Summaries for Criminal Justice Articles

  1. “Changes in Mental State Associated with Prison Environments: A Systematic Review”

Purpose

In the “Changes in Mental State Associated with Prison Environments: A Systematic Review” study, Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) spelt out a distinct purpose. They sought to develop an appreciation of mental health stability during incarceration via reviewing the then extant, relevant body of research evidence. Especially, the evidence related corporeal prison milieus to changes in prisoners’ mental states.

Study Subjects

In the study, Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) studied the then extant available, relevant literature systematically. They studied literature examining the changes and how they related to diverse imprisonment aspects. Especially, they focused on research articles exclusively focusing on the prison milieu and incarceration itself as oppose to individual factors like resilience and support.

Findings

Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) found 15 longitudinal studies, which they used to delineate three key themes: prison regime aspects and being incarcerated; prison sentence duration and imprisonment stage; and societal density. They established from the studies that being incarcerated heightens psychiatric symptoms, which improve over time. From the review of the studies, it was clear that there is only highly restricted evidence suggesting that those who enter prisons have own mental states worsening at a faster rates that the rate at which they deteriorated just before entering prison.

Prison sentence durations do not affect mental states significantly.  Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) established from the studies that the states get better and better as one continues with his or her stay in prison. As well, the researchers established from the studies that social density extremes and large prisons have a correlation with more unfavorable mental states. The extremes are either overcrowding or isolation. The isolation of prisoners has a strong correlation with more unfavorable mental states. As well, the overcrowding of prisoners has a as a strong correlation with more unfavorable mental states.

Rationality of Findings and Conclusions

The findings made by Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) and the conclusions that they drew were rational and sound. They are wholly in agreement with the data that the researchers gathered in the course of the study. As well, they are wholly supported by the studies that Walker, Illingworth, Canning, Garner, Woolley, Taylor and Amos (2014) reviewed systematically.

  1. “Foot Patrol in Violent Crime Hot Spots: The Longitudinal Impact of Deterrence and Posttreatment Effects of Displacement”

Purpose

In the “Foot Patrol in Violent Crime Hot Spots: The Longitudinal Impact of Deterrence and Posttreatment Effects of Displacement” study, Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) aimed at exploring foot patrols’ longitudinal deterrent impacts in hot spots of violent criminal acts. As well, Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) aimed at revisiting the renowned Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment to gain further insights into the impacts. They sought to explore the impacts via the concepts of residual, as well as initial, deterrence decay, which are associated with Sherman (1990). As well, they sought to establish if the displacements made out in the course of initial appraisals decayed following the experiment’s conclusion.

Study Subjects

Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) studied the renowned Philadelphia Foot Patrol Experiment. They studied the concepts of residual, as well as initial, deterrence decay, which are associated with Sherman (1990). As well, they studied the proposal made by Durlauf and Nagin (2011) in a study that they executed jointly. Durlauf and Nagin (2011) proposed that incarceration sentences should be reviewed with the aim of shortening them, obligatory minimum sentence laws should be repealed, and the associated cost savings should be committed to conveying detection certainly more effectively. Durlauf and Nagin (2011) held that the committing of the savings to policing budgets could convey detection certainly more effectively

Findings

Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) established that 22-week patrol beats had significant decaying deterrent impacts when the experiment was underway. On the other hand, Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) established that 12-week patrol beats lacked significant decaying deterrent impacts when the experiment was underway. There was no beat registering the impacts as regards particular control areas. Notably, the displacement made out had decayed within three months following the experiment’s conclusion. Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) established that the proposal could only turn into success if more all-round policing approaches were adopted. According to the researchers, foot patrols are suitable for diverse policing paradigms.

Rationality of Findings and Conclusions

The findings made by Sorg, Haberman, Ratcliffe and Groff (2013) and the conclusions that they drew are rational and sound. They are wholly in agreement with the data that the researchers gathered in the course of the study. As well, they are wholly supported by the studies reviewed by the researchers.

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