Using Force Field Analysis in Diagnosing Change at Microsoft and Apple Inc

Diagnosing the Change in Microsoft and Apple Inc

            The main goals of organizational development strategies are to improve and make performance more effective. Change diagnosis is one such strategy, whose aim is to make an assessment of current organizational performance levels in order to design and implement appropriate change initiatives (Saeed & Wang, 2014). Successful change diagnoses are done using diagnosis models. Several models have been developed that can be used by organizational managers in change diagnosis. The paper will apply Force Field Analysis in diagnosis of change in Microsoft and Apple companies. The reason for the choice of the model is its simplicity and the fact that the change that occurred in Apple and Microsoft were caused by external forces.

Read also Organizational Diagnostic Model : Google

Force Field Analysis

Developed by Kurt Lewin in 1940s, the “force field analysis” model describes the current organizational level of performance as an equilibrium achieved between the external forces that drive upward movement and internal forces that resist the movement (Burnes & Cooke, 2012). According to Lewin, change is forced by external driving forces, such as technology changes, change in consumer preferences, while restraining forces such as resistance to change, finances act as restraining forces for change process. When these two set of forces interact, an equilibrium position is attained, which describes current organization performance levels.

Application of Force Field Analysis to Microsoft

            The introduction of new technological gadgets such as smart phone, change in the preferences of consumers and the creation of broadband, had profound performance on the performance of Microsoft (Huthwaite, 2007). Moreover, the other major competitors in the market such as mobile phone manufacturers and Apple Computer Company were increasingly eating into the company market share. 

Read also Analysis of an Organization Vision Statement -Microsoft Corporation

The Driving Forces

An analysis of the Microsoft Company using the “force field model” reveals the major driving forces as the environment, technological cycles and competition. The major technological changes especially in the computing world had major impact on Microsoft Company (Morschett, Schramm-Klein, & Zentes, 2015). Traditionally, Microsoft Company has been enjoying a huge market share in the manufacturer of computer software, thus having huge financial potential. However, the world economic recessions, and the entry of new competitors into the market due to increased technological innovations meant the company was no longer enjoying good financial health.

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Moreover, the demands of the consumer market were rapidly changing. Most of the entrepreneurial startups were shifting from investor platforms to inventors of new technologies, extenders and platform of specialists. As organization embraced new challenges and developed new strategies in the market, their requirements shifted and this altered the product requirements in the market.

Read also Microsoft Corporation Financial Methods 10-k & 10-q

In addition, there was an added disadvantage of competition from the change in strategies from startup companies. For example, startups like Netscape Communications started without the premise of offering internet, the Oracle, IBM and Sun Microsystems sponsored the Java and network computer. According to (Lenard, 1999), the introduction of anti-Microsoft startups, the new technological devices such as tablets, smart phones and mobile internet connectivity threatened Microsoft share of the consumer software market.

Read also Leading Organizational Change – Assignment And Sample Solution

            The harsh economic downturn of 2012 led to slowed consumer purchasing powers. The year had also seen a huge innovation in the mobile devices industry (Morschett, Schramm-Klein, & Zentes, 2015). Many mobile manufacturers such as Samsung and Apple were focusing more on innovation of mobile devices that met the consumer preferences. Microsoft was struggling; the major focus was on the company major divisions. Its mobile services and device were not making enough profits. The pressures provided an impetus for new strategic directions.

The Restraining Forces

            One of the major undoing of Microsoft Corporation was its focus on the divisions, which fostered little or no innovation. Microsoft’s major focus was on output and this was evident in its product division lines (Morschett, Schramm-Klein, & Zentes, 2015). The company had product division (the intelligent & other products), productivity and business processes, personal computing and corporate divisions. The divisional organizational structure prides itself on increased focus on specific products, with each division responsible for its own functions. Moreover, staffs in each division are able to report directly to the CEO and other top management. The employees in divisional structure are more of generalists, who can easily grasp specific tasks.

            The other restraining force of change in Microsoft was the personnel owing to the already established organization culture. In order for Microsoft to transition and embrace the demands of the new technological changes, there was need for a change in the organizational structure to increase focus on innovation. However, the deeply rooted organizational culture can be hard to alter. According to (Mathews & Linski, 2016), change often can result in redundant workforce. The fear of loss of jobs and possible change in work environment (leading to new job descriptions) could trigger resistance to change initiatives.

