Physiological processes involved in Biopsychology and Analysis of Theories of Attention and Perception

Introduction

Human anatomy and physiological processes creates a broad topic of discussion. Assumptions have to be made so as one can understand the physiological processes involved in biopsychology (Smyth, 2004). Biopsychology involves the study of human emotions which develops the relationship of the nervous system to biopsychology. This is proven by some theories of attention and perception. The essay aims explaining physiological processes involved in biopsychology and the analysis of theories of attention and perception.

Anatomical, Functional Physiological Processes and Perceptual Processing

Perceptual processing is a biological process that involves the interaction between sensory input processes and one’s prior knowledge. Perceptual processing is subdivided into categories such as visual and audition. The association of response preparation, selective attention and activities related to mental imagery illustrates the effects of prior knowledge in immediate sensory activity (SAH, FABER, LOPEZ DE ARMENTIA & POWER, 2003). These attention mechanisms therefore, apply anatomical and physiological functional processes. The normal anatomical and physiological functioning helps one to distinguish their actions from external independent agents. These mechanisms functioning illustrate the biological importance of psychology hence the relationship between biology science and psychology.

The anatomy of vision as a perceptual process begins in the eye’s retina. The image seen by one’s eyes is collected inform of photons and converted into electrical signals in the retina (SAH, FABER, LOPEZ DE ARMENTIA & POWER, 2003). The conversion helps in the simplification of brain interpretation of the image to construct our perception of the visual world.  This process is anatomical since it sets a basis to understand the nest steps of visual hierarchy which are enormously rich and complicated. The eye has three layers that function anatomically and physiologically since they play a crucial role of visual processing. The photoreceptor layer helps in transforming photons into electric signals while the inner nuclear layer has horizontal cells that help in receiving input from photoreceptors and gives output to the photoreceptors. Ganglion cell layer receives inputs from bipolar cells and send their outputs to the brain. The brain receives the signals in form of action potentials through the eye’s optic nerve. The ganglion cells therefore, play an important anatomical role in ensuring the anatomical process of vision is complete. Therefore, the anatomical functionality process involved in vision is a practical example of a perceptual process that uses the sensory function of the body.

Perceptual processing has been associated with several physiological processes. Perceptual processing is defined as the organization and interpretation of senses in one with an aim of understanding the environment (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). The steps that one uses to organize and interpret the senses are physiological because they have a biological aspect. For instance, physiological processes of identifying objects in the world, observation and selection are key examples of perceptual processing. Perceptual processing is affected by both internal and external physiological factors. The internal factors include personality, experience and motivation while the external physiological factors include the objects appearance, that it its size and intensity. The internal physiological factors are closely linked to perceptual processing than the external factors. These physiological processes help in audition rather than in vision whereby one’s perception is attracted. Therefore, physiological processes are important in determining the nature of the perceptual processing.

Assumptions of Physiological Processes

Physiological processes are founded on psychological assumptions that build up the arguments surrounding the processes. The main assumption in physiological processes is that the processes explanations are convincing (Mechner, 2010). Convincing is an important human receptive behavior. Physiology aims at addressing issues at a detailed approach. For instance, the use of drugs affects one’s behavior thereby influencing his social life. However, a physiological approach of addressing the issues would focus on the effects of drugs on one’s body. In addition, issues in physiology are made more convincing by the application of reductionist arguments to address concerns. Physiology psychologists explain physiological processes in terms of brain structure. This assumption leads psychologists to made great discoveries on both internal and external impacts of drugs such as the effect on one’s mood. Therefore, assuming that every physiological process is convincing helps in the advancement of psychology.

Physiological psychologists also assume that they cannot explain the complex behavior and experience in relation to the current life challenges (Umarova et al., 2011). This means that assumption acts as a challenge to physiologist because they have to invest their concentration on the physiological processes so as to have a better understanding on the processes. Therefore, the assumption also leads to the discovery of other physiological variables that ought to be considered. The variables include the variation on a person’s actions when in different social settings. This helps in a deep investigation of the physiological processes leading to more detailed physiological conclusions.

Physiological approaches also apply the assumption that one’s behavior and experience can be explained using physiological changes (Umarova et al., 2011). This assumption helps in the exploration of biopsychology because it makes it possible to investigate the brain, nervous system and biological factors. This attracts the use of sophisticated equipment with an aim of exploring one’s brain structure and nervous system. In addition, the assumption helps in the understanding of receptive human sense. Therefore, the explanation of a person’s behavior and experience by physiological changes is an important assumption that leads to the development of stable arguments.

The use of people’s behavior as assumptions, however, is flexible. This is because the perspective of human behavior has various strengths and weaknesses (Mechner, 2010). The flexibility of the perspectives is a challenge that has enabled psychologists to avoid different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and animal behavior. This has led to constant research on the assumption basing their research on the fact that there is no correct perspective. Therefore, the assumption made in physiological processes has led to the development of physiology psychology.

