Tag: Article Critique

Capital one Bank Data Breach – Article Analysis

Introduction

Unethical behaviour with technology has been one of the downsides of technology use. In recent years, technology experts have among them produced some unethical individuals willing to abuse the technology in illegal acts. This paper critiques one article printed on the CNN Business website elaborating how one software engineer-turned-hacker, Paige Thompson committed a harmful data breach on Capital one Bank. The paper then evaluates theft and how it is an ethical problem that can have ethical ramifications after being engaged and assesses the universal biblical perspective of her actions quoting some verses that support the view.   

Read also Data Breaches and Regulatory Requirements  

Summary of the Article

On July 30, 2019, CNN posted an article exposing Paige Thomson, a hacker who illegally gained access to bank account details of customers of the Capital One bank. The hacker was reported to have pulled one of the most infamous data breaches ever committed, having illegal access to over 100 million customer accounts. The article quoted a criminal complaint that stated that Thompson then tried to release confidential information such as social security numbers, social insurance numbers, and account numbers combined with the individuals’ names, addresses, and credit information.

Read also How to Address Employees to Report Privacy and Security Breaches

The hacker was also reported to have had prior working experience as a software engineer in a technology company named Amazon Web Services; at the time of her work, the company was the contracted cloud hosting center for Capital one Bank (the Bank she stole the data from). Leading to her arrest, she is reported to have consciously “boasted” of her actions, even illustrated how she had orchestrated this grand scheme and made it clear in her social media platforms that she was going to release the information to the general public. 

Read also Confidentiality, Access Control and Data Integrity – Network Security Policy

Analysis of Ethical the Problem

The actions of Paige Thompson clearly showed a situation that led to a cyber ethical issue. In initiating her move, she first breaches the right of privacy of the Bank’s customers. Her actions of obtaining the information are of an illegal manner. She severely compromised the Bank and the customers and exposed them to potential harm. As a hacker who takes unauthorized information, this makes her a thief. It is unethical to view and share unauthorized files without permission. 

Read also When there is a Breach of Privacy, has a Breach of Fiduciary Duty Occurred?

It is known that the hacker had worked in a situation that had made her familiar with the working protocols of the Bank’s cybersecurity. In performing the data breach, she exploited her legally acquired knowledge to commit an act of crime. It is against the law to expose sensitive, confidential and protected information to unauthorized persons. The stolen data, if released to the public, would have eventually found its way into the wrong hands of other thieves who are well acquainted ain credit card theft. In a complaint against her, it was made clear that she admitted she was aware that her actions were illegal.   

Read also Strategic Plan To Move The Company’s Data To The Cloud While Still Ensuring Data Security

Biblical Worldview

The actions of Paige Thompson make her a thief in the context of the bible. Even though the aspect of technological advancement from the times of the bible to the current situation is quite evident, the action of taking somebody else’s property, in this case, data, constitutes theft. The bible is very stern on thieves and takes a clear stance when it comes to theft. In the old testament, in the book of Exodus, the ten commandments were given to God’s people, and in Exodus 20:13, the third commandment cautions them not to steal. Paige Thompson had intentionally broken this commandment. In a biblical worldview, Paige’s action would cause her not to enter heaven; In 1 Corinthians 6: 9-11, it states, “You know that wicked people will not inherit the kingdom of God, don’t you? Stop deceiving yourselves! Sexually immoral people, idolaters, adulterers male prostitutes, homosexuals, thieves, greedy people, drunks, slanderers, and robbers will not inherit the kingdom of God…”  

Paige Thompson had also made it clear that she intended to distribute the account details and information. This would have led to the information falling into the wrong hands of other thieves who could have used the credit card information to steal the customers’ money. This, in essence, would have made Paige an accomplice to their crimes. The bible also clearly states where it stands with accomplices of thieves; for instance, in Psalms 50:17-18, “For you refuse my discipline and treat my words like trash. When you see thieves, you approve of them…” the bible compares a theft accomplice to lack of discipline and trivializing the gospel of the lord.

Read also Ethical, Legal And Security Risks Linked Servers Being Hacked Or Breached

Conclusion

The unethical behavior of Paige Thompson, as exposed in the CNN article, is one that comes with the advancement of technology. She abused her privilege of being aware of the company’s workings and exploited her expert knowledge of technology, and used it to commit theft of information in what is referred to as a data breach. It is clear that it was not morally right to do what she did. The bible also shares perspectives of this unethical behavior and clearly condemns the perpetrator.

Past Present and Future Trends of Master’s Education in Nursing – Article Critique

Gerard, S. O., Kazer, M. W., Babington, L., & Quell, T. T. (2014). Past, present, and future trends of master’s education in nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing30(4), 326-332

The main focus of the article is that there was need to revise master’s education in nursing in order to give the students the needed expertise in the changing healthcare environment. The main argument in the article is that, Masters Programs have become questionable in equipping the students pursuing advanced nursing practice in the context of evaluating past, present and the future trends of health care (Gerard et al, 2014). The author asserts that, due to the tenuous position of Master’s program nurses who will be pursuing careers in advanced practice will do so in doctorial levels or the so-called new model in Master’s nursing education(Gerard et al, 2014).With the detailed arguments provided by the article it is easy to validate and agree with the authors’ arguments.