Microsoft Equilibrium Performance

            The driving forces of competition, technological cycles and market changes in preferences have been strong enough to alter the company performance and its strategic position. The forces of resistance to change and the change in the organization divisional structure were the major challenges. However, effective leadership has seen the company perform transitions. Microsoft now enjoys a functional organization structure with more emphasis on innovation of products and devices to meet the customer needs.  The huge financial capability of the company enabled the transition during the recession. The present equilibrium performance has seen the company rise to become the leading manufacturer of computer software and mobile devices for organizations.

Application of Force Field Analysis to Apple Inc

            Apple Inc. has been manufacturing computers for its consumers while adopting the exclusive rights strategy. The increased globalization and economic downturn of 2012 completely altered the computing market landscape (Clegg, Kornberger, & Pitsis, 2015). The company faced a number of driving and opposing forces of change.

Read also Strategic Management and Strategic Competitiveness – Apple Inc

The Change Driving Forces

            Apple’s market share was under huge threat from Microsoft Company and other computer and mobile devices manufacturers in the market. The major change driving forces were competition, market dynamics, technological cycles and internal controls. The downturn in world economy led to shard decrease in global demands for computers. In addition, the company had inferior financial muscle compared to Microsoft, its major competitor in the market. This laid huge pressure on the company management on the need for strategic shift in the company focus.

Read also How Technological Changes and Globalization have Influenced Apple Inc.

            Moreover, the “exclusive rights” strategy proved to be a major mistake by Apple Company. Microsoft allowed other companies to run its software on their computers at a license fee. This allowed Microsoft to specialize in massive software production, making software that could run in all IBM computers. Apple exclave rights meant that the company software could only run in Apple computers. The strategy gave Microsoft a competitive advantage in software manufacture and sale. Indeed, it is form the financial perspectives of this strategic mistake that the company internal controls sought to rectify it’s through the strategic shift in its business operations.

The Restraining Forces

            The Apple Inc. faced significant drop in its computer hardware and software sales at time when the world economy was its low. Moreover, the company’s reduced revenues meant that new initiatives were then a priority. The major restraining forces for the new initiatives were weak financial position of the company, which were reflected by its dwindling revenues compared to those of Microsoft Corp. The change initiatives were conceived by the organization management, which created potential resistance form organization employees.

Read also Application – Eight Stages of Successful Large-Scale Organizational Change – Bottom Up Scenario 

Apple Current Equilibrium Performance

The interplay of the driving and restraining forces in Apple led to a total shift in the company’s market strategy. Apple Inc. focused more on creativity and innovation in its devices and personal computer electronics. Moreover, the company rectified its initial mistake and introduced licensing in its mobile hardware and software manufacture. The company is now a big rival to Microsoft, generating huge annual revenues.

Read also The Kurt Lewin’s Change Model’s Organizational Change Stages

SWOT Analyses

            SWOT is an acronym that means Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. The following is a summary of the major SWOT components of the two companies.

  Microsoft Inc.Huge financial capabilities, huge market sharePoor organizational structureEmerging markets due to increased license with other manufacturersNew market entrants
  Apple Inc.Good organizational structure, great innovationWeak financial capabilitiesEmerging consumer electronics marketNew device manufacturers

            The major strength of Microsoft Company is its superior financial capabilities. The company adopted licensing strategy, which allowed other computer companies to run its software at a fee. This enabled the company to concentrate on manufacture of software and selling them at a license fee. The mass use of the company software allowed the company to generate huge revenues, making its software available in almost all IBM computers. However, the divisional organizational structure was the company’s major weaknesses. The emerging markets due to increased use of computers and other mobile devices offers opportunities to the company, while the entry of new device and software manufactures serve as threats. The emergence of companies such as Samsung and the innovative strategy in Apple are major source of threats to the Microsoft market share.

