Virginia Pharmacy Technician Study Guide

Technician Duties and General Information

Confidentiality is keeping results composed from drugs’ clinical trials to be private information or trade secrets, even following submission to the Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration is an agency that decides whether a medicine is safe as much as necessary to sell over-the-counter

The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an agency that reports to Congress and the President and is not part of any other department or agency in the federal government

Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription

The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) is the federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use and distribution of certain substances is regulated

Pharmacy security is the security offered to make sure that areas that have any drug inventory get secured

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States

State board of pharmacy is the state agency responsible for the licensing/registration of states pharmacists, pharmacy technicians, and pharmacies; for establishing regulations for pharmacy practice; and for disciplining licensees and registrants

Pharmacy technicians, under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist, help the pharmacists provide medication and other health care products to patients and consumers. Technicians usually perform routine tasks to help prepare prescribed medication, such as counting tablets and labeling bottles.

Dosage Forms

An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas. Aerosols can be natural or not. Examples of natural aerosols are fog, forest exudates and geyser steam. Examples of artificial aerosols are haze, dust, particulate air pollutants and smoke.

A capsule is a very small container that closes tightly. Many medicines come in capsules that can be easily swallowed. Certain brands of laundry or dishwasher soap can be bought in capsule form, and you might hide a secret note or special mementos in a time capsule.

A cream is a topical preparation usually for application to the skin. Creams for application to mucous membranes such as those of the rectum or vagina are also used.

Dosage forms are the means by which drug molecules are delivered to sites of action within the body.

Elixir is a magical potion or a medical potion designed to cure.

Emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible

Enteric-coated tablets are the Drugs that have an irritant effect on the stomach, such as aspirin, and are coated with a substance that will dissolve only in the small intestine.

Gel is a jellylike substance containing a cosmetic, medicinal, or other preparation.

Lotions are a liquid usually aqueous medicinal preparation containing one or more insoluble substances and applied externally for skin disorders.

Ointment is a semisolid preparation for external application to the skin or mucous membranes, usually containing a medicinal substance.

Ophthalmic preparations are agents especially designed to be applied to the eyes. The eye is extremely sensitive and is easily irritated if the composition of the ophthalmic preparation is not appropriate. Please refer to the drug classes listed below for further information.

Chewable tablets are usually uncoated. They are intended to be chewed before being swallowed; however, where indicated on the label, they may be swallowed whole instead.

Controlled release is a term referring to the presentation or delivery of compounds in response to stimuli or time. This can be for purposes in several areas including agriculture, cosmetics and personal care, pharmaceuticals and food science. Most commonly it refers to time dependent release in oral dose formulations.

Otic preparations are products applied to or in the ear to treat conditions of the external and middle ear. These products are used to treat dermatitis of the ear, cerumen build up and ear infection.

Parenteral is a Medicine Taken into the body or administered in a manner other than through the digestive tract, as by intravenous or intramuscular injection.

Reconstituting is the restitution or return to an original state of a substance, or combination of parts to make a whole

Solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase

Sublingual tablet is usually a small, flat tablet intended to be inserted beneath the tongue, where the active ingredient is absorbed directly through the oral mucosa; such a tablet (nitroglyerine) dissolves very promptly.

Suppository is a solid medical preparation in a roughly conical or cylindrical shape, designed to be inserted into the rectum or vagina to dissolve.

Suspension is a heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles settle out of a solvent-like phase some time after their introduction

Syrup is a thick, sweet liquid, or a liquid concentration of medicine in sugar.

Transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body.

Prescription Containers and Closures

Applicator bottle is a bottle that is used by the pharmacist to dispense the prescribed medication

Childresistant packaging or C-R packaging is special packaging used to reduce the risk of children ingesting dangerous items. This is often accomplished by the use of a special safety cap. It is required by regulation for prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, pesticides, and household chemicals.

Closures are devices and techniques used to close or seal a bottle, jug, jar, tube, can, etc. Closures can be a cap, cover, lid, and plug.

Dropper bottle is a glass tube with a hollow rubber bulb at one end and a small opening at the other, for drawing in a liquid and expelling it in drops; medicine dropper.

Generic Substitution

Brand-name drug is a drug that has a trade name and is protected by a patent (can be produced and sold only by the company holding the patent). When the patent protection for a brand-name drug expires generic versions of the drug can be offered for sale if the FDA agrees.

Dispense as written is an order on a prescription commanding the pharmacist to provide the recipient with the prescription exactly as it was written

Generic drug is a drug product that is comparable to a brand/reference listed drug product in dosage form, strength, quality and performance characteristics, and intended use.