            The authors have highlighted various drivers of healthcare, for instance, technology to explain why Master’s nursing programs lacks the ability to connect the past, present and the future of advance nursing practice. However, the research may be subject to bias as it is based only on private universities while we have advanced nursing education offered in public universities. The best part in the article is that, it evaluates the history of the Master’s programs in Nursing, the past and current demands in health care and other important aspects like technology, accountability, team approach and the future of Master’s nursing program (Gerard et al, 2014).With all these aspects the author explains why Master’s education is questionable in meeting the needs of health care institutions, consumers and even students. The past, present and the future trends are well connected making it easy to know why Master’s program does not have the ability the link up the past, current and the future of advanced nurse practice. The authors’ message has a huge application to the real world as health care programs are issues which not only impact the students but the whole world.  The historical part of Master’s in nursing serves a huge purpose of connecting the evolution of technology and new knowledge in improving patient care.

            Gerard et al (2014) chose an interesting topic and everything they depict have been thoroughly discussed and connected. Since the topic of the article touches on the aspects of past, present and the future of Master’s nursing program, the authors denotes that to build the present and have a prospect of the future it is good to look at the past so as to build a model which gives master’s nursing education hope in offering advanced nursing practice. However, there appears to be a disconnect particularly given the fact that majority of the focus of the current Masters programs have been viewed as aligned more to education that developing advanced practice nurses who are able to lead, manage and implement important systems in the changing healthcare system.            

The other important aspect that has been discussed and which I agree with the authors is the aspect of the need to develop interprofessional education in the Masters nursing programs.  Teamwork is a critical component in any healthcare facility and this has been emphasized even in undergraduate nursing programs. As professionals who will be in charge of teams and leading change, implementation of technology and nursing care programs, advanced nursing practice nurse must show high level of interprofessional competence. However, the authors seem to rule out the fact that even a registered nurse must possess the necessary skills and competencies of interprofessional education. Though the article addresses real issues facing the private nursing institutions, no information has been provides for the pubic educational institutions, which is its major weakness.

Article Critique – A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effects Of Nursing Care Based On Watson’s Theory Of Human Caring On Distress, Self-Efficacy And Adjustment In Infertile Women

This paper critiqued article “A Randomized Controlled Trial Of The Effects Of Nursing Care Based On Watson’s Theory Of Human Caring On Distress, Self-Efficacy And Adjustment In Infertile Women.” By Ilkay, et al., (2013). The aims of this article were to evaluate the effects of nursing care Based on the theory of human caring on distress caused by infertility, perceived self-efficacy and adjustment levels

  • Does the research report clearly describe a theoretical or conceptual framework to guide the study? If yes, complete questions 2 and 3

Yes.

  • Evaluate whether the report adequately describe the link between the theory/CF and the research study?

The article clearly outlined the connection between the theory the research in the sense, the theory emphasized the need understand that patients should not be treated as objects that can be fixed by repair. The theory focuses on nursing paradigms and human (Ilkay, et al., 2013). The conceptual framework of Watson’s theory is the process infertile patients goes through while undergoing treatment. These processes include caring-healing modalities, caring occasions, caring moments, the transpersonal caring and caritas process. The article emphasized the benefits associated with the theory of human caring on nursing care. According to this article, the application of the concept of theory of human caring in nursing practice brings more efficiency and awareness, thus improving care outcome. Therefore, the link between Watson theory of human caring and this article was the improvement of the care outcome

  • What purpose does the theory serve in the study (e.g., development of instruments, identification of independent and/or dependent variables, Other, None?).

The Watson’s Theory of Human Caring served as a development of instrument in this study because the author planned nursing care based on this theory. For instance, the study was designed to be executed in six sessions in the infertility treatment process and each of the session was designed in accordance with the improvement process selected from the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring. The first phase of the study was the internalization and examination of the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring prior to adapting and putting it into the practice. The study includeed the 10 caritas processes:

  • Altruistic values and loving kindness
  • Faith, hope and honor
  • Being sensitive to self and other
  • Helping, trusting, caring relationship
  • Promoting and accepting feelings
  • Problem-solving methods
  • Teaching and learning
  • Creating a healing environment
  • assisting with human needs
  • Openness to mystery and allowing miracles.
  • Does the researcher clearly tie the findings of the study back to the framework at the end of the report?

At the end of the article, the author clearly tied the findings of the study back to the frame work by stating that it was first time Watson’s Theory of Human Caring was used in the provision of nursing care to women with infertility in randomized controlled trials. The finding showed a positive effect on the adjustment to infertility in women, perceived infertility self-efficacy and distress. This is clear indication that planning nursing care in according with the Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is very effective.

Ethical Considerations

            Nursing research like any other scientific research should be done in accordance with ethical guidelines. These ethical guidelines provide a framework on how data should be collected. In research that involves human subjects such as the article under study, it is important that data collection seeks to protect rather than harm the study participants (Montalvo & Larson, 2014). In the article, (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013) conducted research among women and there was no physical harm subjected to the respondents. Although the researchers did not harm the research participants, the article does not expressly outline any steps that were taken to remove or prevent harm or minimize discomfort.

