are extremely effective in reducing terrorism-related violence in different communities. International, non-governmental organizations should be ready to overcome a number of challenges that they are likely to face in the field as they perform their roles of combating terrorism. In order to gain positive benefits from international, non-governmental organizations, governments with terrorism reduction, governments should not politicize the roles of these institutions to avoid interfering with intelligence gathering process.

Competitor Analysis And Competitive Advantage

Concept of a Competitor Analysis

Competitor analysis is a concept that involves identifying the organization competitors and assessing their strategies to establish their weaknesses and strengths relative to those of the organization services or products.  Competitor analysis is a vital part of  a firm’s marketing plan since it assist in determining what makes the firm’s services or products unique and the attributes that a firm should play up to attract the targeted market (Fleisher & Bensoussan, 2015). Competitor analysis is enhanced by placing organization competitors in strategic groups based on how indirectly or directly they compete for customer’s dollar share. The analysis involves listing services or products of each strategic group or competitor, their growth pattern, profitability, assumptions, past and current strategies, marketing assumptions and objectives, cost structure and organizational, size, weaknesses and strengths of the business of competitor (Fleisher & Bensoussan, 2015). With this information, a company can manage to compare its product or services with those of the competitors and determine what need to be improved on to gain a higher competitive advantage in the market.

Importance of Competitive Advantage and why Understanding the Competition is Important

Competitive advantage refers to a business concept defining attributes which permit a company or business to outperform its rivals. These attribute might include new technologies, natural resources, or exceptional talents. A competitive advantage happens when the company is capable of delivering the same benefits as rivals but at a reduced cost, or deliver benefits which exceed those provided by competing products. Competitive advantage is the aptitude to stay ahead of potential and existing completion (Dash, 2013). Therefore superior performance attained through competitive advantage will guarantee market leadership. Competitive advantage is important since it puts organizational products or services in an upper position in the market. This ensures that the organization becomes a leader in price determination and not a follower. With high competitive advantage, an organization is able to win higher market shares, make high sales and register high profits (Dash, 2013).

Understanding who organization competitors are and the products or services they are offering is important since it can assist the organization to develop products or offer services that are outstanding. Understanding ones competitor helps the company to identify their weaknesses and to take advantage of them by strengthening those aspects in their products and services to win competitive advantage. It also assists in setting up competitive prices and assists in countering competitor marketing campaigns with unique and improved initiatives. With enough knowledge of the competitor, an organization can be able to define product improvement strategies and marketing strategies to be able to do better in the market, winning a higher competitive advantage (DePamphilis, 2015).    


Example of a Brief Competitor Analysis that will Provide Information on Competitors in your Area, their Strengths and Weaknesses, and their Possible Strategic Moves

The first step will involve identifying the competitors in the surrounding. Our healthcare organization is located in Dallas, Texas with our major competitor being Pine Creek Medical Center. The facility offers a wide range of services that include gynecology, vascular surgery, pain management, general surgery, urology, orthopedics, ENT, podiatry and orthopedic & neurosurgical spine. The facility has 170 physicians serving in all above identified specialties. Its main strengths include low patient to nurse ratio, which guarantee personalized care for patients needing acute care. The employed nurses are highly experienced in their work. The facility other strength is extensive adoption of technology such that it has fully digitalized equipment, using wireless technology and houses digital OR to ensure that patient receive the leading age surgical procedures in sensitive areas such as urology, spine, bariatric and orthopedics. The center has also integrated advanced operating room technology in a relaxing environment that is spa like. The facility is also equipped with the modern state-of-the-art surgical imaging, communication technology and surgical control environment. This gives the facility extra advantage for in surgical related services. Beside this the facility has been acknowledge by various bodies for its outstanding performance and been accredited for meeting the required standard. Pine Creek Medical Center has Accreditation of Healthcare Organization from Joint Commission, and International Medical Tourism Board. It is also Medicaid certified. The center also has a membership in the International Board of Medicine and Surgery, and it has attained quality award from healthgrades.com. Another major strength is employment of highly trained workers to offer healthcare services to its patient. The organization culture also focuses on prioritizing on patients with intention of offering the best possible care services. Pine creek is also the only 100% physician owned facility in the locality. The facility facilitate viewing of patient records in pdf form meaning no unauthorized individuals are permitted to add, delete or edit patient data or record.

The main facility weakness is that it does not provide primary care. The facility only seems to concentrate on advance care where most patients are referred after serious diagnoses are made. This makes it a facility targeting a certain kind of patients and not any patient who may need primary care for different other condition. In addition, the medical services offered in the facility are limited such that the it blocks patients with other needs such as pediatric needs,  cardiovascular, diabetes, psychiatric case, and maternity needs or even emergency room among other medical services  The facility also only handles short hospital stay, meaning it does not handle complex cases that will need lengthy patients’ admission.  Families may be required to transfer their patients if they have condition that may require lengthy hospital say. Based on the provided services and adapted technology, the facility also offers higher charges for its services.  