Read also BUS 650 -Managerial Finance – Evaluation of Corporate Performance – Apple Inc

            The Apple Company prides itself as having great innovation and creativity, the core company strategy. However, poor revenues owing to strategic mistake of exclusive rights offer weak financial capabilities. This is the major weakness of the company. The emerging consumer electronic market in Asia, African and Europe offers new opportunities for the growth of the company. While the continued entry on new mobile software and hardware manufacturers such as Samsung, LG and HTC offer massive threats to the company market share.

Comparison of Microsoft and Apple Inc. Analyses

            The driving forces in Microsoft change initiatives were mainly external forces of market (environment), technological cycles and changes in consumer preferences. The new technology, entrance of new players in software manufacture and changing consumer preferences led to change in company revenues. The company had to respond to these pressures, which led to a change in the market strategy. However, the major restraining forces of change were internal resistance to change and the divisional structure. This made change in Microsoft more challenging.

            Although Apple like Microsoft had the elements of market forces, technological cycles and change in consumer preferences as the major driving forces, the other driving force of change in the company was internal controls. Unlike Microsoft that enjoyed huge financial capabilities, Apple had weaker financial muscle and this drove the company to change its market strategy in order to remain competitive in the market and generate more revenues.  The restraining forces of change in Apple were resistance to change and weaker financial capacity to implement the new market strategies.

            The interplay between the driving and restraining forces led to new equilibrium performance being attained by the two companies. Microsoft and Apple successfully implemented new market strategies. Microsoft was able to successfully change its structure from divisional to functional structure, and the results of the new market strategy in Microsoft is establishment of the company as world’s leading manufacturer of computer hardware and software. In addition the company was able to add consumer electronics to its market segment, enabling it to gather for consumer needs and generate massive revenues.

            The shift in market strategy in Apple led the company increasing focus on creativity and innovation. The company rectified its initial strategic mistake of exclusive rights and adopted Microsoft style licensing of its software and hardware productions at license fee. Apple’s new strategy has seen the company become one of the best selling brands with huge customer satisfaction. Apple products have now been synonymous with the term “quality”, which has allowed the company to reap premium prices for its products. The company’s revenues now rival Microsoft and show no signs of falling despite even the tough economic climate.

Potential Areas of Resistance

            The potential area of resistance in Microsoft is the organization employees, who may be reluctant to move from their divisional to functional organizational structure. The forces that drive change in Microsoft demands a change in the company market strategy which will greatly alter the organization structure. The change in organization structure is likely to be faced with huge resistance for the employees owing to uncertainty regarding their jobs and changes in job descriptions which could cause impact of job motivation. According to (Smollan, 2011), most employees are reluctant to move out of their comfort zones. According to the author, such employees will fight any change initiatives to retain status quo.

            The strategy that Microsoft could use to respond to resistance to organization structure change is through effective communication. According to (Mushtaq, n.d.), successful change implementation should be communicated well to avoid any resistance. Good communication from change managers help to remove any suspicions and confusion regarding reasons for change and the possible results. It will also help to make employees understand the need for change implementation, thus making them to facilitate than resist change. 

            The main resistance to change in Apple is the reluctance of the management to implement the change initiatives owing to weak financial capability of the company. The new strategic shift in Apple demands a change in market strategy with more focus on innovation and creativity, which demands huge financial investment on talent, market research and training. The weak financial capability is a huge restraining force, which will impede the implementation of the new initiatives.

Read also Organizational Change Using Kotter’s 8 Step Approach

            The Apple resistance to change can be responded through implementation of small changes at a time. For example, the company could choose to invest first in talent and training then focus on implementation of the new market strategy. This would give the company enough time for implementation, allowing the revenues generated to be allocated to critical components of the company. Moreover, there is need for effective communication of the goals and objectives of the change initiatives in order to respond to the resistance from the change managers, who would view it as a threat to company bottom line.

Recommendations for Further Actions

Apple products continue to be sold at premium prices, making them devices for the financially stable. However, there remains huge market among the middle income earners in Africa, Asia and North and South America. The paper recommends that the company makes changes in production systems, innovation and marketing to create low cost computers and other consumer devices that can serve such markets. There remains huge potential for increased revenues in these markets, which Apple is yet to exploit owing to its relatively expensive products that serve only high income earners.            