            The study sought to implement and investigate the effect of Watson’s Theory of Caring among infertile women in Turkey. The benefits of the study outweigh the costs and any potential risks or discomfort to the research participants. Given that the authors point that there was lack of clear framework of application of Watson’s caring theory in treatment of infertile women, the potential benefits of the study are great (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013). In addition, the authors assert that infertility affects close to10-15% of the population (pp. 1802). This outlines the importance of the study against the potential risks, discomfort and costs.

            The authors pointed that informed consent was sought from the research participants before the research, through the informed consent form. However, there was no clear description on how the informed consent was sought from the research participants. The research was approved by the university research ethics committee and the necessary corporate approvals were obtained.

Method of Data Collection

            The research method that was employed in data collection was interviews. According to the authors, the demographic data varied as the study sample included women aged between 1& 45 (Arslan-Özkan, Okumuş & Buldukoğlu, 2013). In order to ensure that the appropriate data was collected, the researchers individualized the interviews in order to meet the personal needs of the participants. The interviews were appropriately employed based on how they were designed and administered by the researchers. The data that was collected included the participant data on fertility, sociodemographic characteristics, and data on how the participants perceived their self-efficacy.             The researchers provided information that the study collected its data from two groups, the control and the treatment group. The data was collected through structured interviews that were administered by trained nurses in the university infertility centre.  In the research, the authors point that the interviewer or the investigator was the intervention provider, who are the RNs in the infertility centre. In order to ensure the RNs had adequate preparation and training, the researchers selected them based on the attributes that are described in Watson’s caring theory, which included empathy, listening, touching, motivation, encouragement, empowerment, and positive thinking among other attributes. The data that was being collected was qualitative and the approach employed by the researchers was adequate and appropriate.

Criminology Article Critique – Extralegal Disparity in the Application of Intermediate Sanctions: An Analysis of U.S. District Courts

Franklin, T., Dittmann, L., & Henry, T. (2015). Extralegal Disparity in the Application of Intermediate Sanctions: An Analysis of U.S. District Courts. Crime & Delinquency63(7), 839-874.

Purpose

The authors noted that intermediate sanctions can help alleviate the problems caused by mass incarceration among the minorities (Franklin, Dittmann & Henry, 2015). However, if specific offender characteristics such as age, sex, and educational attainments influenced the use of intermediate sanctions, then it may negate its positive impact. Therefore, the authors sought to examine the influence of offender characteristics such as race, educational attainment, age, and ethnicity on the application of intermediate sanctions.

Assumptions or Hypothesis

            The authors pointed that since intermediate sanctions are less restrictive and more lenient compared to prison sentences, there is likelihood that certain offenders could be deemed less fit. Thus, this led the authors into forming six hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that Black, Hispanic, male, and younger offenders will be less likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with prison. The second hypothesis was that Black, Hispanic, male, and younger offenders will be more likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with probation. The third hypothesis was that offenders with greater levels of education will be more likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with prison. The forth hypothesis is that offenders with greater levels of education will be less likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with probation. The fifth hypothesis is tha among race, sex, and age combinations, young, Black and Hispanic, male offenders will be least likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with prison. The final hypothesis is that among race, sex, and age combinations, young, Black and Hispanic, male offenders will be most likely to receive intermediate sanctions as compared with probation (Franklin, Dittmann & Henry, 2015, pp. 9-10).

Methods

            The authors undertook the study on the use of intermediate sanctions among the offenders as an alternative to incarceration. The research was done amongst the offenders from the minority groups since the authors wanted to determine whether the offender characteristics such as age, educational level, and sex influenced its use. The research was conducted among the minorities of the Hispanic and African American ethnicities.  The authors had no personal experiences with the research topic as they stated in the article that the topic has received less study and thus undertook the study to investigate the topic, while making reference to other published literature on the research subject.

Conclusion

            The authors fund that there was less likelihood for Hispanic offenders to receive intermediate sanctions when compared with prison sentence. Moreover, the authors found that though the African American offenders were not treated differently than White offenders. However, when examining probation and intermediate sanctions, the authors found that the odds of receiving intermediate sanctions was 20% greater for Hispanic offenders when compared with white offenders. Alls, the researchers found that Black offenders were less likely to receive intermediate sanctions. When considered n basis f sex, the researchers found that male offenders were less likely to receive intermediate sanctions compared to female offenders.

Critique

            Although the authors performed rigorously study that allowed it to answer the intended research questions, the researchers must broaden some aspects concerning their research findings. It is of the opinion that there is need for the authors t expand more on the reasons that lead to less numbers of Hispanic offenders and Blacks from being given the opportunities to be enrolled in intermediate sanctions. It is believed that there are more factors other than age, sex and educational attainment that can contribute t less number of Hispanics and Blacks from being given chances t serve in intermediate sanctions compared to White offenders.

            The authors failed to consider the roles of other factors such as social inequality and the differences in employment rates among Blacks, Hispanics and Whites. In their study, Pettit & Sykes (2015) found that the percentage of Whites working in paid labor was as high as 84%, whereas employment rates were consistently lower among Blacks. That the authors considered only age, sex, and education, does not provide real picture. This provides a major source of bias, since the reduced chances of the minorities to be given intermediate sanctions could be as a result of other factors such differences in unemployment rates. It is of the opinion that these other underlying factors must be examined since the chances of recidivism among a group that is likely not to get employment would be high, and such groups would rather be given to serve full prison sentence than intermediate sanctions.

