OMM 640 Evolution of Ethics

  • Summarize the development of business ethics over the past several decades, including the rise of social issues in business.
  • Describe the major changes and events that gave rise to the present focus on business ethics.
  • Provide examples of how these changes impact current business philosophies and reporting practices.
  • In your conclusion, discuss how your values and principles relate to the evolution of business ethics.

Your paper should be formatted in accordance with APA guidelines as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center and reference two or more scholarly sources, in addition to the textbook.

This week a variety of scholarly journals specific to business ethics were presented as recommended resources, which you may choose to utilize in your research. You may also draw information from the Ashford University Library, t


Obesity and Physical Activity – Annotated Bibliography

Withal, J., Jago, R., & Cross, J. (2009). Families’ and health professionals’ perceptions of influences on diet, activity and obesity in a low-income community. Health & Place, 15, 1078-1085.
This article is about a research study conducted to explain the presence of nutrition problems among low-income earners. Withal, Jago and Cross set out to identify the factors that challenge consumption of balanced and health diets among low-income earners. The research took the qualitative approach where the researchers conducted interviews with various focus groups. The National Health Service (NHS) determined participation in the research by organizing for the participation of various families and health professionals.  The research concluded that overweight/obesity problems were prevalent due to lack of adequate measures of healthy living, which is a factor of various factors affecting low-income families. Lack of access to all the ingredients and components of healthy diets is among the factors challenging the consumption of healthy diets in low-income families. Lack of access to such components is due to high costs, which low-income earners cannot afford. The research recommended that behavior change regarding the social, cultural and family life should be the main strategy of dealing with the challenge of unhealthy consumption, which has led to obesity among children and the youth.
Walker, R., Keane, C., & Burke, J. (2010). Disparities and access to health food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature. Health & Place, 16, 876-884.
Walker, Keane and Burke main interest was studying matters related to availability of healthy foods in some geographical locations. The cost of nutritious foods in some areas is influenced by lack of access, which leads to nutrition disparities in the United
States. Researchers in this study did a secondary research on various sources of information regarding food deserts in the United States. They reviewed various articles from January 2008 to January 2010, with food access in the United States being one of the considerations.  The study found out that the geographical environment of individuals influences their diets. Low-income environments have relatively low number of supermarkets and food outlets compared with high-income environments. Racial disparities also lead to creation of food deserts in some environments.  Therefore, most of the nutrition-related health problems experienced in low-income environments are due to lack of access to healthy and nutritious diets.
Ewing, R., Meakins, G., Hamidi, S., & Nelson, A. (2014).Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity and morbidity – update and refinement. Health & Place, 26, 118-126.
The effect of physical activity on obesity and other nutrition-related health problems has been a subject of discussion in many forums. This study invested in identifying the relationship between physical activity and prevalence of obesity and other nutrition problems. The researchers started by identifying various items that are fit to be included among physical activity. Travelling to work and carrying out routine duties are among the items that are fit to be considered as physical activity. The researchers identified three health conditions that are often related to lack of physical activity and obesity. However, the study concluded that physical activity is not responsible for the increased cases of overweight adults, especially in the United States. The environment as well as factors within the environment have led to increased prevalence of obesity among adults in the United States. Therefore, the only solution to the problem is through the development of environments that will help eliminate the existing environmental challenges.
Berge, J., Wall, M., Larson, N., Forsyth, A., Bauer, K., &Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2014). Youth dietary intake and weight status: Healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments. Health & Place, 26, 69-77.
Adolescents are most vulnerable to nutrition-related health problems due to their diet patterns. This research study investigated the interaction between local neighboring associations among adolescents. The research study wanted to identify the influence of neighboring environments on healthy living among adolescents in a local home setting. The study investigated factors within the two environments, for example family income and parental guidance, which affect healthy eating behaviors. The study sought to fill the existing literature gap related to the issue of obesity among adolescents. Many scholars have recommended intake of fruits and low calories of fats as an approach of reducing cases of obesity among adolescents. However, the research found out that parallel implementation of healthy living policies in both the local and neighboring environments is the most feasible way of dealing with obesity among adolescents. This is because adolescents value the co-existence between local and neighboring environments as an important determinant of behavior. Therefore, according to this study, the solution towards obesity lies in various factors within the environment.
Ding, D., & Gebel, K. (2012). Built environment, physical activity, and obesity: What we learned from reviewing the literature? Health & Place, 18, 100-105.
Ding and Gebel conducted a secondary research to evaluate the interaction between the built environment and physical activity/obesity. The researchers questioned the relevance of some research studies that have been affected by a myriad of flaws in both their conceptual frameworks and application of statistical methods. For instance, travelling and physical activity in some environments has been associated with obesity problems among individuals. However, the studies have neglected looking at all possibilities regarding physical activity and obesity that capture the reality. The research recommended a different approach to research pertaining physical activity and obesity in different environments. Studies should concentrate on specific physical activities and characteristics of the environments under scrutiny in order to avoid conceptual mismatches. However, it is worth noting that the researchers in this study rest upon the fact that the environment has an influence of obesity and other nutrition problems affecting individuals in the society.