Obstacles that Might Hinder the Ability to Conduct an Effective Service Area Competitor Analysis

Conducting effective competitor analysis requires that one should have all the required general information regarding competitor operations, technology available, facilities, and other specific information that is mostly known by organization workers and patients who have received services from different units of the facility. The main challenge that hinders the ability to conduct effective service area competitor is lack of information and ways to get all the needed information. One may need to work with the competitor or to be assisted by those who work in the competitor organization to have all the needed information. This may be considerably hard especially if the competitor has managed to win employees loyalty. There are also some hidden management tactics that influence workers performance which are only known by the leaders. These secretes play a great role in influencing performance (Fleisher & Bensoussan, 2015). Although they contribute a great deal in influencing organization competitiveness, this is some of the information that no competitor analysis will manage to uncover. Another possible obstacle is obtaining wrong information especially if the source of information has intention of protecting the competitor interest. There is never guarantee that the information given by workers or other individuals directly related to the competitors are genuine or misleading to protect competitor’s interest.

Corporations and Psychopathology

Dr. Robert D. Hare (Ramsland, n.d.) has been a consultant foe the FBI on psychopaths for over 30 years. He has developed and tested the “Hare psychopathology checklist” that has been well validated through the clinical research in psychology. Through this research, Dr. Hare makes connection of psychopathology (Achbar & Simpson, 2003b) to many corporations’ behaviors. He discovered that some organizations are known to exhibit the six key areas identified by World Health Organization on their “personality Diagnostic Checklist” in the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), which include:

  • Callous unconcern for the feelings of others
  • Incapacity to maintain enduring relationship
  • Reckless disregard for the safety of others
  • Deceitfulness: Repeated lying and conning others for profit
  • Incapacity to experience guilt
  • Failure to conform to social norms with respect for lawful behaviors

Assignment

Review and consider the connection between corporations and psychopathology. Also examine how psychopathology might impact a corporation’s social responsibility.

NOTE: Build an argument as to whether or not most large American corporations are psychopathological and exploitive, with little regard for social responsibility. In your argument, explain what you think are the root causes of this (for either position). If you believe corporations do exhibit psychopathological characteristic, explain what might alleviate these. If you believe corporations are not psychopathological and exploitive, explain what is keeping them from being so.

Corporations and Psychopathology and how Psychopathology might Impact a Corporation’s Social Responsibility

Worklife has been related to both psychological wellbeing and mental health problems. Characteristics of particular working environment seem to increase susceptibility of workers to mental health issues. Occupations with low skills discretion and/or high work pace increase the risk of developing mental condition (Gamperiene et al., 2006). Toxic work environment is highly likely to result to distress. Experiences that include to excessive job demands together with low social support or low control over work can result to distress. The experience of lack of balance between effort spent at work and received reward, employees unfair treatment by the management are specifically stressful. If such experiences are prolonged they can result to advanced mental and physical health problems (Kivimaki, Hotopf & Henderson, 2010). This clearly shows that corporation can play a great role in development of psychological problems. Psychopathology reduces workers connection with an organization. The organization is unable to cater for workers wellbeing and hence, the workers are unable to invest in the wellbeing of others stakeholders. This makes it hard for an organization to invest in corporate social responsibility since its work environment does not promote it.  

Read Also Psychopathology And Criminality – Sample Paper

Psychopathological is experienced in different organization. However,, it is not common in American corporations operating inside America due to tough laws employed to protect workers. American corporations are cautioned against discrimination, occupational safety and health, minimal wages, workers benefits, leaves and minimum working hours among other things. This makes it hard for them to subject workers in exploitive and psychopathological condition. In addition, high level of competition among American corporation forces them to nurture and develop talents rather than subjecting them to strenuous situation that can make them to consider quitting.

Mergers and Acquisitions In Health Care Industry

Mergers and acquisitions are gaining popularity as the health care industry continues to determine how to best provide services to a wide variety of patients.

Why Health Care Organizations Merge

Healthcare organizations merge for a number of reasons. One of these reasons is to enhance efficiency by recognizing economies of scale for instance by reallocating resources from different locations in reaction to excess capacity or any other changing situation. This is also achieved by lowering administrative and management overhead, confining care in a smaller volume of locations, increasing treatments volume in locations and sharing expertise. Mergers also represent strategic trials by organizations to obtain market power. Merger normally results to a greater provider market share especially when the merger is between competitors, and as a result, strengthening the market position of the newly established company after the merger. This gives such healthcare organization an opportunity to determine prices in the market (Postma & Roos, 2015).

How Stakeholders Benefits

Stakeholders in healthcare mergers include physicians and other medical workers, insurance companies, healthcare managements, investors, workers, patients and sometimes the board members. The main advantage of mergers for the patients is the enhanced efficiency which resulted to higher quality of care. To the workers, mergers may result to interacting with new workers from the other company gaining new ideas and new problems approach during operation. Increase in efficiency also benefits managers and investors of the healthcare organization since it end up reducing the operation cost, which eventually results to higher profits. Insurance companies also benefits by higher operation efficiency since it reduce its liability caused by medical errors and other medically preventable complication. Thus, successful healthcare mergers provide great advantage to all involved stakeholders (Roberts, Wallace & Moles, 2 015).