Implications

There are several components of community-based sanctions such as probation, parole, and intermediate sanctions, which are carried within the community. According to (Krohn & Lane, 2015) these community based corrections allow offenders to be close to their pro-social peers and family social groups. Among these community-based corrections, probation appears to be more effective. This is because they provide an avenue where offenders who are seeking re-entry gain strong social support system, hence reducing chances of recidivism. Moreover, they are cost-effective and provide additional support such as counseling and other employment and life skills, which are invaluable for offender re-entry into the society.

Article Critique – Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore

Article Critique : Experimental Research Designs

In investigating cause and effect, experimental research designs are ranked amongst some of the most preferred study techniques in Psychology. This is because they offer an exceptional opportunity for the probing of the existential relationship that exists between various variables(Srinagesh, 2011, p. 23). In classic quantitative nature, comparisons are made between two or more groups while also (deliberately) manipulating any of the existent variables to assess any causative effect. It is through such structured procedure that experimental research designs succeed in finding appropriate answers to numerous hypotheses. Yuan et al. (2017) exploits these experimental designs in the“Attitudes to Mental Illness and Its Demographic Correlates among General Population in Singapore” article while on a quest to provide appropriate answers to their hypothesis question. This article critique thus seeks to provide a comparison of the two research designs, an identification of the variables, main effects/interactions with regard to the factorial design and an explanation of any random samples together with their subsequent limitations.

Opinions on how persons with mental health disorders should be treated often vary from one individual to the next. With such realities to contend with, persons with mental health disorders bear the full brunt of societal indifference which ultimately reduces any chance of them seeking professional help for their debilitating conditions. In particular, Yuan et al. (2017) made use of the Attitudes to Mental Health (AMH) questionnaire to assess the factor structure within a multi-ethnic society in Singapore (3). The primary purpose of this study was to; therefore, make use of experimental research designs to establish the prevalent socio-demographic parallelswhile assessing the prevailing mental health attitudes amongst members of different ethnic groups. The two-group experimental design was conducted using a placebo group that would serve as mirror of the general attitudes held by other individuals. It is possible to introduce an intervention routine while using this design with the objective being to tweak the hard stances held by subjects. In comparison, the factorial experiment design makes use of a combination of factors with all their discrete values hence allowing the researcher to gauge individual response variables. The manipulation of variables controlled by a researcher allows them to make a detailed inference of the type of interaction that exists.

Data on attitudes towards mental illness in this study was collected from a section of the general population in Singapore. It is vital to acknowledge that the study also sought to establish the attitudes of mental health professionals, especially considering the fact that they are first in line when dealing with those afflicted. In addition to exploring varying socio-demographic variables (such as the gender, marital status, cultural background and their level of education) the also researchers focused on specific factors that would ultimately guarantee the study’s authenticity. The dependable variable in this case was the 4-factor structure (better known as AMI-SG), a tool that would be applied on participants who were mental health professionals. All eligible participants would then have their mental health attitudes compared to this control group (Yuan et al., 2017). Participants from the general population and health care professionals were, in essence, the study’s independent variables which the researchers could manipulate at any given instance. The study also featured an extraneous variable in the form of the county’s multi-ethnic composition. Ethnic Indians, Chinese and Malays have co-existed in this particular region, each holding on to their distinct cultures in the midst of a diverse society. Conducting the multivariate regression analysis would thus prove challenging since mental health attitudes have been known to vary from ethnic group to the next.

The main effect on the aforementioned dependent variable was as a result of the incorporation of anexplicit independent variable. Through the AMI-SG tool, data was collected from a section of the Singaporean society to aid researchers in gaining a better understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The research tool was applied to members of the general population and professionals in the sphere of mental health. A noticeable interaction when using the general population and mental health professionals simultaneously was a clear reduction in the construct validity. This is because, as expected, health care professionals would have a more positive attitude towards mental health in comparison to regular Singaporeans. Nevertheless, the study avoided the use of random samples and opted to select specific subjects from its pool of potential candidates. Even with that being said, the limited use of representative samples limited the study and was a visible impediment. The researchers were, hence, unable to properly investigate the mechanisms that are often in use in society and how social contact can change attitudes within a broader context.

Are Juries Fair – Article Critique

In a research study titled “Are Juries Fair?” Cheryl (2010) focuses on the question of whether jury decision-formulation is just. Cheryl (2010) uses the question to guide his exploration of several jury fairness aspects, including exploring whether jurors are aware of how the internet-based media reports on own cases and the possible effects of the reporting on juries. Particularly, Cheryl (2010) seeks to determine whether juries constituted by Whites only discriminate against minority ethnic and Black defendants; whether jurors appreciate legal directions, are conscious of how the media, or do online research regarding the cases they handle; and if juries hardly ever convict on particular offenses or in particular courts. Cheryl (2010) finds rather limited proof of the unfairness of juries. Even then, Cheryl (2010) establishes that jurors require better instruments, or tools, to appreciate the typical jury process. He concludes that several criminal justice system elements should be strengthened to help jurors better.

