Joan, 24, is recently married and complains of constant headaches at the office. These were determined to be tension headaches two months ago. Her physical examination results and history, including those from funduscopic and neurological assessments, are normal. The drugs initially described are not working are the headaches are getting worse.
Joan’s headaches are typified by aching and pressure in the temples and back of the head and began when she was in high school. The present condition began with a headache that lasted for two weeks, which was preceded by at least one headache per week. The patient states that she does not have any marital problems or other stresses in her life that might light to a headache.
To construct Joan’s genogram, additional information is required. Presently, she is working full time as a sales executive and attends evening classes. Her husband, Sam, who is also 24, is a computer engineering student. Joan is the oldest of three siblings. Her sisters are 18 and 21 and have no substantial medical issues. Her father is 44 and her mother is 42; they divorced when Joan was 14. Whilst her dad is healthy, her mom has recorded headaches in the past.
Joan’s paternal grandfather passed way at 69 due to a myocardial infection. Her paternal grandmother is alive and healthy at 67. Her father has two siblings (brothers), aged 46 and 40. Joan’s maternal grandfather passed away in his early 50s due to pancreatic cancer. Her maternal grandmother, 71, is well. Joan’s mother is the last born of seven children ( two brothers and five sisters); neither of them has had serious medical problems. Sam also comes from a divorced family. His mom, 42, is remarried while the whereabouts of his father are not known. Sam has a 16-year old sister and a 17-year old brother.
Upon further questioning, Joan reveals that her mom’s headaches stopped after her divorce. She states that they never knew that their parents’ marriage was problematic. When queried about her own marriage, Joan states that she and Sam were full-time students when they were getting married. Even though her course load was heavier since she was closer to graduation, they made the decision that she should be the one to include work and attend school on a part-time basis. Sam was to continue with his studies on a full-time basis since a light schedule would enable him to attain the highest grades possible. Even though Joan accepted this agreement, it seems to make her unhappy. Nonetheless, she still refuses any marital issues and has shown no discontent towards her husband.
Health Promotion Plan and Education
In the case of Joan and Sam, converting the family-cycle tasks of a couple at this level would be useful. This is because Joan may be taking the same pattern as her mother, whereby unhappiness in the marriage is disregarded and goes together with headaches (Hammond, 2007). Joan and Sam may be afraid of conflict in their marriage since both have come from families that have separate due to divorce. In addition, both Joan and Sam are the oldest of their siblings and may be Parenti flow, that is, tasked with taking care of their siblings; this may be a source of the extra source.
Due to advancements in the comprehension of the pathophysiology of headaches and development of therapeutic agents that are effective, many patients and practitioners possess the knowledge and aptitude to effectively manage the condition (Hsie et al, 2007). Educational initiatives have been helpful in enhancing the quality of care and quality of life of those suffering from constant headaches. In this case, frequent headaches are interfering with Joan’s daily life. However, healthy lifestyle choices can assist her to reduce the pain. Joan should begin with the basics, including diet, exercise, and relaxation (Jackson et al, 2015). Even though Joan is familiar with the discomfort of tension-type headaches, that does not mean that her world should stop when the agony occurs. Prescription or over-the-counter medicines may be helpful, but simply taking good care of herself can help to restrict the occurrence of headaches, which currently is at least once week.
By taking healthy lifestyle choices, Joan can promote her well-being and restrict tension-type headaches (Jackson et, 2010). To achieve this, there are some basics that Joan should follow. First, she should consume healthy foods. This means that she should not skip meals, particularly breakfast, and drink lots of water every day. Second, Joan should exercise regularly since exercise induces chemicals in the body that prevent the pain signals to the mind (Kemper & Breuner, 2010). Through consultation with her doctor, she should select any exercise that she enjoys, whether it’s walking, cycling or swimming. She should begin slowly since vigorous exercises can induce her chronic headache (Kemper & Breuner, 2010). Third, Joan should ensure that she sleeps enough. Even though she has a busy schedule, she should wake up and head to sleep at the same time each day, even during the weekends. Joan should relax before she goes to bed. If she does not get any sleep within 15 minutes, she should wake up and read or engage in a soothing activity until she is drowsy. Further, she should avoid drugs (including headache medicine) that have caffeine and other stimulants that interfere with sleep. Fourth, Joan should restrict her consumption of caffeine. Even though caffeine may assist in reducing headaches, excessive use of the substance (over 200 mg/day or two cups a day) can cause irritability and headaches (Mullally et al, 2009). Increased consumption of caffeine enhances the risk of headaches, as well as abruptly quitting consumption altogether. Lastly, Joan should refrain from smoking since nicotine decreases the flow of blood to the brain, and induces a reaction in the throat nerves that might result in a headache (Walker, 2010).
Apart from healthy lifestyle choices, Joan should keep stress under control. Stress is directly related to headaches; since Joan has a busy lifestyle, she is prone to stress. To reduce stress, she should engage in some simple practices. First, she should simplify the life since its complicated. She should not look for ways to engage in more activities in her day since she is already balancing school and work; rather, she should find things that she can leave out of her daily schedule. Second, Joan should take a break whenever she feels overwhelmed. To achieve this, she can walk fast to replenish her energy levels or engage in a few slow stretches. Fourth, whenever she feels her stress levels increasing, she can take deep breaths while counting to ten. Fourth, Joan should transform her attitude and engage in positive thoughts. She should not think of impossible things and inform herself that she is up to the challenge. Lastly, Joan should not worry about the things that are beyond her control. Joan accepted this plan.
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