According to a phylogenetic perspective, homology, denoted by common ancestry, is rigorously defined via phylogenetic analysis. Also, biological homology stresses common ancestry via the genetic information continuity fundamental to phenotypic characteristics. The main concept permitting comparative biologists to rebuild a tree of life (phylogenetic framework) is homology; the similarity because of common ancestry. Homology is important to comprehend the evolution of the phenotypes, which implies, how evolution has changed development over time to generate huge life diversity (McCune & Schimenti, 2012).
According to DiFrisco (2020), the homology phenomenon “unity of type” is an independent evidence piece supporting the common descent theory. This means a powerful and simple explanation as to why different organisms such as whales and bats share various similar body parts for instance metacarpals, is that they evolved from a shared ancestor that contained those body parts. The evolution theory recast homology in terms of phylogenetics so that it implies the sameness of traits in varying taxa as a result of continuous inheritance from a shared ancestor with those traits.
Organism evolution and biodiversity relies mainly on the evolution of gene via the appearance of new genes. Biodiversity yields from the modification of DNA induced by non-visible and visible environmental effects, the variation of gene mutation, stresses, expression, and genetic material inversion. Genetic variations that change protein function or gene activity can introduce varying characteristics in an organization. If a character is advantageous and assists the individual reproduce and survive, the genetic variation is more probable to be passed to the next generation through natural selection. The genetic code and DNA mirror the shared life ancestry. DNA contrasts can demonstrate the relation level among species. Biogeographically, the organisms’ global distribution and the island species’ unique features mirror geological change and evolution (El-Nabi, 2020).