Read also Managing Organizational Change – The Challenger and Columbia Shuttle Disasters Case Study

The Microsoft mobile segment has failed to live up to the expectations upon the purchase of Nokia. The bulk of the company revenues come from computer hardware and software sakes, while the mobile segment makes minimal profits. The paper recommends Microsoft to adopt innovation to be the core strategy at its mobile division.  This will allow the company to focus more on producing competitive mobile devices that competes with those of Apple, HTC, Samsung and Sony. Moreover, it is recommended that the company moves from the windows based mobile platform to the android operating system. The windows operating system is not compatible with most web based applications, unlike android, whose open nature allows other companies to develop compatible applications that can run on the OS. Perhaps this was a strategic mistake that Microsoft should consider revisiting.

Treatment of Anaphylactic Shock

The Multisystem Physiologic Progression that Occurs in Anaphylactic Shock

            Anaphylactic shock is a distributive shock that is caused by the response of the body towards an allergen (Hammer & McPhee, 2014). It is different from the normal shock since it is an accelerated form of allergic reaction that leads to large release of histamine, which causes massive vasodilation.

Read also Circulatory Shock and Its Treatment

            The anaphylactic shock results from a hypersensitive reaction called anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis physiologic alteration is the vasodilation and hypovolemia, which leads to impaired cellular metabolism and tissue perfusion (Huether & McCance, 2012). According to the authors, there are other effects that rapidly involve the body. The process begins when an allergic individual is exposed to an allergen. The most common allergens that cause anaphylaxis are venom form insects, latex, shellfish, medications such as penicillin and peanuts.

            When the sensitized individual is exposed to the allergen, a vigorous humoral immune response is initiated, which results in production of large quantities of immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody (Huether & McCance, 2012). The allergen that is bound to the immunoglobulin E causes the degranulation of the mast cells. Consequently the mast cells release large number of vasoactive and inflammatory cytokines. This triggers inflammatory and extensive immune responses, which include increased vascular permeability, and vasodilation, which causes peripheral blood pooling and edema.

            The peripheral pooling of blood leads to precipitous drop in blood pressure and weakened pulse that is hard to detect. Laryngeal angioedema associated with the condition, leads to obstruction of the airway and can be life-threatening (Grossman & Porth, 2014).  The onset of anaphylactic shock is sudden and progression to the death can occur unless emergency treatment is given to the affected person.

When to Refer Patients to Emergency Care versus Treating as an Outpatient

            Anaphylactic shock is a medical emergency which needs fast recognition and intervention. Once a patient is received, the causative agent must be discontinued immediately and epinephrine is administered (Grossman & Porth, 2014). The epinephrine should be offered through the intramuscular injection into the vastus literalis muscle.

There is no precise time as to when to release patient as an outpatient after treatment. This remains the judgment call of the physician administering treatment since anaphylactic shock is prone to relapse. A patient who shows good response to the epinephrine can be treated as outpatients. However, if a patient shows no response on administration of 3 doses of epinephrine at an interval of 3-15 minutes, such a patient should be transferred to the emergency care immediately (Keir, 2014).

How Genetics and Age Might Impact the Process of Anaphylactic Shock

The severity of the anaphylactic shock can greatly differ based on genetic makeup and age of individuals. Genetically predisposed individuals often experience severe humoral immune response when they are exposed to the allergens. Food related induced anaphylactic shock is more common among children compared to adults. According to (Rudders, Banerji, Clark, & Camargo, 2011) peanuts and milk are major triggers of anaphylactic shock among infants, while adults report allergic reactions towards tree nuts, latex, fruits, and vegetables.

Pathophysiology of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Blood veins have thin walls that are distensible, with valves to prevent pooling of blood. Sometimes, owing to numerous factors, the blood in veins can form clots of thrombus leading to a condition called DVT. The Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) occurs due to the formation of blood clot (thrombus) in the lower proximity of the venous vessel walls. According to (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 586), DVT can be attributed mainly to three factors. These factors are the damage on the venous endothelial walls, hypercoagulable states and venous statis. The DVT is asymptotic mainly due to the deep location of the veins, making clinical detection difficult.

