Overview of the Demographic Transition
The underlying differences among the non-industrial and industrial nations are numerous. This research paper explores the concept of demographic transition and different phases through which a country is guided through its primal changes into an industrial economy. The demographic transition looks into the environmental impacts of the process of industrialization with regard to the country’s density, size, and distribution of the human population. The coverage of this demographic transition takes into consideration of birth rates, death rates, age distribution, among other factors that have considerable influence on the size and growth of a population.
The course of human history has made many people to be interested in the characteristics of human population vis a vis the future of the population growth. The analysis of how there have been changes in the western populations over time, has resulted to discovery of one pattern indicating that there was a relationship between the population growth and economic development of a nation (Armento, 2007). The countries with high standards of living had s slow population growth rate, while those countries with low standards of living, their population grew a bit rapidly. The discovery resulted into the emergence of the concept of demographic transition encompassing a series of stages that a country undergo through at the time of its transition from non-industrial to industrial. The concept of demographic transition entails the four stages which are based on the changes in the size of the population and social behaviors:
Stage 1:Pre-industrial stage. At this stage, the population is stable, having both high birth rates and high death rates.
Stage 2: Transitional stage. At this stage, human population begins increase as a result of high birth rates and decreasing death rates.
Stage 3: Industrial stage. This stage is characterized with increasing population with declining birth rates and low death rates.
Stage 4: Post Industrial. At this stage there is stabilization of the population (low stationary). There is low death rates and low birth rates.
This research particularly looks into the demographic and environmental timeline of Russia as the table below depicts.
Demographic and Environmental Timeline – Russia
|Stage||Year||Situation in the Country|
|Stage 1||1800||Major Historical Changes: Catherine the Great became the empress. Russia, Prussia, and Austria divided Poland amongst themselves. Russia receives Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine from Poland. This marks the period when Alexander I became Czar. Napoleon Bonaparte led troops into the Russian territories but was defeated. The Crimean War broke out between the Ottoman Empire and Russia. |
Changing Population Size: The Russian population remains lows as the period is marked with constant wars from time to time, which was majorly between Russia and the Napoleon or the Ottoman Empire.
Birth and Death Rates: The country experiences high mortality rate, due to loss of lives due to constant war. The birth rates remain relatively low.
Environmental Impact: The environmental impact realized seem to be severe as the warring machines and equipment emitted gas among other air, water and soil pollutants.
|Stage 2||1900||Major Historical Changes: Lenin became the leader of the Bolsheviks. The breaking out of World War I resulting to Russia fighting against the Australians and Germans. The Russian government is overthrown by the revolutionaries. The murder of Czar Nicholas II and his family. Russia became the Russia Soviet Federative Socialist Republic thereafter forming the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Civil war between the White Russians and the Red Army, or the anti-communists. The invasion of Poland by the German forces caused the eruption of the World War II. Russia occupied Poland. US dropped atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. End of World War II. The civil war in Cuba is won by communists led by Fidel Castro.|
Changing Population Size: the nation is healing from both the World War I and II, thereby experiencing population increase across the nation.
Birth and Death Rates:There are high birth rates and decreasing death rates following the end of the Wars. The stabilizing condition in the country creates a conducive environment for bearing of children by the women.
Environmental Impact: The Russian stabilizing economy creates room for industrial revolution and soil mechanization takes ahigh shift creating an increase in the environmental impact as emission from machines increase.
|Stage 3||1960||Major Historical Changes: The building of the wall between the West and the East Berlin by the Soviet Union is undertaken. The eruption of the Cuban Missile Crisis. There is replacement of Krushev by Leonid Brezhnev. The Soviet Union decides to back the North Vietnam against the USA. Mikhail Gorbachev becomes the leader of Soviet Union, establishing a campaign of openness dubbed “glasnost” and the restructuring referred to as the “perestroika.” The occurrence of nuclear accident in Chernobyl. The Soviet Union withdraws from Afghanistan. The Berlin Wall is destroyed. |
Changing Population Size: The country undergoes baby boom and its population size increases rapidly.Birth and Death Rates: Russia shows decreasing statistics in both the birth rates and death rates.
Environmental Impact: The full endorsement of industrialization is creating numerous instances of atmospheric pollution and the whole community at large.
|Stage 4||1990||Major Historical Changes: Boris Yeltsin becomes the president elect. The dismantlement of the Soviet Union and Russian becomes an independent federation. Vladimir Putin succeeds Yeltsin After the latter resigns. Russia finally becomes an ally of NATO. |
Changing Population Size: There is high population size in the country as there is good healthcare service resulting to low mortality. Increased technological advancement in the country has also resulted to effectiveness in the delivery of human and health-centered services across the nation.
Birth and Death Rates: There is low birth rate, and low death rate.Environmental Impact: With rapid industrial revolution, pollution is the order of the day. These have resulted to huge carbon footprint as human beings strive to raise its living standards.
|Stage 5||Present Day||Major Historical Changes: After the Soviet Union had fallen, the Russian Council of Ministers became the main executive body. After the 2004 reform, the Russian government duties were split among the 17 ministers, 5 federal services, and more 30 governmental agencies. The appointment of the prime minister is done by the president and confirmed by the state Duma. The Russian institutions of security, health and education are in the highest scale ever. There is increased food production and it supports and sustains its population with ease.|
Changing Population Size: The political stability in the country and the vast business and educational opportunities have been in the center of population increase in the nation, as foreigners opt to settle in Russia and the citizens feels free to bear and raise up their kids in Russia.
Birth and Death Rates: Currently, there are low birth rates as well as low death rates. The low birth rates can be attributed to the freedom women have in this day and age, one where they can choose not to bear children but instead focus more on their husbands and careers.
Environmental Impact: The current state of the environmental conservation has not been better still. There is much to be done with respect to environmental protection as regulations on emission need to be stringent, and one should pay for the amount of pollution cause.