Nervous System and Biopsychology

The nervous system is a crucial system of the body as it helps one to understand psychology from a biological perspective. This is the common relation between the nervous system and biopsychology that gives psychology a scientific touch (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). The nervous system consists of a network of nerve cells and fibers that forms the sensory organ of the body. The nervous system functions anatomically in transmitting nerve impulses between parts of the body. Therefore, the development of the nervous system forms the foundation of biopsychology.

Procedural development of the nervous system is explained using bio-psychological terms because a person’s actions and behavior change as growth in the body occur. Human body growth happens in terms of cell growth (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). For instance, every human began as a zygote cell that develops into a grown up human being. For proper growth, cell differentiation, neuronal migration and formation of neural connections occur. The three aspects of growth explain biopsychology of a person. Cell differentiation helps in the creation of new cells such as the muscle cell. This cell helps in a stronger human. Therefore, the psychology explanation of human beings strength can be explained using the nervous system. Neuronal migration helps in the proper location of cells. This explains the analogical functioning of the body. Neural connections are made to ensure that body processes that require two cells to function together perform their tasks effectively. This means that the development of the nervous system through the growth of body cells explains the biological aspect of psychology whereby a person’s actions is influenced using the system. Therefore, there is a deep relation between one’s nervous system and biopsychology. 

There are different categories of the nervous system that enhance the definition of biopsychology. The main categories are the central and the peripheral nervous system among many other nervous systems categories (Mechner, 2010). Each of the nervous systems influences one’s behavior in a different way. This explains why the nervous system is related to biopsychology. For instance, the central nervous system receives processes and stores information. This creates a receptive function of the body. The central nervous system also orders muscles, glands and body organs. The central nervous system causes a shift on one’s behavior, and if an external factor directly impacts the human body, the central nervous is among the first body organ to be affected. This is because the central nervous system is made up of body’s sensitive organs. Therefore, the use of drugs can affect one’s body through the reaction by the central nervous system. The nervous system is associated with biopsychology hence an important aspect in determining the body’s functions and behavior. 

Relation of Selected Theories and Biopsychology

Theories of attention and perception are important in defining a person’s concentration towards a given aspect. External factors are also covered by the theories because perceptual processing is directly affected by factors such as listening, vision, and ambition. The main theory of perception is the single detection theory. This theory examines how external influences affect a person’s perception. The fact that the signal detection theory analyzes the process of perceiving and not perceiving stimuli creates a psychological aspect in human beings (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). In addition, the single detection theory predicts what one will pay attention to among competing stimuli. This theory touches on the biological response of humans as affected by perception. Therefore, biopsychology is further explored using the perception theory of signal detection.

The top-down and bottom-up processing theory is another perceptual theory that that improves one’s ability to fill gaps that surround him or her. The theory explains how one develops a predisposition to perceive something in a certain way. The theory, therefore, illustrates human behavior in ensuring he or she is comfortable. This involves the biological reception to perception processing (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). Top-down processing theory develops an expectation notch in a person. If an action is done contrary to the expectation, the bottom-up processing applies that helps one to recover from misconception. The expectation is controlled by the body’s nervous system showing a deep connection between the theories of perception and biopsychology. Therefore, perception is an important aspect within biopsychology that is elaborated by the theories.

Broadbent theory is a theory that explains the character of attention in humans. The theory was developed by Donald Broadbent whereby he recognized information processing approaches. The theory aims at investigating processes that are involved in switching attention (Corbetta& Shulman, 2011). This is a process that occurs in one’s brains structure thus explaining the link between Broadbent theory and biopsychology. The theory explains the process of acquiring stimuli and directing them into the sensory buffer. This acts as a filter for information that biologically is practically reflected through the attraction of human’s attention. The theory elaborately makes people see how their attention is focused and overloaded by the use of stimuli. The diversion of attention in human beings is a biological process that applies the use of body stimuli. This means that the Broadbent theory uses biological aspects to explain human attention hence its close relation with biopsychology.

Assumptions Made Using the Research Resources

Biopsychology research resources apply a practical approach towards explaining the biological concept engulfed in psychology. The resources develop their arguments on the basis of assumption. The main assumption in the resources is the assumption in the psychodynamic perspective (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). This involves a psychoanalysis approach developed through ones subconscious, denial, repression and personality. These assumption perspectives help in defining the psychology contribution in psychology, hence developing a firm basis for biopsychology. Psychoanalysis also involves the explanation of human mind contribution in different human occurrences and situations. For instance, most of the research resources have based their explanation on biopsychology on perception processing and brain structure. This assumption simplifies the exploration process through illustrating the mind contribution in human action. Therefore, biopsychology resources illustrate biological illustrations through the use of scientific assumptions of psychoanalysis. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, biopsychology is an important aspect of psychology that assists in the exploration of the biological aspect of psychology. It involves the contribution of anatomical and physiological functional processes in perceptual processes. This enhances the elaboration of biopsychology as an internal body factor that is closely related to nervous system. In addition, the theories of attention and perception help in the analysis of biopsychology through their elements. Although there are assumptions behind biopsychology, the area of study has advanced making it to be one of the common psychology topics. Therefore, biopsychology covers a broad aspect of human behavior hence its day to day human experiences.


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