Cheryl (2010) articulates the problem which the study focuses on clearly. He offers considerable proof to substantiate his position that the problem, or question, of whether jury decision-formulation is just should be addressed adequately. Especially, the proof relates to aspects such as jury decision-formulation fairness, racial and ethnic discrimination, jury ruling consistency and appreciation of legal instructions, jury misconduct, and the influences of the media on jury processes. Notably, Cheryl (2010) does not provide an explicit conceptual or theoretical framework to guide the research study. Ideally, every research study should be guided by a fitting conceptual or theoretical framework. There should be ample characterization of how the study fits into the framework and the appropriateness of the framework in addressing the problem being pursued.

By and large, Cheryl (2010) cites literature that is wholly relevant to and appropriate to the problem that his research study seeks to address. Even then, there are various articles and studies that he refers to that are out-of-date. Ideally, a research study should have its context founded on current literature. That makes the study current and ensures that the consumers of the study’s report are brought up to speed regarding the latest developments in the area of study. Another weakness in the study executed by Cheryl (2010) is that there are many articles that he refers to that have not been subjected to peer-review. One cannot vouch for such articles’ credibility when used in scholarly work. That means that Cheryl (2010) is not sufficiently judicious in how he selects citations for his works since the quality of the articles cannot be guaranteed.

All in all, the literature that Cheryl (2010) reviews presents an objective and clear approach to his research study’s subject. The study’s research questions flow effortlessly from the literature review. Besides, the questions are stated clearly. As noted earlier, the questions include whether juries constituted by Whites only discriminate against minority ethnic and Black defendants; whether jurors appreciate legal directions, are conscious of how the media, or do online research regarding the cases they handle; and if juries hardly ever convict on particular offenses or in particular courts. Others relate to whether defendants are stereotyped racially by jurors; whether jurors are well-briefed on how to address juror misconduct; and how the influences the trials executed by juries.

The research study by Cheryl (2010) is hinged on a multimethod design. Cheryl (2010) describes the study’s subjects sufficiently in line with clear inclusion, as well as exclusion, criterions, populations along with sampling approaches. Notably, he adopts inclusion, as well as exclusion, criterions, populations along with sampling approaches regarding the different methods that he adopts: large-scale verdict analysis, case simulation as well as post-verdict surveys. The samples relating to each of the methods come off as representing the corresponding populations adequately even though Cheryl (2010) does not provide proof that the sizes of the samples are big enough to guarantee sufficient statistical power or rigor. The case simulation and surveys that are conducted in the study are qualitative by their nature. Regarding the two, Cheryl (2010) describes the corresponding sampling approaches adequately. The approaches and the resulting samples come off as wholly justified.

Cheryl (2010) does not provide a statement, or evidence, that he obtained the relevant IRB authorizations before the study. Besides, he does not include the procedures he uses in safeguarding the rights of the study’s subjects. Even then, he describes how eh executes the study’s design so well that other researchers can easily follow it and replicate the research study sufficiently. The processes he uses for gathering and processing the case simulation data and the survey data are fittingly transparent. The activities executed by and roles of Cheryl (2010), the researcher, in the gathering of the relevant data and the setting up of the sites where the data is drawn from are adequately and more efficiently described in the research article.

Cheryl (2010) does not present the validity, as well as reliability, measures of the varied measurement instruments that he uses. Even then, the instruments are employed on populations and samples for which they were previously normed. From the article, it is clear that Cheryl (2010) makes a deliberate effort to guarantee that the samples used in the study are valid as well as reliable. The multimethod design used in the study is suitable for testing the study’s implied hypotheses and addressing the explicitly stated research questions. The survey and the large-scale verdict analysis conducted in the study are suitable since they deal with actual cases and juries. The case simulation is appropriate for examining the causal connections between given jury decisions and the corresponding jury factors. Cheryl (2010) assigns prospective subjects to given samples indiscriminately.

In the results section, Cheryl (2010) describes the significant attributes of the samples used in the research study amply. Cheryl (2010) describes the study’s subject participate rates and provides the principal statistics for every variable considered in the study. Cheryl (2010) links case simulation and surveys findings to the related research questions. When reads the research article, it is clear to him or her how Cheryl (2010) comes up with the case simulation and survey qualitative findings. The findings are clearly connected to the methodological approaches adopted by Cheryl (2010). All in all, the descriptions provided for the study’s findings are complementarily and holistically presented to address each of the study’s research questions.

Especially, the descriptions provided for the study’s case simulation findings relate to the questions of whether juries constituted by Whites only discriminate against minority ethnic and Black defendants, whether the defendants face racial discrimination from the jurors, and whether jurors appreciate given judicial directions. The descriptions provided for the study’s large-scale analysis findings relate to actual case rulings where minority ethnic and Black defendants are involved. As well, the descriptions provided for the study’s large-scale analysis findings relate to the question of jury verdict consistency. The descriptions provided for the study’s post-trial survey findings relate to the question of whether jurors recall how the media covers the cases they are handling and how they utilize internet resources. Cheryl (2010) utilizes figures, as well as tables, rather effectively for qualitative analyzes. Even, he does not utilize models when executing qualitative analyzes in the study. He reports almost all the p-values and effect-sizes for the resulting inferential outcomes or findings.