In order to improve processes quality, management keeps records and evaluates processes based on these records.

In order to improve processes quality, management keeps records and evaluates processes based on these records. This type of recordkeeping is considered benchmarking. Benchmarking allows an organization to analyze variances for different types of processes. Benchmarking can also be used to improve in a continual improvement process. In this discussion, you will explore how benchmarking can be used for strategic planning.

Respond to the following:

  • How can benchmarking be used as part of a process improvement procedure in strategic planning?
  • What are the disadvantages of benchmarking?
  • Would benchmarking work in all types of organizations? Why or why not?
  • How would you explain to workers who were resistant to engaging in benchmarking that their assistance and inputs are needed for the benchmarking effort to be successful?
  • Do you believe that benchmarking can lead to a competitive advantage for the organization, or does benchmarking simply allow an organization to “catch up” to the organization’s competition?
  • Select an organization with which all of your classmates would be familiar. Select a process in which your selected organization engages on a regular basis. Describe a company that would be considered a “leader” in the business process that you have selected. How can your chosen organization learn from the leader in this business process and improve its own performance on the process that you selected?

Make the Most of Every Minute in Your Preschool Program

Watch the video “Make the Most of Every Minute in Your Preschool Program.”

TeachingStrategies ErlyEd. (2012, Jul 18). Make the Most of Every Minute in Your Preschool Program. [Video file.] Retrieved from

These early childhood professionals have created a variety of enriching learning environments and strategies.

  • Discuss strategies and environmental arrangements in the videos that were child-centered versus teacher-directed.
  • What theories best align with these strategies and environmental arrangements and why? Please give specific examples in your answer.

Choose one learning strategy from one of the videos and discuss how the you could extend the cognitive and language learning of children. Discuss specifically the learning environment, learning materials and learning strategies  in your response to maximize language, cognition and literacy.  Please be sure to address developmentally appropriate activities in your response.

Understanding Alternative Dispute Resolution Specifically In Divorce Cases

The objective of this assignment is to enable you to demonstrate your understanding of the effects of the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) to supplement court trial processes, with particular focus on its impact on caseflow management. For at least the last 20 years, most state and local jurisdictions have begun institutionalizing ADR programs and procedures for a variety of case types. In many situations, this has been the result of statutory changes, but with or without legislative action, court rules have been implemented in states across the United States to address how the addition of ADR processes can supplement and sometimes replace court dispute resolution.

Find a jurisdiction where state or county statutes require an alternative dispute resolution process in some or all types of divorce cases prior to proceeding with a divorce case in the courts. Write an essay of 4-5 pages that discusses how the addition of ADR processes has affected case flow management in general, and in divorce cases specifically. (The Steelman, et al. publication for NCSC,  Case flow Management: The Heart of Court Management in the New Millennium, is an excellent resource.)

In your essay, respond to at least the following questions:

  1. Why have so many jurisdictions turned to forms of alternative dispute resolution to supplement the judicial process?
  2. What are the major effects on case flow management of the decision by jurisdictions to insert ADR requirements into divorce case processing?
  3. What are the short-term and long-term costs and benefits, including dollar costs/benefits and social costs/benefits?

CIS 111 – Implementing Data warehouses And Data Mining

Your database has been a hit. You have been called back to the customer’s headquarters and they want a detailed report and plan of how to convert the mass amounts of data into profitable information. They have heard of data warehouses and data mining, but they want you to provide an executive overview and a plan with specifics on how they will take their environment to the next level with the implementation of a data warehouse and data mining infrastructure.

Write a six to eight (6-8) page paper in which you:

1. Provide an executive overview that addresses the following:

a. Explain the benefits and current trends of data warehousing and data mining.

b. Provide two (2) examples of quality companies successfully using a data warehouse to support your answer.

c. Outline the architecture, models, and views used in the data warehouse.

2. Discuss optimization techniques specific to data warehousing and data mining.

3. Assume that the company has accumulated 20TB of data and that 20% per year growth is

expected in the size of the Data Warehouse. Recommend a solution for this scenario with respect

to software, hardware, and network requirements.

4. Create a diagram using Visio, Microsoft Paint, or other graphical creation utility of your choosing

to illustrate the conceptual data feeds into and out of the data warehouse. Note: The graphically

depicted solution is not included in the required page length.

