The human brain is a great organ which controls all body functions. The brain comprises of three main parts that include brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum. Cerebrum is the brain’s largest part and it consists of left and right hemispheres. Its main functions include control of fine movement, interpreting hearing, vision, and touch, learning, speech, emotions, and reasoning. The cerebrum is divided into lopes which include the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The frontal lobe focuses on problem-solving, reasoning, emotions, planning, movement and parts of speech. The temporal lobe centers on recognition and perception of speech, memory and auditory stimuli. The parietal lobe focuses on the perception of stimuli, movement, recognition, and orientation. The occipital lobe focuses on visual processing (Carter, 2014).
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The midbrain comprises the thalamus which relays and processes sensory information and movement. Thalamus acts as a relay station where it takes in sensory information and transmits it to the cerebral cortex. The hypothalamus links to various brain regions and its main functions include regulation of body temperature, controlling thirst, emotions, and hunger, and circadian rhythms. Amygdala is also a part of the midbrain that is implicated in negative emotions experience for instance fear. The cerebellum is positioned under the cerebrum. Its main function is to maintain balance, posture, and coordinate movement of muscles (Carter, 2014).
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Brainstem operates as a relay center, linking the cerebellum and cerebrum to the spinal cord. It carries out a number of automatic functions that include swallowing, breathing, vomiting, heart rate, coughing, body temperature, sneezing, sleep and wake cycles, and digestion. The essential parts of the brainstem include medulla which controls blood pressure, breathing and heart rate, pons for movement control, and cerebellum which works as described above. This part of the brain also has reticular formation which is a neural network positioned in the medulla that assists control functions that include attention and sleep (Carter, 2014).
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Brain is one part of the central nervous system (CNS), which comprises of the spinal cord and brain. It thus plays a great role in receiving information from different sensory organs’ interpretation and coordinates a reflex action based on the transmitted information (Carter, 2014). As seen above, the brain is divided into different parts, with each part having a specific role to perform. This means the effect of the brain damage will depend on the affected part. For instance, damage to the occipital lobe will affect the individual visual process. Damage to the temporal lobe may affect memory and speech.