Cheryl (2010) discuses the study’s results within the research study’s context as provided in the literature appraisal section. Cheryl (2010) sufficiently the methodological limitations associated with the large-scale verdict analysis method. Notably, each case is unique, and thus, it is challenging to make out the factors that may occasion given jury rulings and extrapolate them further. Cheryl (2010) addresses that challenge by focusing on making out general jury verdict trends that are persistently linked to particular factors. He describes the study’s implication for additional research and the relevant practitioners, including the Office for Criminal Justice Reform, the judiciary, the Home Office, the Judicial Studies Board, local criminal justice boards, the Criminal Cases Review Commission, the police as well as the media. By and large, the significance of the study in the light of criminal justice inquiry continuums is clear. The researcher communicates varied personal reflections in the article.

As noted earlier, the research study’s strengths include that Cheryl (2010) articulates the problem which the study focuses on clearly, the literature that Cheryl (2010) reviews presents an objective and clear approach to his research study’s subject, and the descriptions provided for the study’s findings are complementarily and holistically presented to address each of the study’s research questions. The principle weakness of the study is that Cheryl (2010) does not provide a statement or evidence, that he obtained the relevant IRB authorizations before the study. The multimethod approach adopted ensures that the study is valid as well as reliable. I would include the study as a significant set of evidence in my study since it offers credible insights into how the jury element of the criminal justice system can have its effectiveness bolstered.

Article Critique – Functional impairment in Latino children with ADHD

Haack, L. M., & Gerdes, A. C. (2011). Functional impairment in Latino children with ADHD: Implications for culturally appropriate conceptualization and measurement. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 14, 318-328.

The article discusses functional impairment among children with ADHD. The paper specializes on ADHD cases among the Latino community where the effect of culture on ADHD development in the community is discussed. It evaluates how the functional impairment is measured using universal assessment and justifies why this is not very effective in assessing Latino’s whose ADHD condition is highly impacted by the culture.  The article measures and conceptualizes functional impairment associated to childhood ADHD, specifically in the swiftly growing, though underserved Latino community. The main aim of the paper is to critique and examine how the psychology field has measured and understood functional impairment in Latino school aged children suffering from ADHD. The paper manages this by reviewing different literature addressing ADHD and Latino culture. The paper does not have a hypothesis to base its research process. The main conclusion given by the paper is that the ADHD functional impairment in Latino children is highly influenced by the cultural values in the community. However the current ADHD assessment does not consider the cultural aspect, an issue that impact its accuracy in the evaluation of Latino children. In this regard, the paper recommend the development of Latino cultural based ADHD assessment to enhance diagnosis and intervention among Latino school going aged children.

The paper title is very relevant to the paper content. It clearly demonstrate that the paper will focus on ADHD functional impairment among Latino children and how culture contribution to the impairment can be measured and hypothesized. The paper however has a poorly structure abstract. It just gives the general overview of what the paper is all about but not in a structural way anticipated in scientific research paper which would include brief on the paper purpose, research methods, the research results, conclusion and recommendation. The abstract makes it hard to identify the nature of the research, its aim and its outcome. It only gives the research aims at the end. Therefore it would be hard to use the abstract for brief review to establish if the paper is relevant to the researchers’ topic. However, the paper has managed to make its purpose clear as stated above. Its focus on ADHD functional impairment measures among children from Latino community is evident in the entire paper. The paper does not demonstrate any sense of misinterpretation. Its relevance can be demonstrated by the cited literature which are more on Latino culture, Latino parenting and ADHD condition among children.

The authors have evaluated a number of aspects which include the general cases of ADHD among children and also among children from Latino community. The paper has integrated various qualitative and quantitative research with intention of establishing the best cultural measure to employ in this case. It has also considered establishing the best technique to evaluate the validity of the identified measures. It can therefore be said that the authors have employed great effort in defining how to obtain the best cultural assessment tool targeting Latino population. The authors have assumed that the measures developers will have similar experiences as those experienced in the reviewed material. The major research limitation is that it does not give the actual solution but it only proposes the need for a solution. In this regard, more research need to be done to construct the actual tool to use to enhance this assessment.

Critique of a Nursing Research Article by Bente, Christina, Marie and Birgitta

In the given research article by Bente, Christina, Marie and Birgitta, the evident research problem, is the reported exclusion of the relatives of persons with mental illness in the medical health care centers.  As we already know, the research problem is the fuel that actually drives an individual researcher into carrying out the research process. Due to the reported cases of exclusion of the relatives of those individual with mental illness, issuing of the quality health services to these individuals can poses a great challenge since their perception of the ‘new people’ ,that is, the nurses, will not automatically be welcoming without faces they recognize, their relatives. The purpose or the main aim of the research as clearly indicated in the article is to describe conceptions of nurses in mental health care about supporting relatives of persons with severe mental illness.

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How do the nurses in the health care centers conceive the relatives of the persons with the mental illness and how their conceptions affect their obligations in their fields of professionalism? The aim of this question is to identify whether or not it affects their delivery of the services to these individuals with mental illness. In summary, the researchers’ review of literature is satisfactory as evident in the article, every research article, in its third step, review of literature is necessary to familiarize the researcher with the wide understanding to conceptualize the research problem.