Read also Thrombosis

            The chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a consequence of the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) (Grossman & Porth, 2014, P. 762). The CVI develop owing to chronic valvular incompetence and varicose veins (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 586). According to the authors, varicose veins occur due to the pooling of blood as a result of valve failures, trauma and gradual venous distention.  The prolonged pooling of blood causes inadequate venous flow over a long period of time, which leads to CVI.

Differences between Venous and Arterial Thrombosis

            The venous and arterial thromboses are both vascular disorders that occur in the blood vessels. The venous thrombosis occurs due to the development of thrombus in the veins, owing to the activation of the clotting process. According to (Huether & McCance, 2012) the venous thrombosis occurs when the accumulation of platelets and clotting factors lead to the formation of thrombus around the venous valve. The thrombus can propagate and grow further proximally due to inflammation. A significant growth of the thrombus can obstruct venous blood flow, creating significant blood pressure behind the thrombus in the vein, which manifests itself as edema. The venous thrombosis can be caused by a combination of genetic, venous statis, damage to the endothelium and hypercoagulable states.

 In contrast, the arterial thrombosis is caused by a clot that occurs in the arteries, which carry blood at high pressure from heart to other body organs. The main of arterial thrombosis is arteriosclerosis and atrial fibriallation.

How Age Impacts the Pathophysiology of Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Venous Thrombosis

            There is increase in the risk of venous and arterial thrombosis with increased age (Huether & McCance, 2012). The possible mechanisms of the increase include decreased exercise, increased immobility, which results in venous statis and increased activation of blood coagulation. With an increase in age, the plasma concentrations of some coagulation factors increase progressively. Moreover, increased age is often followed with reduced mobility and tissue degradation. The reduced mobility age and trauma coupled with old age are huge risk factors that impact on the pathopysiology of CVI and DVT. Conversely, increased mobility and exercise reduces the likelihood of CVI and DVT.

How to Diagnose and Prescribe Treatment of the Disorders for a Patient Based On Age

The CVI is easy to diagnose owing to the presence of symptoms (Huether & McCance, 2012). The CVI can be diagnosed by observing the hyperpigmentation of the areas around ankles, any presence of venous statis ulcers and edema at lower extremities. The diagnosis of DVT can be confirmed through a combination of Doppler ultrasonography and serum D-dimer measurement. The treatment of CVI and DVT based on age can be achieved by examining patient mobility history and recommending appropriate exercise. The patient would be advised to always elevate legs, increase mobility and perform physical exercises.

The Smashing Machine – Film Review

The film represented the ultimate fighting championship that was flourishing in the United States in the mid-90s. These business was operated as a pay-per-view-fueled sport. The sport attracted bloodthirsty fan, who perceived the professional boxing and wrestling to be too genteel. It was not long before the brutality and novelty sport which is mixture of martial arts and big emotions was banned from being aired in cable TV (Hyams, 2002). The move was seen as ironical because the film “The smashing Machine” which is considered as bone-crunching documentary made debut on HBO. The film centered on mark Kerr, who had a mass of muscles as well as Mike Tyson like voice. After the conditions become unfavourable in the United States, Kerr decided to seek greener pastures in Japan. In Japan, they lacked self-appointed moral guardian figure like McCain.

In the film, Japan was seen as a healthy location which permits pro wrestling industry to flourish. The country presented a segment where sports included the mixed arts which attracted fighters from different disciplines come together to compete and the sport was guided by few rules. Having won several games without losing Kerr carried pride of being the best, not until a bad ref call that made him to lose the game (Hyams, 2002). He certainly bottomed out because he was in constant use of drugs because of the pain. This film showed that some business are difficult to be abandoned especially when one is addict to.

Touching the Void – Film Review

This is one of the most horrifying and frightening film that left many audience in their nightmares. The film centered about the two Brits Simon Yates and Joe Simpson, who were in their mid-20s. The two were very determine to climb a large scale west face maintained named as Siula Grande located in Peruvian Andes (Macdonald, 2004). Since the two climbers had trained well and fit to climb the mountain, they perceived that had seal and zest to try one push method used for climbing mountain. This method requires a climbers to carry with them all the gears instead of establishing caches along the route. Since the mountain was very steep and risk to climb, they decided to reduce the weight of their luggage. Their plan was to climb the mountain faster and climb down very quickly.

