Earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis are natural disaster that can be catastrophic when it occurs in densely populated areas. These natural disasters is assessed through monitoring of magnitude and scale of inherent vulnerability within the population. Analysis indicates that hydro-meteorological and geological disasters such as tsunamis, volcanoes and earthquakes contributes to the higher percentage of disasters in the world(Allen, 2011). Forcing mechanism and physical processes of geo-hazards as well as anthropogenic activities are the key factors that determines the potential risk of natural disasters. The vulnerability of the hydro-meteorological and geological disasters may also be assessed in the form of debris, landslide, floods, storms and flows.
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Studies acknowledges that accurate prediction of hydro-meteorological and geological disasters such as magnitude, time and space is yet to be developed, nonetheless, it is possible to estimate potential risks and vulnerability of these disasters within the location. Monitoring and assessment of hydro-meteorological and geological disaster is important for the purposes of mitigation, responses and preparedness(Farnocchia, Bernardi, & Valsecchi, 2012). Scientist and researchers have shown that early warning alert systems are among the effective tools for assessing and monitoring natural disaster especially earthquakes and volcanoes. Recent studies indicates that due to advance technology and development of instruments, prediction of volcanic eruption has continuously being successful around the globe. However, precise assessment of active volcanic activities is yet to be developed.
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Similarly, tsunami warning systems are operational and advanced in various regions of the world, however, development of accurate warning systems that can precisely determine the location as well as run-up heights is yet to be established. Some scientists and research have advocated for improvement of the hydro-meteorological and geological disaster modelling based on the potential risks it poses to the population especially in prone regions. Countries classified as high risk to natural disasters such as Japan, some parts of United States and Asian Pacific have developed real-time public warning tools that monitors and assess hydro-meteorological and geological disaster thus alerting the public about the potential risks.
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Improved monitoring and assessment of hydro-meteorological and geological disaster is attributed to effective communication coupled with state-of-art technologic and continuous scientific research. According to Farnocchia et al (2012), effective assessment of potential risks of hydro-meteorological and geological disaster has enable countries in Indian Ocean, Pacific and Atlantic region to timely evacuate people in coastal areas when tsunami warning systems indicates the possibility of it occurring. The revolution of public surveillance system and natural disaster detection mechanism has significantly created public awareness and responses to such disasters.
Although there is a lot of literature and understanding of physical processes that leads to the occurrences of these natural disaster, there is need for modelling a precise and accurate prediction mechanism. Due to lack of consistency and patterns of assessment of potential risks associated with hydro-meteorological and geological disaster, there is no preferred methodology for carrying risk assessment. This make it challenge to compare magnitude and scale of natural disasters occurring in different regions of the world.
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