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It gives the researcher different views from the different authors who have shown concern in the study area. The article has many citations of books with authors mentioned to support this. Concerning the nursing frame work of the study, the content of the study revolved around the nursing care, aspects of the actors and relational concerns and between them, relationship between the nursing personnel, the individuals with mental illness and the relatives of the individuals with the mental illness. The research questions are: Are relatives satisfied with mental health professionals concerning their own needs? Do the relatives pose challenges in the health personnel? Is their need for collaborations between the health personnel and the relatives of persons with mental illness? The hypothesis here simply means the intelligent guesses about the research findings. In this article, the relatives need attention from the health personnel and there should be a well-defined positive relationship between the health personnel and relatives of the individuals with the health issues.

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The variables in the research are evident, the mental health nurses, the registered nurses, the hospitals available, the out and in patients. There are the independent variables and the dependent variables; the article has its statistics in representing both.

In the article, under the design and methodology, the researcher employed a quality, descriptive study with a phenomenograhic approach, an approach that has its basis in cognitive psychology. This approach ensures a satisfactory design for the research project in the nursing-clinical area. It is so descriptive and investigative qualities both desired for the study in the clinical department. For instance, as indicated in the research article, this approach design investigates the internal relationship between the world and how the world is experienced. The design is proposed to have a wide scope of study that in turn produces objectively desired findings. The design is therefore appropriate and best for the research topic. It ensures exhaustiveness of the research areas and details needed for the study.  The design aids in making the research much more reliable and effective upon putting the research recommendations in practice, in the research, it was most effective in describing the various perceptions of the phenomenon under the study providing a logical relationship between the descriptive categories.

The validly of the research can be best evaluated depending on the satisfaction of the requirements of a quality research. First, the research has all the required six steps mentioned fully; no step is evidently missing or incomplete. This to a minimal extend makes the research valid. Secondly, we can determine how appropriate the research was to its questions. The research findings were relevant to the research questions. The methodology of the research was satisfactory and is geared towards the best of the expected findings. Data collection method and their appropriate administration methods were satisfactory.

The study has resolved the question as evidenced from the article as it highlights out the effectiveness of this study.  From the study, nurses are responsible to their patients in that, they are obliged to develop an alliance with their patients. It is evidencedthat thetwo sides exist. Concerning nurses’ support to the relatives, nurses opt to see the relative in the shoes of the patient or as individual person. The study also highlights out that demanding life events such as severe mental illness faced by patients will not only affect them but also will affect those close to them. In Norway for instance, a total of around 300,000-600,000 relatives may be involved with the approximately 150,000 persons in Norway who have a severe mental illnessNorwegian (Ministry of Health and Care Services, 2012). The study also reveals that relatives find difficulty in getting included by health personnel and in case they are, mostly it is for the sake of that patient. Relatives experience alienation from professional care such as nurses who rarely cooperate with such relatives although they (relatives) want to cooperate in the care. The study reveals that mental health professionals do not highly focus on relatives when reflecting on or describing their own work resulting to relatives’ getting dissatisfied with mental health professionals pertaining their own needs.

The central government of Norway for example is responsible for specialist health services for mental health for adults also the municipalities are responsible for primary healthcare services to patients with severe mental illness. Form the study, mental healthcare legislations do regulate patient’s confidentiality and influences mental health personnel’s possibility of giving information to patient’s relatives. It is also evidence that relatives receive general information about relevant illnesses and general treatment and if patient consents, closest relative attains the right to receive information about the patient’s treatment and health condition.

Different cultures other than Norwegian expressed divergent views on family, treatment and mental illness. Nurses wished to cooperate with them but to the nurses, such cultures lacked necessary knowledge about the way of living. Also, the nurses reported they could stretch rules or look other ways to greater extent to these families than with ethnic Norwegian relatives.

In Norwegian healthcare institutions were asked to participate where registered mental health nurses with minimum of 2 years’ experience were sampled. They were to speak and understand Norwegian in order to discover conceptual variations of phenomenon been studied. The nurses came from cities, local communities and from different levels of mental healthcare system. After the analysis, the category of our responsibility is first and foremost the patient was found to compose of three descriptive categories including the context framing nursing care, relational concerns and aspects of the actors.

The article describes procedural endeavors that are geared towards a more specific method.The research in the article generally under carries and employs a phenomenographic approach which being based on a second order perspective, is inwardly directed to the phenomena being studied. The method takes more data form the perspectives of how the phenomena is thought of in the outside environment.In this way, the research focuses on how the world is experienced and how it is.Well, to be explicit, data collection has been done using interviews as the key procedure. Norwegian nurses are the observers to the focus groups while a moderator is employed to intercede in the interview techniques.

The interview enables the research to produce dependable results. The outcome space accommodates various possibilities. The categories featured on a descriptive platform and the logical relationships between them are considered. The actual results depict the whole picture on the support of mental patients by their relatives. It goes to a conclusion that the nurses are more linked to the patient rather than the relatives of the patient. As a result, the nurse strives to cater for the needs of the patient than those of the relatives (Nystro & Lu 2002). They fail to see the patient as the shadow of the patient and sees them as individuals. Nevertheless, the relative of a mentally ill patient in real sense undergoes mental and emotional suffering which arises from their fellow family member being in another suffering. Nurses on a general point of view choose the patient while presented with a conflicting interests of the patient and the relative. It in turn leads the relatives feeling powerless over the situation (Weimand et al., 2011). It further brings about the feeling of alienation and therefore some sort of depression (Ewertzon et al., 2010).