Horizontal Merger and Why it is Beneficial

Horizontal Merger

Horizontal merger happens when two companies essentially involve in the same service or product merge to enhance their combined value. In this case, a company decides to integrate or take over another company at the same production stage or in the same industry for instance the merger of Mobil and Exxon or the acquisition of Pixar by Disney. In the two examples the two involved companies of similar operation and size, working in the same industry are integrated to create a stronger and more powerful company (Roberts, Wallace & Moles, 2015).

Benefits of Horizontal Merger

There are various benefits associated with horizontal integration.  Horizontal merger gives them involved company a chance to expand and achieving reduction of competition since the expansion will provide it with higher operation power, production cost reduction, increase of market share or market power, achieve economic of scope and economic of scale. Thus, the organization will be able to reduce the price of its product due to the attained economic of scale and reduced cost of production and hence increasing its competitive advantage.

Read Also Why Health Care Organizations Merge

Effective integration will also ensure combination of two workforces with different level of creativity, culture, ideas and mode of problems solving. When well integrated, the workforce can promote the development of a strong workforce with high ability to define high level of creativity and new skills to enhance high quality product   or services. This also adds to improving the organization competitive advantages (Gal-Or, 1988).

What Transportation & Logistics Leaders need to do to Prepare for the Future of Freight Transportation

The transportation and logistics industry is continually evolving. The leaders of this industry need to develop to adjust to the consistently changing requests constantly. In 2002, it was anticipated that “the volume of cargo traffic on the American street framework will increase by seventy percent. This trend will keep on making a tremendous strain on the country’s roads. With the money related emergency that the central and neighborhood governments have encountered as of late, the transportation framework foundation is getting restricted financing. This occurrence has kept the country from staying aware of the developing engine bearer movement on the expressways (Blanquart, Clausen & Jacob, 2016). Throughout the next decade, cargo shipments to the United States are relied upon to increase. This change would build the measure of cargo being moved to utilize expressways to arrive at their inland endpoints. Most of the country is now encountering clogging on the roadways. Therefore, there is a gigantic need to work productively to make up for the lost time and get readied for future cargo transportation. 

For better preparation for the future, transportation and logistics leaders should put the extended time in course getting ready for worldwide conveyances. Transportation arranging is critical because transportation costs, item accessibility, and load security should be mulled over (Taneja, 2019). This strategy enables leaders to be progressively productive and adjust to changes. What’s more, pioneers should think about accessible innovation to get ready for what’s to come. Innovation improves proficiency as well as it enables one to be aggressive in the market. To the extent change is concerned, leaders ought to think many steps ahead.

The facts demonstrate that innovation will assume a gigantic job later on for cargo transportation. Probably the most significant innovation is GPS (Pettit & Wang, 2016). It is a lifeline. This innovation empowers organizations to screen the everyday developments of engine transporters. It enables organizations to pinpoint changes that should be made to reduce by and enormous costs. If each engine transporter inside a business is being followed, more excellent calculated choices can be made dependent on the data. Notwithstanding all the clog on the expressways the country over, GPS can be utilized to give elective courses to engine bearers to guarantee that shipments remain on timetable.

Tight capacity is one of the largest challenges facing the motor transportation industries in the United States and will likely continue to be a significant challenge into the future. Driver shortages and limitations on hours of service introduced by the federal government’s Compliance, Safety, and Accountability Act of 2010 combine to reduce the overall driver hours available across the industry to service orders between customer and shipper (Coyle, Novack, & Gibson, 2016). Transportation and logistics leaders need to work together to improve working conditions and benefits for motor transport drivers. In addition to fair compensation, these efforts would improve the recruiting and retention of drivers and increase the total pool of driver hours available within the industry.

High safety standards are often priority among shippers seeking motor transport services. One factor which increases safety but decreases recruiting and retention of drivers in the industry is the implementation of drug and alcohol testing for its employees. The industry has begun requiring such screenings prior to employment, regular physical examinations, following any accident, as well as by random selection (Coyle et al, 2016). As improved safety is and aught to be of highest priority within the transportation industry, shippers, transporters, and customers alike should work together to encourage, implement, and reward the highest standards in the employment of drivers.

Keeping pace with technology is a must for all freight transporters. In recent years, GPS and RFID technology has improved in-transit visibility for shipments across the world. Some motor transport platforms are broadening the use of on-board recorders to monitor operational time, time spent idle, fuel consumption and speed limits among other data which come together to increase safety accountability and operating efficiency (Coyle et al, 2016). Such technology must be prioritized and adapted in areas where it is not currently in use. Reducing safety incidences and optimizing efficiency on assets could make the difference between a successful and unsuccessful freight transportation firm.