5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites

do not qualify as quality resources.

Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

ï‚· Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; citations and references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.

ï‚· Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date. The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required assignment page length.

ï‚· Include charts or diagrams created in Excel, Visio, MS Project, or one of their equivalents such as Open Project, Dia, and OpenOffice. The completed diagrams/charts must be imported into the

Word document before the paper is submitted.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

ï‚· Demonstrate the basic mechanisms for accessing relational databases from various types of application development environments.

ï‚· Summarize the difference between online transaction processing (OLTP) and online analytic processing (OLAP), and their relationship among business intelligence, data warehousing, and data mining.

ï‚· Summarize how database systems support enterprise and Web-based applications.

ï‚· Use technology and information resources to research issues in database systems.

ï‚· Write clearly and concisely about relational database management systems using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

3G and 4G Technologies Pros and Cons and Its role in Today’s Applications

There are a number of cellular phone companies each serving their own unique geographical areas. Likewise, they each may use a different technology to transfer communication. Research the pros and cons 3G and 4G technologies and its role in today’s applications.

Write a three to four (3-4) page paper in which you:

  1. Compare the pros and cons of 3G and 4G technology to determine the best uses of 3G and 4G technology in today’s applications.
  2. Describe how an enterprise would use 3G, 4G, WWAN, and WIAMX to improve business. Explain why they would use one (1) solution over the remaining three (3).
  3. Analyze the changes in 4G technology since the printing of the textbook in 2009 and identify those of importance for a user of 4G technology.
  4. Take a position on the following statement, “Wireless application protocol is a necessity for wireless communication organizations and their users.” Then, explain your position with supporting evidence.
  5. Use at least three (3) quality resources in this assignment.

Note: Wikipedia and similar Websites do not qualify as quality resources.

The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:

  • Compare and contrast among local area and wide area network technologies and architectures.
  • Use technology and information resources to research issues in communication networks.
  • Write clearly and concisely about communication networks using proper writing mechanics and technical style conventions.

Analyze the key concepts related to the talent pools and the talent review process

Assignment 5: Sustainable Talent Management

Determine which performance management process you will employ to measure employee talent.
Analyze the key concepts related to the talent pools and the talent review process.
Develop appropriate talent management objectives to measure functional expertise.
Assess the key elements of global talent management as they apply to your organization.
Recommend a process that optimizes a sustainable talent management process.
Use at least five (5) quality academic resources in this assignment. Note: Wikipedia and other Websites do not quality as academic resources.
Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements:

Be typed, double spaced, using Times New Roman font (size 12), with one-inch margins on all sides; references must follow APA or school-specific format. Check with your professor for any additional instructions.
Include a cover page containing the title of the assignment, the student’s name, the professor’s name, the course title, and the date.
The cover page and the reference page are not included in the required page length.
The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are:
Determine the effects of leadership in the management of talent pools and the talent review process.
Compare and contrast the talent assessment and employee performance management processes.
Review the process of developing functional expertise and setting and measuring talent management objectives.
Discover how the management process affects global talent management.
Determine the organizational benefits of strategy-driven talent management and building a sustainable process.
Use technology and information resources to research issues in talent management.
Write clearly and concisely about talent management using proper writing mechanics.

Pfizer’s Drug-Testing Strategy in Nigeria

Read Management Focus: Pfizer’s Drug-Testing Strategy in Nigeria in chapter 4 of your text and write a paper in APA format that answers the following questions:

  • What are the different phases that a Drug Company goes through in order to bring a new drug product to market in the U.S. and Europe?
  • Did Pfizer behave unethically by rushing to take advantage of an epidemic in Nigeria to test experimental drugs on children?
  • Should it have been less opportunistic and proceeded more carefully?
  • Were corners cut with regard to patient consent in the rush to establish a trial?
  • Did doctors keep patients on Trovan too long when they should have switched them to another medication?
  • Is it ethical to test experimental drugs on children in a crisis setting in the developing world where the overall standard of health care is so much lower than in the developed world and proper protocols might not be followed?


Pfizer’s Drug-Testing Strategy in Nigeria

The drug development process is long, risky, and expensive. It can take 10 years and cost in excess of $500 mil- lion to develop a new drug. Moreover, between 80 and 90 percent of drug candidates fail in clinical trials. Pharmaceutical companies rely upon a handful of successes to pay for their failures. Among the most successful of the world’s pharmaceutical companies is New York- based Pfizer. Given the risks and costs of developing a new drug, pharmaceutical companies will jump at opportunities to reduce them, and Pfizer thought it saw one.