            Both climbers had 300-foot rope and they were planning to lower the rope 300 feet and make sure the rope get tug. This means that Simpson was necessitate to dug and anchored himself so that he create a safe zone for Yates to climb down and the process is repeated until they reach at the bottom (Macdonald, 2004). Their plan did not work as they had planned due to snow fall that slowed the whole process. Due to darkness, the two climber were left to drop the rope in unknown distance, as a result, Simpson felt down and landed in the ice ledge.            

From the film, it is clear that Simpson was unable to climb out from the crevices and the only way out was to gamble his way out using every strategy even if it seem dangerous and madness to many audience. In the morning when the light was out, he was able crawl out to the mountain side which was safe. The film “Touching the void” attempted to show to the audience that your consciousness can help someone get out of the position that is tight (Macdonald, 2004). Here Simpson was determine and bold to climb into the safety despite the tough conditions.

American History X – Film Review

The first scene of the film started by a TV news show, which grieved Derek was pointing finger to the far-right targets for the death of his father. Later in the film the audience will realizes that the bitterness exhibited by Derek was not just as a result of his fathers’ death, but is was due to motivation given by his father over the dinner table conversation. It is clear that his father had instilled him with racism and throughout the film, the director did not attempted to tackle the aspect of race hatred (Kaye, 1998). One of the convincing scene that was represented in the movie and indicated that roles of leadership in shaping ethical behavior of the community is when Derek made a brilliant speech driven by availability of heavy metal, tattoos, beer, drugs and the need for all the people in the community that feel insecure to belong to the entire movement. The purpose of this speech was to make all races to stick together and protect all their playground and beaches of the Venice area by declaring war with all others.

            The film uses White and Black to demonstrate the recent past and color discrimination within a 24-hour period after Derek was released from prison. While in prison, Derek was seen to have gone through a transition from being hater of whites to a lonely person which was accelerated by brutal rape (Kaye, 1998). In the other hand Danny who schooled together with Derek was a good students and both were taught by black history teacher named Sweeney, who provided the students with moral films.

            One important aspect that the film attempted to present is the development of Derek’s prison experience. The swastika tattoos that was drawn on his chest fitted with him at first as white power faction. However, later it was seen that Derek disillusion made him find out that all other major groups in the prison such as the white, Hispanic and black have developed a working formula. For him that was too much and only basketball game was the one that put him in troubled. Additionally, the film’s right-wing was clearly demonstrated by Derek forceful rhetoric, however, these questions were only answered by Jewish teacher by the name Elliot Gould (Kaye, 1998). Also, the black laundry worker gave a speech about the feelings and the ideas, but stressed how they have missed sex. Generally, this film presented the historical problems about racial difference in the American society. These problems was perpetrated in the prisons, schools and other public place. Most important aspect that the film highlighted was that parents tutor their children about racism.

The Rules of Engagement – Film Review

The film “The rule of engagement” presented strange belief that were weird, but not weird as compared to those used in other religions. It was vividly presented that the first raid carried out in the film was staged as a publicity stunt and the second raid was stage as a government riot caused by uniformed boys with toys. The director of this film attempted to argue out the theme of the film from his point of view and some of the critics have argued against this themes (Gazecki, 1997). Looking at this film it is clear the director failed to make federal case because the evidence was tempered with and even lost, crucial reports and files disappeared, eyewitnesses failed to give their testimonies, crime scene was protected for investigation purposes, video tapes were returned blank and the FBI ransacked the area with the intention of destroying the evidence.