With these findings, there exists a better option for the future of nursing practice. These findings attract the attention of the whole nursing arena into adopting new strategies to cater for the mentally ill relatives in the treatment plans. The research itself has provided recommendations that could see a better care for both the patients and their relatives. On an even better scale, student nurses are in a position to adopt a new way of learning that seeks to eliminate such problems that have been identified by the research. Students nursing practice therefore stands in a higher grade of learning than before. In this way, the research creates a path of the betterment of the whole nursing practice.

Changing up the electoral college? – Article Critique

Introduction

The Electoral College is an important institution in the United States that determines who the president will be. It has 270 electoral votes represents the various states throughout the nation. Different states have different numbers of electoral votes and thus different numbers of electors in congress. The party selects the people who will be part of the Electoral College and who will determine whom the president in the end. The Electoral College determines the president of the country even though the candidate has not won the most votes. Therefore, it does not represent all the people’s interests because in a democracy the president wins the majority vote.

Scrapping the Electoral College will ensure that people get the president whom they voted by popular vote.

Such a loopholes should be changed since most of the electors do not serve the interests of their states or the people they represent. This has been the case as evidenced by the voting of a president according to his or her own wishes. Some of the candidates have won the presidents not because they gained the popular vote, but because they gain the electoral vote made by the Electoral College. Therefore, it does not matter if a president won the majority of votes but what matters is what the results of the Electoral College. An example is that of President Bush who won the votes from the Electoral College, but did not get the popular vote. The voting represents several elections that have passed presidents who did not win the popular vote (Underhill, 2012).  Therefor there is need for change especially in how the state legislators vote in the congress to ensure that elections are free and fair and represent the interests of the people.

The unpopularity of the Electoral College has made many legislators to try making changes to the constitution, but have failed terribly. Some of the bills to counter the Electoral College or to amend were to direct the Electoral College towards choosing the candidate who has the nationwide votes and not just in a few states where the Electoral College becomes a determinant of who will become the president. As a result, some legislators have come up with the National Popular Vote Plan (NPV), which ensures that to change how the nation elects the presidents. The activists do not want to remove the Electoral College, but to draw most of them on their side and thus make them follow the popular vote in the end (Chegg, 2012).

The changes proposed to the Electoral College and, as a result, the election of the presidency is an important step that would radically change the electoral system. The system in place does not ensure the presidency to the candidate who has the majority of votes.

Change, as a result, is inevitable and the various instances that the legislators have tried to change the system have not borne fruit, but the recent formation of the NPV, which tends to woo the voters to the popular ensures that the candidates who gathers the popular vote gest the presidency. It does not consider other factors of the Electoral College where the legislators do not vote according to their states interests. It is, therefore, important to make changes that will further democracy and remove any inclination of misrepresentation by the Electoral College as evidenced by candidates who have won without the popular vote. The Electoral College should thus e amended and directed towards a fair representation of all states in choosing the presidency.

 

 

 

Supply And Demand Article Critique And Powerpoint Presentation

The article will be about a current event topic involving supply and demand.  It need not be a complicated article.  The completed critique should contain the following paragraphs and will be evaluated based on the following:

  1.  – Introduction or Executive Summary
  2. Critique.
    1. Critique an article about supply and demand for accuracy and thoroughness. Ideally, find an article that lacks correct economic insight and critique the article for inaccuracies. Critique of the article should note any ambiguities and problems in logic.
  3.  – Graph.
    1. Use your newly acquired understanding of the supply and demand curves to graphically illustrate the article. Often the best approach to use two graphs, before and after or short run and long run. The graphs should be hand drawn, not copied from a website. The graphs must be labelled properly for full marks.
  4.  In my Own Opinion
    1.  State whether you agree with what is being said in the article. Why do you agree or why not? Explain. No marks will be given for unexplained answers.
  5.  Conclusion
  6. Writing quality/clarity: Did the student:
  • Demonstrate the ability to elaborate on the subject, making it intelligible to others?
  • Anticipate what objections can be raised?
  • Identify what the subject limitations are?
  • Demonstrate critical thinking skills?
  • Understand relevant economic concepts?
  • Correctness/relevance to the assignment
  • Was the rough draft turned in on time? Was the paper late

The paper should be a minimum of 1000 words, formatted in APA style with references. A rough draft of the Final Term Paper must be presented in class to the instructor on the rough draft date due. At that point it is expected that the basic thoughts around the article will be developed and that the main body of the paper has been written and the rest of the paper should at least be in outline form.

 

PowerPoint Presentation:

This is a FORMAL presentation requiring the student to dress appropriately for a business setting and to produce a polished presentation to their peers and the instructor. The presentation will be on the same article that was selected for the Final Term Paper. The presentation should be roughly between 7-10 minutes long with time for additional questions from other students and the instructor.

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