Pfizer had been developing a novel antibiotic, Trovan, that was proving to be useful in treating a wide range of bacterial infections. Wall Street analysts were predicting that Trovan could be a blockbuster, one of a handful of drugs capable of generating sales of more than $1 billion a year. In 1996, Pfizer was pushing to submit data on Trovan’s efficacy to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for review. A favorable review would allow Pfizer to sell the drug in the United States, the world’s largest market. Pfizer wanted the drug to be approved for both adults and children, but it was having trouble finding sufficient numbers of sick children in the United States to test the drug on. Then a researcher at Pfizer read about an emerging epidemic of bacterial meningitis in Kano, Nigeria. This seemed like a quick way to test the drug on a large number of sick children.

Within weeks a team of six doctors had flown to Kano and were administering the drug, in oral form, to children with meningitis. Desperate for help, Nigerian authorities gave the go-ahead for Pfizer to give the drug to children (the epidemic would ultimately kill nearly 16,000 people). Over the next few weeks, Pfizer treated 198 children. The protocol called for half the patients to get Trovan and half to get a comparison antibiotic already approved for the treatment of children. After a few weeks, the Pfizer team left, the experiments complete. Trovan seemed to be about as effective and safe as the already approved antibiotic. The data from the trial were put into a package with data from other trials of Trovan and delivered to the FDA.

Questions were soon raised about the nature of Pfizer’s experiment. Allegations charged that the Pfizer team kept children on Trovan, even after they failed to show a response to the drug, instead of switching them quickly to another drug. The result, according to critics, was that some children died who might have been saved had they been taken off Trovan sooner. Questions were also raised about the safety of the oral formulation of Trovan, which some doctors feared might lead to arthritis in children. Fifteen children who took Trovan showed signs of joint pain during the experiment, three times the rate of children taking the other antibiotic. Then there were questions about consent. The FDA requires that patient (or parent) consent be given before patients are enrolled in clinical trials, no matter where in the world the trials are conducted. Critics argue that in the rush to get the trial established in Nigeria, Pfizer did not follow proper procedures, and that many parents of the infected children did not know their children were participating in a trial for an experimental drug. Many of the parents were illiterate, could not read the consent forms, and had to rely upon the questionable translation of the Nigerian nursing staff. Pfizer rejected these charges and contends that it did nothing wrong.

The FDA approved Trovan for use in adults in 1997, but it has not approved the drug for use in children. Trovan was launched in 1998, and by 1999 there were reports that up to 140 patients in Europe had suffered liver dam- age after taking Trovan. The FDA subsequently restricted the use of Trovan to those cases where the benefits of treatment outweighed the risk of liver damage. European regulators banned sales of the drug

Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster Analysis

Assignment 1: Discussion—Exploring Potential Research Topics

Based on your business experience, the information accumulated in this course, and the University online library resources, identify three possible research topics related to the subject of the course. What managerial problems or opportunities would each of the three studies address?

Provide a short description for each research topic, highlighting the following:

  • The problem or opportunity in organizations that needs to be addressed
  • The purpose of the research
  • The question(s) that, if answered, will help in solving the problem or seizing the opportunity

Write your initial response in a minimum of 400 words. Apply APA standards to citation of sources.

Assignment 2: Challenger Space Shuttle Disaster Analysis

For this assignment, you will apply the concepts of the four-frame approach to management decisions and write a report.

Background Overview:

In many professions, leaders have to confront very complex challenges and the results can fall well below everyone’s expectations. The disasters with the Challenger and the Columbia Space Shuttles portray situations where bad decision making led to disasters that changed the history of space exploration. In your professional life, you may be subjected to many complex problems. A critical assessment of the four frames can make the difference between success and failure.

To prepare for this assignment, read the following article (and any other ones related to these accidents) in order to construct the “big picture” that will allow you to conduct your analysis:

  • Garrett, T. M. (Dec 2004). Whither Challenger, wither Columbia: Management decision making and the knowledge analytic. American Review of Public Administration, 34(4), 389–402.


  1. Identify the frame(s) used by the leaders in the Challenger and Columbia situations (i.e., Structure, HR, Political, and Symbolic).
  1. Review the choice of frames made by the management in those situations. Explain if the situation with the space shuttles occurred due to management choosing the wrong frame, an incorrect application of a given frame, or for other reasons.
  1. If you were the person in charge of the Challenger and Columbia, recommend what other frame(s) you would have considered in the decision-making process. For your recommendations, take into account the constraints faced at the time of the events. Justify your answer using the characteristics of each frame from your readings.
  1. Based on your recommendation made in the previous question, explain how you would address the Challenger and Columbia situations using a different frame or a combination of them
Get Up 50% Discount on Your First OrderUp To 50% Off Your First Order Due in Less Than 48 Hours

Grab this first time Discount, and save up to 50% on your first Order Due in Less Than 48 Hours.