It is evident that this film is very persuasive because: first, the director attempted to ensure that testimonies from both sides were presented and tried as much as possible to avoid cheap arguments that does not add value to the film. There is clear indication that the film attempted to deal with facts. Secondly, the people attacking the government are not only the lawyer from Branch Davidians and muckraking, but also it included FBI photographers, the district Texas Rangers and middle-Americans such as county sheriff (Gazecki, 1997). For example, in the film it showed a man who developed some of the equipment that FBI were using and tempering with them to portray FBI firing at the building, yet the FBI insisted that they never fired any single shot. Thirdly, the presences of eye witnesses was an indication the director attempted to show that truth detector has been built. However, it is possible that these eye witnessed could be deceiving.             Throughout the film, the individuals who were seen arguing against the government were seen to be speaking the truth, because their eyes appeared to be recalling exactly what they saw. While those who were defending the government which included Attorney General Janet Reno and FBI spokesman were seen to be reading a script that had been rehearsed and kept on reaping phrases (Gazecki, 1997). From the perspective of Waco, it is not illegal to hold irregular religious beliefs, trade and hold firearms, defend you house against armed assault when the assault is against the law. These facts describes how the federal government carry out their operations and at some situations rights of the public are suspended into to ensure that properties are protected.

A Strong Clear Vision – Film Review

This film is considered as the most beloved and successful memorial movie of the time. The film was presented in the most simple and elegant manner through presentation of statement without even trying to complicate the issues. In this documentary film, the most touching scene was the miracle, which formed the foundation of this film. In the present time, when the memorial is universally beloved, some people are quick to point out that they fought against it because the memorial did not sink well with them best on their taste and judgment (Mock, 1995). The story of the memorial was entered in the folklore for a national competition that was help to select a winning design. A total of 1,444 entries filled in for the competition, which was one of the competition that received as many entries enough to fill a gymnasium. After the committee sifted through all the entries, they settled on stark design that was designed by Maya Lin, which was at the time unknown guy.

            Considering that most of the entries came from well-known and famous professionals, they settled on Lin’s piece. After conducting background checks, the committee realized that Lin was an undergraduate student and the piece was done as class assignment. Her work stood out in the thickets of many entries that featured tired monumental themes and gaudy architecture. The secret with her work was that it perfectly served the purpose as it was intended and expected by the committee (Mock, 1995). However, her opponent and competitors were not seeing thing from the same perspective as the others. This is because most of the opponents were seeing things from conservative perspective and what they expected to see was a traditional memorial, which are normally hang on the courthouses square and decked with the emblems of patriotism such as eagles, flags or statute of soldiers. In fact, one of her opponent criticized the memorial as an
“insulting and depressing…a black scar in a hole.”

            Some of the scenes that stood out in the documentary was the time Maya Lin fiercely and tearfully defended her memorial design at public hearing in Washington when she was only 20 years old. The film clearly illuminated how opponents looked Maya as a young, women and Asian American (Mock, 1995). These objection had nothing to do with the designs of the memorial than with a desire to curry favor with veteran’s groups. Maya Lin memorial design reflected the increasing realization among veterans and the determination of the committee that it was special design with unique and irreplaceable qualities. “A Strong Clear Vision” demonstrated that art is a matter of empting minds from all words and allowing proportions, tones and shapes to remain.

Do the Right Thing – Film Review

This is the movie that made people to have varying view. Some of the people have argued that the movie is likely to cause trouble in the society. Other perceive the movie to be the work of the middle-class directors who are attempting to play street-smart. All these varying view fails to represent the central fact of this film, which is the true reflection of the current situation about race relations in the American society (Lee, 1989). It is true the film waver between the street values and middle-class values, but it is not true that it represent the liberal militancy or pieties. It is factual that some of the characters in the film exhibited hateful behavior and others were sympathetic. In fact, some of the characters that looked likeable did bad things in the film.

The reality of the film “Do the Right Thing” is that it did not either presented an environment filled by hate or brotherly love. It demonstrated the concern about urban cynicism that has been slowly engulfing American society in the recent years. “Do the Right Thing” moved away from the traditional good feeling of the 1960s that was accompanied by the hope for many people (Lee, 1989). It was accurate for the director to inform the public and audience that it was no longer workable to produce films that make American society to believe that all races living in United States were going to love one another and coexists peacefully. The truth was that gap in the middle class of all races was widening and they were running from what was happening in the inner cities. In addition, federal government administrators were not doing anything to give hope to the poor. Therefore, the director of this film intended to inform the general public that do the right thing by being honest and telling unsentimental story about those who are left behind. With the limited resources and all races competing for the same resources, the division among the middle-class is widening and the poor are getting poorer.