MultiSource drug is a drug that is available from a brand name manufacturer and also from several generic manufacturers

Information on Prescription Stock Bottle Labels

Controlled substance” means a drug, substance, or immediate precursor included in schedules I through V of this act.

Expiration date is the date for a drug estimated for its shelf life with proper storage in sealed containers away from harmful and variable factors like heat and humidity.

Prescription-only symbol (Rx) is a symbol meaning “prescription”. It means “to take” or “take thus”

A number is number assigned to a particular quantity or lot of material from a single manufacturer

Lot number is an identification number assigned to a particular quantity or lot of material from a single manufacturer

Legend Statement is a statement on the Legend Drugs illustrating that they can only be dispensed with a valid Prescription.

National Drug Code is a unique 10-digit, 3-segment numeric identifier assigned to each medication listed under Section 510 of the US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The segments identify the labeler or vendor, product (within the scope of the labeler), and trade package (of this product).

Controlled Substances

DEA number is a number assigned to a health care provider (such as a medical practitioner, dentist, or veterinarian) by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration allowing them to write prescriptions for controlled substances.

Emergency prescriptions are prescription given without doctor’s prescription.

Filing prescription forms are forms used to file a claim for reimbursement for retail prescriptions

Partial filling is when the pharmacy does not have the full drug quantity on hand to dispense. Therefore we will give the patient a specific quantity that will last the patient until pharmacy receives full drug quantity. A pharmacy usually has a warehouse/manufacturers drug list that provides a date regarding what specific drugs the pharmacy will receive.

Refilling prescriptions is filling again your prescription when you have finished the current supply.

Schedule I — drugs with a high abuse risk. These drugs have NO safe, accepted medical use in the United States. Some examples are heroin, marijuana, LSD, PCP, and crack cocaine.

Schedule II — drugs with a high abuse risk, but also have safe and accepted medical uses in the United States. These drugs can cause severe psychological or physical dependence. Schedule II drugs include certain narcotic, stimulant, and depressant drugs. Some examples are morphine, cocaine, oxycodone (Percodan®), methylphenidate (Ritalin®), and dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine®).

Schedule III – These drugs may in attendance risks to certain populations in self-selection. Although available without a prescription, these drugs are to be sold from the self-selection area of the pharmacy which is operated under the direct supervision of the pharmacist.

Schedule IV drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with a low potential for abuse and low risk of dependence. Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are: Xanax, Soma, Darvon, Darvocet, Valium, Ativan, Talwin, Ambien, Tramadol

Schedule V drugs, substances, or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics. Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal, antitussive, and analgesic purposes

Schedule VI drugs includes the controlled substances listed or to be listed by whatever official name, common or usual name, chemical name, or trade name designated

Schedule V records log is 4record kept for the schedule V drugs to prevent them from being sold illegally.

Storing prescription stock refers to storage of all prescription made to the pharmacy by the doctor foe reference.

Transfer warning statement is a warning illustrating that giving CII substances to someone else is prosecutable

Transferring prescriptions is the transfer of original prescription information for a controlled substance listed in Schedule III, IV, or V for the purpose of refill dispensing.

Pharmacy Technician Study Guide.

Avoirdupois system is a system of measuring weights that is pillared on a pound of six ounces.

Liter (L) is a non-SI metric system unit of measuring volume that equates to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3).

Cubic centimeter (cc) is a unit of volume that extends from the known SI unit centimeter.

Metric system is a universally accepted system of measurement that was originally based on the kilogramme des Archives and mètre des Archives.

Apothecary system is a system of weights that was initially used by physicians and pharmacists in medical recipes.

Kilogram (kg) is a universally accepted standard of measuring mass.

Dram (dr or Ȣ) is a unit of mass equal to 1⁄16 oz.

Microgram (mcg) is a unit of mass often used in medicine representing one billionth of a kilogram.

Fluid dram (Ȣ) is a unit of liquid capacity that equates to 1⁄8 fluid ounce.

Milligram (mg) a thousandth of a gram in mass measurement

Fluid ounce (fl oz or ℥) is a unit of measuring volume with a resultant fluid 16 ounces transforming to one pint.

Milliliter (mL) is a unit of measurement representing a thousandth of a liter.

Gallon (gal) is z unit of measuring liquid usually representing 3.785 liters.

Ounce (oz) is a US and British used unit of measuring mass equating to 28 grams.

Grain (gr) s unit of measurement equal to 7001647989100000000♠ 64.798 91 milligrams.

Pint (pt) is a unit of volume with a capacity of measuring liquid volume; it is ½ a quart and is 20% bigger in British than American measurements.

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