The film is well presented with beautiful photographs taken by Ernest Dickerson and well casted. Specifically, Aiello played a vital role in the entire film by vividly bringing out all the nuance situations (Mock, 1995). For instance, towards the end of the final scene, the conversation between Sal and Mookie presented some little hope in the society, but the major theme of this final episode was to show that at least something has been learned from the film.

Think Decide Act Management – Book Review

Think. Decide. Act. Management by Neck, Lattimer and Houghton is a management book that integrates theoretical and practical methods in the delivery of the management discourse. The authors employ an unusual pedagogy in delivering the content to the reader. Through an emphasis on critical thinking, case studies and practical examples, the authors are able to delve into various aspects of management.

The Core Premise and Concepts from the Book

The authors recognize that the organization in the in the 21st century faces many challenges related to uncertain economic conditions and increased competition. In that view, the authors’ main ideas and conceptions center on the strategies for success amidst such challenges. As a result, the authors emphasize the need for critical analysis and specific managerial attributes for a successful manager in the 21st century. In highlighting those attributes, the authors adopt both practical and theoretical pedagogy in the delivery of knowledge for the learners.

            Many management books have always adopted a theoretical pedagogy in delivering information to its readers. However, through a mix of real life cases, examples of how firms have successfully dealt with real life situations, the authors are able to offer a comprehensive and more practical approach.  For example, the authors gave an example of how Yvon Chounard the CEO of Patagonia has successfully driven the organization through difficult economic times with great success (Neck, Lattimer, & Houghton 8). In the case the authors offers how the CEO has been able to incorporate critical thinking with appropriate managerial behavior in guiding the company towards sustained economic growth.

In addition, the authors offer wide range of strategies that manager have adopted to meet their organizational goals. The authors give a number of examples highlighting the managerial behaviors during various challenges. The specific attributes that involve critical thinking are highlighted in each case. Through this, the authors aim to point the need and importance of critical thinking skills among the managers at various organizational levels.

Finally, the authors provide detailed discussion of the evolution in management and roles of managers in modern organization. The authors integrate the two concepts in a comprehensive way, completing each chapter with questions for critical thinking regarding the content learned in the book. The content in the book are arranged such that the information in the preceding chapter provides an insightful knowledge to be expanding in the chapter that follows. Besides introduction of new elements in the subsequent chapters, the information is tied with what has been learned in the previous chapter to provide a powerful and invaluable knowledge for learners.

How the Core Concepts in the Book tie into what has been Learned in the Class

            The core concept of role of managers in leading organization links well to what was learned in class about the roles of manager in organizations. Moreover, the book provides an in depth analysis of management theories such as positive psychology and systems thinking which are important concepts for any organizational manager. The overall information in the book emphasize on the role of managers, the qualities that such managers must possess in order to succeed in modern organizational environment as covered in class. The book further details the steps that managers must follow in order to solve any challenge that they face within their organization. Important role of managers such as in leading, managing change and planning and organizing as taught in class are well outlined and discussed in the text.

The Three Most Important Ideas You Personally Learned From the Reading

            The three most important ideas learned from the reading are the specific behaviors of managers, role of critical thinking in management and the skills required of a manager. The book created an understanding of the importance of critical thinking skills in management. According to the book, critical strategic thinking skills have been ranked as the most important attributes that any manager must possess.  These skills are important in shaping my career into becoming a competent manager in future. Through critical thinking skills, I will be able to examine challenges in my future career and make better informed decisions.

            The book also discussed the various roles of a manger, for example, leading, controlling and planning. These ideas are invaluable are important as they introduce me into my future responsibilities in my career. These ideas will be employed in my future career in outlining, providing direction and controlling the decisions that will be made as a manager. Moreover, the technical, relational and conceptual skills will be employed in my career, in performance of duties such as leading operations and solving complex problems.

Overall Assessment and Rating of the Book

The book is comprehensive and detailed, providing invaluable information to learners and even experts in management. On overall, I can rate the book on 4.7/5. The organization of the content and the mix between theory and real life examples provides a unique approach towards learning in management, making the book an excellent companion for management studies. Besides providing a detailed analysis of its content, the book is exciting to read, making it easy to conceptualize its content.